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Discourse analysis is concern with the study of the relationship between language and the contexts in which it is used. Discourse analysts study language in use: written text of all kinds, and spoken data by conversation to highly institutionalized forms of talk. The word Discourse is a general term for examples of language use which has been produced as the result of an act of communication. Whereas the word grammar, which cannot be separated from the discussion of discourse, refers to the rules a language uses to form grammatical units such as clauses, phrases, and sentences. Discourse analysis can be defined as the study of how sentences in spoken and written language form larger meaningful units such as paragraphs, conversations, and interviews. Discourse analysis has grown into a wide ranging and heterogeneous discipline which finds its unity in the description of language the sentence and an interest in the contexts and culture influences which affect language in use. Discourse analysis is not concerned with the description and analysis of spoken interaction, but the term Discourse analysis to cover the study of spoken and written interaction. In relation to the development of discourse analysis, there are two main approaches to discourse analysis that need to be discussed. One of these approaches is Discourse analysis, which concentrates on the structure of naturally occurring spoken language. This is exemplified by such discourse as conversations, interviews, commentaries, and speeches. The second approach is related to text analysis, in which the structure of written language becomes the main concern of the analysis. Text analysis, in this respect, includes such things as the analysis of essays, notices, road signs, and chapters. These approaches have a common concern. They highlight the need to see language as a dynamic, social, interactive phenomenon. This phenomenon can happen between speaker and listener or writer and reader.



Halliday According to Halliday (1976), discourse is a unit of language large than the sentence

and which firmly rooted in a specific context. This definition of discourse emphasizes the way in which social context who is speaking, who is listening and where and when the instance of language occurs determine the nature enunciation. Cohesion is one of the important elements in creating discourse that communicate effectively and naturally: only a text, spoken and written, of whatever length that forms unified whole is called discourse. Cohesion is a linguistic phenomenon in a discourse which assists the hearer to understand and perceive the text as a single unit. Hasan and Halliday (1976: 24) explained that cohesion occurs where interpretation of some elements in the discourse is dependent on that of another element and that one presupposes the other, in the sense that it cannot be effectively decoded except by recourse to it. There are five sources of cohesion can be found in English such as cohesion through reference, cohesion through substitution, cohesion through ellipsis, cohesion through conjunction and cohesion through lexical items. 1. Cohesion through Reference Reference is a specific nature of the information that is signaled for retrieval and the cohesion lies in the continuity of reference. There are three types of reference such as: Personal reference, demonstrative reference, and comparative reference. a. Personal reference is a reference by means of function in speech situation, through the category of person. Example: Grammatical Function Class Head Noun (Pronoun) I me You she her we us mine yours hers ours Modifier Determiner my your her our

b. Demonstrative reference is achieved by means of location, on a scale of proximity. Example: Grammatical function Class Proximity: near far neutral this these that those here (Now) there then the Determiner Adverb Determiner Head Adjunct Modifier

c. Comparative reference involves identity or similarity. The reference may be anaphoric or cataphoric depending on its referent point. Anaphoric or cataphoric is a usually abstract reference item points forward to a specific element within the subsequent text for its interpretation. For example: There it is my so much admired watch. In the reader has to look at the whole sentence to make sense of second word it which refers to the specific item watch at the end.

2. Cohesion through Substitution Substitution as another type of cohesive relation is the process in which one item within a text or discourse is replaced by another. Substitution is a relation on the lexicogrammatical level (level of grammar and vocabulary) between linguistic items, such as words or phrase. Example: Jacks car is very old and ugly. He should get a nicer one The Substitution is that the substituted items are always exchangeable by the items they stand for. Word one could easily be replaced by car without changing the meaning of the sentence. The difference between reference and substitution is that reference the presupposed items can almost never replace the items which refer to them.

