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Submitted to: Mr Umesh Kr Sharma Chief Instructor DIESEL TRAINING CENTRE ALAMBAGH, LUCKNOW DEGREE (MECHANICAL)
Submitted by: Krishna Pratap Singh ROLL NO: 43 & Lucknow Polytechnic Lucknow
DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE INTRODUCTION A successful diesel engine was invented by RODOLF DIESEL in 1987, which was of 2 0 hp. It was of one cylinder engine, which was based on the principle of interna l combustion engine. The pressure of fuel and air was experimented in it. It was used for trading purposes in 1987 in AMERICA and it was of 60 hp and two cylind er engine. In 1923, a first diesel engine was working successfully. It was of 12 00 hp and the electric transmission was in it, which was invented in GERMANY. DIESEL ELECTRIC LOCOMOTIVE It is invented for runs the passenger and luggage train on long track. The main generator starts by diesel engine in it, due to this, electricity is produced an d this electricity is given to traction motors by which the wheel are moved thro ugh gear and axle, means locomotives is moves. On the bases of it is called as e lectric transmission locomotives. This diesel is 16 cylinder V- shaped 4- stroke diesel cycle engine. Its cylinder’s bore is of 9 inch and piston’s stroke is of 10.5 inch. This is engine is single a cting. In this engine, a turbo super charger is mounted which is starts by exhau st gases for super charging. The solid fuel injection system is applied in the e ngine. A electro hydraulic or Woodward governor for controlling the and load f t he engine. A main generator is tightened at one side of the main crank shaft of the engine. A forced type lubricating system is applied for lubricating of components of th e engine. A closed water cooling system is applied for cool the engine. This engine is starts by the current of the battery. In it, a 28 LAV-1 system is applied for brake of locomotive and train brake. It getting the compressed air by expressor. The super structure of the engine locomotives mounted on too try mount CoCo type bogie. 3 axle and 6 wheel on each bogie. One traction motor is mounted on each axle which is bounded by to suspension bearings. The electricity which is given by main generator to the traction motor, is given to the axle gear by pinion gea r and bull gear. By which the wheels start to move and locomotives gets the spee d. This locomotives is divided into 8 group.
• • • • • • • •
Nose compartment Driver cabin Control room Generator room Engine room Expressor room Radiator room Under frame
The end of driver’s cabin is called short hood and the end of radiator room is cal led long hood. When we stand in the driver’s cabin towards the nose compartment th en our left sides is locomotives left sides and our right sides is locomotives r ight sides. When we stand in the driver’s cabin towards the radiator room then our right sides engines right sides and our left sides is engines left sides. The end towards the generator room if engine block is called power take off end and the end towards the expressor room is called free end. GOVERNOR There are two types of governor used in loco WDM-2: 1. Electro Hydraulic Governor (E.H.G) 2. Woodward Governor (WWG) ELECTRO HYDRAULIC GOVERNOR: Main component • Arm A • Arm B • Speed Pilot Valve • Clutch Coil • Speed Coil • Stabilizing Coil • Reference spring • Over travel spring and Housing • Slab Piston no.1 • Slab Piston no.2 • Main Shaft • Output shaft • Fuel limiting shaft • Load Control Rhestote • S.P Stabilizing Potentiometer • Oil Filter • Oil sump • Oil Level Gauge Glass WORKING : 4.5 liter T-77 oil filled in sump of governor. When we start the fuel pump then booster pump also start which is attached with governor the work of this governo r is to maintain the pressure of 135 pound. Fuel control shaft is attached with output shaft of governor. When engine stops then Arm-A and Arm-B at opposite direction of each other. Arm -A at fuel on position and Arm-B at fuel off position. When fuel pump starts the n battery control goes to stabilizing coil. Due to this, arm a pushed towards Ar m-B. Arm-B still attached with output shaft Arm-A rotates freely on output. When we pressed start switch then battery current goes to clutch coil. This coi l is situated in between Arm-A and Arm-B. When it get current then it becomes ma
gnet and join Arm-A and Arm-B. Both of these arms works together by attaching ea ch other until unless the current in the clutch coil. Arm-A and Arm-B comes at f uel on position after cut of stabilizing current by pressing the start switch to stop. One speed coil and stabilizing coil mounted on the speed pilot. Reference sprin g is also mounted on it. These three components keeping the pilot valve in still position by being together. The pilot valve moves up and down in case of less o r more current in any coil. And increases or decreases the quantity of fuel. When engine starts then current goes to speed coil from TECHO generator or EXCI TER alternator. This current is position. WORKING OF STABLIZZING COIL: It has • • • • Note:our At At It It The four main operation: the time of starting of the engine, Arm-A and Arm-B comes on it. the time of closing the engine it pushed Arm-A and Arm-B at no fuel position. helps the speed coil and reference spring for maintaining the rpm of engine. prevents the engine by over speed due to immediate unloading. current of TECHO generator getting by governor through Amphenol Plug.
