machines Stationary o Wear gear: safety safety appropriate g l a s s e sr a f a c e h i e l da n dh e a r i n g s , o protectors earplugs. thereis no lf or w a n d u s tc o l l e c t i os y s t e m , e a r d u s t use like woods ebony, a mask. exotic For may an the respirator; sawdust cause gloves when Wear reaction. work allergic l ro h a n d l i n g u g hu m b e r . . Make and lighting sure thatworkshop and are ventilation adequate thatwork and are surfaces large sturdy. . Read yourowner's before manual an o p e r a t i n g ym a c h i n e . . Keep away and onlookers pets children, area. from work the . U n p l u g m a c h i nb e f o r p e r f o r m i n g e e a p s e tu p o r i n s t a l l a t i o n e r a t i o n s . . Keep knives and blades cutterhead sharp. o T u r n h em a c h i no f f i f i t p r o d u c e s e t ; vi n a n u n f a m i l i a rb r a t i oo r n o i s eh a v e r d e t h e m a c h i ns e r v i c eb e f o r ee s u m ingoperations. . D on o tu s ea m a c h i n ie a n yp a r to f i t f is wornor damaged. . Rollup long rings sleeves remove and i h a n do t h e jre w e l rty a tc a nc a t c h n parts. moving . K e e p o u r a n d w e l la w a Yr o ma y f h s or turning blade cutterhead r F i n da c o m f o r t a bs ea n c e ; v o i d a lt ing. over-reach . Concentrate thejob;do notrush. on you when aretired,stressed Never work or alcohol using drinking been or have drowsiness. that medications induce . K e e p o u r o r k r e a l e a n n dt i d Y ; y a w a c t s, c l u t t ec a nl e a d o a c c i d e n ta n d r s s s a w d u s tn dw o o d c r a p c a nb e a a firehazard. saws Chain . Wear protection, goggles, hearing safety sure and workboots a hardhat.Make y o u r l o t h ea r ec l o s e - f i t t i n g dl o n g an c s h a i ri s t i e db a c k . . O p e r a ta c h a i n a w n l y u t d o o r s on s o o e day. a dry, clear . M i xf u e la n da d di t t o t h ef u e lt a n ka t work area. fromyour 10 least feetaway o Tostartup thesaw, it carry to thework ; a a r e a n ds e ti n o n t h eg r o u n dm a k e anything. is sure chain notcontacting the f t B r a c eh et o o lw i t hy o u r o o ta n do n e y t o r h a n da n du s e o u r t h e h a n d o P u l l , cord. the starter . W h i l e p e r a t i nh es a w h o l di t f i r m l y , tg o h w i t hb o t h a n d s .

and the Making undercut thebackcut yourownlumber To fell a treeto make (page onewithan undercut 36), begin on the through trunk theside thirdtheway should the in facing direction which tree the up angling fromthe fall.Cutthewedge as of base thetree.Known the Humbolt from lumber saves this undercut, method part valuable of a tree-the lower the most partof thetrunk-a chunkof which technique withthetraditional willbelost a Then of undercutting. make backcut from the of above undercut a couDle inches side the opposite to fell thetree.The stopan inchor twofrom should backcut thatwill a to the undercut leave hinge of the control direction thefall andhelp prevent kickback. blade
Direction of fall <--







THE ART OF WOODWORKING was produced by ST. REMYPRESS PUBLISHER KennethWinchester PR.ESIDENT PierreL6veill€ PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini(Text) HeatherMills (Research) Art Directors Normand Boudreault,Solange Laberge Designer Luc Germain,Michel Gigudre Research Editor Jim McRae PictureEditor ChristopherJackson Writers ThmsinM. Douglas,Andrew fones, Rob Lutes Cont r ibut ing lllu strators RonaldDurepos,Jean-Pierre Bourgeois, Michel Blais,Jacques Perrault,Alain Longpr€,Jocelyn Veillette,RobertPaquet Administrator Natalie Watanabe Production Manager MichelleTurbide System Coordinator Jean-Luc Roy Photographer RobertChartier Time-Life Booksis a division of Time-Life Inc., a wholly ownedsubsidiaryof THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY Editor Series Series Director Art SeniorEditors

and JohnArno is a consultant,cabinetmaker freelance writer who livesin Troy Michigan. He alsoconductsseminars wood identificaon tion and earlyAmericanfurniture design. Giles Miller-Mead taught advanced cabinetmaking at Montreal technicalschools more for than ten years. nativeofNew Zealand, has A he worked asa restorerof antiquefurniture. Andrew Poynter is President A&M Wood of Specialty Inc., of Cambridge,Ontario, Canada, merchants offine hardwoodsand veneers. He beganhis careerin the wood industry in the early'70smaking customfurniture. He is now a director of the Woodworkers Alliancefor Rainforest Protectionand an interim director ofthe ForestStewardship Council. Truini is SeniorEditor of Hoze Joseph Mechankmagazine. former Shopand Tools A Editor of PopularMechanics, hasworked as he a cabinetmaker, home improvementcontractor and carpenter.

President Publisher ManagingEditor Directorof Editorial Resources Associate Publisher MarketingDirector EditorialDirector Consuhing Editor Production Manager Mary N. Davis RobertH. Smith ThomasH. Flaherty EliseD. Ritter-Clough Tievor Lunn ReginaHall Donia Ann Steele Bob Doyle,JohnSullivan MarleneZack

Enryclopedia ofWood p. cm.-(The Art of Woodworking) Includesindex. (trade) ISBN0-8094-9916-9. -7 ISBN 0-8094-9917 (Ltb) l. Woodwork--Enryclopedias. 2. Wood--Encyclopedias. I. Time- Life Books. IL Series TTl80.E6l3 1992 684' .08-dc20 92-37293 CIP For information about any Time-Life book, please l-800-621-7026, write: call or Reader Information Time-Life CustomerService P.O. Box C-32068 Richmond,Virginia 23261-2068 @ 1993 Time-LifeBooksInc. AII rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproducedin any form or by any electronicor mechanical means,including information storage and retrievaldevices systems, or without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,except that brief passages be quoted for reviews. may First printing. Printed in U.S.A. Published simultaneously Canada. in TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time Warner Inc. U.S.A. R 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 r


6 INTRODUCTION 12 14 16 18 24 26 30 34 36 40 42 45 46 48 50 53 UNDERSTANDINGWOOD Anatomvof a tree and Softwoobs hardwoods From log to lumber Lumbercutting methods Properties wood of Identifting wood Wood identificationkeys Portablelumber mills SELECTINGTUMBER Orderinglumber Gradinglumber Hardwoodgrades Softwoodgrades Lumber defects lumber Preparing

78 DRYINGAND STORINGWOOD 80 Waterand wood 86 Estimatingwood movement 87 Air-drying wood 89 Storingwood 98 WOOD DIRECTORY 138 GLOSSARY L42 INDEX IM

56 VENEERSAND MANUFACTURED BOARDS 58 Veneers 60 From log to veneer 63 Veneering 69 Decorativematching 70 Plvwood 72 Pliwood grading plywoodedges 74 Concealing 76 Particleboard 77 Fiberboard


Iohn Sharptalksabout

at at age to f *ur exposed woodidentification anearly whileworking our family I deal Tennessee, thesummers.felta great of during in I sawmill UnionCounty, the ofvarious species as I could between logs see the differences about vast curiosity "opened andthelumber fromthesaw deck. moved up" theywere logs up of delivhardwood made themajority logs poplar other and common Oak, or odd such persimmon saswas ered themill,butthere theoccasional species, as to If board foundin was by the My to safras. jobwas separate lumber species.apoplar my learned woods. that my a stack oak, was fault,soI quickiy of species. until Not names thedifferent of At thattimeI onlyknewthecommon the in school I realize importance did courses forestry wood I encountered anatomy to were fromregion region. for names variable names, common of scientific when Yale a since turnof thecentury, the identification come longway has Wood wood Now are where forestry studies. there 25to 30places teaching was gnlyschool the in WhenI was forestry in school is as identificltion offered partof thecurriculum. just part idenWorld WarII, anintegral of ourworkinvolved NorthCarolina, after species, sourwood, say When came we across unfamiliar an tifringwoodsamples. more I wood, task our became difficult. canstillremember which wasn't commercial a remarking heswore that who Guadalcanal, a of aclassmatemine, warveteran survived he worrying, weall as another thingin hislife,butthere was never worryabout he'd between andhickory. ash tell he did,because couldn't thedifference fealens of identification consisted a hand andtextbooks tools wood At thetime, the photos species With of samples. aviewto reducing turingsmall black-and-white very over wood, have I worked closely theyears with anxiety associated identifring photos. Wood lovers to get of lab withaphotography attheUniversity Tennessee better photos woodtypes all sorts in of of S-by-lO-inch to cannowrefer goodquality parks. publications bookstores ournational in to places-from woodworking

of lohn Sharpis a retiredUniversity Tennessee professor forestry of and a member theInterof He Society. woiles nationalWood Collectors from hishomenearKnowille, Tennessee.


Andrew Poyntertalksabout

r.r rupplier hardwoods fineveneers thelast20years,have privof and for I been I ,{, \ ileged getto knowsome thefinest to of woodworkers NorthAmerica. in I've also learned lot about a woodanditsqualities, onlythegood not qualities, the but bafling ones well. as bachI suppose owninterest wood my in began manyyears before estabI . .looking lished company. fact,I canvividlyrecall firsi hands-on my In my experience a with piece Brazilian of rosewood-completely captivating! Thatwas themid-'60s, in those woodiurners, in and days luthiers furnitureand makers little to choose had fromin thewayof different woods. Although could they read wonderful about ebony, satinwood, kingwood, and {esgriptiygp.assages Macassar soon,tryingto find a reliable source allthose woods nextto impossible. for fine was Theneed inventory selection to a ofwoodforthefurniture I pictured that mfermakingwas of thereasons one I started wooddealership 19j3. my n My furnituqemafing gradgally tapuedoff,andby 1975 was puttingallmyefforu I intottretask marketing selling hardwoods veneers. thattime,everyof and fine and At onesaidtherain forests wouldgoon forever, thatthere somuchwoodin and was theAmazon wewouldnever out.However, passage timeandthe that run the of demand woodhave for donetwothingsto thetimbertrade: First,aproliferation of wooddealers woodvarieties entered marketplace-a for those and have the plus of uswholovewood. Second, became we complacent thetruevalue various abouf of species thesustainability theirsupply. arenowonlytooaware therain and of We that forests not goon forever. may A+howhqe proble-rns causing deforestation verycomple6 are there steps are that "Measure woodworkers should to helpimprove situation. take the twice cufoncd' and mayseem almost basic, it canmake difference reducing consumption. too but a in our Using veneer whenever possible another in therightdireition. is step I've become active an member thewoodworkeis of Alliance Rainforest for Protection. wr\RPwas founded 1989 aconcerned in by group ofwoodworkers, wood turners,luthiers, merchants, dealers lovers wood. wood tool and of Central manv to ofirprograms, Wz\RP encg,uragesuse ofwoodfromsusainable orwell-managed $e nowevident muchhas change global It that to in forestrypractices olver th; nextfewyears ifwoodworkers thefutureareto enjoythe in remarliable selection of woodthatis available all of ustoday. to
AndrewPoynterholdsa pieceof redwood burl at his store, dt M WoodSpecialty A Inc., in Cambridge, Ontario.Thecompany morethan 100 sells types of woodto woodworkers throughout NorthAmerica.


Ion Arno talksaboutsome

up a business, working withwoodhas Q in.. I grew in afamilythatowned lumber t. l been lifelong interest mine. Whilemany fellow a of woodworkers to contend I centrate toolsandmethods on ofconstruction,findthattherealessence craft ofthe liesin themediumweuse-the wooditself.Theworldprovides great a manyfine timbers some them, and of such walnut, as mahogany rosewood, a certain and lend prestige thefinished project. me,thejoyofwoodworking For from to comes discovproperties various of species learning to choose most and how the ering special the purpose, for regardlessitsnotoriety reputation. of functionalwood theintended or Everywoodhas application forwhichit isunsurpassed. goal good The an of craftsjust manship to discover whatthatapplication is is. plentifirl There literally hundreds woods, are of some themreasonably of domestic species, seldom theirwayintolumberyards. that find Neveflheless, arestilloutthey standing woods certain for applications. fewof my favorites catalpa, A are balsam poplarandblackash. I Recently,have added another to mylist-sassafras. one A member theLaurel of family-alongwith cinnamon, camphor bay-sasand safras wellknownfor itssweet-scented is oil used cosmetics soaps. buoyant in and Its decay-resistant hasalsogained wood somepopularity with boat builders. however, longdismissed have sassafrasbeing softandbrittle. as too Cabinetmakers, Basically, assesments accurate; challenge mehas for these are the been findanapplito has fromwhatmany cation where woodexcels. this Oddlyenough, answer come the perceive oneof its negative qualities. as isbrittle,but itsresistanceflexing gives outstanding it resonance Sassafras to when in The is used thesoundboard dulcimers. bright,bell-like it yields aspleasant as tone asthespicy aroma thewoodwhenit isbeingcut,shaped sanded. what of and And rolecould more fittingfor thisuniquelyAmerican thanin helping provide be species to thevoice anAmerican for musical instrument? I started making dulcimers acouple years when daughte6music only of ago, my a project. bought kit, butwhen opened lover, chose buildonefor ahighschool to We a I theboxI realized there that wasn't anything inside I couldn't that make my own in so My shop, I started experiment. onlyregret, far asbeinga luthier,is I don't to so possess with it. a sense music goalong of to

a dulcimer, lon Arno displays home-made fashioned ftom sassafras osage and orange. is a woodtechnologist, He consultant freehnce and writer living in Troy, Michigan.







s you strive improve to your woodsuch pineis moreforgivas l, \ mastery the demanding of joinery, ing of less precise while craft of woodworking, muchof dense, brittlespecies asmasuch your attention be devoted will to joints that are hogany demand learning about toolsandthetechcut to close tolerances. every And niques using for them. in your But quickly beginner learns sandin! that quest perfection, notneglect for do woodacross grain, the rather than themostfundamental component parallel it, results scratches to in that project-thewooditself. of every areaccentuated a finishis when perfect always Rarely and varyapplied thepiece. to piece ing,each ofwoodexhibits its Remember, thathowapartoo, just owncharacter, ascertainly as ticularpiece woodbehaves of in a human being: Some woods are yourshop depends large in measure plain,some colorfi.rl; some staare A pile of logssitat a sawmillin Oregon" on whathappened it before to it ble,some unpredictable; work some readyto bemilledinto lumber. reached lumberyard. the the How easily, withdifficulty. knowlsome A woodgrew thetree, weather in the edge these properties allowyouto make mostof of will the thetreeendured howthewoodwas anddriedallaffect and cut your abilities, achieving wedding form,substance a of and thefinalproduct. woodof aleaning for example, The tree, will technique cantransform that even ordinary project an into react differently duringmachining thatsawn than fromthe aworkof art. trunkof anerect Andwhether board quartersawn tree. a is or Youcanobtain muchfactual information about prop- plain-sawn animpact itsdimensional the has on stability. erties ofwoodin readily available books articles. and Learning Onewayto obtain intimate knowledge yourmaterial of is to applythat knowledge morechallenging. example, is For the to saw yourself it from a treeusinga portable lumbermill knowledge maple (page Selecting felling tree, that boards contain may wide variations in 36). and a bucking-or crosscutcolor, texture figure assume and will greater meaning you ting-it intologs, millingtheplanks as and imparta hands-on learnto use these characteristics advantage. to best Likewise, understanding isimpossible acquire other that to any way. The although Douglas-fir anattractive, worked is easily wood, vari- workisarduous, it also and takes considerable to cutand time ations itssurface in porosity make difficultto finishwell. drytheboards. therewards-both theunique can it But in lumber Butwhen learn you howto seal wood, will findmany produced thepersonal the you and satisfaction producing in it-are uses Douglas-fir. for Experience also youthataresilient wellworththeeffort. will tell

A standof Douglas-fir trees baslcs thesunlight in in a West Coast Many softwoods, Douglaslike forest. areideal interiortrim or cabinet work. frr for


from the trunks and arvested branches trees,wood is a of Crown resilient, dynamic buildingmaterial. Thebranches growcanshed and leavesof a how Understanding trees considerable onwhywoodbehaves tree, wherepholight whenit isworked finished. tooyntheoia or asit does majorsys- takee plaae All trees consist three of water tems:a root networkthat draws from the soil;a crownof andminerals are leaves, wherewaterandminerals in combined with carbon dioxide the presence food ofsunlight produce for to and--ofmost thetree(photosynthesis); interest woodworkers-a to supporting trunkthattransporh water food. the and Viewed cross in section, treetrunk a to at first appears be a fairlyhomogenouscolumnof wood,markedby a called growth series concentric of bands viewreveals a rings.However, close a layers series distinct of wappedaround not. At other,some living,some each thecenter theheartwood, densis the est-and dead-part of the trunk. is Encircling heartwood thepaler the whichin turn is surrounded sapwood, onlyactivebythecambium, trunk's the The ly growingsegment. cambium's growthaccounts thelayers sapfor of woodthatare added year. either each On are that side ofthecambium layers transport sapthroughout treeandstore the surplusfood. As the inner sapwood recedes from the cambium, pores its graduallyclogwith andgums, resins and heartwood. the outersecAs become tions become dormant,they form a layer, bark. trunk'soutermost the Thedifferences between sapwood and heartwood important everywoodare to RootE worker. Becauseismoreporous it than Anchor tree and finishes abaorb water heartwood, sapwood absorbs But heartwood usu- and minerals is better. thedenser and allvmoredurable decav-resistant.from the aoil present sapwood in Thecarbohydrates cells make woodvulnerable funthe to gi andinsects. colors The ofheartwood richer and more are also generally vibrant thanthose sapwood. of

Trunk Alao called stem or bole;aupporto tree and channela nutriente to and from roote


Growth rings growth intenupted seasonal In regions where tree's a is by change, wood characterizedgrowth its is by rings: concentric bands, perpendicular usually fractions an inch of wide, to the axisof thetrunk.Trees grow temperate witha winthat in areas terseason display growth distinct rings. thetropics, In where is more less or continuous, a sharply defined may ring onlybevisibleasthe result a dryseason. rings intersected of The are by a series rays: of flattened bands tissue radiate of that outward fromthe pithto the phloem thetree.Growth of rings consist of twoseparate layers. first,called The earlywood,laiddown is at the beginning thegrowing of season; second the layer, lateor

wood, formed is toward end.Earlywoodmore porous the is than latewood, whichaccounts the contrast for between two. the Taken together, earlywood latewood a growth the and of ring in temperate climates represent yearin a tree's The one life. width a ringdepends growing of on conditions varies and from species species, changes year year to but from to reveal tree's a history. wideringsuggestsgrowing A a season ample with sun andmoisture, a narrow is evidence disease, while ring of unfavorable weather insect groMh or attacks. thewoodworker, For rings also are clues thestrengh thewood: to of uncharacteristically narrow wide or rings signal can weak timber.
Grotvth ring A concentric rinq divided into aarlywoodand latewood indicatin7 the amount of wood added to a.tree'a diameter in one growingaeason

A amall and often pulpy core runninqup the center of the trunk

Heaftwood )apwood that haa beencloqqed with resina, quma and other extractivea: eupportg tree

Ray Carriea nutrienta laterally throu4h the wood;alao atoreg nutrientq 9apwood Activo parA of the tree'e wood throu7h which water and minerals are conducted from the roote to the leavea: al6o storea nutrienta and helpa to support.the tree Cambium A thin reproductive layor that forma newt'isaue,addinq to the phloemand aapwoodto increase a tree'a 1irbh

lneulatea tree aqainst temperature extremeo; keepooapwood and phloemfrom dryin1 out

Phloem A thin, spon7y layer of tubea that carry diaaolvedeu4ara and qrowth hormoneafrom the leaveato other parta of a tree

s. q

A thickslice from thetrunk of a mature oakformsan oval-shaped tabletop. The growth rings that characterized tree this areclearlyvisible:Light-colored earlywoodalternates with darkerbands of latewood, etchinga distinct line between year'sgrowingperiods. each

f into softdivided rees roughly are hardwoods, the but I woodsand hardwoods, Some termsare inexact: for or suchasbasswood aspen, examAmerican softthanNorth ple,aresofter pineor Douglas-fir. woods longleaf like leaves of Thetypeandshape a tree's indicatorsof a are more accurate wood's identity. Softwoods particular with needleconifers include evergreen comprise like leaves, whilehardwoods or deciduous, leaf-shedbroad-leaved But ding,trees. it is at the microscopic between levelthat the true differences can and softwoods hardwoods be seen. mainlyof traare Softwoods composed cellswhich concheids, dual-purpose ductthe sapup throughthe trunk and whichare providesupport. Hardwoods, later,have narevolved believed have to for fibercells suprowet thicker-walled port and large-diameter thin-walled These cells vessels sapconduction, for wood. of determine texture a tree's thi whenthereis abundant In spring, moistureand rapid growthof earlywood, the tracheidcellsin softwoods cavities conto have thin wallsandlarge duct the sap.The resultis relatively in porous wood.As latewood develops the latterpart of the growingseason, walls, beginto form thicker thetracheids wood. creating denser suchas oak or ash, In hardwoods in develop theearlymostof thevessels grain.These in wood,resulting uneven With difring-porous. species called are hardwoods suchasmaple, fuse-porous moreevenly the vessels distributed are Some in the earlpvoodand latewood. species, aswalnut,exhibita more such gradualtransitionfrom earlpvoodto latewood and aretermedsemi-rineporous semi-diffuse-porous. or in The differences cell structure and hardwoods betweensoftwoods whena stainisapplied. apparent become In softwoods, light,porousearlythe wood absorbs stainmore readilythan latewood-in effect the dark,denser like reversing grainpattern a photothe graphicnegative. Hardwoods, however, enhancing the absorb stainmoreevenly,
croin naffprn


view A microscopic are and between softwood hardwood readily Thedifferences magnif a when under microscope's ication. apparent viewed (above, is much /eff) simpler of Thecellstructure softwoods Almost softwood arelong, all cells than thatof hardwoods. of that an column sap which thintracheids, support unbroken in The more than200 feet. tracheids Iatewood cantower In hardwoods in than become thrcker-walled those earlvwood.

