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Philosophy started when man began to raise questions because of their ignorance towards the world. Man is always curious and is capable of knowing and learning things. Man is always in constant search for meaning and truth of life. Three Human Conditions 1. Human Existence is a great mystery. It is a mystery because nothing in life is certain. We are thrown in this world without our consent and we don’t know why we are here, why we are living, and what the purpose of life is. 2. Human Existence is an incomprehensible contradiction. People are thrown in this world to live, and then suffer to survive then later to die. Life is ironic in a way that it contradicts phenomena to phenomena. We sleep then later wake up; we eat and later are hungry. 3. Human Existence is a great tragedy. Life deals with the existence of unbearable things like death of loved ones, sickness, and poverty. Importance of Philosophy Freedom → Intellectual Openness → Critical Thinking For Freedom. Man is liberated from socio-cultural influences and gives us liberating force outside the box. For Intellectual Openness. It gives people who study philosophy an avenue for openness and respect to other people culture and belief. It gives wide horizon for different thoughts. For Critical Thinking. It develops critical thinking by validating things and assessing proper arguments for correct reasoning. Knowledge vs. Belief Knowledge is based on real facts and evidence. Belief is characterized by doubt.
Chapter 2: Philosophy and Its Branches
Philosophy comes from the Greek words philos meaning love and sophia meaning wisdom. Literally, ‘love for widom’. Philosophy is the science of all things in their ultimate causes or principles as known by the light of natural reasoning. 8 Branches of Philosophy 1. Logic - is the science and art of correct reasoning. 2. Metaphysics - the study of being general. It is the foundation of all philosophies. It is the most abstract of all philosophies for it holds no material reference and bases only on ideas and thoughts only. 3. Ethics - a practical and normative science based on reason which studies human acts and provides the norm for the goodness and badness of an act. Human Acts are actions done with intellectual deliberation and freedom of will. Acts of Man are actions performed with the absence of either knowledge or freedom of both of them. These are instant and natural response to things. 4. Epistemology - is the study of the certainty of human knowledge. Human Experiences (empiricism) are based on senses. Knowledge (rationalism) is from within our minds. 5. Aesthetics - principles of art and appreciation of the good and beautiful. Subjective judgments are based on own preferences and knows no standards. Objective judgments are based on the principles or objectives of other people. These cannot be opinionated and has specific standards. 6. Rational Psychology