3. Cohesion through ellipsis Ellipsis as a type of cohesive relation is very similar to substitution. While substitution referred to the replacement of one textual element by another and ellipsis is simply characterized by the omission of an item. The process can, therefore be interpreted as that form of substitution by zero. Example: Marry ate some chocolate chip cookies and Robert (blank) some gummi bears The predicator ate is left out in the second half of the sentence and is presupposed because it already occurred before. It would of course, also be possible to repeat the predicator again at the position where it has been left out. 4. Cohesion through Conjunction Conjunction is the fourth type of grammatical cohesion, but forms the borderline to the field of lexical cohesion since it also includes lexical features. It is not very easy to give precise explanation if the way in which conjunction create cohesion. Conjunctions are different in the sense, that they are a specification of the way in which what is to follow is systematically connected to what has gone before. Example: Are you listening to me or not?

That sentence means that connect different possibilities of something

5. Cohesion through Lexical Items or Lexical Cohesion Lexical Cohesion is generally understood as the cohesive effect achieved by the selection of vocabulary. This type cohesion can be subdivided into the categories such as reiteration and collocation. Reiteration has to do with the use of general nouns to create a cohesive effect by replacing one element by another in the ongoing text/discourse. Example: Repetition I met some young ladies at the conference. The ladies were good looking


I was served with a good meal yesterday at the party. The food was delicious

Hyponym (Superordinate)

I bought plenty of fruits yesterday at the market. These fruits are oranges, pineapples, apple, grapes and mango.

And Collocation are lexical item that regular occur and by doing so create cohesion within a give text / discourse. Moreover Collocations is this is achieved through the association of lexical items that regularly occur. It also involves pairs of words drawn from the same order series .Example: pair of opposite antonyms converses part whole relationship part to part relationship husband wife, nephew niece black white, full empty order obey air plane wing, pants pocket. nose ear


David Nunan According to Nunan (1993: 20), discourse analysis is study these text forming re

the devices. However we do so with reference to the purpose and functions for which the discourse was produced, as well as the context within which the discourse was created. Their purpose is to show how the linguistic elements enable language user to communicate in context. In considering the purpose for language is used, we can divided between two such as transactional language means that language used to obtain goods and services and interpersonal language means that language used for socializing. For example: Interpersonal A: Its a worry isnt it? B: What? Transactional A: Where do you keep your stuff? B: Next aisle, in middle row of shelves.

A: Your boyfriend. When you want to marry with A: Oh, yeah, got it. Is this the smallest you have got? him?

B: I dont know. Maybe if I have good career. A: Youre in it? B: What? A: Youre in it. It means that you have good career? B: I might get better in five years. Be . . . A: Be a miracle (laughter) B: What? What did you say? A: Be a miracle, you just stay at home. Never do something for your career or just wait for a long time. B: Be a thrill.

B: Yeah, why? A: It is a bit B: Hmmm the Olympic brands on special. A: Right, there one million and still not cheap.

Moreover there some elements in discourse such as: 1) Cohesion Cohesion that is sequences of sentence which seem united, contain what are called text-forming devices.According to Halliday and Hasan (1976) in Nunan (1993) state that the most comprehensive descriptive and analysis of these divides into four such as reference, substitution and ellipsis, conjunction, and lexical cohesion. a. Reference Reference means that mention of something with another something that coming up before or after. There are three kinds of reference such as personal reference, demonstrative reference and comparative reference. Personal Mia didnt have To money. Demonstrative admit that Comparative his A: would you like these seats? have B: No, thanks. Id like seats. the other

She country had to change, could

could buy new Andra cloth

become a wary music in the Korea music and promoting music. This didnt happen





could have A talk that she/he Meaning In this case Mia Andra as a subject of become a wary music in offer many seat the sentence and the Korea music and (these seats) to B to she pronouns name Mia. express promoting music means choose one of them. of that the sentence

represents the word to change.

identify Expressing through Express after Function To individual and determiner and adverbs. adjective and adverb objects those are These items can to compare items

named at some represent a single word within a text in terms other point in or the text. phrase or much of similar.

longer of the sentence.


Substitution and ellipsis Substitution is something of another thing and ellipsis is described as a form of substitution in which the original item is replaced by zero. There are 3 types of substitution such as nominal, verbal and clausal substitution. Nominal substitution Example: Verbal substitution Example: Clausal substitution Example:

There are some new A: Kusuma says A: Is it going to tenis balls in the bag. These lost. Form Meaning Written Ones mean ones have you much. B: So do you! Spoken Spoken means that earlier drink too rain? B: I think so

show Do means to avoid So

some tennis ball in repeating a bag is lost. Function To interpreted

verb mentioned

(drink too much). in To interpret

(going to rain). in To interpreted in

relation to what was relation what has relation what it can gone before. happened before. be happened.

