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The Cu loss is found to be 100W when delivering half full-load current. Determine (1) the efficiency when delivering full-load current at 0.8 lagging p.f and (2) the percentage of full-load kVA when the efficiency will be maximum. Solution: Iron loss=324W ; F.L. Cu loss= (2) *100=4000W (1) total F.L. Cu losses= 324+400 = 724W = 0.724W F.L. output at 0.8 p.f.= 20*0.8 = 16kW F.L. efficiency at 0.8 p.f.= 16/16+0.724 * 100 = 95.67% (2) kVA for maximum / F.L. kVA =iron losses/F.L. Cu losses=324/400=0.9 kVA for maximum = 0.9*F.L. kVA therefore, efficiency will be maximum at 90% of full-load kVA. Example 7.52: a 600 kVA, single-phase transformer when working at unity p.f. has an efficiency of 92% at full-load and also at half-load. Determine the efficincy when it operates at unity p.f. and 60% of full-load. Solution: it is given that the transformer has the same efficiency(i.e.,92%) at full-load and half full-load when the p.f. is unity. We shall use this data to find F.L. Cu loss and iron loss. Let: Pc = F.L. Cu loss Pi = Iron loss ( constant on all loads) At full load: Output= 600*1 = 600kW ; input = 600/0.92 = 652.2kW Total full-load losses = 652.5-600 = 52.2kW Or, Pc+Pi = 52.2 ___________________ (1) At half full-load: Output=300*1=300kW ; input=300/0.92 = 326.1kW Total losse at half-full load= 326.1-300= 26.1kW *Pc/4+Pi = 26.1kW ___________________ (2) Solving eq. (1) and (2) , we get, Pc = 34.8kW ; Pi=17.4Kw. Efficiency at 60% full-load, unity p.f. Output = 600*0.6*1=360kW Cu loss = (0.6)sq * F.L. Cu loss = (0.6)sq*34.8=12.53kW Total loss = Pi+12.53= 17.4+12.53= 29.93kW Efficiency = 360/360+29.93*100= 96.3% Example 7.53: a 400 KVA transformer has an iron loss of 2 kW and the maximum efficiency at 0.8 p.f. occurs when the load is 240kW. Calculate (1) the maximum efficiency at unity p.f. (2) the efficiency on full-load at 0.71 p.f. lagging. Solution: KVA for maximum efficiency = 240/0.8 = 300KVA At maximum efficiency, copper loss= iron loss Copper loss at 300KVA load = 2kW (iron loss=2kW)

Output= 300*1 = 300kW ; total loss = 2+2 = 4kW Maximum efficiency=300/300+4*100 = 98.6% (2)F.L. efficiency at 0.71 p.f. F.L. Cu losses = (400/300)sq*2 = 3.55 ; iron loss = 2kW Total F.L. losses = 3.55+2 = 5.55kW F.L output = 400*0.71kW F.L. efficiency = 400*0.71/400+0.71+5.55*100 = 98% Example 7.54: a 10kVA , 200/400V ,50Hz , single-phase transformer gave the following results: O.C. test : 200V ; 1.3 A; 120 W _____________ on L.V. side S.C. test : 22V ; 30A ; 200W _____________ on H.V. side (1)calculate efficiency and secondary terminal voltage when supplying full load at 0.8 leading p.f. (2)calculate the load at unity p.f. corresponding to maximum efficiency. Solution: (1) F.L. secondary current, I2 = 10*10cube/400 = 25A The S.C. test is carried out with 30A flowing in the secondary. F.L. Cu loss of transformer = (25/30)sq*200 = 140W Total F.L. losses = 120+140=260W=0.26kW F.L. output=10*0.8=8kW F.L. efficiency = 8/8+0.26*100=96.85% (2) from S.C. test we have, Z02= 22/30=0.733 ; R02 = 200/(30)sq=0.222 X02= Z02sq-R02sq = (0.733)sq-(0.222)sq = 0.698 Transformer voltage drop as reffered to secondary: =I2(R02Cos2-X02sin2) =25(0.222*0.8-0.698*0.6) = -6V (voltage rise due to leading p.f.) Secondary voltage, V2 = 400+6 = 406V (3) KVA for maximum efficiency= F.L. kVA*iron loss/F.L. Cu loss =10*120/140 = 9.25kVA Load of unity p.f corresponding to max = 9.25*1 = 6.25Kw Example 7.55: A 25kva, 2200/220V , single-phase transformer has a primary resistance of 1 and secondary resistance of 0.01. find the full-load efficiency at 0.8 p.f. if the iron loss in the transformer is 200W. Solution: K= 220/2200 = 1/10 ; R1 = 1 ; R2 = 0.01 R02= R2+KSQR1 = 0.01+1/100*1 = 0.02 F.L. secondary current, I2 = 25*10cube/220 = 113.6A F.L. Cu loss = IsqR02 = (113.6)sq*0.02 = 258W Total F.L. losses = 258+200 = 458W = 0.458kW F.L. output = 25+0.8 = 20kW F.L. efficiency = 20/20+0.458*100 = 97.8%

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