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and Sizing (oncepts. Release 2.6.2
.v Oracte )ecbvicat !bite Pater
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 2
Oracle Vorkilow Periormance and Sizing (oncepts.
L×ecutive Overview.......................................................................................... 3
Overview oi the Vorkilow Lngine................................................................ 3
Vorkilow Lngine Processing ..................................................................... +
Designing Vorkilows ior Periormance......................................................... 6
Item Attributes.............................................................................................. 6
(reating and Setting Item Attributes......................................................... ¯
Message Attributes ....................................................................................... ¯
lnnecessarv lse oi Subprocesses ............................................................. ¯
Vorkilow Background Lngine Periormance................................................ 9
Improving Online lser Response 1ime: Deierring lunction
Partitioning and Purging ior Periormance .................................................. 11
Partitioning ior Periormance .................................................................... 11
Purging ior Periormance ........................................................................... 13
Sizing Vorkilow 1ables ................................................................................. 1+
Appendi× A: Oracle9i Data Guard and Real Application (lusters ......... 16
Oracle9i Data Guard.................................................................................. 16
Real Application (lusters .......................................................................... 16
lseiul Reierences............................................................................................ 1¯
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 3
Oracle Vorkilow Periormance and Sizing (oncepts.
1his paper describes periormance concepts ior Vorkilow customers. including an
overview oi Vorkilow Lngine processing. design principles ior workilow
processes. the use oi background engines ior deierral oi costlv activities. and
partitioning and purging techniques to address periormance issues associated with
large quantities oi data. Some sizing algorithms ior Vorkilow tables are also
OVERVIEW OF THE WORKFLOW ENGINE
1he Vorkilow Lngine manages all automated aspects oi a workilow process ior
each workilow item. 1he engine is implemented in server·side PL´SQL and is
activated whenever a call to a workilow procedure or iunction is made. Since the
engine is embedded inside the Oracle database server. ii the Vorkilow server goes
down ior anv reason. the Oracle database server is able to manage the recoverv
and transactional integritv oi anv workilow transactions that were running at the
time oi the iailure.
Additionallv. Vorkilow Lngines can be set up as background tasks to periorm
activities that are too costlv to e×ecute in real time.
1he Vorkilow Lngine periorms the iollowing services ior a client application:
• It manages the state oi all activities ior an item. and in particular.
determines which new activitv to transition to whenever a prerequisite
• It automaticallv e×ecutes iunction activities ·e×ecution is either
immediate or deierred to a background engine, and sends notiiications.
• It maintains a historv oi an activitv's status.
• It detects error conditions and e×ecutes error processes.
1he state oi a workilow item is deiined bv the various states oi all activities that
are part oi the process ior that item. 1he engine changes activitv states in response
to an API call to update the activitv. Based on the result oi a previous activitv. the
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 4
engine attempts to e×ecute the ne×t activitv directlv. An activitv mav have the
• Active··activitv is running.
• (omplete··activitv completed normallv.
• Vaiting··activitv is waiting to run.
• Notiiied··notiiication activitv is delivered and open.
• Deierred··activitv is deierred.
• Lrror··activitv completed with error.
• Suspended··activitv is suspended.
Attention: 1he Vorkilow Lngine traps errors produced bv iunction activities bv
setting a savepoint beiore each iunction activitv. Ii an activitv produces an
unhandled e×ception. the engine periorms a rollback to the savepoint. and sets the
activitv to the LRROR status. lor this reason. vou should never commit within the
PL´SQL procedure oi a iunction activitv. 1he Vorkilow Lngine never issues a
commit as it is the responsibilitv oi the calling application to commit.
1he Oracle database server release 8i and higher oiiers autonomous commits. Bv
embedding the pragma Al1ONOMOlS_1RANSA(1ION in vour procedure.
vou can periorm commits and rollbacks independentlv oi the main transaction.
Oracle treats this as a separate session. and as such. vou will not have access to anv
database changes that were made in the main session but are not vet committed.
(onsequentlv. vou are restricted irom updating workilow·speciiic data. such as
setting item attributes ·because the item itseli has not vet been committed. or vou
mav have lock contentions with the main session,.