(above, through vessels,series a of right),the is conducted sap for atop other. the Support thetrunk tubelike stacked cells one In hardwood shown, is provided f iber by cells. thering-porous prominentearlywood; aretheprein f ibers vessels more are in In hardwoods softand dominant type latewood.both cell andstarch make the up woods, storage forcarbohydrates cells wood remainins non-vascular tissue.



A ROSEWO(IDA]TY BY OTHER NAME... For practicing the woodworker, callwood instead, since bothbelong to inga piece wood itscommon of by therosewood family arenative and name seldom creates confusion. lf to Brazil. fact,there several In are youaskfora fewplanks white genuine of oak rosewoods, asEast such yard, example, at a lumber for there Indian rosewood cocobolo, and that is noreason youshould get why not costmuch thanthe Brazilian less you what requested. withsome But v a r i e t y n d a r ee a s i e t o f i n d . a r particularly species, exotics must However, might fit thebill that they not bepurchased mail-order, by identities fora guitar-maker. species, Other canbe less certain. Common names such bocote, as bubinga padauk, and aremisleading trees differ- areoftensoldas rosewood when with substientcharacteristics thesame share tutes, do notlook all like but at name, when same or the species has Brazilian rosewood. different common names seoarate in Toavoid confusion,is helpful it to localities. refer certain to woods theirbotanby you Suppose wanted samples a of icalnames. Brazilian rosewood is very andexpensive rare species like Dalbergia nigra,anda guitar-maker Brazilian rosewood, a black-streaked,whorequestsbythatname not it will darkbrown wood oftenusedin the bedisappointed. maki of superior-qual ng ityguitars. This scientific naming system was A supplier could good in conscience developed than200 years more ago you send pieces kingwood tulip- bySwedish of or botanist Linnaeus. Carl Asshown below, a botanical in analysis Brazilian of rosewood, Linnaeus' universally now accepted plants the scheme classifies into various groups phyla, taxonomic of classes, genera orders, families, and species. Almost trees all belong to phylum, hardthespermatophyta with woods theangiospermae in sub-phylumandthedicotyledonae and class, softwoods belonging thegymnosperto mae subphylum, A botanical breakdown of Brazilian rosewood Phyfum: Spermatophyta Sub-phylum: Angiospermae Class:Dicotyledonae Order; Rosales Famify: Leguminosae Genusr Dalbergia Species: Nrgra


In additionto lumberand manufactured boards, providea cornucopia trees ofraw materials products suchasrollsof for newsprint(left).For centuries, people haveextracted suchnaturalproducts as cork,rubber, gum, medicine, spices, drugs, oils,charcoal, camphor and resins. The cellulose found in trees used the is in fiber production plastics lacquers well of and as aswoodpulp. Coniferous trees supply turpentine and resins, whichare usedin paints, inl<s finishes. and Modernchemistry hasunlocked moreof wood's still hiddentreasures, finding waysto remoye suchdisparate products glues, poisons as andarfficialvanilla.




etween standing andthe the tree Ll boards pickofftherackat the you lumberyard stands complex process a thatrequires manypeople applyenorto mousskill at every step. Undetected defects the standing in tree,damage .p caused duringfelling, poorjudgment in bucking inattentive or sawing the at mill cansabotage valueof a tree the andraise sawmill's-and woodthe the buyingconsumer's-costs. Although power have saws replaced muscle-driven pit saws the forestandat the mill, in andcuts nowguided laser are by beams andcomputer technology instead of chalklines,no replacement been has devised the practiced of an for eye experienced lumberman.

(left) makes undercutin a mightyDouglas-firtreein therain A logger his forats of British columbio,canada.Fellingthesebehemoths once workof two menpushing was the and pulling a huge jib. felling saw;today,a chainsawreduces fetling to a quick one-man

A tractor-Iike skidder haulsa hitch oflogsfrom theforest.



its ontoa truck. dispenses contents Ahydrauliclogloader

the Selecting trees begins A neetjoumey thelumberyard to or in thewoods, whena forester timber for evaluates trees cutting. the cruiser for will Not all cut trees beearmarked for mill; some beused pulp will thesaw These lower-grade are trees or firewood. harvested give residual to the deliberately and access nutrients more to stockbetter the roomto grow,thusincreasing timThe trees will value. verybest berstand's for bereserved veneer. lummost thehighest-grade of Since just fromthearea under berwill come mustbe ableto thebark,the forester defects clues detect aglance thatbetray at

can Knots, example, be for in thisarea. particularly depending troublesome, In theyarelocated. theboton where where are they usutompartof thetree, of by allyindicated a slightdisfiguration overthebark,knotsmaybesodeeply the grown theywillnot affect value that But up, of theouterwood. further where indicated concenby theyaretypically in or bumps thebark, tric circles even problems in moreserious knotspose terms qualiry of between difTheability distinguish to imporferent types fungiis another of All tant skill in treeevaluation. fungi species damage, certain but cause some

In are rapacious: beechand hard bodyof for a maple, example, single of on false tinderfungus theoutside a presence a 12-to the of treemaysignal If of l4-foot-long column decaywithin. to of thedecaywere confined thecenter be of thetree, would less aproblem, this fungiinfest mostvaluable the but many wood. scarring thebarkis Any of outer since the thussuspicious, even tiniest to makes treesusceptible a opening infection. fungal peckholes Birddamage-specifically sapsuckermade theyellow-bellied by value. a commercial alsoaffects tree's cousins, which Unlikeits woodpecker


eatwood-boring insects infestdead that wood,theyellow-bellied sapsucker feasts on the sap, wood cells, and innerbark oflive trees. Persistent feeding results in longstreaks ofstain that effectively render the wood worthless. Felling and bucking Tiees cut with threepasses a chain are of saw The first two cutsiemovea wedge aboutone-thirdof the diameter the of tree,facing intended the direction fall. of The tree is felledby the third cut, or backcut,madeoppositeto and a few inches above wedge. thetreefalls, the As "hinge" its directionis controlled a by

face; large-diameter rottingbranches pointto decay withinthetreetrunk. Whiletheoptimal length hardwood for (8 logs 16feet feet veneer-quality is for logs),cuttinglogsto this lengthis not always possible. Sometimes the bucker cuts8-footand l2-footloss Once limbshave the been removed, to avoiddefects wouldrender-a that thetree skidded a staging or larger worthless. is to area, log landing, where isbucked logs. it into To ensure thewoodiscutto thehighthat Tiansporting the logs estpossible grade, bucker-likethe In some the parts NorthAmerica, of espeforester tree or cruiser beforehand-has cially Pacific the Northwest where trees "read" to thetreefor signs ofdefects areexceptionally bucking done large, is before setting work.Bulges thebark atthefelling before logs transto in site the are indicate knots areclose thesur- ported a central that to to yard. Steeply sloping

of woodbetween wedge backthe and cut.Expert fellers consider many factors before making cuts-the condition the of thefelling site, wind direction, the lean ofthetree, thepresence and ofdead branches adjacent in trees, aptlycalled "widowmakers."

Althougha varietyof methods havebeen used movelogs to to thelumbermill,from river runsto draft horses, truckingremains themostcommon method transport NorthAmerica. of in



Thenarrowkerf of abandsaw produces less waste than a circularsaw. Here,aworker at aVermont mill removes a j8-foot-long bandsawblade for sharpening.

mayrequire logs begaththe to terrain floor a ered fromtheforest using series in is of cables. such One system knownas Two high-lead logging. maincablesa and onecalled haulback theothera mainline-arerigged thetopof atall to mast. other called chokSeveral cables, Tiees are fromthemainline. ers, dangle felled theylandwith theirbutt secso wrap uphill;crewmen tionspointing the of each choker around butt section log, the operaabucked-up signal head tot andthelogs reeled thehill to are up pile, next thecentral usuallylocated to a been lumber road. Whenthelogshave is to detached. haulback the cable used pull themainline its chokers for and howtheyare load.No matter another they moved fromthefelling or when site

logs loaded trucks onto are bucked, are grapple hookfor the with a hydraulic trip to thesawmill. In the sawmill of There two maintypes sawmills: are saw that those use band andthose that a is usea circular A sawmill often saw of described according thetype wood to it it cutsandthetypeof saw employs, such asoftwood mill or ahardas band woodcircular mill. Large bandmillsare logs for oftenrequired thelarger-sized indusin thatare common thesoftwood NorthAmerica. Circular try in western more commonin smaller sawmills, have in hardwood operations theEast, a smaller capacity, are less but far expensive thanbandmills.

process generates Thesawing agreat "waste"-almost one-third the of deal of possible log-but every bit bulkof each up Some of woodis chipped andused. paperpulp orwood-fired mills issoldto (Thevolume wood-burned utilities. of increased substantially the since fuelhas 1970s. Today crunch oftheearly energy woodsupplies about3 percent the of energy consumption.) UnitedStates' Even bark,whichis immediately the powers frequently stripped offthelogs, thesawmill's dryingkilns. from Thebarkisstripped thelogwith grinding off large cutterheadsblasted or water The by high-pressure jets. logis posithenmounted a logcarriage, on offthe tionedsothatthefirstcutsslice widest, clearest, valuable most boards.


In less than 2 seconds, this bandsawblade, drivenby a 1S0-horsepower engine, canslicethrougha 16-foot log. Thered line-a laser beam-sh ows the operator wherethebladewill cut.

In themill, thesawyer mayrotate the log to "read"thelog'shiddendefects. Whilein thepastthis mighthave been doneby hand,it is not uncommon to seetoday'ssawyers work in a glassjudgments endosed booth, forming with thehelpofadvanced electronic equipment.In sucha mill, the sawyer uses joysticks-like thoseof a computer gam+-to twirl thelogalmost full turn a in a matterof seconds, firing abeam of laser light downits length visualize to theeffect a particular before is of cut it

made. themost In efficient mills,sophisticated computers used select are to the bestposition obtainthemaximum to production from each log. First,thefour outerslabs thelog of areremoved, givingthesawyer clean a planefrom which to makehis next "opening cut-the so-called face"-to give widest, the clearest board available. Once face cut,thelog is rotated, this is andthreeadditional boards cutare onefrom each remaining face. Large millshandling logs big send remainthe

ing square timber-called a cant-to a resawing for cuttinginto vararea ious sizes of dimensionlumber. Hereagain,this sawyer must determine the optimum cutting pattern that will yield the mostvaluable lumber.All theboards edged, are trimmed to lengthandgraded. Smaller mills,andthose handling smaller mayuse different logs, a sawing strategf. Afterremoving outerslabs, the theboards cutfromtheopening are face until defects interfere. Thenthelog is rotated thenextclearest Aswith to face. thefirst method, remaining is the cant resawn lower into grade lumber. Finally, theboards sorted, are stacked stickand ered-separated thin stripsto allow by airto circulate between them-for their trip to thedryingkiln, where theywill remain up to 50days. for

A device known asa "slot machine" sorts into freshlysautnboards the right widthsand lengths.


requires a f onvertinglogintolumber Most are \-r certain compromises. logs The in of basic ways. simsawn one tluee plest method squares logandslices the it intoboards through fromone straight This known side theother. technique, to sawing, results as through-and-through to in stock tangentially theannual cut plaingrowth A method, rings. second is except thelogis that sawing, similar, rotated it is cut,andthelow-quality as pithisset for such pallets. as aside items is known flatas Plain-sawn lumber also grained lumber.
Thegrowthringsin this quartersawn oakboard appear linesthat are as parallelto theboard's edges. The third method.calledcuartersawing edge-grain or sawing, divides the log into four quartersand cuts every board more or lessradially.Quartersawnboardshavetheir annualgrowth ringsperpendicular the face. to This orientationof the growthrings accounts thedimensional for stability of Woodshrinksand cuartersawn boards. roughlytwiceasmuchtangenexpands tially to the rings asits doesradially. When ouartersawn boards swell or shrinktheydo so mostlyin thickness, a whichis minimal,whereas plain-sawn its board changes across width. A dinpine ing tablemadefrom plain-sawn for can as boards, example, change much asI inch in widthl a similartablemade from quartersawn boardswould only swellor shrinkby one-thirdasmuch.


method Choosing best the intendlogs at is between Cutting intolumber a sawmill a balance and appearance. Plain-sawed use, structural stability esthetic /eft) boards diminishing asthe log of width ing(above, produces expensive method, is rotated make to successive Themore cuts. (above, quartersawing board to called center),limits width the

radius thelog.Butit produces dimensionally more stable of lumber, making ideal drawer it for sides, tabletops frame and rails. Through-and-through (above, rghf)yields the sawing from the maximum number usable of boards a log; outer while are boards plain-sawn, theinner are boards quartersawn.



also Quartersawing offersan esthetic advantage: exposes medullary It the raysthat radiatefrom the heartofa log like the spokesof a wheel. In most species raysareonly one cellthick, the but in a fewspecies, asoak,theray such ceiisare thicker and appearas vivid streaks scatteredalong the grain. poplarandbasswood also Sycamore, are idealcandidates quartersawing. for As the illustrationat the bottom of page24 shows, quartersawn lumber is not alwayscut perpendicular the to grain,and somethrough-and-through cut boardsclose the centerofa log to will havequartersawn grain.Therefore, no matter how they are actuallycut, boards with growth rings at angles between and90o thewidesurface 45o to quartersawn, areclassified whileboards

with ringsat 0oto 45o angles thewide to surface termedplain-sawn. are Boards with growth rings at a 30oto 60oangle arealsocalled rift-sawn bastard-sawn. or In actual practice, sawyers a myruse iad of sawing patterns, depending the on type of machinerybeing used, the intended of thelumber,log use diameter andthetypeof tree.Forexample, virin tuallyall trees pith or central the coreof theheartwood less is desirable thanand not asstrongastherestofthe heartwood. "boxes Plain-sawing out the heart"by cuttingaroundit to eliminate it.

Thegrowthringsin thisplain-sawn board oak appear thefaceasan ellipticallandscape on stock sliced is figure.Plain-sawn from logs with mostof thecutstangent therings. to

PTAIN-SAWN Cheaper easier obtain and to Shrinks swells rnthickness and less greater Usually comes in variety widths of Less susceptiblecollapse to during drying; easier kilndry to patterns Figure resulting thedifference from between earlywood latewood thegrowth and in rings are more consoicuous Hasmore interesting figure Round oval or knots may that occur have effect less on structural integrity Pockets pitchextend of through fewer boards Notassusceptiblesplitting to when nails screws or driven through face OUARTERSAWN More dimensionally stable Shrinks swells across board and less the Twists cuosless and Splits checks in seasoning in use and less and grain Raised caused theswelling theearlywood by of in growth rings aspronounced not Figure to pronounced more due rays conspicuous Holds finishes better some in soecies Sapwood boards in appears theedges is at and easily off cut Wears more evenlv


pays n experienced woodworker attention the selection to of close has Every species wood for a project. that canmakeit ideal uniquequalities for for oneapplication unsuitable but that another. Amongthekeyproperties woodsarecolor,grain,texdistinguish ture,figure,weightand odor. for Manyspecies prized theirdisare is Padauk a fiery orangetinctivecolors. red;blackwalnut often exhibitsdeep purples tones. Colorin and chocolate such woodis theresult extractives as of gumsand resins the wood. in tannins, to Whencut lumberis exposed air,these gradually oxidize, deepening substances howevIn cases, thewood's color. some er,thecolormayfade. are Grainand texture two distinct properties areoftenconfused. Grain that the and of describes direction regularity relative theaxisof the to thewoodfibers 28, treetrunk.Asillustrated page the on grain displayed a pieceof lumber by of depends the growthpattern the on treefrom whichit wascut. A wood's depends thesize on texture Ring-porous anddistribution itscells. of havea hardwoods with largevessels coarse texture,while diffuse-porous with finevessels a finhave hardwoods In abrupt er texture. somesoftwoods, transitions from earlp,vood latewood to Where produce uneven an texture. there islittleor no transition, in whitepine, as texture. thewoodhasan even

ftqure Landacape
on white birch

figure Fiddleback rooa onperoba

MoLLle fi4ure on movin4ue
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Figure-an important quality in veneers-is the patterndisplayed the on surface a board.Thisis theexpression of "61n1261s1"-fte of a board's sumof its grain,contrast between earlywood and latewood, eccentricity growth rings, of mineralstreal6, disease the method and usedto sawthe log. Someof the more stunningfiguresin differentspecies are illustrated below. example, For plain-sawn whitebirch reveals so-called a landscaoe figure.Interlocked grainproduces ribthe

bonfigure common African in mahogany. grainin maples Wavy results a fiddlein back figure, named so becauseitsuse of in thebacla violins. inegular of And growths ontheouter surfacestrees, as of such elm, yieldanintricate figure. burl Theweight differentwood of species isexpressedspecific as gravity, itsdenor sitycompared an equal to volume of water. specific The gravity anovenof dried sample American of elm, for example,0.50, is making halfasheavy it

asa tropicalhardwoodlike ekki,which hasthesame specific gravity wateras 1.00. Lignumvitae, heaviest the wood, hasa specific gravity L23.Thehighof er a wood's specificgravity,the less porousit is and the more impervious it will be to a finish. A wood'sodor-usually caused bv oils in the heartwood-may alsodetermine its use.An aromaticspecies like cedar, example, often usedfor for is clothes chests cigarboxes. and

Kibbon fiqure on Africanmahogany

Dird'e-eyefigure on maple

Burlfigure on Carpathian elm



grnvityis a better irdicatorof n Specific Witha speciJic wood's weight thartsize. gravityof 0.90, piece cborry a of weiglrs tts lnrger block white of thesanrc a trtttclt grovityis only0.35. pine,wlrcse speciJic


Featured tn lumber wiLh even wood ftbere thaL are parallel Lo the verLtcal axta of the trunk; makea for eLronq wood, but hae ltttle or no fi4ure

Found tn lumber where the ftbera devi' aLe from the verLtcalaxie of the Lrunk; not ao atronq ae etraiqhL-qratned wood, but producee an attracttve fiqure

Froduced by wood ftbere Lhat undulatetn ehort,even
wavee:yielde fiddleback ftqure

treea with twtEted trunka; common in 1coLchpineand aweetcheetnuL

Interlocked grain internal LwtaLe; Foundtn lumberfrom treeE with oppoein7 found in elm and verycommonin tropical epeciee eomeLimee



Reading grain the Many woodworking especially plantasks, ing, require working thedirection the in of grain. canusually grain You tell orrentayour tionbyrunning hand along board a face: surface feelsmoother The will when your hand moving thegrain is with and rougher running when against Another it. method to slide smoothing plane is a l i g h t la l o n gh ef a c e n o n e i r e c t i o n , y t i d thenrepeat theopposite in direction. The blade chatter catch thewood will or on fibers when iscutting it against grain. the Asshown theplain-sawn at right, on board "uphill" the thewood fibers slope in direc"downhill" tionof thegrain and against it.