WOODWARD GOVERNOR: This governor work due to hydraulic pressure. Main component • Fly weight assembly (Pilot valve plunger and bushing, fly weight, speeder spring , speed piston) • Speed setting pilot valve and bushing, solenoid, AV, BV, CV, DV, triangular plat e, buffer piston. • Load control pilot valve and bushing servo vein, commutator. • Over ridding solenoid, fuel limiter, lube oil pump, lube oil shunt down plunger. WORKING OF WOODWARD GOVERNOR There is a gear at the bottom of this governor which is attached with cam shaft gear of right side. When this came shaft rotates then the gear of the governor a lso rotates. The pump which is situated inside the governor send the lube oil by the pressure to the different places in the governor due to rotation of the gea r of the governor. The fly weight assembly joined with it. The two fly weight ar e mounted on the fly weight assembly. In the fly weight assembly, there is a pil ot valve bussing and a valve plunger inside it. A speeder spring is mounted on t he fly weight assembly dumper. Fly weight assembly is also rotates by governor g ear. When this assembly rotates then fly weight tries to open to the outside due to centrifugal force. Due to this, the fly weight plunger pressed downward but spring prevent the fly weight to open to outside by pressing it. Due to this, th e pilot valve moves upward. Therefore, the pilot valve at the balanced position due to the pressure of both fly weight plunger and spring fly weight. When we ra ise the notch from the throttle the plunger of solenoid pressed downward due to coming the current in the solenoid it pressed the triangle plate. The plate pres sing a lever at which it is stand with it. The plunger pressed due to joining th e speed pilot valve with the lever. When governor oil presses the piston spring by going on speed piston then fly weight assembly presses downward and fuel supp ly increases. When the current goes only in DV solenoid then it presses speed pilot valve bus sing. Due to this, the oil which is on the bottom surface of the piston drain th e sump. The fly weight assembly moves upward. The oil which is on the bottom sur face of power piston is also sump in the drain due to this the fuel rack (at the zero point) comes at no fuel position and the engine closed. When the pressure of the lube oil of the engine decreases then the pressure of the lube oil at the diaphragm in the governor decreases. Due to this, the shunt down plunger goes o ut and the oil which is the governor, sump in the drain. Due to this the power p iston also goes down. The fuel comes at zero point the engine closed.
Note:- There should be no filling of the another oil after the less quantity of the oil in this governor.
RADIATOR Radiator mounted on the radiator room at both left and right sides(two radiators on each side). It is used for cool the water in the water cooling system and in crease the horse power of the engine. Hot water of the engine passes through the thin copper fins and at that time, the vaccum is created in the radiator room b y moving of the radiator fan. The hot fins are cooled by atmospheric air. To avo id the vaccum, atmospheric air comes in the radiator room passes through the net s of the radiator at very high speed. There, there water flows in the thin tubes which becomes cooled after contact with the air. Which drops the temperature of the water and instruments of the radiator room also become cooled. The radiator fan works according to the temperature of the water. The engine temperature may be 110-190deg C. In old type radiator, 2.5 kg pressure of water supplied to identify the tube blo ckages. In old type radiators, 3kg pressure of water is used. BOGIE A bogie is a wheeled wagon or trolley. In mechanics terms, a bogie is a chassis or framework carrying wheels, attached to a vehicle. It can be fixed in place, a s on a cargo truck, mounted on a swivel, as on a railway carriage or locomotive, or sprung as in the suspension of a caterpillar tracked vehicle. Bogies serve a number of purposes: • Support of the rail vehicle body. • Stability on both straight and curved track. • Ensuring ride comfort by absorbing vibration, and minimizing centrifugal forces when the train runs on curves at high speed. • Minimizing generation of track irregularities and rail abrasion. Usually two bogies are fitted to each carriage, wagon or locomotive, one at eac h end. An alternate configuration often is used in articulated vehicles, which p laces the bogies (often jacobs bogies) under the connection between the carriage s or wagons. Most bogies have two axles as it is the simplest design, but some cars design ed for extremely heavy loads have been built with up to five axles per bogie. He avy-duty cars may have more than two bogies using span bolsters to equalize the load and connect the bogies to the cars. Usually the train floor is at a level above the bogies, but the floor of the car may be lower between bogies, such as for a double decker train to increase inte rior space while staying within height restrictions, or in easy-access, stepless -entry low-floor trains. Key components of a bogie includes: • The bogie frame itself. • Suspension to absorb shocks between the bogie frame and the rail vehicle body. C ommon types are coil springs, or rubber airbags. • At least one wheelset, composed of an axle with a bearings and wheel at each end