Oracle Vorkilow will not support autonomous commits in anv procedure it calls
directlv. Ii vou need to periorm commits. then embed vour SQL in a
subprocedure and declare it as an autonomous block. Remember that this
subprocedure must be capable oi being rerun. Also. Vorkilow handles errors bv
rolling back the entire procedure and setting its status to LRROR. Anv database
updates periormed bv autonomous commits cannot be rolled back. and vou will
have to write vour own compensatorv logic.
Workflow Engine Processing
1he concepts oi svnchronous and asvnchronous ilows are essential to designing
eiiective workilow solutions. A svnchronous ilow is one that goes uninterrupted
irom start to iinish. Vith such a ilow. vou can immediatelv check ior vour results
written to item attributes or directlv to the database. 1his solution is onlv eiiective
ii the workilow does not take long to e×ecute, otherwise. the user will be leit
waiting with an application that appears to hang. In this case vou should change
the process to an asvnchronous ilow.
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 5
An asvnchronous ilow is one in which the Vorkilow Lngine cannot go to
completion immediatelv because it contains activities that interrupt the ilow.
Rather than waiting indeiinitelv. the engine sets the audit tables appropriatelv and
returns control to the calling module that initiated the workilow with StartProcess
or Raise Lvent. 1he workilow is leit in an uniinished state until it is started again.
usuallv bv the notiiication svstem or the background engine. L×amples oi activities
that iorce an asvnchronous ilow are deierred activities. notiiications with
responses. blocking activities. and wait activities.
1he Vorkilow Lngine also supports a special class oi svnchronous processes
called iorced svnchronous processes. A iorced svnchronous process completes in a
single SQL session irom start to iinish and never inserts into or updates anv
database tables. As a result. the e×ecution speed oi a iorced svnchronous process is
signiiicantlv iaster than a tvpical svnchronous process.
1here mav be cases when vour application requires a iorced svnchronous process
to generate a speciiic result quicklv and recording an audit trail is not a concern.
lor e×ample. in Oracle Applications. several products require Account Generator
workilows to generate a meaningiul ile×iield code derived irom a series oi
concatenated segments pulled irom various tables. 1he Account Generator
workilows are iorced svnchronous processes that compute and pass back
completed ile×iield codes to the calling applications instantaneouslv.
1o create a iorced svnchronous process. vou need to set the item kev oi vour
process to ¬S\N(l or to wi_engine.eng_svnch. which returns the ¬S\N(l
constant. when vou call the necessarv Vl_LNGINL APIs. Since a iorced
svnchronous process never writes to the database. using a non·unique item kev
such as ¬S\N(l is not an issue. \our process deiinition must adhere to certain
restrictions. such as not including anv notiiication activities. lor more details. see
lorced Svnchronous Processes. Oracte !oríftor Cviae.
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 6
DESIGNING WORKFLOWS FOR PERFORMANCE
Item attributes are essentiallv the workilow global data store. 1he number oi item
attributes directlv aiiects the startup time ior work items as the Vorkilow Lngine
creates runtime copies oi all item attributes when a workilow process is created.
lor this reason. item attributes should be kept to a minimum.
Item attributes should be used ior:
• Storing working iniormation ior the work item.
• 1oken replacement ior messages. lor messages where the number oi lines
mav varv. such as in repeating groups. do not create individual item
attributes ior each line ·LINL_INlO1. LINL_INlO2. etc.,. Instead. use
item and message attributes oi tvpe Document.
• Primarv kev values so that iunctions can look up irom the database all
• 1emporarv placeholders when using activities dvnamicallv. lor e×ample.
the periormer oi a notiiication mav onlv be known at runtime. so vou can
reierence an item attribute and seed the desired value just beiore
e×ecuting the notiiication.
Item attributes should reierence static values or values that are not in the database
so there are no concerns about keeping the values svnchronized at anv given time
·primarv kevs do not change,. Do not implement everv column within a table as an
Important item attribute tvpes include the iollowing:
• Document: 1he attribute value is an attached document. which enables
a comple× structure to be rendered inline. or attached to notiiications.
\ou can speciiv the iollowing tvpes oi documents in the deiault value
o PL´SQL document··a document representing data irom the
database as a character string. generated irom a PL´SQL
o PL´SQL (LOB document··a document representing data
irom the database as a character large object ·(LOB,.
generated irom a PL´SQL procedure.
