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Buoyancy why things float

L-14 Fluids [3]

Why things float Fluids in Motion
Hydrodynamics Aerodynamics


Fluid Dynamics

The trick is to keep the water on the outside of the ship, and to avoid hitting icebergs (which also float), and are easy to miss since 90 % of it is submerged.

Buoyant Force
Pressure increases with depth submerged object that has a mass density O F=PA The density of the water is W

PTopA h PBottomA

Archimedes Principle
PBottomA > PTopA A buoyant force FB equal to the weight of displaced water is exerted on a submerged object. The object sinks to the level where FB = W

Archimedes principle
The buoyant force on an object in a fluid equals the weight of the fluid which it displaces.
this works for objects in water helium balloons (density of He = 0.18 kg/m3, about 7 times less dense than air) hot air balloons the density of hot air is lower than the density of cool air so the weight of the cool air that is displaced is higher than the weight of the balloon


Will it float?
The buoyant force is always there whether the object floats or not The object will float if the buoyant force is enough to support the objects weight The object will displace just enough water so that the buoyant force = its weight If it displaces as much water as possible and this does not match its weight, it will sink. Objects that have a density less than water will always float- when fully submerged, they weigh less than the water, so the water supports them
lighter object

Floating objects
heavier object too heavy

The weight of displaced water is less than the weight of the object

Oil Tankers

Floating in a cup of water

empty tanker

full tanker

Only a thin layer of water around the hull is needed for the ship to float!

Why does ice float?

Water, the most plentiful substance on earth is also one of the most unusual in its behavior in that it expands when it freezes. Since it expands the density of ice is slightly less than the density of water (917 kg/ m3 as compared to 1000 kg/ m3 for water). So the part of the iceberg above the surface is less than 10% of the total volume.
ice cube

Place your bets!

When the ice cube melts will: 1)the water spill out, or 2)the water level stay the same, or 3)the level go down ???????? Answer: The level stays the same. Ice is less dense than water, so that the volume occupied by the ice is exactly big enough to hold the volume of melted water that was not submerged!

Fluid Flow
The physics of fluid flow was worked out by Daniel Bernoulli He was born in Switzerland in 1700 He was one of 5 brothers and came from a large family of mathematicians and scientists.

fluid flow example leaky cup Pressure increases with depth, so the speed of water leaking from the bottom hole is larger than that from the higher ones.

How do we measure fluid flow?

We see how much comes out in some time interval Time how long it takes to fill the bucket, say 30 seconds the flow rate is then 1 bucket say per 30 seconds in other words volume per unit time gallons per min (gpm), liters/s, cubic feet per min (cfm), gpf, or m3/s volume flow rate

Volume flow rate

If the water comes out of a tube of cross sectional area A with a flow speed u the volume flow rate is volume flow rate = u A (m/s m2) m3/s To measure u just see how long it takes to fill a gallon jug from a hose and measure the diameter of the hose.

Mass flow rate

We could also measure how much mass comes out per unit time kg/s for example if you are using a fluid of density coming out of a hose of cross sectional area A with speed v the mass flow rate is mass flow rate = u A

What makes water flow?

gravity by placing the water up high the pressure at the bottom is high enough to supply water to all parts of town that are lower than the tower

Stanton, IA Montgomery Co.

Pressure differences
P2 P1

Water does not disappear!

If water goes in one end of a pipe it must come out the other end (if there are no leaks of course. Sounds obvious, but it has a number of interesting consequences!
This applies to pipes that have constrictions also. v1, A1 v2, A2

a pressure difference must be established across the ends of the pipe to push the water along. P2 must be greater than P1 This pressure difference can be set up by a water pump.

Continuity of flow
since whatever goes in must come out we have that the incoming flow rate outgoing flow rate or v1 A1 = v2 A2 thus the fluid in the narrow part of the tube must flow FASTER that the fluid on the left. Cardiologists use this to determine if arteries might be clogged.

Other examples - the nozzle effect

you use this principle whenever you hold your finger over the end of the hose to make the water spray farther.

An amazing thing about moving fluids

The pressure in a moving fluid is less than the pressure in a fluid at rest! this is Bernoulli's principle. Where a fluid moves faster its pressure is lower, where it moves slower, its pressure is higher. As we will see, this is the principle that makes airplanes work.

The Venturi Meter

Bernoulli applies to household plumbing too!



air vent
When the wind is really blowing, watch the water level in the toilet go up and down


Prairie dogs know how to use Bernoulli's principle

fine droplets of liquid (not atoms) are sprayed from this device using the Bernoulli effect


Hot air balloon

The ideal gas law tells is that when a gas is heated, its density goes down so the air density inside the balloon is less than the density of cold air on the outside. The cold air exerts an upward buoyant force on the balloon.