. • Axle box suspension to absorb shocks between the axle bearings and the bogie fra me. The axle box suspension usually consists of a spring between the bogie frame and axle bearings to permit up and down movement, and sliders to prevent latera l movement. A more modern design uses solid rubber springs. • Brake equipment. Two main types are used: brake shoes that are pressed against t he tread of the wheel, and disc brakes and pads. • In powered vehicles, some form of transmission, usually an electrically powered traction motors or a hydraulically powered torque converter. The connections of the bogie with the rail vehicle allows a certain degree of ro tational movement around a vertical axis pivot (bolster), with side bearers prev enting excessive movement. More modern bolsterless bogie designs omit these feat ures, instead taking advantage of the sideways movement of the suspension to per mit rotational movement. TYPES OF BOGIE 1. AO bogie- one wheel bogie 2. BO bogie- two wheel bogie 3. Coco bogie- three wheel bogie OPERATION Power Generated by engine Power in Traction motor Power used in Pinion to move Pini on moves Bull Gear Bull Gear moves Wheel Hunching Liner It is used in to make clearance to protect the frame, when engine vibrates longi tudinal or transverse direction. Importance notes:• Bogie vibrates longitudinal when running. • Bogie vibrates transverse when tends to stop. • Damper, helical coil spring used to avoid shocking load. • Cardime oil used for lubricating purposes in gear and pinion. • Grease used wheels and hubs. • 2.5 kg of air used in air breaking. AIR BRAKING Air brakes system is also used for running the trains by WDM2 locomotive. In thi s system we adjust the brake pipe pressure of 5 kg/cm2 through adjusting cock by a 9 valve. By which control stand we have to work, its direction cock should be open. 5 kg/cm2 pressure is produced due to MU2B valve in the lead position. Thi s 5 kg/cm2 pressure is operated the additional C2 relay valve. There already the pressure MR2. This 5 kg/cm2 pressure goes into pressure brake pipe when the 3/4” cut out cock open in the driver cabin. 110 cubic reservoir is mounted in the add itional C2 relay valve or MU2B valve which keep filling. When the engines pipe j oin to box N or BSN and both angle cock open than break pipes pressure starts to filling the distributor valve and auxiliary reservoir. After filling the pressu re of 5 kg/cm2 in the whole train pipe, there creates a pressure of 4.8 kg/cm2. If there is the system of twine pipe than the air of MR1, creates the pressure of 6 kg/cm2 in the feed pipe by feed valve when ¼” cut out cock and feed cock are op en. VACUUM BRAKING By this breaking system we makes the vacuum in the train pipe by the exhauster. The breaks of the wagon are released on getting the vacuum in the train pipe. Wh en we makes the A9 in the application position then the brakes tends to starts i n the train through the entrance of the air in the train pipe and cuts the way b y the exhauster by VA1B control valve and at the releasing position, the breaks are released. TRACTION MOTOR Description
The Traction motor is a D.C. series wound, four poles, forced ventilated machine arranged for axle mounting on roller bearing, and supported on the opposite sid e by resilient suspension unit. Transverse movement is limited by the flanges of the axle suspension bearings. Construction The armature core is built up from electrical quantity varnished sheet steel, la minations assembled on the shaft with interference and consolidated under pressu re. The armature is cap wound with 100% equalization. The armature coils are cap ton covered. The armature and equalizer coil leads are TIG welded to commutater riser. The armature coils are held down in the core slots by Epoxy glass wedges, and the end windings are secured by Resi-I-Glass bend. The wound armature is fi nally vacuum pressure impregnated with insulation varnish. There are four brush holders per motor, each carrying three split carbon bru shes, each brush holder is carried on two insulated support pins. Correct brush pressure is provided by coil spring. The armature is supported on grease lubricant roller bearing. Bearing assemb lies are sealed type. The armature is located axially by the commutater end bear ing. The pinion end bearing applies no axial restraints and thus permits the dif ferential expansion between armature and frame.
ALTERNOTOR The axle suspension tube is made from cast steel of one integral part, and at th e both ends, tapered bearing housing are formed. The upper and lower flanges of suspension tube are mounted to the magnet frame with bolts. The pinion which is shrunk on the armature shaft drives the loco axle through spur gear wheel which is pressed onto the axle. The gear case is of welded shee t steel construction and is in two halves which are boiled together. The complet e gear case is supported on the motor frame. The joints between the gear case ha lves are baffled and grooved to carry felt sealing rings so as to prevent ingres s of dust and any other foreign material and escape of the gear lubricant.
AUXILIARY GENERATOR FOR WDP-1 The motor is forced ventilated. Air enters the motor through a duct system conn ected to an opening on the motor frame at the commutator end. The cooling air th en flows in two parallel path, one under the commutator through the armature cor e ducts, and the other along the outside of armature and between the field cools and is discharge through the opening provided at the pinion end of the frame. AUXILIARY GENERATOR FOR WDP-3A Rating (continuous) at 45 Deg C ambient : Volts 325 Amp 1000 Rpm 430 Kw 280 Insulation Class H