• Role: 1he attribute value is the internal name oi a role. Ii a message
attribute oi tvpe role is included in a notiiication message. the attribute
automaticallv resolves to the role's displav name. eliminating the need
ior vou to maintain separate attributes ior the role's internal and
displav names. Also. when vou view the notiiication irom a web
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 7
browser. the role displav name is a hvperte×t link to the e·mail address
ior that role. 1o set a deiault value ior the attribute. vou must initiallv
load roles irom the database.
Creating and Setting Item Attributes
Vhenever multiple item attributes are going to be created. or multiple item
attribute values are going to be set during workilow processing. use the arrav
versions oi the Add Item Attribute and Set Item Attribute workilow engine APIs
·AddItemAttributeArrav and SetItemAttributeArrav. respectivelv,. 1his will
signiiicantlv decrease the number oi calls to workilow engine APIs. which can
have a measurable impact on periormance during batch processing.
lor messages where the number oi lines mav varv. such as in repeating groups. do
not create item or message attributes ior each line ·LINL_INlO1. LINL_INlO2.
etc.,. Instead. use item and message attributes oi tvpe Document.
Unnecessary Use of Subprocesses
1he iollowing two processes ·Process 1 and Process 2, are iunctionallv identical.
lowever. thev result in diiierent numbers oi state rows being stored in workilow
Process 1: Stores 7 state rows in workflow tables
Start End Sub Proc ess
Start End Func tion 1
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 8
Process 2: Stores 4 state rows in workflow tables
1his e×ample should highlight to workilow designers that the unnecessarv use oi
subprocesses will result in additional DML operations and additional state
iniormation stored in workilow tables. ior no iunctional beneiit. 1he kind oi
design shown in the Process 1 diagram will result in slower workilow throughput
and organizations having to purge workilow runtime tables more irequentlv than
what should be necessarv with the Process 2 design.
Note: (ollapsing all subprocesses will make workilow diagrams unreadable and
prevent customer customizations irom being preserved. 1his section is not meant
to implv that subprocesses should not be used at all, it merelv highlights that
unnecessarv overuse oi subprocesses in workilows has a negative periormance
Start End Func tion 1
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 9
WORKFLOW BACKGROUND ENGINE PERFORMANCE
Vhen the Vorkilow Lngine initiates and periorms a process. it completes all
necessarv activities beiore continuing to the ne×t eligible activitv. In some cases. an
activitv can require a large amount oi processing resource or time to complete.
Oracle Vorkilow lets vou manage the load on the Vorkilow Lngine bv setting up
supplemental engines to run these costlv activities as background tasks. In these
cases. the costlv activitv is deierred bv the Vorkilow Lngine and run later bv a
background engine. 1he main Vorkilow Lngine can then continue to the ne×t
available activitv. which mav occur on some other parallel branch oi the process.
A background engine must also be set up to handle timed out notiiication
activities. Vhen the Vorkilow Lngine comes across a notiiication activitv that
requires a response. it calls the Notiiication Svstem to send the notiiication to the
appropriate periormer. and then sets the notiiication activitv to a status oi
'NO1IlILD' until the periormer completes the notiiication activitv. Meanwhile. a
background engine set up to handle timed out activities periodicallv checks ior
'NO1IlILD' activities and whether these activities have time out values speciiied.
Ii a 'NO1IlILD' activitv does have a time out value. and the current date and
time e×ceeds that time out value. the background engine marks that activitv as
timed out and calls the Vorkilow Lngine. 1he Vorkilow Lngine then resumes bv
trving to e×ecute a ·1imeout· transition activitv.
Additionallv. a background engine must be set up to handle stuck processes. A
process is identiiied as stuck when it has a status oi A(1IVL. but cannot progress
anv iurther. lor e×ample. a process could become stuck in the iollowing situations:
• A thread within a process leads to an activitv that is not deiined as an Lnd
activitv but has no other activitv modeled aiter it. and no other activitv is
• A process with onlv one thread loops back. but the pivot activitv oi the
loop has the On Revisit propertv set to Ignore.