And 3 types of ellipsis such as nominal, verbal and clausal ellipsis Nominal ellipsis Example: Verbal ellipsis Example: Clausal ellipsis Example:

My kids play an awful A: have you been A: Why did you lot of sport. Both (0)are incredibly energetic working? B: Yes, I have (0) only set places? staying three Pauls for

dinner, isnt he? B: Is he? He didnt tell me (0) Form Meaning Written Spoken means Spoken that 0 means that He 0 means that Both of 0

them (lot of sport) are Yes, I have work did not tell me to incredibly energetic Function in post office join for dinner

To show the question is impossible to answer.


Conjunction Conjunction different with substitution and ellipsis, it means that it signal relationships that can only be all understood to other parts of the text. There are four different types of conjunction such as temporality, causality, addition and adversity. Adversity Example: Addition Example: Temporality Example: Causality Bali is

Im afraid I will be The

popular Green tea is a become blend that has famous tourism place in the world. is

come late to the magazine

party. However, I suggests that the been wont have to go reader to read compressed until tomorrow. On all page

of into a cake. It is This

the other hand, I choosing style. taken hate it

mainly because of the

And isnt that by the minority unique what publisher any group in China. culture belief First, it is that it has




a several

dust. Then it is functions. usually cooked in milk. Form Meaning Text A difficult Text Text Text to The principle that there are is cause of

or Extra reason or Relating of practical

unlucky or event.

situation situation something.

material things.

something Function The relationship To show second To by sentence as relating show In this type of to conjunction,


however and on the adding to first practical matter the other hand is sentence. or thing the material relationship is one of cause and effect.

adversative because

information in the second sentence of each text moderates the information in the first.


Lexical cohesion Lexical cohesion happens when two words in a text are semantically related in some way, in other word and they are related in terms of their meaning. There are divided into 2 types such as reiteration and collocation Reiteration Example: Collocation

Plants obtain their food by A: did you try the producing food by themselves through steamed corn? photosynthesis process. However, not all B: yes, I didnt like the plants can photosynthesize since not all things much. plants have chlorophyll. Different with animal get their food

from the result of the photosynthesis done by plants (food reserve of plants) or from other animal. Form Meaning Spoken Written

The word steam corn This is example of lexical collocation and the things has same because they all belong the scientific meaning related with field of biology: photosynthesis, the previously sentence. photosynthesize chlorophyll.


To repeat something Cause major problem for discourse with synonym or near analysis because it include all those synonym or general items in text that are semantically. word in each text refers back to the previously.

2) Theme and rheme Theme is a formal grammatical category which refers to the initial element in a clause and rhemeis everything that follows the theme is knows. Example: The cat ate the hamster Form Meaning Written The hamster was eaten by the cat Written

Theme is the cat. It is the cat and It is the bad luck of the hamster that what the cat does that is of is of primary interest. primary interest.


Explain same information that can be organized in different ways within the sentence.

There are 3 types of themes are topical themes (have to do with the information related in the discourse), interpersonal themes (to expose something of the attitude of the speaker or reader) and finally textual themes( link a clause to the rest of the discourse Frankly, the movie was a waste However, you should see it and


of money Interpersonal Topical theme theme Textual theme Topical theme

make up your mind

3) Genre Genre has been used for many years to refer to different style of literary discourse such as tragedies and romances. Moreover, different types of communicative event result in different types of discourse and each of these will have its own different characteristic.