WEIGHTS : Machine complete with gears & gear case : 3680 kg Armature : 990 kg Gear case : 119 kg Pinion : 24 kg Resistance values (Average at 25 deg C) Armature windings : 0.0096 Armature (across 38 micos) : 0.0307 Series field winding : 0.0052 eld winding : 0.0045 ARMATURE: Core diameter Core length Distance between bearing to bearing Overall length of armature ARMATURE TEMPORARY BENDING : Material : 1.6 mm dia. Tinned steel wire Turns : 45 on each : end winding 100 on core 140 kg : 489 mm : 398 mm : 933.45 mm : 1276.35 mm
ARMATURE PERMANENT BENDING RESI-I-GLASS : Material : 0.33 tk x 19 wide 2F Hi temperature Resi-I-Glas Turns on PE end winding Turns on CE end winding Bending tension COMMUTATOR : Length of working force Diameter new Diameter minimum permissible Mica thickness Depth of mica undercut BRUSH GEAR : Number of brush arm Brush holders per arm Brush per holder : : : 4 1 3 : 187 mm : 423/424 mm : 390 mm : 1.5 mm : 0.75 to 1.25 mm Taps : 110 : 110 : 220-230 kg
Maximum permissible brush to brush box clearance Clearance between brush holder and commutator CARBON BRUSH : Total number of brushes Length Width Thickness over two valves Minimum permissible length Pressure on a new brush Brush grade
: 1.6-2.5 mm
: 12 : 52 mm : 57.15 mm : 19 mm : 28 mm : 4.5-5.4 kg : EG14D Morgon or
EG6754 (Le Carbon) or E88(S&E) POLE BORES (AVERAGE) : Main poles Compoles ARMATURE BEARING : Type Pinion end NU330EM/C4 roller 0.165 to 0.125 mm Commutator end NH320M/C4 roller 0.105 to 0.14 mm : 498.5 mm : 507 mm
Radial clearance of free bearing when new Fit between outer race and shaft Fit between outer race and housing
0.035 to 0.08 mm interface 0.025 mm interface to 0.035 mm clearance
0.025 to 0.06 mm interface 0.02 mm interface to .03 mm clearance 0.03 to 0.1 mm
Minimum permissible 0.03 to 0.13 mm radial clearance when assembled ARMATURE BEARING : Recommended Grease Quantity first fill Replenishment period AXLE SUSPENSION BEARING : Roller bearing detail Manufacturer Types of bearing Gear wheel end TIMKEN Taper roller
ESSD Audok BR or HP LITHON 3 Pinion end 1000 gm 3 yr Commutator end 385 gm 3 yr
Road wheel end TIMKEN Taper roller
Lubricant Change of lubricant (total value) GEARS : Recommended lubricant
Cone M249747 Cone M349547 Cup M249710 Cup M349510 Shell Alvania Grease No. 3 600 gm 1250 gm
Quantity lubricant in grease POWER SECTION COMPONENTS: CYLINDER BLOCK
Caltex Crater No.2 or Bharat Camex Camound F 5 kg at max. level 3 kg at min. level
The cylinder block is the main supporting structure for the various components. The cylinder of a multi cylinder engine is cast as a single unit, called cylinde r block. The cylinder block is mounted on the cylinder block. The cylinder head is held tight to the cylinder block by number of bolts and studs. The bottom por tion of the cylinder block is called crankcase. A cover called crankcase which b ecomes a sump for lubricating oil is fastened to the bottom of the crankcase. CYLINDER As the name implies it is a cylindrical vessel or space in which the makes a rec iprocating motion. The varying volume created in the cylinder during the operati on of the engine is filled with the working fluid and subjected to the different thermodynamic processes. The cylinder is supported in the cylinder block.
CYLINDER HEAD The cylinder head mounted on cylinder liner. On cylinder head, it includes inlet valve(through which the fuel comes in to the cylinder during suction stroke), e xhaust valve(through which the exhaust gases out to the exhaust manifold during exhaust stroke) and injector (which is used to inject the fuel in the cylinder). PISTON It is a cylindrical component fitted into the cylinder forming the moving bounda ry of the combustion system. It fits perfectly into the cylinder providing a gas -tight space with the piston rings and the lubricant. It forms the first link in transmitting the gas forces to the output shaft.
COMBUSTION CHAMBER The space enclosed of the upper part of the cylinder, by cylinder head and the p iston top during the combustion process, is called the combustion chamber. The c
ombustion of fuel and the consequent release of thermal energy results in the bu ilding up of pressure in this part of the cylinder. INLET MANIFOLD The pipe which connects the intake system to the inlet valve of the engine and t hrough which the fuel is drawn into the cylinder is called the inlet manifold.
EXHAUST MANIFOLD The pipe which connects the exhaust system to the exhaust valve of the engine an d through which the products of combustion escape in to the turbo super charger.
INLET AND EXHAUST VALVE Valves are commonly mushroom shaped poppet type. They are provided either on the cylinder head or on side of the for regulating the charge coming in to the cyli nder(inlet valve) and for discharging the products of combustion from the cylind er.
CONNECTING ROD It interconnects the piston and the crankshaft and transmits the gas forces from the piston to the crankshaft. The two ends of the connecting rod are called as small end and big end. Small end is connected to the piston by gudgeon pin and b ig end id connected to crankshaft by crankpin. CRANKSHAFT It converts the reciprocating motion of the piston into useful rotary motion of the output shaft. The crankshaft is enclosed in a crankcase.
PISTON RINGS The piston rings, fitted into the slots around the piston, provide a tight seal between the piston and the cylinder wall. There are five rings at the cylinder. First three rings are used for air leakage . The opening of the 2nd ring makes an angle of 180 deg with the 1st ring and th e opening of the 3rd ring make an angle of 60 deg with the 2nd ring.
GUDGEON PIN It forms link between the small end of the connecting rod and the piston.