• An activitv returns a result ior which no eligible transition e×ists. lor
instance. ii the iunction ior a iunction activitv returns an une×pected
result value. and no deiault transition is modeled aiter that activitv. the
process cannot continue.
1he background engine sets the status oi a stuck process to LRROR:¬S1l(K
and e×ecutes the error process deiined ior it.
\ou can deiine and start up as manv background engines as vou like to check ior
deierred and timed out activities and stuck processes. Background engines can be
restricted to handle activities associated with speciiic item tvpes. and within
speciiic cost ranges. A background engine runs until it completes all eligible
activities at the time it was initiated.
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 10
Generallv. vou should set the background engine up to run periodicallv bv either
using a script to restart the background engine periodicallv ·ior the standalone
version oi Oracle Vorkilow,. or scheduling the Background Process concurrent
program to resubmit periodicallv ·ior the version oi Oracle Vorkilow embedded
in Oracle Applications,.
Lnsure that vou have at least one background engine that can check ior timed out
activities. one that can process deierred activities. and one that can handle stuck
processes. At a minimum. vou need to set up one background engine that can
handle both timed out and deierred activities as well as stuck processes.
Generallv. vou should run a separate background engine to check ior stuck
processes at less irequent intervals than the background engine that vou run ior
deierred or timed out activities. normallv not more oiten than once a dav. Run the
hackground engine to check tor stuck processes when the load on the
system is low.
Note: 1he Process Stuck parameter ior the background engine was introduced in
Oracle Vorkilow 2.6.2.
Improving Online User Response Time: Deferring Function Activities
1he simplest and most eiiective wav to improve the online user`s response time is
to deier workilow iunction activities. At design time vou can set an activitv`s cost
above the deiault threshold cost ·a PL´SQL package variable set to 50 bv deiault,
ior all activities vou don`t want the user to wait ior.
At runtime the engine deiers anv thread to the background as soon as it comes
across such an activitv. (ontrol is immediatelv returned to the user who remains
unaware that processing is still taking place. rendering a iaster e×ecution time. It is
the background engine that identiiies the process as deierred and continues its
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 11
PARTITIONING AND PURGING FOR PERFORMANCE
Vhen the Vorkilow Lngine e×ecutes anv tvpe oi workilow other than lorced
Svnchronous ilows. status iniormation is stored in runtime tables. 1he amount oi
data stored in these tables will grow depending on the comple×itv and number oi
workilows being e×ecuted.
Periormance issues associated with large quantities oi data can be addressed bv:
Partitioning for Performance
Partitioning addresses kev issues in supporting verv large tables and inde×es bv
letting vou decompose them into smaller and more manageable pieces called
partitions. SQL queries and DML statements do not need to be modiiied in order
to access partitioned tables. lowever. once partitions are deiined. DDL statements
can access and manipulate individual partitions rather than entire tables or inde×es.
1his is how partitioning can simpliiv the manageabilitv oi large database objects.
Also. partitioning is entirelv transparent to applications.
Partitioning is useiul ior manv diiierent tvpes oi applications. particularlv
applications that manage large quantities oi data. OL1P svstems oiten beneiit
irom improvements in manageabilitv and availabilitv. while data warehousing
svstems beneiit irom periormance and manageabilitv.
Standalone Oracle Vorkilow customers can optionallv run a script called
wiupart.sql included in bug 2085182 to partition certain Vorkilow tables. 1his step
is highlv recommended ior periormance gain.
1he script partitions iour Vorkilow tables and recreates the associated inde×es.
1he iollowing table shows the Vorkilow tables and inde×es on which the script
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 12
Beiore running wiupart.sql. vou should back up these iour tables so that vou can
restore them in case the script iails.
1o run the script. vou must have suiiicient iree space on the table and inde×
tablespaces. During the creation oi the partitioned tables. the script requires
slightlv more diskspace than the underlving tables. in the same tablespace where
the underlving tables are located. Similarlv. suiiicient iree space is required ior the
Additionallv. vou should allow suiiicient time ior the script to run. 1he amount oi
time needed depends on the amount oi data in the tables. Vhen the tables alreadv
contain e×isting data. such as aiter an upgrade irom a previous release. the script
requires more time than it does when the tables are emptv. such as aiter a iresh
installation oi Oracle Vorkilow. 1o minimize the time required. run the script as
earlv as possible in vour setup process.