Mc. Carthy Discourse Analysis is concerned with the study of the relationship between language and

the contexts in which it is used. Discourse Analysis study language in use: written text of all kinds, and spoken data, from conversation to highly institutionalized forms of talk. The linguistic philosopher such as Austin (1962), Searle (1969) and Grice (1975) were also influential in the study of language as social action, reflected in speech-act theory and formulation of conversational maxims, alongside the emergence of pragmatics, which is the study of meaning in context. British discourse analysis was greatly influenced by Hallidays functional approach to language, which in turn has connexions with the Prague school of linguist. Hallidays framework emphasizes the social function of language and the thematic and informational structure of speech and writing. Also important in Britain were Sinclair and Coulthard (1975) at the University of Birmingham, who developed a model for description of teacher-pupil talk, based on hierarchy of discourse units. Other similar work has dealt with doctor-patient interaction, service encounters, interviews, debates and business negotiations, as well as monologue. Novel work in the British tradition has also been done on intonation in discourse. American discourse analysis has been dominated by working within the

ethnomethological tradition, which emphasizes the research method of close observation of groups of people communicating in natural setting. It examines types of speech event such as


storytelling, greeting rituals and verbal duels in different cultural and social setting. What is often called conversation analysis within the American tradition can also include under the general heading of discourse analysis. In conversational analysis, the emphasis is no upon building structural model but on the close observation of the behavior of the participants in talk and on patterns which recur over a wide range of natural data. Its important in study of conversational norms, turn taking and other aspect of spoken interaction. Oral story telling have also contributed to long history of interest in narrative discourse. The American work has produced a large number of descriptions of discourse types, as well as insight into the social constraints of politeness and fact-preserving phenomena in talk, overlapping with British work pragmatics. Discourse Analysis has grown into a wide-ranging and heterogeneous discipline which finds its unity in the description of language above the sentence and an interest in the contexts and cultural influences which affect language in use. it also now, increasingly, forming a backdrop to research in Applied Linguistics an second language learning and teaching in particular. Discourse analysis is a primarily linguistic study examining the use of language by its native population whose major concern is investigating language functions along with its forms, produced both orally and in writing. Moreover, identification of linguistic qualities of various genres, vital for their recognition and interpretation, together with cultural and social aspects which support its comprehension, is the domain of discourse analysis. To put it in another way, the branch of applied linguistics dealing with the examination of discourse attempts to find patterns in communicative products as well as and their correlation with the circumstances in which they occur, which are not explainable at the grammatical level (Carter 1993:23). Form and Function Grammatical forms depends on a number of factors, some linguist, some purely situational. One linguist feature that may affect out interpretation in the intonation. The intonation does not inherently carry the function of question either, any more than the invention of auxiliary verb and subject did. Grammatical forms and phonological forms examined separately are unreliable indicators of function; when they are taken together, and looked at in context, we can come to some decision about function. So decision about communicative function cannot solely be the domain of grammar phonology. Coherence, which has to do with the meaning of the text. Here we may refer to elements of knowledge or


to cognitive structures that do not have a linguistic realization but are implied by the language used, and thus influence the reception of the message by the interlocutor. Discourse analysis is not entirely separate from the study of grammar and phonology, but discourse analysis are interested in lot more than linguistic forms Wide range of different types of spoken interaction: phone calls, buying things in shops, perhaps an interview a job, or with a doctor, or an employer, talking formally at meeting or in class room, informally in caf or on buses, or intimately with our friends and loved ones. These situations will have their own formulae and conventions which we follow; they will have different ways to opening and closing the encounter, different role relationship, different purposes and different setting. Discourse analysis is interested in all these different factors and tries to account for them in rigorous fashion with a separate se of descriptive labels from those used by conventional grammarians. The first fundamental distinction we have noted is between language and form and discourse functions; one we have made this distinction a lot of other conclusions can follows, and the labels used to describe discourse need to clash at all with those we are all used to in grammar. Example: Ann : would like to turn off the AC?

Bella : sorry

: sorry Two variables in Bellas delivery change. First, the tone contour like the direction of her pitch, whether rises of falls. Secondly, her voice jumps higher pitch level means that she didnt hear or unclear about Annas say (what did you say?) or lower pitch means that she didnt do it (no, I dont want to do it)

Discourse Analysis - Its Origins and Development Discourse analysis is a primarily linguistic study examining the use of language by its native population whose major concern is investigating language functions along with its forms, produced both orally and in writing. Moreover, identification of linguistic qualities of various genres, vital for their recognition and interpretation, together with cultural and social aspects which support its comprehension, is the domain of discourse analysis. To put it in another


way, the branch of applied linguistics dealing with the examination of discourse attempts to find patterns in communicative products as well as and their correlation with the circumstances in which they occur, which are not explainable at the grammatical level (Carter 1993:23).