CAMSHAFT The camshaft and its associated parts control the opening and closing of the two valves. The associated parts are push rods, rocker arms, valve spring and tappe ts. This shaft also provides the drive to the ignition system. The camshaft is d riven by the crankshaft through timing gears. CAMS These are made as integral parts of the camshaft and are designed in such a way to open the valves at the correct timing and to keep them open for the necessary duration. OPERATION: There are four strokes in power section. Which are discussed below:1.SUCTION STROKE Suction stroke start when the piston is at the TDC and about to move downwards. The inlet valve is open at this time and the exhaust valve is closed. Due to the suction created by the motion of the piston towards the BDC, the charge consist ing of air is drawn into the cylinder. When the piston reaches the BDC (Bottom d ead centre) the suction stroke ends and the inlet valve closes. 2.COMPRESSION STROKE The charge taken into the cylinder during the suction stroke is compressed by th e return stroke of the piston. During this stroke both inlet and exhaust valve a re in closed position. The air which fills the entire cylinder volume is now com pressed into the clearance volume. 3.POWER STROKE Fuel injection starts nearly at the end of the compression stroke. The rate of i njection is such that combustion maintains the pressure constant in spite of the piston movement on its expansion stroke increasing the volume. Heat is assumed to have been added at constant pressure. After the injection of fuel is complete d the product of combustion expand. Both the valves remain closed during the exp ansion stroke. 4.EXHAUST STROKE The piston travelling from BDC to TDC pushes out the products of combustion. The exhaust valve is open and the intake valve is closed during this stroke.
INJECTOR COMPONENTS: • • • • • • Nozzle holder body Spring seat Spring Spindle with guide washer Compensating washer Intermediate disc
Nozzle Nozzle cap nut
NOZZLE HOLDER The fuel injection nozzle holder conducts fuel from the pump, snubber valve and high pressure discharge tubing to the fuel injection nozzle and provides a means of adjusting the nozzle valve opening pressure. The nozzle atomizes spray patte rn into the engine combustion chamber. The major component of the nozzle holder are nozzle holder body, pressure adjusting spring. To adjust nozzle valve opening pressure, shims are used between nozzle holder b ody and guide bush (spring cap), above the spring. The lower end of nozzle holde r is ground and lapped to provide leak proof and pressure tight seal with the la pped upper surface of intermediate disc. The lower surface of intermediate disc is also lapped to provide a pressure tight sealing with the lapped surface of no zzle body. Nozzle holder and nozzle assembly with here after be referred to as i njector. NOZZLE The fuel injection nozzle are the closed hydraulically operated, differential ty pe consisting of two parts:1.Nozzle body 2.Nozzle valve(pin) Both these parts are made out of special heart treated alloy steel to minimize w ear. The nozzle valve and nozzle body are matched to from an assembly. These parts s hould not be exchanged individually but replaced only as an assembly. At the tip of nozzle body are a spray holes through which fuel passes into the combustion chamber. The spring loaded valve controls the flow. OPERATION The metered quantity of fuel from the injection pump enters the nozzle holder th rough the pressure inlet tube connection and flows through the drilled passage o f nozzle body to nozzle pressure chamber. When fuel pressure acting on the diffe rential area exceeds the spring force to which the opening pressure is set, the valve is lifted off its until the fuel pump ceases to deliver fuel. The fuel flow is then instantaneously and positively out off as the spring press ure forces the nozzle valve to its seat leakage of the fuel between the nozzle v alve and nozzle body is necessary for lubrication. The leakage fuel accumulates in the spring compartment from the spring compartme nt fuel drains out of nozzle holder through a leak of passage, thus preventing t he nozzle valve from becoming hydraulically locked. To maintain the speed, we use washer in the holder. OVER HAULING OF WDM-2 INJECTOR: INSTRUCTIONS FOR SAFETY Angle of MICO nozzle valve body seat : Angle of nozzle valve pin seat : Nozzle maximum : 59deg-59deg30` 60deg10`- 60deg5` 0.026deg
Spray angle :
EXPERIMENT: • • • (a) (b) Spray pattern : Equally on blatting paper. Atomization Opening pressure New nozzle : 3900 - 4050 p. s.i Oval hall nozzle : 3700 - 3800 p.s.i