Determiningbest the direction plane to To prevent plane a blade fromcatching thegrain tearing chipping wood and or the f ibers, always in theuphill grain cut direction. This produce shavings will clean and a smooth surface. especially Be careful to grain changes spot that direction within a single board. dragram leftshows The at sevgrain patterns arrows eral typical with indiplaning cating best the direction. uphill The drrection beconstant one of a may from end (A). board theother Orit maychange, to demanding youplane that from each end (B). toward middle lt could change the also (C). from middle theends lf thegrain the to does slope all,you plane a sinnot at can in glepass fromeither (D). end


of you restoringpiece a hether are made fromanunfamilfurniture of the iarwoodor debating authenticity lumberwith a local board a particular of a yard, knack identifring piece for a skill. lumberisa usefrrl of an branch knowlOf course, entire and is to edge devoted woodscience written have been Books technology. have careers been aboutthe subject, offer founded uponit, anduniversities to devoted it. and degrees courses identifrwoodby firstslicing Scientists then of offa thin sliver asample, mountit and ingit on a slide examining under a mlcroscope. woodworker, however, Thepracticing in than whoismoreinterested sawing in identiff most can science, successfully for searching a woods methodically by with thehelpof inexfewsimple clues Most pensive equipment. of thetoolsyou invesneed illustrated right.Your are at beginwith the easily tigation should (page properties sanrple ofthe observable deterand the 26).Examne feel surface; it minewhether isoilyor dry,dullor lusby its trous.Check hardness tryingto You with dentthesurface a fingernail. Each exposeye allyor tangentially. method maybeable tell with thenaked to anatomview is hardwood ring-or diffirse- esa different of a sample's whether a view The on porous. shown thephotos page icalstructure. simplest is the in As looking the at since of hardwood rel- transverse it involves are two 33,these types However, to viewed with endgrainof thesample. when easy atively to tellapart fibers, viewof crushed of avoid blurred a whether texture the lens. Note ahand the with Ifthe sam- youmustfirstshave surface a is or thewood coarse smooth. knife. or blade a well-sharpened cut,it mayhave razor plehasbeenrecently you view If it hasbeen Togetatangential of asample, odor. a recognizable the a cut will need make clean along to you maybe ableto dried, sufficiently 32). growthringsof the wood (page gravity. its calculate specific to a cut can Aithough these observations help Making second at rightangles view. a radial youwill still thefirstexposes downthechoices, narrow you and observed recordmagOnce have under have viewawoodsample to properties microand edthesample's nification order hazardaneducatin to you the details, cancompare scopic The as edguess to itsspecies. illustration with a printedkey of wood a results ways that the on page shows three 31 radi- species identifithewood. to transversely, sample bestudied: can

Labeled wood samplea A set of domeatic or tropical wooda with labelaindicatin1 the apeciea;can be ueed to help identify and aomparewooda

Hand lens Used to axaminewood samplea;availablein Bx, 1Ox and 12xma1nification

llluminaied magnifter For axaminin7woodaamplea; ation featu ree built- in illumin than hand for aharper viawinq leno.Typicallyavailablewith up to 2Ox maanification

Poaketkni e Used to prepare the end qrain of wood aampleafor examination

the Examining endgrainof a board 1& through illuminated magnifier an of enlnrges several features a wood sample arehelpfulin species that identification.

Razor blade Used to aut off wood alivers for viewinqunder a microacope; einqle-adqedbladea are the aafeat type



perspectives Three viewing The10xmagnification provided a magby nifer hand allows to examine you or lens three views wood's of structure, represented bythehardwood section log shown at rrght. transverse The section at right lies a n g l ets t h eg r a i n n di s v i s i b l ie t h e o a n endgrain stock. tangential of The and radial sections at 90'to thetransverse are section. tangential The section follows a straight thatis tangent thegrowth line to rings. section thesurface see This is you ontheface plain-sawn of lumber. radial A section exposed cutting straight is by a line from bark the through pith, the exposing grain lines appear vertrcal that as strips.








? OoO


Examining under microscope wood a At 100xmagnif ication, microscope a u n c o v em o r e e t a i lo f t h ec e l l u l a r rs d s structure wood of thancanbeseen through hand a magnifier. leftare At twoviews white pine, of illustrating key elementsspecies in identification. The (far transverse section lefDshows the size thetracheid andthetransiof cells tionin theirdensity ear-lywood from to latewood. evident a longitudinal Also is resin (near canal. tangential The section /eff) shows number thickness the and of therays thewood. in




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section a tlansverse Preparing from end the of Slice a sliver wood off grain your using sharp a sample of surface blade knife razor or Ueft).Ihe lf and should smooth even. the be dense is wood particularly anddtffithe cultto cut,firstsoak endgrain fora short timein hotwater.

sections and tangential radial Cufting mark cutting a section, Fora tangential rings the on to linetangent thegrowth the Cut edge thesample. along line of hands making your sure saw, witha band of withtheblade thetool arenotin line (right). a radial make an section, For at the cut end-to-end through sample the withthe rings highpoint thegrowth of piece saw on facedown the band table. lightly for Toclean thecuts viewing, up plane. with the smooth surfaces a hand which using sandpaper, willcrush Avoid thefibers.



WOOD IDENTIFICATION METHODS Although identifying requires wood andcanberevived moistening by a careful observationtheappropri- drywood of sample. practice atefeatures a sample, of Checkingsample hardness a for makes job easier. measure byrunning fingernail the First a along the thewidthof thegrowth grain noting degree indenrings, and and the of note color the andluster the of tation helodifferentiate can simiwood. Remember wood that exoosed larspecies suchas butternut and to sunlight airchanges and color, so black walnut. the hueof a freshly sample cut may Thestandard for macroscopic tool bedifferent afterit hasdried, Luster viewing wood a 10xhandlens. of is is nota common feature many of Choose withbuilt-in one illuminawoods, it canhelpdistinguish but tionforsharp resolution. Examine between species areotherwise that samples good in light,holding the alikein color, texture weight. and lens close oneeyeandmoving to Although odor, luster, distinc- thesurface bestudied focus. like is to into tivefor onlya fewwoods, canbea it Note distribution shape the and of particu- features asvessels, useful to identification, key such tracheids, larlyamong softwoods. is most Odor resin canals, earlywood, latewood, pronouncedfreshly lumber, pores medullary Therelain cut and rays. (in tivediameter vessels hardof (in softwood) wood) tracheids or is important determining texture in the of thewood; larger the these cells, thecoarser wood. distributhe The tionof pores within growth the rings willalso youwhether hardtell a wood ring-, is diffuse-, semi-ringor semi-diffuse-porous. viewing When endgrain, choose area average an of growth rate,avoiding defects like grain knots. cross and Withsoftwoods, for resin look canals; areonlypresent they in pine, spruce, larch andDouglas-fir. lf youarelooking rays-animporfor tantfeature hardwoods-they of are best seen a transversetangenon or tial surface,


Thetwophotos above showwhat theendgrain,or transyerse sections, two dffirent hardwood of samples wouldlooklikeunderthemagnification a handlens. ring-porous of A (above, hardwood left)features rows pores theeailywood clusters smaller of relatively large in and pores thelatewood. verticalbars of in The interrupting pores medullary the are rays. semi-ring-porous A wood(above,right) shows little distinction between earbryood latewood. the and Here,thepores evenly are distributed throughout tissue. the


A collection labeled wood of in samples beinvaluable can you helping become familiar It with a varietyof woods. mayalsocontain species a you wish to identify.

identifying unfamiliar an I orrectly out of \; woodsample of thousands possibilities requires observation, close knowledge andathorough ofwoodand matter, itsproperties. asa practical But to thepossible choices usuallylimited are several familiar species, a commerand cially available of labeled set woodsamples, astheoneshown right,may such at include piece matches wood a that the you areattempting identifr.Most to you to often,however, will need record thefeatures a sample, use wood of then a key identification froma bookto make sense ofyourresults. key a An identification is essentially master of woods theirproperlist and tiesthat serves a cross-reference as to link thefeatures a particular of sample name. keys require to a species Some thatyou compare entries their against features arevisible thenaked to eye that whileothers or with a 10xmagnifier, demand that you note microscopic details. other Still keys based the are on user having wide-ranging sensory informationaboutthewood,including its colot odor andtexture, thebark and of andleafshape thetreefrom which it came. Using a key is like climbing the to branches a tree.Youareasked of answer series paired a of statements, choosing onethatbest the describes the woodin question proceeding the and to nextpairindicated. each At statement, theuserforksontoa different branch

until reaching leafthatidentifies a the The may sample. firststatement involve If thetexture thewood. thewoodis of porous, example, aresent one for you to you if it setof statements; isnon-porous, jumpto adifferent of statements. You set flippingfrompage to continue way, this page abook, each gradualin as answer lyreduces choices. the Finally, search the isnarrowed a single to species.

Avoidkeysthat try to coverevery wood in speciestheworld; will prove they one toogeneral. Choose that describes region, asNorth trees a specific in such hardAmerican softwoods tropical or woods. Several classic canbefound keys your in woodworking boola;check local public library boolstore. agenor Some (below) offerwoodidentificacies also tion services.

Books Edlin, Herbert What L., Wood That? ls A Manualof Wood ldentification. 1969. New York: Viking, Wood. Hoadley, Bruce,ldentifying Nevvton, Connecticut: nton Tau Press, 1990. Panshin, andDeZeeuw, A.J. Technologr. Carl,Textbook Wood of New York: McGraw 1980. Hill, Rendfe, 8.J., World Timbers: Volumes 1-3.London: Ernest Benn, 1970. Sharp, John8., Wood ldentification: A Manualfor TheNon-Profexional. Knoxville: University Tennessee of Agricultural Extension Service, Forestry Wildlife and Extension, 1990. Research Timber Development Association, Timbers the World: of Volumes and2. Lancaster; I Construction Press, 1979. Agencies offer that wood identification services Center Wood For Anatomy Research Products U.S.Forest Laboratory 1 Gifford Pinchot Drive Madison, Wisconsi53705-2398 n International Collectors Wood Societv 2913ThirdStreet Trenton, Michigan 48183



Here anexample how typical is of a wood identif ication eLoraqe celle conapicuouo tn raye, forming ripple key works. thiscase, arestarting a plain-sawn In we conLinuouelineethrouqhoul, with marksexLendiniq laLewood: WaLer hickory acroea the 4ratn board an unknown of wood. firststep aimed The is at when tanqenLial narrowing investigation the to either hardwoodthe the or gectton of wood ta portion thekey. examine sample softwood your of You viewed:?eretmmon witha hand andobserve it has lens that vessels is and porous; accordingyour to key, is a hardwood. it Next, HearLwoodcheeLnuL- Heartwoodbrown youmust determine whether wood ring- difthe is brown Lo chocolat.e or to yellow-brown fuse-porous: notice itsearlywood sharply or purplioh brown You that is not you defined; aretoldthatit is The features examine therays. to are Seen thetangential in view your of sample, rays relatively the are narrow and uniform width. observation to another in This leads concerning size thepores thegrowth the of in rings. Since LaLewood ef,orage celle LaLewood atoraqe the pores theearlywoodyour in of sample larger are appeartn fine,continucellenot evideni oue ltnea than those thelatewood, indicates youhave in this that a semi-diffuse-porousNext, examine disyou wood. the tribution thepores thegrowth lf they of in ring. were unevenly distributed, key your the would identify sample Foreeevenly diaToreaunevenly diotrtbastanoak. Instead, pores your the in sample evenly are t,ributedthrou6huLedthroughout growth distributed. must You thenevaluate storage in the cells out growth rinq rin7 and found in cluaLere thelatewood. aeparatedby eectiona of Seeing they present a fine, that are in fibrouaLtssue:Tanoak unbroken youaredirected determine color line, to the of theheartwood. were lf it chestnut-brown orchocolate, youwould have piece black a of walnut butternut. or Butsince heartwood the you is brown yellow-brown, to Toree in the earlywoodlarger Toree uniform in size have either water hickory persimmon. therays or Since than thoee in the latewood; throuqhoutthe rin4 Lranaition qradual (eemi-d tfof your sample stacked are vertically, creating ripple fuee-poroue) you marks, keyleads to theendof your the quest: sample persimmon. the is
Kaye broad and viaible Woodrtnq-porouo (eailywoodeharply defined); earlywoodporea larqer LhanlaLewood poreoand viaible1;othe nakedeye Kaye narrow and uniform in width Wooddiffuee-poroue (earlywood not eharply defi,ned): earrwooa Pore??malter than latewoodporeoand visibleto the naked eye
Wood wiLhout eLacked raya; Wood with aLacked

Wood non -poroue (without veeeelo): Wood tieaue dominated by tracheide in diaLincL rowa; raye not viaible 1,othe naked eye

Woodporoua (with veoaelo):WoodLtosue dominated by veosele(poree) embeddedin fibroue tiaaue: raJ6 may or may not be viaibleto the nakedeye 5TART HERE


-|a h. desire gaina deeper underto leads of I standing woodeventually out woodworkers of the shopand some into the woods,andback lumberyard, your own to the treeitself.By sawing Iumber from logs,you can produce specmeeta project's that boards exactly ificationsand gain valuableinsight Each step into woodasa living material. as yieldsa thrill of discovery you watch patterns grain and figureemerge of from thelog. A numberof lumbermills on the marketallowyou to cut through-andor throughcut,plain-sawn quartersawn largestaThese toolsinclude boards. of tionaryproductionmills capable cutting logsmore than 20 feetin length, portablemodels with toughbandsaw and still smallerunits that use blades, chainsaws. that Theprocedures followshowyou howto cut logsinto lumberwith a chain by sawthat is guided a jig that attaches to it. Besides cuttingjig anda hearythe this simplemethodrequires duty saw, board, nothingmore than a straight a hammer anda fewnails. to are Most chainsaws designed crosscut trees-that is, buck the logsinto afterthe treesarefelled shorterlengths Cuttinglogsinto lumber anddelimbed. in is a rippingoperation whichthesawing is donealongthe lengthof the log, at Rippingwith a chainsawrequires least threetimesasmuchpowerascrosscutting, andthesawmustrun at full throtmostof thecut.Because tlethroughout muchportablelumbermilling involves to logs, isbest usea directit hardwood of drive chainsawratedat a speed at least3000feetper minute,with a ripTo strain pingchaininstalled. minimize logs try on thesaw, to select that arerelsuchastwist and ativelyfreeof defects with fewknotsandburls. taper, and cuttinglogswith a Felling trees work requiring chainsawis dangerous to workinghabits. attention Pay safe your taskat all timesand keepcutting and sharp, clean wellmaintained. edges prolonged work with chainsaws Since prowearhearing the candamage ears, or tection,suchasearplugs earmuffs. for Prooerdress chainsawwork also shieldandsteel-toed includes fuIl-face a You clothing. boots;do not wearloose chainsawgloves canalsodon special yourhands a pairofsafeand to protect ty chapsmadefrom a tough,sytthetic fiber,suchasKevlar'", to protectyour slip legsshouldthe sawaccidentally or iump back.

jigs commercial and Specialized you enable to cut logs machines Here,a bandsaw into lumber. a board lumber mill cuts 2-by-10 Thedevice from a squared-offlog. bladethat a features narrow-kerf produces waste thqna chain less to saw,makingit feasible cut planksasnarrowas % inch wqsle. thickwithoutexcessive



the 1 Squaring log I Tomark thecant-thesouaredout the off partof the log-andmaximize n u m b e rf b o a r dts e l o gw i l ly i e l d , o h on ends the log. of scribsa square both diameStart theendwiththesmallest at angle a carpenof ter.Place inside the just the and ter's square inside bark, of mark outside two edges the square lines witha pencil. Using scribed the (/eff,). guide, complete square the asa Measure sides thesouare of and the to theother of the log, end transfer them in making thatthepithis centered sure thesouare.



pattern the Choosing cutting (above, righil,divide square the lumber want.Forquartersawn between through-andBefore cutting log,choose the as Mark segment for segments. outthe middle out and through andquartersawing mark theappropriate intothree cut lines thetwo in cut lumber, scribe then pattern theends the log.For through-and-throughthrough-and-through on of cutting (above, scribe series lines in to those the outside segments areperpendicular that of within the /eff), a cut lumber perpendicular will or to The rings bemore less faces roughly are tangent thegrowth middle. growth to square thattheboard so you of boards. thefaces these to thickness rings. Space lines the according theboard



the Q Cutting cant r-t Setthelogon spacers, oneside with of the marked s0uare vertical. a 2Cut guide by-4 longer the log, than thenpositionit ontopof the logsothatit extends beyond end. each Align outside the edge of theguide withtheside thesquare of andnailit in place. wood Use shims to level guide. the Place lumber-cutting the jig onthe guide (above) adjust and its fence thatit runs so smoothly the along guide. Attach chain to thejig folthe saw lowing manufacturer's the instructions. To make cut,position jig onthe the the guide thesmallest of thelog. at end Then, withthesawblade clear thelog, of start upthesawandtip it forward thatthe so blade bites thelog. into Carefully step backwards draw jig along and the the guide, cutting through log theoththe to erend. cuttheother To sides, remove theguide rotate log.Repeat and the the procedure align guide the to the with square make cuI(right). and the Continue until thesides cut.To cut the all are resulting intoboards, thechain cant use you saw thejigto cutalong lines and the marked step lf youhave band in 2. a saw, youcancutthe logintoa manageable 6by-6 cantwiththechain saw, thenuse the band to cutthecantintoboards. saw With proits narrower a band blade kerf, saw duces waste a chain blade. less than saw



t(lc CROSSCUTTING JIG the Simplify taskof squaring the of cuttingit into ends a logbefore jig lumber thecrosscutting with jig,which The shown right. at can be builtto fit a variety logsizes, of of and consists a guide an inverted L-shaped frame withtwotriangular support brackets. To make jig, cut twopieces the plywood theframe. for of 7a-inch should Thelengths the pieces of exceed diameter the largest the of The logyouexpect handle. width to of thetop piece should equal the desired widthof cut.Screw two the pieces along thetriwith together Screw 2-by-4 a angular brackets. guide is at least inches longer that 8 thanthediameter thelogto the of with toppiece, aligning edge that its of thetop piece. To use jig,setthe logonspacthe ersandposition jig atopthe log. the Nailthesidepiece theframe of to sure theendof the log,making that is to theguide level square the and log's axis. up thechain and Set saw jig the lumber-cuttingontheguide asyouwould cut a logintoa cant to (page38).Thenstartthe sawand tio it forward thatthe blade so bites intothe log hight, below). Draw the jig along guide untilyoucut the through log.At the endof the the jig cut,thecrosscutting andthecutyou. will off piece topple toward Keep in the blade frombinding thekerf andstand clear thejig at theend of of thecut.