2.1 Starting point of discourse analysis The first modern linguist who commenced the study of relation of sentences and coined the name 'discourse analysis', which afterwards denoted a branch of applied linguistics, was Zellig Harris (Cook 1990:13). Originally, however, it was not to be treated as a separate branch of study - Harris proposed extension of grammatical examination which reminded syntactic investigations (2). The emergence of this study is a result of not only linguistic research, but also of researchers engaged in other fields of inquiry, particularly sociology, psychology, anthropology and psychotherapy (Trappes-Lomax 2004:133). In 1960s and 1970s other scholars, that is philosophers of language or those dealing with pragmatics enormously influenced the development of this study as well. Among other contributors to this field the Prague School of Linguists, whose focusing on organization of information in communicative products indicated the connection of grammar and discourse, along with text grammarians are worth mentioning (McCarthy 1991:6). A significant contribution to the evolution of discourse analysis has been made by British and American scholars. In Britain the examination of discourse turned towards the study of the social functions of language. Research conveyed at the University of Birmingham fruited in creating a thorough account of communication in various situations such as debates, interviews, doctor-patient relations, paying close attention to the intonation of people participating in talks as well as manners particular to circumstances. Analysis of the factors essential for succession of decently made communication products on the grounds of structural-linguistic criteria was another concern of British scholars. Americans, on the other hand, focused on examining small communities of people and their discourse in genuine circumstances. Apart from that, they concentrated on conversation analysis inspecting narratives in addition to talks and the behavior of speakers as well as patterns repeating in given situations. Division and specification of types of discourse along with social limitations


of politeness and thorough description of face saving acts in speech is also American scholars' contribution (McCarthy 1991:6).

Sphere of interest of discourse analysts.

The range of inquiry of discourse analysis not only covers linguistic issues, but is also concerned with other matters, such as: enabling computers to comprehend and produce intelligible texts, thus contributing to progress in the study of Artificial Intelligence. Out of these investigations a very important concept of schemata emerged. It might be defined as prior knowledge of typical situations which enables people to understand the underlying meaning of words in a given text. This mental framework is thought to be shared by a language community and to be activated by key words or context in order for people to understand the message. To implement schemata to a computer, however, is yet impossible (Cook 1990:69). Discourse analysts carefully scrutinize universal circumstances of the occurrence of communicative products, particularly within state institutions. Numerous attempts to minimize misunderstandings between bureaucrats and citizens were made, resulting in userfriendly design of documents. The world of politics and features of its peculiar communicative products are also of concern to discourse analysts. Having carefully investigated that area of human activity scholars depicted it as characterized by frequent occurrence of face saving acts and euphemisms. One other sphere of life of particular interest to applied linguists is the judicature and its language which is incomprehensible to most common citizens, especially due to pages-long sentences, as well as peculiar terminology. Moreover, educational institutions, classroom language and the language that ought to be taught to enable learners to successfully comprehend both oral and written texts, as well as participate in real life conversations and produce native-like communicative products is the domain of discourse analysis. Last but not least, influence of gender on language production and perception is also examined (Renkema 2004, Trappes-Lomax 2004).