• Leak of rate(use staff watch) (a) New nozzle : 19 second. 3500 - 1000 p.s.i (b) Oval hall nozzle : 6 second 3500 - 1000 p.s.i Pressure: (Over hauling nozzle) : 3700 – 3800 p.s.i (New nozzle) : 4000 – 4050 p.s.i Types of nozzle : 1.Nozzle ball : 2.nozzle lift : INSTRUCTIONS : 1.Do not use any hard or sharp material on the nozzle. 2.Leake of over haul nozzle is 6 second good chaitring. 3.Spray hole should be 157deg. COMPREESSION : Stage 1 : Stage 2 : FUEL INJECTION PUMP FUNCTION: MICO fuel injection pump are of single acting, constant stroke and plunger type with the effective working stroke however, being adjustable. The pump consists p rimarily of a housing, delivery valve and spring, delivery valve holder, element (plunger and barrel assembly), plunger spring, a geared control sleeve and cont rol rack (rod) assembly. The pump element comprises a barrel and a plunger, whic h are match assembled to a very closed tolerance. 35 - 40 p.s.i 135 - 140 p.s.i American bosh Mico bosh 90deg 60deg 0.012``- 0.02 0.018– 0.026``
The fuel injection pump has three function: • To el. • To the power • To ngine. raise the fuel oil pressure to a valve, which will efficiently atomize the fu supply the correct quantity of fuel to the injection nozzle commensurate with and speed requirement of the engine. accurately fine delivery of the for efficiently and economical operation of e
PARTS : 1. Nut 5.Delivery valve 2. ‘O’ ring 6.Buffel ring 3. Delivery valve holder 7.Element(17 mm) 4. Delivery valve spring 8.Regulating sleeve 9.Lover spring plate 12.Guide cup 10.plunger spring 13.Spring ring 11.Upper spring plate
Test condition : inlet pressure for calibration = 0.5+0.1 0.5-0.1 Oil temperature = 40deg C + 2deg C Calibration values : PUMP TYPE TEST INJECTOR OPENING PRESSURE 172+3 172+3 CONTROL Rpm RACK POSITION(mm) 9 30 PF1WV 170/6 9 28 TURBO SUPER CHARGER Super charging given by turbo super charger in loco WDM-2. Its inventor was a Ge rman Engineer ALFRAD BUCCI. Turbo super charger is joined with engine block. It works freely. Which exhaust gas exit through engine block passes through exhaust manifold which is a fixed n ozzle, it striking the turbine blade after getting a right direction and exit t hrough chimney the chimney and then it rotate the turbine blade. Turbo super charger is used to increase the efficiency of engine. Its function i s same as like economizer used in boilers. Economizer is a accessory part of the boiler. Turbo super charger used the exhaust air to increase the efficiency of engine. It connect with exhaust manifold of the cylinder. We used lube oil and w ater cooling and lubrication purpose. Both are filled in the lower portion of th e turbo charger, with the use of pump we suck the water and lube oil and inject in all parts of the turbo super charger. When the diesel burns at very high pressure and temperature and it release ener gy due to this, piston goes towards B.D.C after that again piston goes towards T .D.C, on moving in upward direction the outlet valve open and the exhaust gas co mes in the exhaust manifold. Loco engine has 16 cylinder, 8 on both sides, all the cylinders attached with ex haust manifold pipe and it connect with turbo super charger. The exhaust gas com es through the pipe and enters in turbo charger, then gas enters in G I casing a fter that it moves towards nozzle ring and finely it rotates the diffuser. The r 500 500 DLIVERY QNTY. cm3/300 strokes 500 500 70.3-76.5 399-411 90-100 465-489
otating diffuser the exhaust gas diffuses in the atmosphere to outlet part of th e turbo super charger. Diffuser rotates the turbine blade and then turbine blade rotates impeller and impeller rotates inducer because all are mount on same sha ft. Diffuser is fixed on the front portion of the turbo charger and impeller is back portion. The impeller and blower also rotates which are attached to the turbine shaft due to rotation of turbo super charger. By rotation of blower, creating t he vacuum near by it. To break the vacuum the air enters. The air enters by only one way which is given through air maze oil bath filter and carbodi filter or c yclonic filter or baggy type filter. From here, the air goes in blower. The blow er sent the air in after cooler after compressed it because the air being light and warm by moving rotationally in the blower and speed in its and quantity of o xygen is being less. Its density becomes high due to cooling the air in the afte r cooler and the quantity of oxygen also increases. PARTS OF TURBO SUPER CHARGER • • • • • • • • Rotor Assembly (Turbine) Nozzle ring Gas inlet casing Turbine casing Intermediate casing Blower casing Turbine bearing Blower bearing
TYPES OF TURBO SUPER CHARGER • • • • • ALCO ----2600 Horse Power ABB <TPR-61 --3700/3300 H.P VTC-304-3100/2600 H.P GE---3100/3300 Hispano suija--3100/3300 H.P Hapier ---3700/3300
ABB and GE are air cooled and Hispano suija and Hepier are water & lube oil coo led.