'"3*'.t *t




theNational Hardwood Lumber Association.In addition,some care probahas bly beentakento control the moisture content thestock of duringits stay the in yard.Youcanalsoasktheretailer furto nish stockthat is surfaced a uniform to thickness-anecessity woodworkers for who do not have access apowerplaner. to Thereareother,lesscostlywaysto obtain wood. If you live near a small sawmill, mayfindgoodqualitylumyou ber at a very low price.However, the woodwill probably green, be roughand ungraded-and it mustbestickered, seasoned surfaced and before canbeused it for furniture.Biggersawmills preferto Whatever your approach, thereare shaftanda hookat oneend dealwith largevolumesof wood and for several sources coverin your search to the a maybereluctant fill smallorders. to One Jlippingstock, rulerenables for raw materials. most obviousis The gradertofill an order woodquickly. answer to pool your materialneeds is for the locallumberyard. yardsstock Some with those otherwoodworkers. of Some specialty items, depending demand theareas service; sawmills sellyoutheir "planer on in they will outs"-small pieces varyof lumberyardsalong the coast,for example,might carry ingwidthsandthicknesses canbeboughtatbargain that prices. mahogany and teakfor boat construction and repair.But It may alsobe economical you to buy wood that has for because mostyards primarilysupply construction the trades, beenrecycled manyyears usein bams,factories, after of wharves your solid-wood choices probablybe will limitedto structur- and otherstructures. mayalsofind an opportunityto do You al softwood lumberand perhaps occasional an piece oak. your own recycling. of Reusing wood makes old sense environFor a wider choiceof hardwoods, for wood carvingand and mentally, and it is rapidly becomingthe only legalway of turning blanks,you will haveto rangefartherafield.Look in obtaining somespecies. addition,recycled In boards that were the YellowPages dealerships specialize fine hardfor that in cut from straight-grained old-growthtimber maybe superiwoods, scan advertisementswoodworking or the in magazines or to fresh lumbercut from smaller trees. Therearedrawbacks for mail-order woodworking-supply companies. to recyclingwood, however. Wear, andinsects rot mayaddup Youwill paytop dollarfor hardwoods boughtfrom a retail to a waste factorof 50percent more.And you shouldexpect or source, in return you will generally but receive materialthat to extractmanynails,boltsand staples-andstill ruin saw hasbeengraded qualityusingthestandards for established by blades encounters hiddenmetal. in with

omecraftsmen theirwood probuy jectbyproject. design lay They and out a piece furniture, of calculate the amount tlpe of woodrequired, and then embark aquest exactlywhat on for they need.Otherwoodworkers stockpile beautiful interesting or pieces wood of even before have specific they a project in mind.Picking through piles the the at local wooddealership, surveying felled Iogs a building or scavenging at site bucked logsleft overfrom roadside treework,these craftsmen accumulate promising woodin thedryingshed-a Principaltoolof thelumbergrader's supply serves aninspiration that as for trade, lumberruler measures a the future work. width of aboard.With aflexible

Different grades lumbercanvary widely-even in the of same stack boards. of Thereis no morecertainwayof geningwhatyou want thanselecting stock the yourself.


Board-foot calculations, henit is time to orderlumber verydifferent. of describe volume a for a project, pays do your whichactually it to you are at homework before goto thelum- wood, explained thebottomof the As rule, Bybecoming informed an and nextpage. a general you can beryard. you by stock likedimension thelinof well-organized consumer, increase order foot-25linear of 1-by-4lumber, feet youroddsof coming away with your ear The of You for example. mainlimitation needs andyourwalletintact. met however, that it only is having make extra trips this method, will also avoid to workswith lumberof uniformwidth to yoursupplier. . Species: for a specific wood andthickness. youmix dimenOnce Ask will family name. sions-asyou probably end up not a species, merely broad "white not oak," just doing when orderinghardwoodForexample, order "oak." proper- a boardfoot measurement becomes Every has species unique your to ties;select with thecharacteristics necessarydescribe needs. one Howyouorderyourwoodcanalso It thatsuittheneeds ofyourproject. can you softwood of on behelpful learn basics wood depend whether need to the (page since some orhardwood softwoods cin usuyou Wth at identification 30), widthor lengh, allyspecify board any lumberyards several similartypes of boards generally are woods maybelumped together under whilehardwood widthsandlengths, available random in name. thesame . Quantity: you on Lumber maybe ordered depending thegrade order. . SizeWood sold nominal rather is in either thelinearfoot or theboard by yoursupplier which thanrealsizes, remember make so to foot.Besure knows for when you using, they measure are because are allowances thedifference orderpiece A ing surfaced lumber. 1-by-6 of 3/q pine,for example, actually inch is widewhendried thickand5%inches With or andsurfaced. rough, unsurfaced green lumber, nominal real the and sizes For on are same. moreinformation the hownominal realsizes and compare, refer thecharts pages (hardon 46 to woods) 48(softwoods). and Thethickness hardwood boards is of commonly expresseda non-reduced as fraction quarters aninch.A l-inchin of is for thickoakboard, example,termed plank % lumbera 1%-inch-thick is % andsoon. . GradeWhen ordering particular a grade terminoloofwood, standard use gy.Refer the charton page for 47 to 49 hardwoods on page for softand woods. maindifferences The between grades lie higher lowerhardwood and In in appearance thanstrength. rather wood general, reserve higher-grade for parts thevisible ofyourprojects.

Carryinglumber aar by with juol a Traneportlumberon your car eafelyand oecurely f ew pieceoof rope.Tieone ropet o a eolid sf,ructure in t'he t runk -a Lrunkhinqe, example-and makea loopaf. lhe other end, for a Secure secondrooeunderlhehoodandform anolherloop,At, hitch bhe the lumberyard, Nhe elip woodthrouqhone loopand Nhen lumber from lurchinq backand keep N'he other one in poeition,To torLh,tie a ihird ropearoundlhe lumberand secureit to Nhewindow poel.Ueefoamorlowelslo proteclthe sideofyour car,



. Seasoning: Lumberis sold either (AD).The kiln-dried(KD) or air-dried practicaldifference between two is the thatKD woodhasa lowermoisture content-about 8 percent, while air-dried, high-density hardwoods generally have a moisture content range 20to 25 perof cent. Softwoods lower-density and hardwoodsareair-dried 15to 20 percent to moisture content. lumberii thereKD fore preferable makingindoor furfor niture,because wood is unlikelyto the dry out any further;aswell, the kiln's heatallowsthe wood'scellsto reposition, reducing likelihoodof warpthe ing and checking. This doesnot mean you needto restrict yourselftobuying onlyKD lumber,however;in fact,many prefermoisterwood,makingAD carvers wood a betterchoice them.Youcan for bring air-driedwood to the appropriate moisturelevel for cabinetmaking, as shownin the Drying andStoringWood chapter(pageTB).

. Surfacing: known dressing, Also as surfacing to howlumber been refers has prepared themill before is sent at it to thelumberyard. Lumber issurfaced that is usually surfaced bothsides: on S2S lumber been has planed smooth both on faces, S4S while wood had has bothfaces jointed. planed bothedges and Rough, or unsurfaced, lumber(Rgh)is less expensive either or S4S than S2S wood, andif youowna planer a jointer, and youcansave moneyby surfacing rough (page lumber yourshop in 53). A sample orderfor woodat a lumberyard mightbeasfollows: bd.ft. 100 %FAS oak,S2S. wouldamount red This to 100 board of nominally feet 2-inch(Firsts Seconds) red thickFAS and grade oakwith planed bothfaces smooth. Once receive lumber, you your check it carefully make youare to sure getting whatyouwant.If theorderdoes not meetyourspecifications, not feel do obliged buyit. to

o Make copies yourcutting two of list (page 44); giue to the lumone beryard keep foryourself. and one r When ordering hardwoods, request planks some realistic sizes. Large of species notavailable; are hardwoods generally are available in random widths lengths. and . Whenever possible, inspect the you lumber willbebuying. . Examine board seehow each to project. it willfit intoyour Where appropriate, it boards test-f together for a good visual match; for if, you example, arebuilding table, a lineuptheboards have you selectedfor thetabletoo becertain to pattern. theyforman interesting . Once have you selected the you boards intend buy,besure to to leave pileneatly the stacked. Lumber is notstacked that conectlv tends warp canbedamaged. to and

1"x 12"x 12"= | eYs11;12rd board foot l-by-7=lboardfoot



2-by-4 = 2 2/sboard feet

Ordering lumber theboard by foot Because board is a unitof measurement the foot thatoffers standard of totaling volume a way the of stock regardlessdimensions, commonly of it is used when dealing lumber. shown left, with As at thestandard footisequivalenta piece board to that is I inch thick, inches and inches 12 wide 12 long. Tocalculate number board in a particuthe of feet larpiece wood, of multiply three rts dimensions together. divide result 144 if the Then the by d i m e n s i oa rs a l l i n i n c h e s ,r b y 1 2 i f o n e ne o dimensionexpressedfeet.For standard is in the board, formula the is: + I " x 1 2 " 1 2 " I 4 4 = | ( o r1 "x 1 2 " I ' + 1 2= I ) . x x Soif youhadan8-foot-long you 1-by-3, would calculate board asfollows: x 3 x 8 + 12 = 2 the feet 1 (or2 board feet). Other examples shown the are in illustration. Remember board arecalculatthat feet edonthebasis nominal of rather actual than sizes.





Making using cutting a list and A cutting records finished list the sizes proneeded a oarticular for of thelumber j e c t . t m a y ei n c l u d e di t h h ep l a n s l w t b you youpurchase; to otherwise, willhave your of fashion ownbased a drawing on r T u t h ed e s i g n .a l l y pt h en u m b eo f b o a r d p f e e tf o re a c h i e c e s i n gh ef o r m u l a u t shown page tackon anextra on 43; 30 in to for to 40 oercent account defects and For shown thewood waste. the project , t r 6 o nt h i sp a g ew h i c h o t a l s o u g h lly you 20 board feet, should order least or at lumber addition in to 25 board of a/a feet quantity plywood thenecessary of sheetn i n g . i , e u t t i n lg s ts h o u l id c l u dte e T c i h name thepart, quantity, dimenof the the sions thepieces thekind wood of and of for For suitable the prolect. convenience, piece. to assign letter each a

CUTTING LIST Piece ATop B Bottom CS i d e D Fixed shelf E Adjustable shelf front F Drawer side G Drawer H Drawer back I Drawer bottom J Back Oty. 1 1 2 1 1 I 2 1 i 1 L. 23Vt

23Vq 223/e

W. 13 13 13 13 I2Vz

Th. 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 I
rlt Yd

Material Board feet 2.I0 ash ash ash ash ash ash ash ash plywood plywood 2.I0 5.78 2.I0 L94 .77 .80 .74

IlVz 2lVq 2IVq

5 5 10 24



is T umbergrading a wayof evaluating l-.i thesurface aualiwof a boardaccording to certainitandards, takinginto account factors suchasthenumber, size and degree defects thewood.The of in goalis to ensure that woodworkers get whattheypayfor; a boardof a certain gradeof wood boughtin Mainewill closely resemble similar-grade a board purchased New Mexico. in At first glance, rulesof grading the may seemarbitrary.For starters, the standards differentfor softwoods are and hardwoods, result the enduseof the of eachtypeof wood.Softwoods priare marilyused construction, a gradin so er may assume that a softwood board will be usedasis, with no furthersurfacing. Hardwood boards, the other on hand,arealmostalways planed, crosscut andrippedinto smaller pieces fit to a particular piece furniture.Addedto of that is the factthat,while thereis one standard hardwoods, for softwoods are furtherdividedinto separate groups and graded according rulesestablished to by differentorganizations. Takingthe time to become familiar with hardwood and softwood grading will pay dividends.A sound understanding the gradingsystem of enables you to select mostappropriate the board for thejob at hand;it canalsosave you money. There no need, example, is for to orderlongplanks oftop-grade FAS(or Firsts and Seconds)lumbermostof if the pieces the cabinet intendto of you build areonly threeor four feetlong. Youwouldprobably betteroffbuybe ing No. I Common, whichis considerablycheaper, will be adequate and once you havecut out the defects. Lumberproducers vendors and have long found it advantageous study to wood typesand set rulesfor grading to guarantee uniform product.Oneof a theearliest ilstances grading of occurred in 1764, when Sven Aversdon ofStockpine hohn dividedSwedish into four categories-best, good,commonandculls. During the lBth Century, appearance wasthe primary criterionfor grading wood,but asknowledge ofwoodpropertiesincreased, standards chaneed to include strength theamountolclear and or usable woodin each board. Thebest wayto become familiarwith grades to visita lumberyard examis and ine stockfirsthand.Getto know how a hardwood gradelike FASdiffersfrom No. I Common.And whenyou Select lumber, tryto picturehow each part can becutout of a boardwith theleast waste.

Cutting No. lt Cutting No,5:

3 t/2" x 4',/z' (15 3/+ unita)

41/2" x 41/z' (2O 1,/a unite)

B 1/2"x 41/z' (38 1/+unita)

Cutting No.4: 6" x 5 2/a'(34 uniLe)

Equipped lumber penandlogbook, professional with rule, a grader evaluate lumber can a hardwood in roughly board 15 seconds. Although system scientific, is notfoolproof the is it . Grading alldone eye-the of a human is by grader. eye Still, quality rigid control ensures only very that percentage a small of boards notgraded are correctly. Here thefourbasic are graders to make steps lumber take theirassessment: L Determine species multiply length thewidth the and the by (SM) of theboard findthesurface to measure in square feet(1 in theboard = above, inches foot) 12 feet 12 SM. 12 x 2. Choose poorest fromwhich grade visualize the face to and

thenumber imaginary of defect-free thatcanbemade; cuts in thiscase, 4. 3. Determine number portions cutting the of of units-clear lumber wide 1 long-that bemade 1" by can fromthe4 cuts; (lf in thiscase, I08y4. theboard perfect, would yield were it 144cutting units.) 4. Consultchart lists qualities different a that grades the of andfactor thenumber cutting in of units thenumber and of allowable A No.1 Common cuts: board requires twothirds that of thetotal cutting units clear. are Given size thisparticthe of ular board, to 4 cuts up would allowed. be Since board this meets both criteria, justifies grade 1 Common. it the No.


gradyears hardwood ago, ,.{ hundred :i-l ing variedfrom mill to mill, but u,ith the formation of the National (NHLA) Lumber Association Hardwood standardized. in 1898, grading became strictlyon At first,the ruleswerebased in thenumber andsize defects; 1932 of the theywerebroadened reflect proto portionof a boardthiitcanbe cut into These pieces, called cuttings. smaller pieces mustbe clear onesideand on Theirsize deteralso sound theother. on hardwood minesthe grade.Today's assume boards that grading standards pieces to trre invariably into smaller cr,rt is on makeftrrniture; thus,grade based face, in poorest except thecase a board's rvhich takes board's the best of Select, into account. face hardis standard Select oneofseven is rvoodgrades. top grade FAS(an The foland abbreviation ofFirsts Seconds), No. No. lowed Select, 1 Cot.nuron, 2A by and28 Common, No.3ACommon and andNo. 3B Common(clnrt, opposite). No. 2A and No. 28 Corrmonarefrequently lumped togetheras No. 2 manyiumberyards likewise, Common; 3A togethsellNo. andNo.38 Common er asNo.3 Common. Thebetter grade, higher the the the of B3' pefcentrge clerrcuttiugs: r perface mustbeclear centof Select boards cnttir-rgs; 50 percentof a No. 2 only need defect-fi'ee. But board be Common is art grading a moresubtle than these indicate. Tr,vo boards that calculations number arethesame with thesame size grades: can ofdefects endup in different mtry Theposition thedefects prevent of oneboardfrom havinglargeenough to clear cuttings makethehighergrade of theotherboard. Althoughpayingmore for bettern-Ieans youwill endup that grade stock fewer this rvithwoodhaving defects, may to not always theeconomicalthing be modest, do. If your projectis relatively from a hand-pick lumberyourself the variety depending thefturcon ofgrades, Where tion of each boardin the piece. face onlyonedefect-li'ee isialledfor,the is select grade a goodchoice. for the Or, thatare pieces ofyour ftirnitureproject you relatively small,for example, may be ableto getby with No. 1 Common No. boards boards. 2A Common srade in for ire suitable thepartsofprojects rvhichappearancenot of paramount is imoortance. suchashiddenfurniture If lumframes. youdo buylower-grade plan wher.r ber,however, on morewaste of youarecalculating number board the feetto order. beauty in theeyeof the is Of course, feel cabinetmakers that beholder. Some to defects suchasknotsaddcharacter a piece furniture. And if mostof the of partsrvill end up beingsmall,lowerwoodisuotonlyrrrore grade ecortorttifor be cal,it mayalso nore suitable the moreattractaskat hand-by yielding rvood. tivelyfigured

THICKNESS STANDARD FOR SURFACED HARDWOOD Nominal Actual (rough) (surfaced sides) two

3/rc" 5/to" 1/rc" e/rc" 3/4t or r3/16t1

Vr" Te'


1 q / n l"/16



IVz"or I3/q" 2Y4" 33/4'

Tlrese oak boords twLt dentortstrstetlrc rottge hardtood of T t , r r ( / ( ' s . l r c l o pb o , r r ,,l' o t r l , r i r t s a,s krnts artd is classi.ficd No.2A Corrrrrtort; bottotrr the boartlis FAS r. defbct-fi'ce grodelrurilte




GRADE Allowable length of board Allowable width of board Minimum of % clear face cuttings Minimusize f m o clear cuttings FAS 8'-16' 6" orwider 83Vt% 3 "x 7 ' ; 4"x5' SELECT 6 ' , -1 6 ' 4" orwider 83Vz% 3 "x 7 ' ; 4"x5' N0.1 C()MMON 4',-L6' 3" orwider 662/s% 3 "x 3 ' ; 4 "x 2 ' N0.2A& 28 C()MMON 4' - I6', 3" orwider 50% 3" x2', NO.3A C()MM()N 4' - I6', 3" orwider 33%% 3"x2' NO.38 C()MMON 4' - I6', 3" orwider 25% Notless than 172" wide containing 36 square inches

Formula determine S M + 4 to number cuts of A M a x i m un u m b e r m
^{ ^l^^. ^,.++;-^^ ur Lrtrdt uuLUilB5

SM+4 +

S M + l+ 3 5

SM+2 7



permitted Reading chart the This chart, created theNational by Hardwood Lumber Associa(NHLA), tron records minimum the requirements a board must meet merit particular to grade. a Generally, a higher-grade board is longer, wider more and defect-free one a lesser than of grade. pieces obtained asfewcutsaspossible. Theclear are wrth B yc o m p a r i nh ed i m e n s i oo fs b o a r w i t ht h ef i g u r e s tg na d supplied thechart, is possrbledetermine grade in it to the of piece a particular of lumber. firsttwohorizontal oroThe rows

vide data minimum on board dimensions each grade. for The thirdrowgives information thepercentagedefect-free on of surface, clear cuttrngs,board or face a must have each for grade. minimum of each The size clear cutting listed face is jn row four. Once surface orsurface the (SM), area, measure of a board determined, formula row5 willgive is the in the total number cuttings of allowed a particular for grade. Row 6 contains number clear the of cuttings grade permits. each The location lumber grades a log of on grades lumber, asFAS High of such andSelect, generally from are cut the partof the log,near bark. outer the N o .3 C o m m og r a d e so u n d l o s e r n f, c t o t h ep i t h , r en o ta l w a ys u i t a b l e a s forcabinetmaking arefrequenily and used packing for crates pallets. or In some species, aswalnut, such where color important, sapwood is the does notqualify topgrade, though as even it may clear. be