\ou should periodicallv collect or delete statistics about these inde×es. inde×
partitions. tables and table partitions. Oracle (orporation stronglv recommends
that vou use the DBMS_S1A1S package rather than ANAL\ZL ior most
statistics collection. 1hat package lets vou collect statistics in parallel. collect global
statistics ior partitioned objects. and iine·tune vour statistics collections in other
Attention: Ii vou are running wiupart.sql through Oracle Net. then vou must set
the 1VO_1ASK variable beiore vou begin.
1he script is located in the SORA(LL_lOML´wi´admin´sql subdirectorv. lse
the script as iollows:
sqlplus <wf_user>/<wf_passwd> @wfupart <wf_user>/<wf_passwd>
sqlplus owf_mgr/owf_mgr @wfupart owf_mgr owf_mgr
Ii the script iails. vou must periorm anv necessarv cleanup manuallv. Since the
script's operations are DDL operations running in nologging mode. rollback is not
Oracle Applications customers can run a similar script called wiupartb.sql. located
in the SlND_1OP´admin´sql subdirectorv. 1he same backup and tablespace
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 13
considerations applv ior this script as well. lor more iniormation. see Setup Steps.
Oracte !oríftor Cviae.
Purging for Performance
Vhen vou deiine a Vorkilow item tvpe. vou must also speciiv its persistence tvpe.
1he persistence tvpe controls how long a status audit trail is maintained ior each
instance oi the item tvpe. Ii vou set an item tvpe`s Persistence to Permanent. the
runtime status iniormation is maintained indeiinitelv until vou speciiicallv purge
the iniormation bv calling the procedure Vl_PlRGL.1otalPerm· ,.
Ii vou set an item tvpe's Persistence to 1emporarv. vou must also speciiv the
number oi davs oi persistence ·'n',. 1he status audit trail ior each instance oi a
1emporarv item tvpe is maintained ior at least 'n' davs oi persistence aiter its
completion date. Aiter the 'n' davs oi persistence. vou can then use anv oi the
Vl_PlRGL APIs to purge the item tvpe's runtime status iniormation.
Ii vou set an item tvpe's Persistence to Svnchronous. Oracle Vorkilow e×pects
instances oi that item tvpe to be run as iorced svnchronous processes with an item
kev oi ¬S\N(l. lorced svnchronous processes complete in a single SQL session
irom start to iinish and never insert into or update anv database tables. Since no
runtime status iniormation is maintained. vou do not normallv need to periorm
anv purging ior a process with the Svnchronous persistence tvpe. lowever. ii vou
run the process with a unique item kev in asvnchronous mode ior testing or
debugging purposes. Oracle Vorkilow does maintain runtime status iniormation
ior that process instance. \ou can purge this iniormation bv changing the item
tvpe's Persistence to 1emporarv and running anv oi the Vl_PlRGL APIs. 1hen
change the item tvpe's Persistence back to Svnchronous.
Vl_PlRGL can be used to purge obsolete runtime data ior completed items and
processes. and to purge iniormation ior obsolete activitv versions that are no
longer in use. \ou mav want to periodicallv purge this obsolete data irom vour
svstem to increase periormance.
1he administration script SORA(LL_lOML´wi´admin´sql´wirmtvpe.sql is
provided to delete runtime data ior a particular item tvpe. 1his script prompts vou
ior an item tvpe to purge irom a list oi valid item tvpes. then asks vou to choose
between deleting all runtime data associated with the speciiied item tvpe or
deleting onlv runtime data ior the completed activities and items oi the speciiied
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 14
SIZING WORKFLOW TABLES
Most algorithms ior sizing tables are based on estimating the number oi records in
the table. 1he iollowing chart summarizes the number oi records vou can e×pect
in each Oracle Vorkilow table ior a speciiic item tvpe. lor accurate sizing. vou
must estimate the number oi transactions ·workilow items, e×pected per dav ·new
transactions less purged transactions,. 1he total oi all item tvpes gives the total size
oi each table.
Item Type Dependent Tables Records per Item Type
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 15
1he iollowing chart summarizes the records in Oracle Vorkilow tables that are
not dependent on item tvpes.