ALCO TSC ALCO TSC
CLEARANCE OF TURBO SUPER CHARGER: • • • • • • Nozzle ring & Gas inlet casing-Turbine blade & Gas inlet casing-Intermediate casing & Impeller -Nozzle & Turbine disc -Impeller & Blower inlet-Blower casing & Blower inlet bolt loose(after) cooler match minimum diffuser vane(80%)-0.022-0.032 0.06- 0.092 0.017- 0.065 0.138- 0.236 0.035- 0.075 0.05- 0.02
• • • •
Turbine disk & Intermediate casing-Inducer & Blower casing --
0.008- 0.02 0.091- 0.01
Interference (Bearing & Interference casing) turbine & Blade side-0.005-0.001 Rotor shaft & Oil seal (side of turbine)-- 0.008-0.012
OPERATION PROCEDURE OF TURBO SUPER CHARGER: Exhaust gas G/I casing (Nozzle ring er casing Main casing Rotor balancing-- 0-0.03 gm/cm EXPRESSOR Combined together unit of compressor and exhauster is called expressor. This ex pressor situated in the room. Four cylinders of exhauster and two cylinders of c ompressor are situated on the expressor. The big cylinder is low compressor and small cylinder is high pressure cylinder. The connecting rod of expressor and ex hauster is fixed on crank pin. After compressing the atmospheric air it send into MR TANK NO.1. The air of MR TANK NO.1 goes to following parts: • Horn • Viper • Sanding system • Pneumatic pressure • A.C Governor • Feed pipe The compressed air goes into MR TANK NO.2 from MR TANK NO. 1 through check valv e by compressor. This air used in brake system from MR TANK NO.2. All of four exhauster pushed out the air of train pipe. TYPES OF EXPRESSOR: There are two types of expressor: • 6 CD 4 UC (Four exhauster and two Compressor) • 6 CD 3 UC (Three exhauster and Three compressor) Diffuse Turbine blade Impeller casing Inducer Blow
COMPRESSOR Working of compressor: When the crank shaft of the engine moves then the crank shaft of the expressor w ith help of its fast coupling. Due to this, the piston moves up and down in the low pressure cylinder and the inlet valve of the cylinder opens and natural air enters in the cylinder after purified through intake filter. When the piston mov es down to upwards, then at that time the air compressed by means of 60 P.S.I. a nd goes to intercooler after passing out through discharge valve. There is a sa
fety valve between discharge valve and intercooler which is sated at 65 P.S.I it protects the intercooler. It blows on high pressure. This air goes to circulati ng pipe, which is mounted on the both sides of the loco after re-compressed in t he high pressure. Due to this the air cooled before entering in the MR. The air goes to MR-2 from MR-1. There is a check valve mounted between MR-1 and MR-2. Th ere is a MR safety valve for the safety of MR-1 which is sated at 10.5 km/sec m2 . There is a lube oil sump for its lubrication purposes. 24 liter oil is filled i n the lube oil sump. There is a crank shaft inside it which is moves by the shaf t of the engine. There is a lube oil pump in it which moves by chain or gear. Th is lube oil pump sucks the oil from the sump and lubricates the crank shaft and after lubricating the crank pin, it also lubricates the piston, cylinder, liner, etc. For the information of lube oil pump, there is a efficiency needle valve w hich gives the information about the pump for properly working. Its needle shoul d be straight upward. There is breather valve(vacuum maintaining valve) in the e xpressor body which is joined with the inlet pipe of the exhauster by the copper pipe. COMPRESSOR EXHAUSTER: There are four cylinders in it which are V shaped. When the piston goes down fro m upwards then the suction valve opened. Due to this, the air of train pipe push ed to the cylinder of exhauster and when the piston goes up from downwards then the suction valve is closed and discharge valve is opened. Therefore the air of cylinder exits through the exhaust pipe. So, all the four cylinders pushed out t he air of train pipe. Therefore, the vacuum is created here. BREATHER VALVE: This is a vacuum maintaining valve which is mounted the expressore’s body. It is k eeping the joining of the inlet pipe of the exhauster with the sump of the expre ssor by the evacuation pipe. With its help, the vacuum maintain in the expressor’s sump. So, the oil of the expressor’s sump does not get exit. RUNNING In running section, we concord about the checking of various parts, components, leakages, procedure or operations of the engine before starting and after starti ng it. It includes some important points: TESTING OF ENGINE OR SAFETY DRIVES CHECKING OF ENGINE WHEN THE DRUVER TAKE CHARGE: • • Transition coupling, buffer light, head light, flasher light. Check the leakage of pivot pin oil cup on both sides and oil is filled in the cups. • The oil cup of the side bearer is filled on the both sides. • The cap and fuel oil tank strainer is fitted properly. • Under gearing did not loose. • There is no leakage in lube oil drain pipe cap. • The hand brake chain is properly fit. • The MR safety valve is properly sealed. • The oil is filled in traction motor suspension gearing. CHECKING OF LOKO CABIN: • Check the level of traction generator gear case oil. • Check the governor oil level.
• • • •
Check the crank case lube oil. Check the expressor level. Check the water level. Checking about GR knife switch is closed and sealed or not
CHECK SOME POINT BEFORE STARTING THE LOCO: • • • • • • • • • • MR pipe cut out cock is in closed position. Break cylinder equalizing pipe cut out cock is in closed position. Both MR drain coke are in closed position. Auto drain valve cut out cock is in open position. Water drain cock is in closed position. Main air reservoir master cut out cock is open position. J filter drain coke is in closed position. Over speed trip handle is in set position. Air compressor cut out coke is in open position. VCD cut out coke is in open position and sealed.
CHECKING OF SAFETY FITTING BY THE DRIVER: • Nut Bolt of catle guard is properly tight. • The mounting and hanging nut bolt of traction motor gear case is properly tight and sealed and cater on the hanging bolt. • There should be no leakage of oil from the drain plug of suspension bearing oil cup. • The bolts of wick pad carrier plate of all the suspension bearing should be prop erly tight. • The filling cap of cardime compound of all the gear cases should be property mou nted. • Traction motor suspension nose guide and bolt should be properly fitted. • All the air duct should be properly fitted. • There should be no leakage from drain plug of fuel oil tank, inspection plug and glow rod gauge. • The bolts of the foundation of speedometer and axle generator should be properly tight and no any bolt missing. • Safety bracket and tie bolt of all the equalizing beam should be properly fitted and the beam shouldn’t be crack. • Break cylinder piston travelled shouldn’t be more than 3” or 7.5 cm. • Break cylinder bogie cut out coke shouldn’t be loose and a handle should be mounte d on it. • The break pull rod safety bracket should be fitted properly. • The keys of all the break blocks should be properly keyed. • Checks all the springs, there should be no intact. • Wheel flange should be no sharped. • The fire X-ting wisher (two) should be intacted and sealed.