FA9 9elect N o . 1C o m m o n No.2A and 2E Common N o . 3 Aa n d 3 E Common


generally cabinetmakers I lthough many hardwoods, finepieces fI prefer built with softbeen of furniturehave reasons using for wood. There good are Softless cousin: hardwood's expensive available more woodisgenerally readily to and thanhardwood, is easy work. popular choicPine one themost is of include Itsvarieties es cabinetmakers. of pine yellow Southern white Eastern pine, such sugar from andspecies theWest, as pine, Idaho whitepineandponderosa Western softpine. Douglas-fir, another popularity acabas gaining is wood, also larch and spruce Westem inetwood. Sitka good choices. are other two restrict you Forcabinetmaking, should in shown of yourself grades softwood to page. Rememon thechart thefollowing sold are berthatsoftwoods generally on smooth both S4S-thatis,planed And on faces jointed theedges. they and best graded on based theboard's face are after surfacing. are softwoods Unlikehardwoods, on depending the graded differently redfor the species; grade a California does for woodboard, example, not pine. to ofponderosa You apply a piece about softwood information canobtain
from the American gradingstandards Committeein GerLumber Standards mantown.Marvland. gradingtakes both strength Softwood into account.Three and appearance Finish and gradecategories-Select, Common-are often usedfor woodmust working.Select Finishgrades and while boardsin the be clearof defects, grades may containdefects Common and Finish suchastight knots.Select moisture content to stockareseasoned a or Commonboards, of 15percent less. and used mainlyin construction homebuilding,may haveup to a 19percent level. Thequalityof Common moisture grade is boards furtherdividedinto catnumber I egories to 5, with the highest grade. to corresponding the lowest Someboardsdisplaya gradestamp, like the one shown on page49. The informationaboutthe stampdisplays whensurfaced moisture content species, and gradeof the stock.To avoid marhowever, l-inchring their appearance, are thick boardsin the better grades The aftersurfacing. often not stamped stampmay alsobe missingfrom lesser gradeboardsthat havebeencut into lenghsby retaillumberdealers. shorter Keepin mind that softwoodis sold accordingto nominal size,or green which is differentfrom a dimensions, board'sactualsize.A2-by-4,for example, actuallymeasures lt/zby 3t/zinchnominalsizes Thechartbelowshows es. boards of somecommonly available whensufaced. alonewith their true sizes

Thk Fr ench- Canadian nightstand was built entirely with pine-an attractive alternative to more hardwoods. expensive

dry Surfaced
I-by-2 1-by-3 1-by-4 1-by-6 1-by-8 1-by-10 I-by-12 2-by-2
3/q-by-Ir/z .3/a-by-2Vz 3/q-by-3Y2 3/q-by-51/z 3/q-by-7t/+ 3/q-by-9t/q 3h-by-IlVt



green Surfaced
2s/zz-by_teAo 2s/sz_by_2e/rc 25/sz_by_3e/rc 2s/ez-by-5Ye 25/sz-by-7Vz 25/zz-by-91/z 2s/gz-by-lI1/z Ie/rc-by-IsAa

it0MtNAt 0NcHES)


dry Surfaced
2-by-4 2-by-6 2-by-8 2-by-I0 2-by-I2 3-by-4 4-by-4 4-by-6
I1/z-by-3t/z Ir/z-by-5Vz l1/z-by-7rh lr/z-by-91/t IVz-by-Ilth 2Vz-by-3Vz 3r/z-by-3r/z 31/z-by-5r/z

green Surfaced Le/rc-by-3e/rc ls/$-by-5Ye Ie/rc-by-7Vz ls/rc-by-9Vz Ie/rc-by-Mz 2s/rc-by-3s/rc 3e/rc-by-3eAo 3eAo-by-55/a




CHARACTERISTICS (supreme) Clear Select andBTR B appearance highest quality; and minor defects blemishes. and ldeal withclear finishes, always Not available; expensive (choice) C Select quality; High small defects blemishes and (quality) D Select quality; Good defects blemishes pronounceo and more Superior Finish quality finish grade Highest of lumber; minor defects blemishes and Prime Finish quality fewdefects blemishes High with and (colonial) No.1 Common Has limited availability size and ranges; have may smalltight knots, making grade this appropriate knotty if a appearance is desired (sterling) No.2 Common Larger, coarser defects blemishes; used and often where knotty a appearance strong with character desired is GRADES

Reading a grade stamp Most grade softwood stamps, the like one shown left, at contain basic five elements. code A number identifies mill the thatproduced board, thegrade the and of thewood appears to thetradenext mark theagency established of that the (in rules grading wood thiscase, for the theNortheastern Lumber Manufacturers Association). species also The is noted; sometimes thanonespecies more is stamped theboard, on indicatingmay it beany those of listed. Finally, seathe soning information reflects moisture the content thewood thetimeit was of at surfaced: S-DRY means theboard that was surfaced seasoning hasno after and more than19 percent moisture content; MC15 refers a board a maximum to with moisture content 15 percent; of S-GRN is reserved unseasoned surfaced for wood witha moisture content above oer19 cent. board hasbeen A that surfaced while green still tends shrink its to and dimensions notbeasaccurate will as those a board hasbeen of that surfaced after was it seasoned.


O R W AP t N E @ Y


affect adversely ostlumberdefects strength, appearance, a board's workabilityor ability to takea finish. or however, irregularities Sometimes, make piece a abnormalities actually can when especially of woodmoredesirable, figa distinctive theyproduce popular, or ure like bird's-eye burl. Of course, intendeduseis the final arbiter;what is maybea blemish onewoodworker to for point.Knots, selling another board's defect would be a significant example, but for in boardsintended a tabletop, feature some of theyarean essential types ofpaneling. are Lumberdefects eithernatural, man-made the resultof poor seaor natural defects All soning. woodharbors by that arecaused growingconditions itself. same The of or qualities thespecies maybe present differin typeof defect are ent woods.Someimperfections Loose knots,for found in all species. simplyby theway example, caused are grow. Theyaretheremnants broof trees become encased kenbranches have that by thegrowthof newwood.Othernatincludegum in hardwoods, ural defects wood and oitchin softwoods reaction Naturalforces suchas in all soecies. can fire,wind, fungi and insects also defects wood. A common in cause sortisbluestain. defect oFthis occurwhenwood is Several defects to to the air and allowed dry. exposed Because wood doesnot shrinkuniwarpingcan formly in all dimensions, resultwhen the moisturecontentof lumber droosbelow a certainlevel. (Refer theDryingandStoring Wood to for on chapter moreinformation propcommon of er seasoning wood.)Some defects checks, are bow,cup, seasoning in twist,crookandsplit.Keep mind that these defects alsooccurin boards can comcutclose thepith of a log.Some to in mon defects exolained the chart are belowandopposite. it to Although isvirtuallyimpossible defect-free, buywoodthatis completely youcanincrease chances your ofobtaining thebestlumberfor your needs by 42). your woodcareftilly(page selecting is Anotherpoint to consider that you if some lumberwith defects cansalvase to tools you havjaccess the necessary 53). andlearnhow to usethem (page

The top board shows splits, Threepiecesof oak with defects: at checks oneend,and the bottonr the middlepiecereveals knot and reactionwood. a boerddisplays crook,a loose


Loose dead or

not weaken with Appears a whorl is intergrown thesurrounding Does seriously as that can Knots formasthegirthof thetreeincreas- a board; becutoutor wood tissue. as dictates. lf the are used, appearance the es,gradually enveloping branches. branches the inteenvelopment,knot stillalive thetimeof their at grates thewood thetreetrunk in with knots before working ring. When a Remove by Appears a whorl as encircled a dark is enveloped withthelumber. stump eventually branch theremaining dies integrate with But stump cannot bythetrunk. thedead or knot, it, creatingloose dead a thetissue surrounding



CHARACTERISTICS Anaccumulationthesurface theboard in oockon of or etswithin board. the Usually develops a treehas when suffered injury, an exposure fireor insect to attack.

REMEDIES Donotusewhere quality a finish required, gumwill is as bleed through most finishes.

Lengthwise ruptures separations wood, or in the usuallycaused rapid by drying. compromise May strength andappearanceboard. of

Canbecut off.


Anend-to-end along face, curve the usually caused byimproper storage lumber. of Introduces internar stresses thewood make difficult cut. in that it to An edge-to-edge across face,usually curve the caused when face a board one quickly of dries more thanthe other. Common tangentially stock, boards on cut on cutclose the pith,or if oneface a board less to of has contact theairthantheother. with Uneven irregular or warping where corner not one is aligned theothers. with Results uneven from drying or grain pattern is notparallel theedge. a cross that to

Flatten bowed boards on (page or cut thejointer 55), pieces, use intoshorter then thejointer. Cupmay correct itself both if faces allowed dryto are to thesame moisture content. Cupped boards besalcan vaged the bandsaw(page on 54) or jointer(page55). Board besalvaged can on joinler(page55),or cut into shorter boards.

End-to-end along edge, curve the caused incorrect by seasoninghaving pithof a logclose theboard or the to edge. Weakens wood, the making unsuitable it for weight-bearing ications. appl Similar checks, to appearing separations as along thegrowth rings. known ringcheck ring Also as or shank. Results improper from drying wood of or felling domage. Appears a darkstreak as across faces edges the or of planer lumber. Occurs when knives dullorspin are on onepartof board toolong. for

Board besalvaged can onjointer table or saw (page55).

Board be used, split can but maymartheappearance of thewood, becoming more noticeable stainis when applied. Remove machine with burn jointer(page or sander. 53)

Appears a discoloration surface otherwise as of the on normal-looking Results molds flourish wood. from that when lumber dried stored warm, is or in moist poorly or ventilated conditions. Species holly English like and sycamore prone blue are to stain.

Conceal a dark with stain.




wood Recognizing reaction is wood, shown above, characReaction growth rings itscompressed terized by when lifeless lt occurs color. and silvery, ed h a sa p r o n o u n c c u r v e , a t r e et r u n k grows when tree a on asoften happens a slone This defect also seen can in be pithof a trunk. boards close the cut to probposes wood Working reaction with it forthewoodworker; becausehas lems properties northan shrinkage different in malwood, internal the stressesthe and a blade bind to board cause saw can i s c u to r t k i c kb a c kW h e nh ew o o d . i s e s a n d e dt, h a sa f u z z y u r f a ca n d reaction Bending absorbs unevenly. stain any on cause wood placing Ioad it may or it to break across grain. the

llj lll ill {il ul irJi$ i$ ut iil ul ul i$ ul ul {Ij ru ui 1HO?TI?
lumberfor lwist Checking but be Warped boards can somelimee touqhI'o recoqnize, you can slicks. wit.hlheatdof ohop-made windinq olockquickly epoltwieled, t'he Io CuI Nwonarrowboard,a a lenqlhthatr ie trwice widLhof lhe then ard board Nobe tested.I eI Lhebo f acedownon a workLable, to 3i4hl elickeaL bolh endo, bhe place winding Varallel eachot'her. Lopo Yourboardie twieted if Nhe et acroo;Ihe t opeof Nhe tcks. aligned. of the slicks are noNperfectly

l l l i l i l l t i l { l l l { t l l t l l i l l l l l l l l l l l i l l l l l l l l t r i l r r i i l i ir i r i l i l l l l l l l l l


hefirstjobin a cabinetmaking projectinvolves preparing stock. your If youowna jointer, planer a table a and saqyoucandotheworkyourself. Whether constructlarge to a cabinet jewelry or a miniature box,lumber is generally prepared thesame The in way. procedures followdepend how you on the wood was surfaced beforeyou bought Forrough it. you boards, start by smoothing face thejointer, one on thenone edge. will give adjoinThis you ingsurfaces areperfectly that square to pass second each other. Next, the face through planer thatthefaces a so are parallel. youcanrip yourboards Now to widthandcrosscut to lengh. them ForS2S lumber, whichhasalready you hadbothfaces surfaced, need only SURFACING STOCK
pass edge one across jointer,thenrip the and crosscut. wood,with all four S4S surfaces dressed. be cut to width and can lengthimmediately; edges will only that be gluedtogether need bejointed. to Althoughlumberwith defects should be avoided, may find yourself you with a few warpedboardsyou do not want to discard. Several simple techniques for salvaging defective stockareshownon pages and55.A cupped 54 boardcanbe ripped into several narrowerpieces, in effectflatteningthe curveinto stripsthat can be jointed. A crookedor bowed boardcanbe salvaged thejointer by on graduallycutting awaythe high spots. And a simplejig canbe usedwith the tablesawto transforma boardwith an uneven edge into a square piece.

Forsurfacing board push a face, blocks helpto keep stock and flat your hands pressure safe. Lateral keeps edge the against fence. the

Jointingboard a lAa Seta cutting depth between and7einch. Joint board asshown the a face in jointan edge, photo above. To feedthestock slowly across cutterhead, the (page making thattheknives cutting thegrain sure are with 29).While feeding theworkpiece theknives, a hand-over-hand to keep over use motion downward just pressure thepiece to the outfeed of the cutterhead, on side maintaining pressure against fence. the Continue these movements youfinish cut. until the



Planing stock Seta cutting depth to %ainch. up Stand to onesideof the olaner useboth and hands feedthestock to carefully into themachine, keeping board the edges parallel theedges the planer to of table. grips board Once machine the the and pulling across cutterhead, begins it the support trailing to keep flaton the end it the table(right). the cut progresses, As move the outfeed of the olaner to side withbothhands andsupport piece the roller. you untilit clears outfeed the lf passes reduce aremaking several to the plane board's thickness, thesame amount of wood fromboth faces. willminiThis mize warping.


Ripping into cupped stock narrow boards This for involves band technique salvaging cupped boards the saw, youcanachieve same but the result witha table or a saw your radial saw. youareusing band arm lf a saw, install widest blade setup a ripfence themachine's and on table. the Set width cut;thenarrower setting, flatter resulting of the the the

(high) boards. make cut,settheboard To a convex sideup on thetableand,butting board the against fence, the feedit (above). sure steadily the blade into Make thatneither hand is in line withthecutting edge. Finish cutwitha push the stick. (page Remove remaining spots thejointer any high on 55).



Jointing concave convex and surfaces Thediagrams leftshow at howto "straighten out"crooked boards the on jointer. severity thedefects The of is greatly exaggerated forclarity theillusin tration; extreme should straightcrook be ened a table asshown on saw below, 0n thejointer, idea to pass high the is the spotonthe board's repeatedly edge across thecutterhead theedge straight. until is For convex, outward-bowing, the or edge (left, pass above), thehighspotat the middle the board of across knives the as (cuts many times necessary I and2). as "nose-diving," Avoid or allowing leadthe ingedge rideupduring cut.When to the thesurface f lat,make finalpass is a (cut along entire the edge 3).Toflatten theconcave, inward-bowing, (/eff, or edge joint below), oneendof theboard as (cuts many times necessary 1 and2), as then turntheboard around reoeat to the process the other at end (cuts and4). 3 jointThis operationsimilar basic is to i n g ,e x c e p t a ty o uo n l y u tt h eh i g h th c spot thetrailing of theboard. at end Start thecutwiththeleading of the board end an inchor soabove tablelevel. Feed the piece toward cutterhead the with only trailing in contact the the end with infeed part table. When deepest of the theconcave is above knives, edge the lower leading of theboard the end onto theoutfeed table complete pass. and the Once surface even, the is make final a pass lenghof theboard 5). (cut the Flattening bowed stock simrlar face is to jointing: theboard with concave down, face passes necessary make many as as to remove high the spots theends. near Use push your blocks keep to fingers safely away fromthecutterhead.


5 : 5 :

lllt llll fllt lllt tlll l]Il flll ult tlll flt] illt lllt illt illl illl ilI] t][l l]ll
5trai6hteningout an uneven edge Even ouLlhe edgee of a crooked boardon the Lablesaw wiNh a jiq. ohop-made CUN a piece 3/+-inch of plywoodwiLhpertectly parallel edqeo. ?laceNheboard oquarely to? of Nheplywood, on with the uneven parNoverhanging edqe.tsult etop blocke one againotNhetrailinq andedqe end oftheboardas shown,then screw Nhe blocke Nhe No plywood. AtLachNoggle clampe Ihe blocks to and Ihe preee clampo downNoeecure board the jiq. 1et Ihe width the to -oliae of cuI equalNo'Nhe width of rhe Vlywood piece and *,e iiq acro*e lhe eawtable,cuttin4 the edqeof Nheboardetraiqht.


he time-honoredtechniqueof arrayof appealing configurations-herveneering transform simple can a ringbone and reverse-diamond among cabinet door into a flamboyant burstof others. Theycanalsotakefull advantage colorandgrain,an unassuming piece of of such beautiful unstable but woodcuts furniture into a seamless work of art. ascrotchandburl, whichareimpossiAnd thoughwood veneers haveshifted bleto work with in solidform. in and out offavor overthe centuries, Theold masters veneered a solover woodworkers haveusedthem to marid-woodbase, substrate, or usinghot velous effect since ancient the Egyptians gluemadefrom animalhides, bloodand embellished with thin sheets objects of bones. Theysmoothed veneer the and precious woods.In the lBth and early pressed air bubbles out with special l9th Centuries, veneers fine became the hammers. Whilehammer-veneering is hallmarkof sophisticated, high-style Decorativematching of veneers can still practiced, today's craftsmen may furniture. Largeswaths distinctive createunusual qnd breathtakingeffects, choose moremodernveneer of a press; wood veneers covered tabletops; marsuch as the natural grain figure theycanalsochoose from a muchwider quetrypictures-delicate patterns made selection gluesand substrates. of The featured in this Victorian davenport. by aligningpieces ofveneerand insetgluemaybean aliphatic- plastic-resin or ting them in the surrounding wood-decorated manner type;the substrate be anyoneof a numberof manufacall may ofcabinetry. turedboards, mostpopularly plyvood,particleboard medior Veneering declined with the advent productionmachinof um-density fiberboard. introduction these The of manufactured ery in the l9th Century, only to reboundonceagainin the boards revolutionized furnituredesign: Because boards the early20thCentury with advances manufactured in boardtech- aredimensionally stable-they neitherswellnor shrink with nologyand improvedadhesives. materials As continueto seasonal changes humidity-traditional frame-and-panel in improve, veneering makes more sense than ever. Furniture designs be replaced largeunbrokenveneered can by surfaces. that wouldbe prohibitively expensive craftfrom solidexotto Of thevariety manufactured of boards, cabinetmakers probic woods beveneered thesame can with woods a muchmore at ablymake mostuseof plpvood,itselfa productof veneer the reasonable cost. construction. Plywoodis available manygrades many in for And, of course, veneering todayoffersthe same esthetic uses; always thebest buy you canafford. Cabinet-grade hardadvantages always With veneers, it has. woodworkers free wood pllwood, whichis already are faced with attractive veneers, to create stunning grainpatterns with such techniques bookas is a cost-effective alternative solidwood-ideal for such to matchingor slip-matching; they canarrange veneers an in projects wallandfloor cabinets, as bookcases drawer and fronts.

Manufactured boards offerthesolidityof hardwood alongwithgreater dimensional stability. Clockwise of from lowerleft is a sampling the mo p op ular cabinetmakin typ es: softw od plnv ood, me st g o dium-den particleboard, sityfiberboard, hardboard Balticbirchplywood. and


furniture\ / eneerrevolutionized V makingasfarbackas2000 when sc, theEgyptians handsawed sheets thin of wood and then adhered them to thickwith animalglueand heater backings Veneering edsandbags. soondeveloped into a refined andbecame hallmark art a The rococo of many furniture stvles.

styles theLouisXV periodin themidof 1700s fostered demand kingwood, a for tulipwood,purpleheart rosewood and veneers, whilethefuts andCrafts movementof thelate1800s ignitedacrazefor marquetry based mahogany, on walnut and satinwood veneers. the turn of By the 20thCentury. modernveneer mills

served both the furnitureandconstruction industries. Almostasfragile an eggshell as and burstingwith thewarmthandopulence ofexotic hardwoods, veneers availare ablein morethan200varieties, some cutasthin as%oo inch.Some themost of popularvarieties listed are below.