2.2.1 Spoken language analysis


The examination of oral discourse is mainly the domain of linguists gathered at the University of Birmingham, who at first concentrated on the language used during teacher learner communication, afterwards altering their sphere of interest to more general issues. However, patterns of producing speech characteristic of communities, or members of various social classes within one population were also of ethno methodologists' interest. A result of such inquiries was discovering how turn taking differs from culture to culture as well as how standards of politeness vary. In addition, manners of beginning discussions on new topics were described (McCarthy 1991:24). What is more, it was said that certain characteristics are common to all societies, for instance, indicating the end of thought or end of utterance. The words that are to point the beginning or the closing stages of a phrase are called 'frames'. McCarthy (1991:13) claims that it is thanks to them that people know when they can take their turn to speak in a conversation. However, in spite of the fact that frames can be noticed in every society, their use might differ, which is why knowledge of patterns of their usage may be essential for conducting a fluent and natural dialogue with a native speaker. Moreover, these differences are not only characteristic of cultures, but also of circumstances in which the conversation occurs, and are also dependent on the rights (or 'rank') of the participants (McCarthy 1991:13). Apart from that, it was pointed out that some utterances are invariably interrelated, which can enable teachers of foreign languages to prepare learners adequately to react as a native speaker would. Among the phrases whose successors are easy to anticipate there are for instance: greeting, where the response is also greeting; apology with the response in the form of acceptance or informing - and acknowledging as a response. Such pairs of statements are known as adjacency pairs. While the function of the reply is frequently determined by the former expression its very form is not, as it depends on circumstances in which the conversation occurs. Learners of a foreign language should be aware of such linguistic devices if they want to be skillful speakers (McCarthy 1991:121). Example: Mia, this is my secretary, Id like to introduce you to my secretary, Agnez Monila. said Ben. Form Informal situation Agnez Monila said Ben. Formal situation



Introducing someone else

Function The language expression use The language expression use when Ben when Ben meets his friends in introduces his secretary in formal situation like informal situation like Party. Meeting. He can use casual language

2.2.2 Written texts analysis Since the examination of written language is easier to conduct than the scrutiny of oral texts, in that more data is available in different genres, produced by people from different backgrounds as well as with disparate purposes, it is more developed and of interest not only to linguists but also language teachers and literary scholars. Each of them, however, approaches this study in a different way, reaching diverse conclusions, therefore only notions that are mutual for them and especially those significant for language methodology are accounted for here. What is worth mentioning is the fact that in that type of analysis scholars do not evaluate the content in terms of literary qualities, or grammatical appropriateness, but how readers can infer the message that the author intended to convey (Trappes-Lomax 2004:133). Apart from differences between written and spoken language described beforehand it is obviously possible to find various types and classes of discourse depending on their purpose. Written texts differ from one another not only in genre and function, but also in their structure and form, which is of primary importance to language teachers, as the knowledge of arrangement and variety of writing influences readers' understanding, memory of messages included in the discourse, as well as the speed of perception. Moreover, written texts analysis provides teachers with systematic knowledge of the ways of describing texts, thanks to which they can make their students aware of characteristic features of discourse to which the learners should pay particularly close attention, such as cohesion and coherence. In addition, understanding these concepts should also improve learners' writing skills as they would become aware of traits essential for a good written text (3). One of the major concerns of written discourse analysts is the relation of neighboring sentences and, in particular, factors attesting to the fact that a given text is more than only the


sum of its components. It is only with written language analysis that certain features of communicative products started to be satisfactorily described, despite the fact that they were present also in speech, like for instance the use of 'that' to refer to a previous phrase, or clause (McCarthy 1991:37). As mentioned before (1.2.1) written language is more integrated than the spoken one which is achieved by more frequent use of some cohesive devices which apart from linking clauses or sentences are also used to emphasize notions that are of particular importance to the author and enable the reader to process the chosen information at the same time omitting needless sections (3, Salkie 1995:XI). Example: Political factions at the House were given one week to decide whether they would support the move before a decision is taken at plenary session next Tuesday. The 2009 Legislative Bodies Law says an interpellation proposal is eligible to bring to a House plenary meeting if supported by at least 25 law makers from more than one political party. (Jakarta Post: Wednesday, 2012/3/21) Form Formal situation

Meaning In our knowledge of house as a building which people, usually live in family. But in this sentence above, house means that a member of an organization which makes laws (DPR) Moreover the word party as a social event where a group of people met to talk, eat, drink, dance often in order to celebrate a special occasion. But in this way party means that an organization of people with particular political (partai politik) Function Giving information about something (news) by written form


Van. Djik Theory of Discourse Analysis by Van Djik is Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). CDA

is a type of Discourse Analytical research that primarily studies the way social power abuse, dominance, and inequality are enacted, reproduced, and resisted by text and talk in the social and political context. With such dissident research, critical discourse analysis takes explicit position, and thus wants to understand, expose, and ultimately resist social inequality.


What is discourse? It is a fuzzy concept and in fact the whole discipline answers to that question. Van Dijk starts by characterizing the phenomena studied by Discourse studies (or Discourse analysis) and sketching the general principles shared by most approaches to discourse.