THE SEQUENCE OF STARTING OF THE DIESEL LOCO:
• MU-2b valve (at the shard hood control stand) should be in lead position. • SA9 break valve handle should be completely in the application position on opera ting controlled stand and should be in released position at another control stan d. • Keep the automatic break valve handle in released position at both control stand . • Open the break out cut off cock and closed it at another control stand. • Do the job as following after the general checking of loco: (a) Closed the battery knife switch. (b) Closed the breakers of circuit breakers of the battery at control panel, control, fuel pump, auxiliary generator field, and crank case exhauster. (c) Closed the fuel pump breaker control circuit breaker at both control sta nds (due to closing the circuit breaker, fuel pump motor and CCE motor will be o n). When the fuel oil pressure reaches at 3.5 kg/cm2, then makes the ECS in idea l position. Be sure that anybody is not working on the engine but yet ring the w arning bell 3 times. (d) Pressed the engine start button. When the starting light is off or oil p ressure produced than released the start button. CHECKINGS BY THE DRIVERS AFTER RUNNING THE ENGINE AND BEFORE MOVING THE LOCOMOTI VE: There should be pressure in the pressure gauges in desired quantity: • Main reservoir pressure --- 8.5 kg/cm2 to 9.5 kg/cm2 • Break pipe pressure ---- 5.0 kg/cm2 • Control air pressure ---- 5.0 kg/cm2 • Vacuum control air pressure --- 1.7 kg/cm2 1. 2. imit. 3. 4. If there is any difference then maintain by the relative control cock. The oil level in the crank case of the engine should be in the desired l Expressor niddle valve should be in straight up position. The breaks should be properly worked.
THE SEQUENCE OF LOCOMOTIVE MOVING: The following sequence should be applied for runs the engine: • Keep the ECS on run. • Keep the reverser at going direction. • Keep the selector at no.1 position. • Keep the hand break released. • On the GF switch of both control stand. • Release the SA-9. • Press the horn. • Open the throttle slowly and check the load meter.
SOME IMPORTANCE THINGS: • If there is more compression in the engine then don’t runs it. • On continuously coming thrice times of power ground, check the traction generato r and start the procedure of cut off the motors. • Do not change the direction of locomotives while running. • Do not mix the soft water in the tank until it is not necessary for preventing t he failure.
• Dot not run the load when fuel oil less than 700 liter. Fills the fuel when the quantity of fuel oil is 1000 liter in the fuel tank. WATER COOLING SYSTEM The engine of WDM2 loco is internal combustion engine. More heat produced inside it due to burning the fuel. A water system is applied for cooling it. Which is called closed and pressurized water cooling system. For which, the two water tan ks- Extension tank and Expansion tank are mounted on it. Which have the capacity 155+155=310 liter. The system has the capacity of water of 900 liter. Therefore , total 1210 liter can be filled. The height of water is 14 inch in this tank.
COMPONENTS OF WATER COOLING SYSTEM • • • • • • • • Water pump Radiator Jumper pipe plus riser pipe Water pipe plus return header ETS-1,2,3 Eddy current clutch Radiator fan Low water switch(LWS)
LUBE OIL SYSTEM In every machine, the moving parts when moves then rubs with each other by which the friction is created and the temperature is produced. There is possibility o f failures in the parts due to this temperature. To prevent these failure we hav e need such substances which keep them separately and prevent with wear and prev ent rising the temperature. Therefore, lube oil system is applied in the diesel loco.
COMPONENTS OF LUBE OIL SYSTEM • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Suction pipe Lube oil pump Pump outlet pipe Pressure relief valve By pass valve Lube oil filter housing(8 filters) Filter drain cock Lube oil cooler or heat exchanger Regulating valve Lube oil strainer and its drain cock Main header Right sub header Left sub header Turbo super charger OPS Driver cabin gauge Extension shaft gear Cylinder head OST carrier Cam shaft Vibration damper Cam shaft gear
Fuel injection pump cross head FUEL OIL SYSTEM
High speed diesel oil is used in form of fuel in the engine of WDM2 for producin g the power in the locomotives engine which is worked on pressure principle. A t ank is welded between 2 bogies for storing the oil which has the capacity of 500 0 liter. A oil filling cap and strainer are mounted on it. At the both sides one glow rod is mounted on each sides for viewing the oil and a marking plate also is attach ed along it. The bottom most mark is of 540 liter. There is difference of 35 lit er of center two points of upper most glow rod and 50 liter difference between t wo points of bottom most glow rod. The load will not work at 750 liter oil left. 750 liter + trip oil should be in the tank at time of taking the charge.
OTHER COMPONANTS IN FUEL OIL SYSTEM • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Fuel oil tank Fuel filling strainer Glow rod gauge Drain plug Primary filter Fuel transfer pump Secondary filter Fuel oil relief valve Right side fuel gallery Banjo pipe and banjo bolt Fuel injection pump Fuel injector High pressure pipe Flexible cross over pipe Left fuel oil gallery Fuel oil gallery Fuel oil regulating valve Fuel oil pressure gauge Fuel oil return pipe Fuel oil return gallery
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