VENEER Avodi16 Black alnut w Brazilian rosewood elm Carpathian lmbuia Lacewood (Si lky-oak) Mahogany Maple AND COTOR FIGURE yellow gold; Golden to mottled figure gray-browndarkpurpleLight to brown; striped figure Chocolateviolet black to and to brick-red; striped f igure Brick orgreenish-brown red to light tan;burlfigure Rich chocolateolive-brown to and gold; andstriped burl figures pink Silvery to reddish-brown, f leck igure f pinkto reddish-brown, Light striped fiddleback and figures white with Creamy sapwood tan heartwood; andbird'scurly eyefigures Golden brown yellowish-green; to mottled burl and figures withdarkbrown Creamy white streaks; figure burl Rosy cream; straight-grained figure, sometimes curly purple light gray Deep with sapwood; striped figure Reddish brown; mottled anc ribbon stripe figures yellow; Golden mottled figure Warm orange darker with streaks; burlfigure Cream background darkbrown with lines; striped figure AVAILABLE CUTS cut Quarter Crotch, flat, butt, quarter burlcut cut, Flat and cut
nil2rf cr arrt

SUPPLY Plentif uI Plentif uI Rare

TEXTURE WORKAEILITY AND Medium textured; towork. easy Stains unevenly grain Medium texture; difficult to work. Takes f inish well Medium texture and oily; difficult work. to Resists finish Medium texture; to easy work. Takes finish well Medium texture; to easy work. Takes finish well Medium texture; to easy work. Takes finish well Coarse texture, icult diff to work. Takes finish well Fine texture; icultto diff work. Takes finish well Finetexture; moderately difficultto work. Takes finish ell w Coarse texture; to easy work. Takes finish well Fine texture; to work. easy Takes finish well Coarse texture; to work. hard Takesinish f well Medium texture; to work. easy Takesinish f well Fine texture; to work. easy Takesinish f well Fine texture; to work. easy Takesinish f well Medium texture; moderately difficultto work. Takesinish f well

Burl B u r lf,l a tc u ta n d rotary cut cut, Quarter flat cut, Quarter flatcut,
erninh hrrfi

P l e n tu f il Rare Moderate P l e n tu f il P l e n tufl i

cut, Quarter flatcut, crotch, rotary, burl Burl

Myrtle burl 0live ashburl Peanvood Purpleheart (Amaranth) Sapele Ceylon satinwood Yew Zebrawood


B u r ls t u m p , cut, Quarter flat cut cui, Quarter flatcut cut Quarter Flat cut,quarter cut Flat cut Quarter cut

Rare Rare Plentif ul Moderate Rare Rare Rare


Birds'-eye maple veneer
Mahogany crotch veneer


Crotch veneer
ili,i. ir'r itt iiii 1 1 , ' i I l ' I a :a : ' ) l i i ' : ' i rll;.,i it iriir 1,.,1 Iiii'rai-:

I i l j : r I / : - r ' : : :rj:i , i r i . r , , ' , , ' , 1 - ti i t i . : ) : , r 1 1 1 1 ' 1 1 1 1 ; 1 1 1 . r1i 1l .i i 1 . f f l . 1r

Carpathian burl veneer elm

Eurl veneer
i.i,1 i't:tii i i t ' i . i i . i ; 1 t . , , l i i, ' : i 'i ' 1 1 . ; 1 , , | . ri i.,i f i' i i i., f a-.i. i I ra:,:::t,l,i i, -rr'r :. a i-.1i a-, a : I

r,r'.. t-iii't-i ir,, i: r t:l i i,.,I : :t :: i.. 1'1i1r.1i1,,i,i;1 , l/.:'1 i rir. ;:,.;i i :: f:, 1 ::ri., /l'i ti-ia a'\art iit r . l r ' , . 1 t t a r a , ; i r i' , , ' , 1 i i i i , , ' : . i . , , .- i

European beech veneer

Walnut butt veneer

Flat-cut veneer
| : a.,) j. .; ;: I r':, : 1-.ii,. | )a.t 1... i | |, ri i:'tti,: | r,),\, a.a.l..itli1 .,rri t .i.:.,.jtl .j a,,\.::11..

Eutt veneer


r , L , i - i r - t l i t l i i r l ' : ' . i . i , i i i ; . : . i r i i . : r r j i.. -i.raa: liiei,i', i'i;ittr:,,..i. a)f a l'-ll)itt t:j i.',r i:.,tr;i irii.,,n.:j

away, log a 1'\ nceitsbarkisstripped \J .un be cut into veneer oneoi in rvays: cutting, three saw rotarycutting or flat slicing. Sawcutting,whichgoes employs backto theearly19thCenti"rry, huge circular saws rip strips veneer to of from logs.Althoughnot asefficient as othertechniques, cuttingis still used saw to produce from somecrotchveneers irregularly grained dense woods or such asebony. Rotarycuttingand flat slicingcan produce veneers thin as7sto l,/r inch zo as In andaslongasI B feet. rotary cutting, a log mountedin a hugelatherotates against presslu€ whilea razor-sharp a bar knife oeels a continuous off sheet of veneeithe length thelog.Fir plp,vood, of aswellassome decorative veneers such asbird's-eye maple, normally are rotary cut.Half-round, andbackcutting rift arevariations produce that veneer from half-loss ratherthanwholeones. In flatslicing,half-log held a is ontoa framethatswings anddownagainst r-rp horizontai knife;a sliceof a stationary veneer removed is with everydownFIat produces crown-cut stroke. slicing veneers. typeof flat slicing A knownas quarter-clrt is slicing used woods on that display strikingfigurewhenquartera whiteoakor lacewood. sawn, in sapeie, as VENEER-CUTTING METH(lDS
Rotary autting UsedLo cut con' etruction plywood and eomedecora' guch tive veneera maple ao btrd'o-eye

Half-round autting A method used for burlaand aome decorattve apectea

Eack cutting A rotary cutting method that. yielde buLLand croLch veneer9

Flat eliaing Uaedto makecrowncut veneer?; pro' wiLh duceaveneera repeatinqfigure thaL facrltLaf,ea book' matchingand oLher decorative effects

Quarber-auialiaing Uaedto cut decoraf,tveveneerg, auch ae ribbon,atripe and flake,that are obtarnedfrom quar' loqe Lereawn

Flat-sliced sheets verteer of move nlortgtt conveyor drying tud for storage n vetreer hr .fnctory.

Ri{t cutting Yieldeveneerwtth the raye at rou7hly 45" to the eurface; uoedprimarilyon whiLe oak



Rnienr nr rl

Length to 10 feet; up width from8 to 36 inches Length to 16 feet; 3 width from4 to 24 inches Length to 16 feet; 3 width from to 12 inches 3 lrregular dimensions. sizes from10 x 36 Sheet vary to 18 x 54 inches; average size12 x 36 inches sheet Length 18to 54 inches; from width from10to 24 inches; average size x 36 inches sheet 72 lrregular dimensions. sizes from x l0 to Sheet vary 8 18 x 54 inches; average size x 24 inches sheet 16

AVAILABLE SPECIES Bird's-eye maple, bubinga, Douglas-f ir, masur birch Ash, Brazilian rosewood, cherry, maple, teak oak, Avodi16, mahogany, Queensland oak, maple, sapele, satinwood, zebrawood Maple,alnut w Amburana, mahogany, walnut Carpathian English madrone, elm, oak, myrtle, ash, olive redwood, walnut thuya,

Flat-sliced Quarter-cut Buttandsiump Crotch Burl


I T o c u t v e n e eo n t h e b a n ds a w ,f i r s tm a k ea p i v o tb l o c k r o mt w o p i e c e s f r f o j w o o d o i n e di n a T , w i t h t h e o u t e re n d o f t h e s h o r t ep i e c e r i m m e d o f o r ma r t t r o u n d e d o s e . n s t a l a 3 / q - i n c r e s a w l a d e n t h e s a wa n d i n s t a l l t h e i p f e n c e n I l h b o r o n t h e t a b l e .S c r e w h e p i v o tb l o c k o t h e f e n c es o t h a t t h e r o u n d e di p i s a l i g n e d t t t w i t h t h e b l a d e . o s i t i o t h e f e n c ef o r t h e w i d t ho f v e n e ey o uw a n t( a b o v e ) , p i P n r Iy c a l l yr / ei n c h .l f t h e s t o c ky o ua r ec u t t i n gi s r e l a t i v e lty i n ,c l a m pa f e a t h e r o o a r o h t o t h et a b l e o s u p p o ritt d u r i n g h e c u t . t t

up 1 Settine thecut t -



r) Cutting veneer the L f eea workpiece theblade into the withbothhands, keeping stock flush the (abovd. against tip of the pivot the block fromdrifting To prevent blade the off line, steer trailing of theworkthe end piece. Near endof thecut,move the to theback thetable of withthesaw still . r u n n i ntg f i n i s hh ep a s sH o l d i n g e o t th against pivot the block, stock square oullit oast blade. the

Illl lllllllllllllllt llllllu llllillt lllliltlllllllt lllt lllt lllt llll lltl
)alvaqin6 warped veneer Crotchand burlveneerz eomelimesbecome ---1, warped and brilNle, reeulL the of aqinqor improVer oNorage.Io flatten the eheeNe, dampen them ueing e?on7e a moisNened warmwaf,er wiNh and elackthemon a piece Vlyof woodwilh lwo or Nhree sheelo of newopaper between each slice. Tlacea heavy weiqhl, suchas a concreleblock, top. on Let,theveneero sitfor a day or two.Wrap sheetsin Vlaothe tic and eloreLhemunder weiahluntilvou need a them.


is I pplyingveneer like woodworkA ing in reverse. Instead ofstarting with a board,thencuttingandsanding it down to its finished dimensions. veneered pieces built up alayerata are time. Beglnning with a substrate-or base-of solidwood or a manufactured panel, gluebanding theedges you to and thenwiderpieces veneer bothfaces. of to With a plywood base, orientthegrain ofthe veneer that it is perpendicular so to the grain of the plywood,and both faces theplyr,vood of mustbeveneered to preventcupping. (Neverapplyveneer overfir plywood,because grainof the the fir canbe seen throughthe veneer.) With a hardwood base, veneer should be appliedparallelto the grain. Furniture-quality particleboard and medium-density fiberboardalsomake goodsubstrates veneering. for Since these materials have grain (theyaremadeof no woodparticles pressed together with an adhesive), may arrange veneer you the on thepanels anywayyouwish.But the lackofa graindirection alsoa disadis vantage: Neitherof these productsis as strongasplywood, andanyjoints cut in them must be reinforced with splines madeof some othermaterial. Brittleveneers mustbeapplied overa thickerunderlay veneer suchaspoplar. Alwayscut the veneer largerthan the actualsizeneeded, allowingan overhang of aboutlz nchall thewayaround.The overhang trimmed offlater. is If you arepressing down veneer the traditionalway-with a veneer hammer-use hideglue, whichis reheatable. Otherwise, whiteglueisyourbest choice. Whichever adhesive employ, will you it beeffective ifthe veneer flat,clean only is and dry. Asshownin thissection, veneer can alsobe pressed down in a veneer press. Newercommercial vacuumpresses feature a pump that sucks air out of the a plasticbag that surroundsthe substrate veneer, and allowingatmospheric pressure hold theveneer place. to in

Specificallydesigned cutting veneer, for a yeneersaw is usually usedin tandem with a guide block or a straightedge ensurestraight cuts. to

Veneerpreaa For preeain7 veneerdown on a subatrate paneLfeaturea a base,pipe clampe,pipe ClamPgaddlea and veneer preaa clampa.Componenta are kit and aaaembled uaer to auit by dimenaione panel of Veneeraaw For trimmin4 and cutting veneer;ite curved blade, offaet handleand thin, eharp-tipped teeth enaureclean

Veneertape A thin, etronq, perforated tape ueed forjoinin7 pieceo of veneerbefore qluin4 Veneerhammer For preoeing veneer down on a subatrate paneLpuahedalonq the aurface likea equeeqee. Featurea three workin4 aurfacea for veneeraof varyinq widtha

Hand roller A hard rubber roller uaed to apply edqe bandin4to the edgee of eubetraLe panele



banding Gluing down edge for I Cutfourstrips banding theedges of veneer the ofthesubstrate from same oanel youwilluse thefaces. Make strips the for % overlap panel the edges about inch, by w g t r a n db es u r eh e i g r a i n i l lr u na l o n t h e them.Secure edges, rather thanacross in then a thepanel a vise, apply thinbead brush to Use of glue anedge. a small to evenly, center then the spread adhesive the Lay banding theedge. a stripof wax over paper thebanding then, and using over pads protect edge faces, the and wood to down withthree-way clamp banding the h a c l a m p s ,p a c i ntg e m t 6 - t o 8 - i n c h s dries. Tighten each intervals, theglue until a thinglue bead clamp turn(right)until in banding squeezes Trimtheexcess out. (step thenrepeat theother for edges. 2), 'l

rll1 llll lll IIJ llllilI] llllllljillt ilIl llllljlllllllll lllllll r]I1llll
r") Trimming excess banding L Once glue dried, the the has hold panel edge a work surface. Butt on on saw the theback a veneer against far of withitsteeth the on endof the panel Firmly draw saw the toward banding. youto,trim away excess the banding sure of hbovd.Make theback thesaw f lush of remains against face the the panel the the throughout cut.Turn panon side. el around repeat theother and be Excess banding also removed can (page 68). witha laminate trimmer

Cutting edge banding * Tocut severaleNriVe of S\ in veneer edgebandinq one slack Lhemone operaLion, alop Nheobher, edqeo aligned, beNween pieceo l/+-inch Lwo of plytwo plywood wood.Tackthe pieceo wilh nailoplaced Noqebher finishinq alonq be Ihe edqeo; sureihe nailNipedo not pertorale trhebandinq ?aeeLhrouqh or the boIbom piece plywood. MarkcuLlinqlineo lhe banding the for of on Loppiece Vlywood,Ihen alonq of cut Nhelinee a Nable on eaw or carefulnol lo cul alonalhe lineof nails.



Edging face the veneer
T h ee d g e s f a d j o i n i n g h e e t s j o s o

veneer mustbe perfectly square the if twopieces to butttogether are properly. you Tosquare them, willneed shoota pieces 3/rinch ingboard. three Cut of plywood slightly longer theveneer. than 0 n ep i e c e h o u l d ew i d e n o u gth s b e o hold other pieces topand the two on thewidth theplane of lying itsside. on Place twopieces veneer to the of face faceandsandwich between them the pieces that the edges toptwoplywood so of theveneer aligned protrude are and \/e byabout inch. thesandwich Set on topof thethird, wider board clamp and theentire assembly a work to surface. Run plane the along shooting the board fromoneendto theother trim off to the projecting you veneer. Make sure keep sole theplane the of flush against theedges thetop plywood pieces of during cut (left). the

Taping veneer sheets together lf youarepressing your down veneer sheets a veneer glue with hammer, them (step in place individually 5). lf youare applyrng thanonesheet veneer more of to a panel faceandusing veneer press a to hold themdown, tapethesheets together andglue them down a unit. as Align the sheets edge-to-edgea work on surface, arranging good-side to produce them up pattern.there a visually interesting lf are gaps between adjoining sheets, the trim edges a shooting on board, combined The l e n g t a n dw i d t h f t h ev e n e e rh o u l d h o s exceed dimensionsthepanel the of by r/z you aboul inch. Once have satjsfaca toryarrangement, moisten fewlengths a of veneer witha water-dampened tape sponge. thesheets Tape together across joints 6- to 8-inch their at intervals, then joint apply strip tapealong a of each (right). Press tapef irmlyin place the witha hand roller,



JIG VENEER-TRIMMING to Cutsheets veneer widthquickof on table ly andaccurately a router jig at wiihthetrimming shown right. for Refer the illustration suggestto ed dimensions. of Cutthebase thejig from%from incfiplywood thetop piece and with a Choose board a hardwood. if bow thetoppiece, possifor slight pressure near clamping ble;applying will it, of theends the board flatten pressure producing uniform against The should be the base. top piece longer your veneer sheets slightly than 12 andthe base least inches at wood blocks the to longer. Screw will base ihe top piece fit snugly so a between them.Thenscrew toggle wood block. clamp each to To use jig, install flush-cutthe a guide a tingbit witha bearing on router, mount toolin a router the and Place veneer betrimmed the to table. between base top piece the and of when trimming thejig asyouwould (page 65).l{ake witha shooting board protrude thejig from sure sheets the the by 7s inch,thenpress toggle to clamps down thetop piece on to secure veneer the sheets thejig. Position fence seta cutting the to widthof 7einch.(Caution: Guard for Turn removed clarity.) andfence ontherouter slide jig across and the below), trimming the thetable(right, veneer flushwiththeedge thejig. of to the against Besure keep jig butted throughout operation. the thefence

Toppiece 11/2"x4"x30"



down f, Gluing theveneer panel r-,1Setthesubstrate faceupon a work surface spread a thinlayer and on of glue witha small brush hand or roller (right). notapply Do adhesive directly j t o t h ev e n e e g;l u ew i l l m a k e t c u r l . r glue youare Rememberuse to white if (step press working witha veneer 6); glue youareusing veneer choose hide if a (step Handling veneer hammer 7). the gently, center sheets thepanel. the over lf youtaped veneer sheets together, set them taped-side Make theveneer up. sure overhangs edges thepanel the of evenly.

Pressing veneer position a veneer press the in with press, lf youareusing veneer a assemble device the followingthemanufacturer's instructions. sure spacing Make the between pipe the clamp saddles slightly is longer the than length thepanel. thepanel thebase thepress, of Set on of

veneered down a strip waxpaper face with of between veneered the face thepanel thebase. of and Protect upper of thepanthe face pads. el withwood Tighten press the clamps at a time(above) one until thinglue a bead squeezes from out under panel. the



the in position I Pressing veneer / witha veneer hammer panel lf youareusing veneer a hammer, theglued set veneered faceup on a work surface. wood Butt scraps against ends the of thepanel stop as blocks, screw then themin place. Holding with hands, thehead thetoolback work of thehammer both pressing f irmly following andforth over veneer, the down and To or thegrain. eliminate bubbles to smooth sections out that properly, thegluebyrunning household not melt have stuck a iron over veneer, press the then down again thehammer. with Trimming excess the Once sluehas the cured-2hours i s t h et y p i c a l a i t i n p e r i o d - t r i m w g s t h ev e n e e r a tp r o l e c tb e y o ntd e th h
f:np n f tLhr o n : n p l ' u

l]li llll I]Il firl ilIl llfi lll] u[tll] llll ilfl t]l] lllt lllt Ir] lll1 ilIl rll]
Veneering a aurvedsurfaae
Tn nraaa \raAaar

RL p u l r rr v v et

^ . ^ + lh C ^ ^ ^ ^ l L l

downon a conloured surface, suchas the drawer fronLshown nere, uoeSanabaqoor pillowcaeeefilledwiLh sand,ForbesL reeulNe, etarE layin4 baqe the on Nhemiddle of your wayto Nheende.7ince workinq Nheeurface, moderateheal accelerales lhe qlue-curinq ?roceee, job. keep lhe baqoneara healerao you ?re?are Nhe for

veneered-face a work up on surface, p o s i t i o n i n go p l o c ka sy o uw o u l d st b s (step when using veneer a hammer 7). F i ta l a m i n a t r i m m e r i t ha f l u s h e w c u t t i n h i t .t h e n e s t h em a c h i no n s r e thepanel thebitjustclear the with of e x c e sv e n e e r . o l d i ntg et r i m m e r s H h withonehand steadying panel and the w i t ht h eo t h e rt,u r no n t h et o o la n d g u i d et f r o mo n ee n do f t h ep a n e l i to the other(/eff). Repeat the other for three edges thepanel. of Lightly moiste n a n yv e n e e r p ea n dr e m o vte e ta h strips a scraper. with

some [pes ofveneer,like Q incecertain r.J burlsandexotic species, available are onlyin smallsizes, pioducing sheet a of veneer largefor your project sufficiently joining several will ofteninvolve smaller pieces together, some with cuttingand taping glue-up. before Whenever veneers arejoined,you mustpayattention to grain,figureand texture avoidclutto patterns. teredor haphazard But as shownbelow veneers carefully matched with decorative effects mind canyield in results unmatched wood in its natby ural state. Veneer sheets areintended be that to matched shouldbe cut from the same log in successive passes. resultis a The series ofsheets areessentially that identical. The type of match you achieve depends both the figureand grain on orientation ofthe veneer thesize and of thefinished pattern intendto create. you Straight-grained woods, suchaszebrawood and sapele, example, for yield veneers areexcellent diamond, that for reverse-diamond herringbone and patterns.Burl, crotchand stumpveneers can be butt-and-book-matChed into Iarge, elaborate circular ovalpatterns and idealfor creating interesting tabletops. Recognizing grainpatterns suitable for decorative matching takes practice. You haveto know what to look for: A little swirl at the edge a sheet, of for example, mayyield a beautiful design. To geta quickideaof what an end-toendor a diamond match wouldlooklike, place mirror at a right angle thesura to face theveneeri two mirrorssetat of use 90o each to otherto preview butt-anda book-match. Onceyou have settled on yourpattern, stack sheets the ofveneer so thattheirgrainis aligned, theedges tape andcut thepieces thematch. for

Artfully matching eneer v s cancreate eye-catching effects. Thistabletop a features center diamond match.