From common sense to theory The common use of the word refers to public speeches or to a system of thought. The modern study of discourse tries to analyze not only language use, but also who, how, why and when language is used. A useful concept to do this is communicative event, which tries to explain those functional aspects in the framework where they occur, i.e. phone calls, lessons, doctor visits, and to emphasize the fact that people do things with words, they engage in verbal interaction. These are discourses main dimensions: language use, communication of beliefs (cognition) and interaction in social situations. Therefore, discourse studies try to describe the mutual influences of all three dimensions and formulate theories that explain such relationships.

Text and talk After a first characterization of discourse we have to extend concepts, since language use involves also written instances. This has its complications, since written texts seem to be a product of verbal acts and not of interaction. Nonetheless, they also have users or participants and, although they interact differently, they share many similarities and are studied together in context.

The ambiguity of Discourse We may also use the word to refer to specific domains of language use, like medical discourse, political discourse we should be careful not to mingle discourse as a social phenomenon and as a concrete token of text or talk. Words Meaning 1 Meaning 2 Book A number of sheets of paper To buy or reserve Interest Curiosity, attention. Money paid in return for borrowing usually large sum of money. Example: the word attitude means opinion about something or position Opinion I dont like your attitude Position she lay sprawled across the sofa, in an


attitude of complete abandon

Sound, sight and body Discourse analysis may begin with sounds and visual marks. Then focus on sound structures (phonology) and how they contribute to discourse; thus sounds relate sentences, mark verbal acts like questions, and help sort out change of speaker. But sounds dont occur alone, gestures, body language, laughs usually and relevantly accompany talk and claim their analysis, although they have been neglected so far. Sound A: Please turn off the radio B: Sorry Sorry Sight (means that B didnt want to do it) (means that what did As say)

Sound the Sheep use expression to make something like laugh, cry, etc.


Gesture like movement of hands, arms or head or express an idea or feeling.

Meaning Crucial in many discourse descriptions is meaning as observed by semantics, what many call semantic representations. Cognitive linguists emphasize that meaning is assigned to a discourse by language users (through interpretation and understanding). Social scientists claim that such meanings are social and shared. All these account for discursive relativity that is: all levels have influence on the rest. Fundamental in discourse semantic analysis is the concept of coherence: how words/propositions hang together (micro and macro levels) and why a discourse is different from an arbitrary set of sentences. Depending on coherence as well are concepts like topic whether and how information is placed in and out of focus- and reference the way discourse and meanings are related to real elements they talk about. A simple rule for local coherence is that sentences talk about related events or situations, at least for the speaker. In a macro level of analysis we leave traditional linguistics and grammar behind us and find concepts like topic or theme. Topics are the global meanings of discourse and in a way they summarize at a higher and more abstract level its most important information. For example the word mother, its mean a female parent..


Style Style is the component of the verbal structure of a discourse related to variation and most often evinced in word choice. Are students in conversation between teachers referred to as members, collaborators, or participants? Such distinctions are usually a product of the context (who is speaking, their role, the medium, etc.). As van Dijk (1997, p. 12) notes a stylistic analysis may also define a collection of typical discursive characteristics of a genre (story vs. report), a speaker (calm vs. emotional), a group (women vs. men), a social situation (formal vs. informal) Formal A: How do you do? I am Buda. B: Pleased to meet you. My names Kartika Informal A: Hello, my names Buda B: Nice to meet you. I am Kartika.

Rhetoric Close to style is the discourse dimension of rhetoric. Going back to Antiquity, rhetoric is now much more focused and comprises all stylistic figures used to make discourse more persuasive. Persuasive type speech structures such as metaphor, irony, or hyperbole are among the types of rhetorical devices. Metaphor Book is the window of world Irony You came very timely, our goal is 5 cars passing by Hyperbole My anger has become, so to my head almost exploded.

Schemata Another discourse level is that of superstructures or schemata. Just like discourse has a general meaning or topic, it also has a structure where it fits in. Thus, we may decompose texts and talk into conventional components or categories and analyze their function and order. Must direction hold sentence and make conclusion in the last.