Item Type Independent Tables Records
1he iollowing list e×plains the svmbols used in the sizing charts:
Symbol Meaning Comment
IA Number oi item attributes
AA Number oi activitv attributes per iunction
MA Number oi message attributes
M Number oi messages in the item tvpe
NR Number oi notiiication routing rules per
N Number oi nodes ·activities. including
processes. events. iunctions. and
notiiications, to complete processing ior
Includes all nodes in subprocesses. 1his
will varv ii vou have alternate processes in
an item tvpe. Lstimate the average
amount to complete the item.
L Languages installed 1his is the number installed. not the
number oi language deiinitions in
1 Number oi new transactions ·items, ior
this item tvpe
Remember to subtract the amount
purged so that vou onlv compute the
l lsers not otherwise in directorv service
L×amples are adhoc users.
R Roles not otherwise in directorv service
L×amples are adhoc roles.
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 16
APPENDIX A: ORACLE9I DATA GUARD AND REAL APPLICATION
Oracle Vorkilow customers can leverage Oracle9i Data Guard and Oracle9i Real
Oracle9i Data Guard
Oracle9i Data Guard works with standbv databases to protect vour data against
errors. iailures. and corruptions that might otherwise destrov vour database. It
protects critical data bv automating the creation. management. and monitoring
aspects oi a standbv database environment. It automates the otherwise manual
process oi maintaining a transactionallv consistent copv oi an Oracle production
database ior the purpose oi recovering irom the loss or damage oi the production
Real Application Clusters
Real Application (lusters is a computing environment that harnesses the
processing power oi multiple interconnected computers. Real Application (lusters
soitware and a collection oi hardware known as a cluster unite the processing
power oi each component to become a single. robust computing environment. A
cluster generallv comprises two or more computers. or nodes. A cluster is also
sometimes reierred to as a looselv coupled computer svstem.
In Real Application (lusters environments. all nodes concurrentlv e×ecute
transactions against the same database. Real Application (lusters coordinates each
node's access to the shared data to provide consistencv and integritv.
larnessing the power oi multiple nodes oiiers obvious advantages. Ii vou divide a
large task into subtasks and distribute the subtasks among multiple nodes. then vou
can complete the task iaster than ii onlv one node did the work. (luster database
processing is clearlv more eiiicient than sequential processing. It also provides
increased periormance ior processing larger workloads and ior accommodating
growing user populations.
Real Application (lusters can eiiectivelv scale vour applications to meet increasing
data processing demands. As vou add resources. Real Application (lusters can
e×ploit them and e×tend their processing powers bevond the limits oi the
\ou can use Real Application (lusters ior manv svstem tvpes. lor e×ample. data
warehousing applications accessing read·onlv data are prime candidates ior Real
Application (lusters. In addition. Real Application (lusters successiullv manages
increasing numbers oi Online 1ransaction Processing ·OL1P, svstems as well as
hvbrid svstems that combine the characteristics oi both read·onlv and read´write
applications. Real Application (lusters also serves as an important component oi
robust high availabilitv solutions. A properlv coniigured Real Application (lusters
environment can tolerate iailures with minimal downtime.
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2 Page 17
)be Oracte .ttticatiov )vvivg ìava/ooí bv Andv 1remavne and Steve Mavze ·ISBN
Oracte:i Data/ae Covcett
Oracte:i Data Cvara Covcett ava .avivitratiov
Oracte:i Reat .ttticatiov Ctvter Covcett
Oracte !oríftor Cviae
Oracle Workflow Performance and Sizing Concepts, Release 2.6.2
Author: Mark Craig
Contributing Authors: George Buzsaki, John Cordes, Kevin Hudson,
George Kellner, Clara Jaeckel, David Lam, Kenneth Ma, Steve Mayze,
Tim Roveda, Robin Seiden, Susan Stratton, Andy Tremayne
500 Oracle Parkway
Redwood Shores, CA 94065
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation. Various
product and service names referenced herein may be trademarks
of Oracle Corporation. All other product and service names
mentioned may be trademarks of their respective owners.
Copyright © 2001 Oracle Corporation
All rights reserved.