End-to-end A mirrorlike ?attern featurinq flat-cut veneerewith prominent landacapefigure

Eutt-and-book-match Commonlyuaed with butt, crotch and etump veneere create an to unfoldina, circular effect

Reverse-diamondmatch FeaLures four aheetEof veneer that appear to converqeat their center

1lip matah Often ueed to produce dramatic effecta: reducea dratorDion cauaedby liqht refraction problemawhen book-matchinq maple

Eook-match A repeating pattern where adjoininqsheeta of veneer appear to radiate from Lhe joint betweenthem, like the paqea of a book

Herringbone Veneerawhoeefi4uree run diagonallyoff the aheet, creattnq a ztqzag effecL


it I lthough maynotbeasglamorous A or assteeped woodworking in tradition assolidlumber,plywoodoffers several advantages the cabinetmaker. to First,it comes a wide range stanin of dardthicknesses sizes. and Second, is it dimensionally stableand is unlikelyto warp or showsigns checking splir of or ting.Third, it is available just about with anycommonlvavailable veneer its on faces. And fourth, it is easyto cut. Indeed,plywoodis a good choicefor almostanydesign that does involve not joinerysuchasdovetails. intricate Although veneerhas a venerable history andplyr,vood a relatively is modern development-first produced commercially themid-1800s-thetvvo in are closely related. Plyuood,afterall, is a layered wood materialmadefrom thin sheets, plies,of veneer. or Decorative plywoodis often facedwith matched veneers madefrom high-grade hardwoodssuchascherryor walnut.The veneerusedin construction-grade plywoodis peeled a rotary lathe on from eight-foot-long logsof poplar, pine or Douglas-fir. As shownopposite, both decorative and construction-grade plywoodare manufactured an odd numberof with plies,givingthe sheet balanced a construction. Threepliesareusually the minimumnumber. Beneath face the and backveneers typicalsheet layers ofa are knownascrossbands. grainofeach The crossband at right angles that of runs to pliesto counter adjacent wood movement. The resultis a warp-resistant boardthat is equally strongacross both dimensions. Someply,voods also are available with reinforced cores. As with solid lumber, plywood is available both hardwoodand softin woodvarieties, although termsrefer the strictly to the faceand backveneers. Hardwood plyr,vood a stable costis and efitctivealternative solidwood,andis to usedin woodworking applications where appearance matters, suchasfor cabinets, drawerfronts and furniture. Softwood plywoodis generally usedfor carcase construction, bookcases shelving. and Not all pliwoods arecreated alike. Morethan70woodspecies usedin are its manufacture. Plywoods grouped are according strengthand durability; to both softwoodand hardwoodvarieties areavailable fourgroups categories in or that areusually stamped the sheet. on Group I (softwood) and Category A (hardwood) species the strongest are andmostdurable;Group andCategory 4 D arethe poorest grades. Referto the chart(below)for species makethe that groupings. up thevarious

SOFTWOOD Group I Group 2 Group 3 Group 4 r American o PortOrford o Red r Biglooth Beech Aspen Cedar Alder r Yellow r Quaking 'Cypress . Paper Birch Aspen . Balsam Fir Birch . Douglas- . r Alaska . Basswood Lauan fn Cedar r Red . Black o Western . Eastern Cedar Maple Larch Hemlock r Western r Virginia l Rrro:r o Bigleaf Cedar Pine Maple Maple o Cottono r Longleaf Yellow . Jack wood Poplar Pine Pine . Sugar r . Shortleaf Black o Ponderosa Pine Spruce Pine Pine o Balsam . o Southern Sitka o Redwood Poplar Spruce Pine o White . Tanoak Spruce HARDWOOD Category A o White Ash r Bubinga . Hickory

Category Category Category B C D r Black Ash o American o Bigtooth

Basswood Aspen o Avodir6 . Butternut . Q u a k i n g . Black e American A q n p n Cherry Chestnut o Western r Red Oak o Rock Elm . Hackberry Cedar . White r African . Fuma 0ak Mahoganyo Silver . Black . Pecan o Honduras Maple Willow o Rosewood Mahoganyo Eastern White Pine . Teak r Qanalo r Western o Black White Pine Walnut o Black Tupelo



T h e b a s i c e s i g n f a l l p l y w o o dis t h e s a m e a c o r ec o v e r e d s d o : on bothsidesby layers crossbanding a faceveneer. of and The plywoods mostcommon type hasa veneer core.All softwood a r em a d et h i sw a y ,a n dt h e ya r es t a b l ew a r p - r e s i s t a n td , an s i n e x p e n s i vH , r d w o op l y w o o dc a na l s ob e m a d e i t hs o l i d ea d w ro l u m b e r r p a r t i c l e b o ac d r e sT h em i d d l ep l yo f I u m b e r - c o r e o .

plywood consists several narrow of strips solid of wood-usupoplar basswood-edge-glued allymahogany, or together. plywood Particleboard-core hasa solid core particleboard of or plywood nails medium-density fiberboard. Lumber-core holds andscrews andis preferable additional best when strength andflatness required. are


Dack veneer





TarDicleboard core

Eack veneer


tl- h. wide array of plywood types Theirface backveneers cut from and are I available makes choosing appro- a relativelyweather-resistant the wood. priate one for a project more involved Interior plywoodis madewith a waterthan simplyselecting particularthicka resistant adhesive is usuallyproand ness. Bothhardwood softwood and olvducedwith an appearance-grade face wood panels rateddepending are veneer on and a lesser-grade veneer. back how theyshouldbe usedand on the For mostinterior applications, woodappearance their face and back of generally workers choose Exposure or I veneers. They are alsoavailable one in interior-grade panels. of threegrades, durabilityratings or Thethreehardwood ply,vood grades dependingon the gluesand veneers areTypes II and III. TypeI includes I, usedin the construction the oanels. fully waterproof of exteriorpanels while Softwoodplywoodcomesin eiterior TypeII is aninterior-grade plywood able andinterior grades, a category and called to withstand some moisture;Type is III Exposure L a moisture-resistant interiorplr.wood. Exterior-grade Exposure plyand I Types andIII areyourbestchoices II for wood areusuallymadewith a water- mostcabinetmaking projects. proof adhesive, creating weatherproof The appearance ofthe faceandback panelsthat are resistant moisture. veneers anotherfactor that distinto is guishesdifferent plpvood types.As shownin thechartopposite, both hardpanels available woodandsoftwood are in sixgrades. Ifyou aiebuyingsoftwood plywoodyou candetermine grade, its plusadditional information abouta particularsheet, reading grade by its stamp (below). Hardwood pliruoodis generally not stamped; you needa particular if grade, have askfor it andtakethe you to suppliert word that you aregettingwhat you want. Plywoodis manufactured a range in of sizes. plywoodranges Softwood in thickness ftomlE to 7ainch,whilehardwood ply,voodis available from yato I inch thick. The standard panelsizeis 4 by 8 feet,but special orderscanbe placed largersheets. for

Reading a grade stamp edgemark and grade Most plywood, stamps softwood on such theoneshown left,contain as at s i xb a s i c l e m e n tIs . a d d i t i otn t h e e n o (APA) American Plywood Association trademark, stamp the identif themill ies thatproduced board the product the and publicatron contains standard that the grading rules. hyphenated The lettersin thiscase A-D-designate grades the of thefaceandback veneers respectively.Thedurability classif ication be may either exterior, interior Exposure or 1, group andthespecies number indicates thewoods mayhave that been used in (See themanufacture panel. of the the chart page on 70.)In order avoid to marringa plywood twogood with faces-A-A grade, examplefor anedgemark, as such theoneshown lowat er left,is used. Panel edges sometimes car. APA.0Q0. PS1- 93 ry color E X P OSURE1 stripes desto ignate grade. the

ExPosuR et--


. Gr1.



HARDWOOD PTYWOOD Premium Face veneer well-matched with seams andsmooth; made specific of hardwood, such walnut mahogany. as or Free contrasts color grain of in and Face veneer similar premium, to but notaswellmatched. of Free sharp contrastscolor grain in and Face veneer smooth, notmatched but forcolor grain; or defects on back only veneer. Generally intended painting for grain may Veneers rough have and have knotholes to 3/d up inch, well as assome discoloration, staining and slight splits. matched color Not for or grain Mayhave larger defects utility than grade, none impair panel but that strength. matched color Not for orgrain Made order meet to to specific panels requirements, asseparate such grain withmatching patterns SOFTW(IOD PIYWOOD Sanded smooth; take clear can a finish; face veneer matched grain for andcolor, of open free defects Sanded smooth; take natural can a painted finish, is more but often Smooth sanded; have and may minor solits Smooth; have may grain, some broken sanding defects knotholes and up to % inch C Plugged Sanded; similar C grade, knotto but holes solits smaller and are plies D Used mainly inner for and back veneer; have may knot-holes upto 2% inches






lllllllt tlll lll fill llllfilt lll lll lllt iltl illt llll llll lllt llll llll l1ll
A plywoodaarrier particleboard eheele of plywood, or hardboard beheavy can and awkward carry.The No carrier ehown herewillmakethe load eaeier bear.RouL |-inch-wide No a rabbeL alon7oneface of a 12inch-lonq board. Cut a nohch outr of oneend of a piece plywood, of Nhen screwa woodblock acroee the endof Nhenolch to serveae ahandle. ALIachLhe otherend of fhe plywood pieceNothe rabbebed face of Lhe board.Io use lhe carrier, eimply hookit, under lhe lower edqeof the eheeN and yourarm. it Vull up under


plywoodhas or all its advantages, one major drawbackfor cabinetmaking: The multi-plycomposition of is on thepanels clearlyvisible theiredges Fortunatelv and ends. therearea number of simple options for concealing the unsightlyplies.Pressure-sensitive can wood-graintape,for example, be pressed place hand.Or, asshown in by edge below,self-adhesive bandingcan with an iron. Bothproducts be applied widths and comein several standard wood species. The illustration at right showsseveralmoreinvolved edge treatment alternativesideallysuitedto customwork. Wth thesplined miterjoint, for example,the miterededges two panels of are gluedtogether and reinforced with solid wood splines. The other methods involve cutting strips of hardwood them banding moldingandbonding or for to the edges the panel. of Thesteps types-tongueapplyingone of these molding-are shown and-groove edge on the followingpage.


Tongue-and-4roove edqe moldinq )olid wood edqe banding

Applying self-adhesive banding edge (without Seta household on High iron steam) allow to heat Meanwhile, and it up. secure panel edge a vise with the in on or clamps, shown, cuta strip bandas and of ingslightly longer theedge be than to covered. thebanding Set adhesive-side l d o w n n t h ep a n ee d g eH o l d i ntg e o . h b a n d i nig p l a c e i t ho n eh a n dr,u nt h e n w pressing iron slowly along panel the edge, thetrimflat. Theheat theiron melt of will theglue bond banding thepanand the to el. Keep ironmoving; the resting onone it spot more a fewseconds leave for than will scorch marks. Flatten the banding out b yr u n n i na s m a lh a n d o l l eb a c k n d g l r r a forthalong length the panel the of edge. Shave anyexcess off banding a lamiwith (page nate trimmer 68).




rlll ]llr illr tlll llll uil lllt lllt illt l]Il lrJ lil l]ll ill tlll illJ ull ll]l
5HO7 Tt?
thop-made edgebanding Cutthin eNripe of edqebandinq from a boardon LheNable eaw.l./take etriVo:,'i the a l i q h N l o n q etrh a n y Lhepanel and aNleael as wide trhepanel'e ae Lhickneee. 1ecure the panel uVriqht, a viee, in then aVply a Lhingluebeadalonqito edqe. Tlace the bandinq Vlace in and tape it firmlyat 2-inchinlervale.When qlue the io dry ehave any exceo;banding off wiI,h a laminate (paqe6B). trrimmer

M a k i n g n da p p l y i ntg em o l d i n g a h I n s t a la c o m b i n a t i o n a d e n y o u r l bl o s t a b l es a wa n d m a k es e v e r ap a s s e t o l c u t a g r o o v e n et h i r da s t h i c k a s t h e o p a n e l . e x t y o un e e d o c u t t h e m a t c h N , t ingtongue; should sawn the edge it be in of a hardwood board same the thickness . a s t h e p a n e lA d j u s t h e b l a d e e i g h t h s ot h a t i t e q u a l sh e a m o u n t f s t o c k t o r e m a i n i n g n e i t h e r i d eo f t h e g r o o v e . o s C u tt h e w a s t e r o mo n e s i d eo f t h e f t o n g u et,h e nt u r n t h e b o a r d v e r n d o a e r e p e a t h e p r o c e d u r t o c o m p l e t eh e t t o n g u e f i n i s he a c hp a s s i t ha p u s h ; w sltck (above, left).Cut the pieceof moldi n gf r o mt h e b o a r d F i n i s h h e j o b b y . t s e c u r i n t h e p a n e l p r i g h i n a v i s ea n d g u t s p r e a d i n s o m eg l u e i n t h e g r o o v e n d g a on the tongue. the two pieces Fit togeth) e r ( i n s e ta n dc l a m pt h e m i n p l a c e i t h w three-wayamps. cl


such ood composites asparticleare boardandfiberboard a popfor drawer ular choice carcase backs, Made bottomsand concealed oanels. fromblends woodparticles synof and theticadhesive bondedtogether under i n t e n sh e a t n dp r e s s u r c o m p o s i t e e a e, boards asstrongand asdurable are as less most solid woodsand generally exoensive. Thevarealsomoredimensronallv staDle. Particleboard first developed was in wood the 1930s a wayof recycling as flakes. chiosand sawdust dismissed as wiste.Today, manymillsfocus sawmill production, mainlyon particleboard processing softwood medium-denand particles sityhardwoods composite into rvithmachines called drum flakers, chipand mills. ners hammer Particleboard manufactured two is by methods: extrusion and mat-formins. pro..ri, In the less corlmon extrusion woodparticles adhesives forced and are together througha small, thin opening to form panels. grainorientation The of theparticles perpendicular thefaces is to of the panels. With mat-forming, the particles and adhesives squeezed are into a mat in a press. With thismethod, the grainof the fibersis parallel the to faces. oanel Mat-formed particleboard in comes ( t gurationsrigl ). Single-layer three confi features woodparticles particleboard of paruniformsize shape. and Multi-layer ticleboard coarser has shavinss the at core thepanel of arrdfinerorreis the on partioutside surfaces. Graded-densitv cleboardsimilar multi-laver is to oaiticleboard, with a moregradual'charrge but from coarse fine particles. to Standard particleboard sheets 4 by B feet, are panels available; although 5-by-10 are thicknesses range from 7+ 2 inches. to TYPES MAT-FORMED OF PARTICLEB()ARD

Made from a mat of aimilarlyetzedand evenly distributed coar6ewoodparticleo

Featurea a core layer of coarae woodparDiclearetnforced by two ouLer layere of fine, high-denettyparticlee

Gra ded -d enaity pa rti cleboa rd CharacLertzed a gradualtransttton from coareewood by woodparat parbicleo Lhecare to veryftne,htgh-denetLy ticlee on the outer eurfacee

is or f, iberboard, hardboard, pressed I' into matsmuchlikeparticleboard, but because wood oarticles the are reduced individualfibers. result to the is a thin, hard and dense sheet with smoothsurfaces. Hardboard comes in threegrades: standard, tempered and service. Tempered hardboard harder, is heavier and morewater-resistant than the two other types.Thicknesses range from 1Az s/a inch.Anothervarietv. to called medium-densityfiberboard (MDF), features fine surface a texture with faces edges and almostasworkable assolidwood.MDF is available thickin nesses from 1/+ IV+inch and canbe to boughtwith veneered surfaces.


Hardboard Made of individualwoodfibera; commonlyuaed in furni|ure and cabinet work becaueeof ite fine. amooth aurface

WORKABITITY Easy work; fine to faceveneers need little sanding FASTENING Face holds fasteners well,butedges often pilot Bore holes; split. screw diameter should notexceed one-quarter of panel thickness Hold fasteners on poor; pilotholes. bore U s ei n i s h i n g i l s n d f na a drywall screws VENEERING plywood Softwood canbeveneered


Particleboard Difficult work; to use carbide of tipped recommended; tools wear dustmask a when working Hardboard

Premium good and grades hardwood of plywood little need finishgrade be ing; sound can painted; plysoftwood grades andA can wood N bepainted finished or particleboard Multi-layer and Multi-layer graded-density par- accepts finishes; most ticleboard excellent other types suitable not forveneering forpainting finishing. or Tempered hardboard be can veneere0 Accepts finishes most

Edges to rout, easy Face tempered hardof shape groove; or holds well. board screws (other sanding faces of not types aswell) pilotholes use n o tr e q u i r e d .s e U Bore and o f c a r b i d te p p e d i sheet metal screws tools recommended Medium-density Edges to rout, easy Hold nails on excellent; poor fiberboard snape groove; 0r holdon screws not sanding faces of required. of carUse bide tipped tools recommended

Canbecovered withthinveneer

Can finished painted be or




vYmarenar:"uo'o,l:r'll!!firri' '"1?,1lo'inl",TffiYil' :?T:*::'"*.p-T*-Y ,s.i-.:,,,'l E -

ple,yourjoinery methods should allow for woodmovement. thevdo nor. If

separate of lumber apile,allowlayers in ingair circulation around individthe

ofawood A resistance moisture meter like cent moisture issufficient level f"#r, finishmayslowdimensional change theone shown , above a cylinis furniture projects. Whichever drying nothingcan it. stop drical device twopinsihoto* with method .iroor.,y*iun ur. u rp.y* Freshly lumber, green cut or wood, pressed a board. meter into The cialmeter theone like shown thepiro in has, relatively moisture a high content, measures electrical resistance, to above measure to moisture content. which hardwoods range for can from,60 which varydepending the witl on Apartfrom controloverthewood, percent 100 percent thedryweight. to of amount wateiin thewood. of theprincipal U.n.nt of atyinliun'b., Thischapter focuses ways reducon of in theshop economic. fewer is The oper1^ < ingthatto a level suitable cabinetmaking, for around to l0 8 ations performed nl.ank on 1 Uefor"y""U"yii-ru.n u, arypelc:lt' depending theclimate.and on species. ing andsurfacing-thiless costs. large it For quantities of unless youbuygreen woodwiththeintention ofdryingit luirber-say,t,060board or more-theiavings add feet can yourself, lumber already your is either air-dried kiln-'driid. up to hundreds dollars. or of Air-dried wood. may.have to 25percent up moisture conProper storage asimportantasdrying.Driedwood is tent.Kiln-dried lumberhasa loweilevel, to 8 percent. .*por.dto theeiements 6 carire-absorb of themoisture some Although.kiln-dried woodis generally preferable furni- thatwas for extracted it. There several to ,ioi. r"ooa, from are ways turebuilding, purists some avoid it,contending tlalttrgprocess depending the.kind G. youhave thewoodyou on gf and subdues natural the colors certain of woods in thi short workwithl-froq longpia-nlis-io stock pi..i*, to U. and, short too term,caninduce internal stresses thewood,making in it consignedthekindiing youcan to box. design o*n tun'y6ui difficulttoresaw' berraik,usingth.o*rtlio*ninthischapteias'startingpoints -L_--_-, r , r ptafl15 , industrial kilnshouse hundreds of at a time, or install coirmercial a lurnberruil.Iid;;;;;rlir.rn.n, . Large butthere anumber are models are that rela- to store wood, consider installingdehirmidifiJr rejuce a to the tivelysimple built,including small-scale to a solar-powered highrelative humiditylevel.o.111onsuch area. in an

p i e c e s o f f u r n i t u r e c a n l i t e r a l l y s e l f - _ ; - . f - - : . . - - . ^ v . 5 v r v v r ! u r r r \ v ! whitepine'air-dryingtoa l0to l2perAao+q,n+ \^/l^il^+L^^'-'.ri^^+j^^'^-.-^^r * destruct' whi]ethe.pnlication