Discourse as action and interaction in society With each step into discourse we go further from traditional linguistics and into the social sciences. Discourse does not only consist of sounds or graphics with local and global


meaning, because with it language users accomplish actions in society and culture.

Example: Hortatory Exposition a. Thesis (the main idea of the paragraph) b. argument (opinion that supporting the main idea) c. suggestion (to influence the reader or listener)

Speech acts The study of language use as action was initiated by language philosophers and proposes that users not only produce sounds or communicate meaning, but do so in a social context and attain or achieve some result by doing so (illocutionary/illocutionary act). Speech acts must satisfy appropriateness conditions that depend on socio cultural context, and are studied by pragmatics. In an analogy with discourse semantics, we may say that sequences of speech acts conform a global speech act or macro speech act, like an editorial may function as a macro accusation or a news report as a macro assertion. Cognition Making sense, understanding and interpretation all belong to the realm of mind; users are capable of these actions because they have knowledge, they share much of their beliefs and opinions, and these have been thoroughly studied by cognitive psychology: sociocultural cognition. As in the interactional approach to discourse, psychologists are interested in real users, and focus on the strategic processes applied by them; and in this approach mental processes are constructive and context-sensitive, which also means that understanding is an ongoing, tentative process that allows for reinterpretation and repairs. During understanding we get not actual words but our interpretations of them; conversely, when we say something, a model is the base for the production of new messages. The same goes for interaction: users have a context model which they constantly update. Discourse and society Most of discourse studies take place in form, meaning, interaction and cognition; however, context takes an important role in the explanation of text and talk and most scholars use the


concept although it has no special theory. It also has a local and global dimension: for example, participants are part of local context if they speak for themselves, but of global context if they act as part of a social category (women/men, white/black, young/old) Example: It is hot in here! (location), meaning: I want some fresh air! (illocution). So someone opens the window (perlocution).



Discourse analysis is study of how sentences in spoken and written language form larger meaningful units such as paragraph, conversation, and etc. The aims of study discourse analysis to show how the linguistic elements enable language users to communicate in context. Moreover, different communicative purpose is to show reflected in discourse itself. Discourse analysis is study of how sentences in spoken and written language form larger meaningful units such as paragraph, conversation, and etc. The aims of study discourse analysis to show how the linguistic elements enable language users to communicate in context. Moreover, different communicative purpose is to show reflected in discourse itself. Halliday (1976) Focus on Lexicogrammatical Theory David Nunan (1993) Continuation of Hallidays theory (Lexicogrammatical) of Theory of Theory of Theory of Mc. Carthy (1991) Social Phenomenon Van Djik (1997) Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA)

discourse analysis is only text, and

discourse analysis is discourse and text. Discourse

discourse analysis is spoken and

discourse analysis is text and talk. It is a fuzzy and in

spoken written. There sources are

written. Discourse Analysis study the

concept fact the

five of

Analysis is study these forming devices. text


language in use: written text of all

discipline answers to that question.

cohesion can be found in English as elements

kinds, and spoken There are some data, conversation highly institutionalized and forms Element discourse are 3 function of talk of form, and from to aspect in

important The purpose for in language such transactional language interpersonal language. There is use as

discourse analysis such as from

creating discourse such as Cohesion through Reference, Cohesion through Substitution,

common sense to theory, text and talk, ambiguity the of

discourse, sound,


Cohesion through Ellipsis, Cohesion through Conjunction and




sight and body, meaning, rhetoric, schemata, speech act. and style,

discourse such as cohesion, genre,

theme and rheme.

Cohesion through Lexical items.

Based on explained above, we can conclude that discourse is a general item for example in language used which has been produced as a result of an act of communication. Whereas the word grammar, which cannot be separated from the discussion of discourse.



Hasselgard Hilde. The Role of Multiple Themes in Cohesion. University of Oslo Nunan, David. (1993). Introducing Discourse Analysis. Harmondsworth, Middlesex: Penguin Books. McCarthy, M. (1991) Discourse Analysis for Language Teachers, Cambridge:Cambridge University Press. Tannen Deborah, Deborah Schiffrin and Heidi E. Hamilton. The Handbook of Discourse Analysis. Blackwell Publisher.