Kilnsprovideafast and ffictive wayof drying woodto a moisture levelappropriate cabifor netmaking. Here,stacks hardwood of planks areloaded forklift into an industrialkiln. by


in oisture changes woodcancause for of problerns a piece [urniture, quiteseriothers merely annoying, some water A cut ous. freshly logcancontain madeinto equal twiceits dry weight; to it a oiece furniture, canturn stone of to diy. This capacity hold different r,rnder different of amounts moisture wood to swelland causes conditions is If contract. thisproperty not consida drawer that ered thecabinetmaker, by in smoothlv the deadof winter oDens and cin swell jam shutin thehumidity carcase A square of summer. perfectly apartashumidity can cabinet pull itself from season season. to levels chanse of The am6untof waterin a piece as woodisoften expresseda percelrtage weight. or of its oven-dry water-free if blockof For example, a 50-pound afterovenwood dropsto 30 pounds water-20 of drying,theweight theshed pounds-divided by the wood'sdry weight-30 pounds-is the rnoisture in content theoriginalpiece: thiscase, of 66 oercent. Wood holds rnoisture twoways: in as and freewaterin cellcavities asbound As free waterin cellwalls. wooddries, first.When this is all wateris exoelled what is discharged, wood reaches the point(FSP). termed fibersaturation its At this point, cellcavities empty, the are water remairts, butthebound Dermeatingthecellwalls. mostwoods, For the FSP 23 and occurs between percent 30 percent moisture content depending on with the thespecies, 28percent average. is Thekevoointto remember thatat the is fibersaiuration ooint.there no dimenin sionalchange wood from its freshly It less. cnt size. simplyweighs However,

How wet is wood?Thisf'e*ly cut log of Eastenthemlockcontains 1.5gallonsof water or sap Conrpletelydry, the log wotld ns weighone-haf ns rrruch its green weight.

content MoiaLure above30% (no chanqe)

Moiature content aL F9?-26% (no change)

Moisture content at 17% (1/+' ahrtnkaqe)

content a plain-sawn of Asthemoisture plank 2-by-10 lumber drops softwood of point saturation (FSP), below fiber the At across grain. 17 the shrinks thewood
nercpntthe hoardis l,/a tnch narrower a i t w a sa t i t s F S P .l t l o s e s n o t h e r than r / q i n c h f w i d t hw h e nk i l n - d r i etd a n 8 o o p e r c e nlte v e l S h r i n k a gd e p e n d p a r t l y e s .
n, n u J vn Lo, v J i o c ' du a, nJcLi Jt ,v . a c v e v , , v , oonpr:llv doncpr

^+ lzo/


MoieLure contenL at B% (1/z' ehrinka4e)

w o o d s h r i n k n ds w e l lm o r et h a n l i g h t e r s a t S a p w o oa l s ot e n d s o c h a n g e d ones. q t m o r e u i c k l yh a nh e a r t w o o d . dimensions



if thewooddries further, falling below theFSB loses it boundwater fromits cellwalls. cells The shrinkandsodoes thewood. theillustration page As on 80 shows, moreboundwatera board the loses moreit shrinks. the Theonlywayto prevent woodfrom shrinking to treatit with a chemical is (PEG such PEG-1400. isanabbrevias ationofpolyethylene glycol; 1400 the is chemical's molecular weight.) 1400 PEGdiffirses thewoodandreplaces into the bound water, keeping cell-walls the fulIyswollen. treatment suitable The is only for green wood, however, is most and popular use for withturning carvand ingblocks. Wood gains loses and moisture the as relative humidityin theair around it changes.therelative If humidity to rose percent,piece wood 100 a of wouldreach

its fibersaturation pointandbeat the hold a largeamountof moisture.But same aswhen was size it milled. rela- whencooledindoors,it canhold much If tivehumidity to 0 percent wood's less.The resultcanbe fairly high relafell the moisture content woulddropto 0 per- tive humidity. Both extremescause cent.Because relative humidityfalls changes the moisture in levelof wood between those extremes a portion and in its size. only of thebound water lost.Realisticallv, You can takeseveral is precautions to themoisture content range most of stock counteractthe effectsof changing is5 to 20percent. humidity levels.If you storelumbei Fromseason season, relative indoors,tryto keepthe relative to the humidhumidity agiven in location vary80 ity fairly constant, can usinga dehumidier, percent more. isbecause or This relative for example, whenttrelevels too high. get humidityandtemperature closely And althoughyou may not be ableto are intertwined. Warmair canholdmore controltheenvironment your furwhere moisture coldair.Asaresult, than when niturewill endup,you shouldbuild the coldwinterairisheated, it isin homes pieceto compensate wood moveas for andworlshops, ability holdmois- ment.Whencuttinga panelfor a frame, its to tureincreases dramatically. Ifthere no for instance, is leave t/s-inchgap the a in added moisture available, relative grooves the thatwillhouse thepanel. extra The humidityplummets extremely to low space allowthe panelto expandand will levels. contrast, summer can contractashumidity levels andfall. In hot air rise
Relating a wood's equilibrium moisture content relative to humidity Whether wood in theformof a log, is a kiln-dried ora finished board oiece of furniture, moisture its content varies withtherelative humidity theair of around Ashumidity it. rises, does so thewood's moisture content, expressed in percent thegraph in shown left. at Themoisture of a piece wood level of eventually reaches equi its librium (EMC) thehummoisture content after idity stabilizes. EMC varies The also depending thetemperature. on The band shown thegraph in covers EMC values most for woods 70 degrees at Fahrenheit. values Those decrease slightly higher at temperatures and Increase marginally cooling. with

= =
C' tJ 2


e 2 0
.E = l



E lrt












(%) Relative Humidity Atmosphere in



and shrinkage Tangential radial as by uniformly; shown Lumber notcontract does at red in thedotted lines theillustration left,tangential rings-is to the shrinkage-parallel growth which occurs shrinkage, about twice radial the for Thisdifference accounts the across rings. the expands and and as warping boards panels wood of in content. with contracts fluctuations moisture is of along Shrinkage thelength a board usually r/z A 2-by-i0plank shrinks inchin that negligible. lose than%oinch for might less width, example, its length. along 8-foot

stable dimensionally wood Finding of the amount shrinkat shows typical The chart right and in the species both tangential age various of green is to when wood dried zero radial directions (Values shown percent; in are moisture content. for column, value thetangential in a 10 percent board that means a 10-inch-wide would examole, Although wide.) to by shrink thatamouni 9 inches in radial contraction exceeds shrinkage tangential by shrink thesame case, twospecies no every tangentially anc is The amount. average8 percent is The column thechart of 4 percent radially. key of indicates proportion the The thethird: T/Rratio the The to shrinkage. lower ratio, tangential radial of between twotypes the the the less differential Species stable wood. the and shrinkage themore (i.4) like low withrelatively ratios, mahogany and (1.8), less to warping than susceptible teak are (2.2). as ratios, such beech woods higher with
SPECIES Ash, White American Basswood, Beech, American Butternut Cata Ipa yellow Cedar, Alaska Western red Cedar, Cherry, black Douglas-f ir Elm, American Hackberry Hickory, shagbark American Holly, Madrone Honduras Mahogany, Maple, sugar 0ak,red white Oak, Persimmon Pine, Eastern white ponderosa Pine, Sassafras American Sycamore, Teak Walnut, black Willow, black (%) TANGENTIAL 7.8 9.3 11.9 6.4 4.9 6.0 5.0 (%) RADIAL 4.9 6.6 5.5 3.4 2.5 2.8 2.4 3.7 5.0 4.2 4.8 7.0 4.8 5.6 4.8 4.0 5.6 7.9 2.7 3.9 4.0 5.0

T/RRATIO 1.6 1.4 2.2 1.9 2.0 2.I

1.9 1.6

7.8 9.5 8.9 10.5 9.9 12.4 5.1 9.9 8.6 10.5 II.2 6.1 6.2 8.4 4.0

1.9 1.5 2.1


2.r 2.r
1.9 1..4 2.9 1.6 1.6 I.7 1.8 7.4 2.6

5.5 3.3





"lII ill'lllf"llf lfil'1ll-fl1-lllf-lll'llf' ill llll lll III fll-fll-fiI" "ffi
Re ding moist ure aontent a in thick stock Themelal pinson commercial reeisIance-Iy?e moielure melero are lypicallyabouL inchlong. 1 9inceLhepine ehould ideally : :: reachlhe middle a of boardwhen .: takinq a readinq,they Lend Nobe inadequatefor slocklhat ie thickerlhan 2 inches.You can exNend reachof lhe pineby drivin7Iwo Lhe finiohing nailo into the woodunLilIhe Lipe reachthe middleand Lhe headsproNrude trom Ihe eurface. Thentouch Lhe meLer pineLo the nailheadsand t akea readina.

Using resistance-type a moisture meter Todetermine moisture the content of your stock, a moisture use meter. Set thestock a work on surface push and pinsontheendof themeter themetal intotheface theboard farasthey of as willgo.Twist dialontopof thebarthe reluntil light the turns andtake on a (above). reading points Repeat several at andaverage results. the Alternatively, crosscut board inches either the 12 from endandtakea reading thefreshly from cut end grain(photo, page79). MosI meters calibrated wood room are for at temperature-about F. Follow 68' the manufacturer's instructionsadjust to your results youareworking temif in peratures significantly or below above thislevel.



KIU{ sotAR

patio glass paris, as reusing such used youmay with below, a roofand Thekilnshown wish windows, doors storm or glass, provides to base size the kilnandits frontwallof tempered the of During day, framing thedimensions recythe cycle. a natural drying on of the dries; the warmed sunlight, wood by The below cledmaterial. kilnshown in at night, moisture thewetter the is andopposite 5 feetwide,16 feet toward board long about feethigh. of migrates core thestock and 8 location thekiln, for Choosesunny a more even drying. ensuring surfaces, gravandspread thenlevel surface the to Build kilnaccordingthe the blocks 2- to at el over Layconcrete it. you to of amount wood plan dryandthe then 3-foot intervals a foundation. as you lf available.youare space have

frame pressure-treated of builda base The 4-by-4s topof the blocks. rest on and are of the framing rafters conthe with stock; floor, structed 2-by-4 wallsanddooraremade 3/+-inch of plywood. exterior-grade frame in place, is 0ncethe base nailthefloor topof it, thenconon for struct studwallframe thefront a of the kiln.Cutthestuds length to andnaila sole olate theirbottom to



Faecia board


Glaea atop Concreteblock 1ole plaLe Baee frame


stDE vtEw



ends a top plate theirtopends, and at Recess frontedges thestuds the of aboulVt inchfromthe frontedge of the plates provide ledge the to a for glass panels. Make gapbetween the thecenter thestuds of eoual the to widthof the panels, spacing themno more than4 feetapart. thewall Set plate frame upright nailthesole and to thefloorandbase frame. Repeat theorocedure make attach wall to and frames the back sides the for and of kiln, timewithout this offsetting the studs fromthe plates. thestuds Cut fortheside walls thatthe roofwill so ( have 4-in-12lope 4 inches f a s o

risefor every horizontal 12 inches). Cutthe roofrafters allow few to a inches overhang thefrontand of at back, thennailtherafters thetop to plates, spacing themto fit theglass panels be installed the roof. to on Tackfascia boards bothendsof to therafters, leavingsmall above a lip thetopedges therafters holdthe of to roofpanels. Cover opening the between thefascia theback and wallwitha 1-by-4 board a soffit. thefront as 0n of the kiln.thissoace should left be ooen. Next thewalls theoutnail to sideedges thestuds the back of on andoneside, installing hinges and

haso locks oneside on wallto convert it intoa door. panels the To install glass the on roof,setthemon adjacent rafters, leaving ample space between panthe elsfor screws. Then fasten downl-by3 wood strips thatoverlap edges the of the panels holdthemin place. to panels Toaccommodate glass the in thefront wallof thekiln,cut notches in the bottom edges the rafters, of s t h e ns l i d e h e p a n e l u p i n t ot h e t notch, resting bottom the panthe of plate elsonthesole ledge. Screw 1by-3wood blocks thefrontedge to of plate support middle thesole to the glass panel. of each Tokeep airin thekilncirculatthe ing,fasten piece plywood a a of as baffle twoadjacent to studs the on back wall,leaving opening an between thebaffle thetopof thestuds and for airto enter. floorlevel, At construct a frame thefrontof the baffle an on for exhaust The willpullwarm fan. fan air down through baffle circulate the and it through kiln.Install switch the the forthefanonthe baffle, along witha thermostat startthefanwhen to the airtemoerature reaches anda 80"F timer turnthefanoff at night. to To keeo lumber the stack the off pieces floor, down nail 2-by-2 support spaced 16 about inches apart. Pile thelumber youwould air-drying, as for leaving adequate space between adjacentboards separating layers and the of stock with1-by-2 stickers. lf youcannot supply electricitythe to kiln,leave additional space between the boards ensure to adequate cirair culation. Drying thewood of may take several months; a moisture use meter (page 83)tocheck the lumber's on periodical moisture content ly.


to J J nlesyouplan buildallyourfur\-/ niturefrommanufactured boards you and such particleboard plywood, as should expect woodyouworkwith the This to swell shrink and slightly. should not cause problems longasyou any as for compensate thechange dimenof when buildyourpiece. you sions is A goodfirststep to measure the moisture content thelumber(page of how 83).Thendetermine muchthis moisture level will change relative as humidity fluctuates ttrelocation in where the finishedpieceof furniturewill (page Finally, to estitry beplaced 81). mate amount woodmovement the of of woodis a telhale of woodmovement this sign thatwill occur a result thewood's A thin lineof unfinished as in photograph part of a frame-and-panel moisture As closeup of changing content. a ruleof door.After thefinish plain-sawn lumber move wasapplied,the humidity levelin the roomwherethecabinet will thumb, was per- stored graduallydropped, inch causing woodto contract. similar the 0.04 perfootofwidthforevery A in The amountof movement a carcase in cent change itsmoisture content. construction mighthave threatened wood inch. thepiece's structuralintegrity.Theframe-and-panel value quartersawn is.025 for design, however, (Thedifference a allows wood's naturalswelling shrinking. panelJloats and The between twogives the inside for goodindication whycabinetmakers afixedframewith room % inchof movement of horizontally. for quartersawn plain-sawn choose over lumber whentheywantto limit wood you movement.) for example, use If, plain-sawn whitepinewith anequilibrium moisture content 12percent of in whichdries an EMCof 8 to summer percent winter, cancounton as you in inwidth much 0.16 ofmovement as inch M akin6 a m oiet"ure indiaalo r per foot between two seasons. the Keep thio moiolureqauqein your ehoVae a reminder the of in Changes length negligible are enough relationehip belween humidityand woodmovemenl,To make to bediscounted. the qauqe,'cuN a


len7bh wood of from Nheend of a alued-uo oanel. or bonda tew wood blocke Noqelher edqe-to-edqe. Nail a melal oointerto oneendof lhie arm, then altachbhe arm'eotherendto a pieceof plywood. Drivea screwthrough the pivot, holeof rhe eo pointerinlo lhe plywood lhat the poinlerio parallel Lhe io end of the arm. Leave ecrewlooeeenouah allowthe the to As humidity pointerto pivof,. Ihe relative flitctuaVes and lhe arm swells shrinks,lhepoinber ewivel eilher side. or will to
f L l


"l- h. illustrations page show vent fungi from causing wood,between on 88 blue stain.It differentlayers stock of green lum- will also help guarantee minimal exposes top andbottom surfaces a I wo simple to stack ways the of proper drying. shown amount of warping of the boards. the boardsto the sameflow of air. As berto ensure Lumbercanbe air-driedindoorsor dryingtimes vary Placingstickers, narrow strips of or in thechartbelow, To outdoors, for bestresults, but for different woods. avoid youshould theprocess of start different batches outconfusing of side in anunheated or wood.markthe ends each building likea barnor garage. a heatIn board with thespecies the and you it. a ed indoor location,where date stacked It is also good to treat ends humidityis typically and low idea the ofthe temperatures high, green boards animpervious with coatare woodmaydrytoorapidly, ing suchashot paraffinwax, which promotes glue varnish, diluted or a comchecking. Outdoors, mercial sealer. end Otherwise, thelumbershould covered be with a sheetof plywoodto the endsof boardsmay dry more quicklythan adjoining serve protection theeleas from ments. thewooddries, As checks form to surfaces, causing check periodicalIfyou are working itsmoisture content in thewood. will ly with a meter, keeping notes withlogs, coating ends their for futurereference. increase amount usable the of Wooddestined outdoor for lumberthelogswill yieldby as use need muchas20oercent. onlybedriedoutside. Forindoor furniture, wood Whateveithe or location size the shouldcomplete drying its air of yourdryingstack, must preferably a humidiLogsfor carving can be storedin a pile one atop the inside, circulate evenly aroundall the at Thiswill other,provided their endsare not in contact.The ends ty levelsimilarto that in the surfaces thestock. of should be coatedwith a sealer, however, soonafter the location where furniture ensure thesurfaces that ofthe the logsare bucked to ensureeven drying of the wood. will eventually used. stay to be boards dry enough pre-

HARDWOODS DAYS Ash, white Basswood, American Beech, American Butternut Cherry, black gray Elm, Hickory Maple, sugar red Oak,

s0nwo0Ds DAYS
Douglas-f ir Hemlock Pine, Eastern white Pine, sugar Redwood red Spruce,

60-200 40-150 70-200 60-200 70-200 50-150 60-200 50-200 70-200 30-150

20-200 60-200 60-200 15-200 60-365 30-120

These charts indicate drying the timefor green a stack 1-inch-thick boards of outThe doors. lowendof therange each for is species for lumber stacked spring in or summer-prime drying weather. high The endis for lumber stacked autumn in or winter. figures The assume thelumthat b e ri s d r i e d n a r e g i o w i t ha c l i m a t e i n similar thatwhere wood cut. to the was

Sycamore, American black 70-200 Walnut,




quantity lumber, your Toair-dry large a of start stack two4with row stickers plywood, of with topped a pair concrete with of blocks (above). toapply by-4 supports equal lenghto theboards bedried in pressure thestack protect fromrain. to uniform on and it Rest supports concrete the on blocks. place Then quantrtieslumber support 4-by-4 bolsters Stack smaller of in frames made from (below). a frame your at 3-foot intervals across supports. stacking lum- fourpieces 2-by-4 the Begin of stock nailed together Build berat right angles thebolsters, to leavingspace a between each for each of thestack onefor every feetof board end and 3 piece equal theboard to thickness, Separate layer a 1- lengh. frames each with The should slightly be wider higher the and than by-2 sticker long thewidth thestack; thestickers stack. as as of cut Arrange boards youwould a larger the as for stack, sepafromdryheartwood. Thinner stickers slow drying for rating will the time each layer stickers. with Space stickers 18-inch the at difficult like species white oak. Align stickers thebol- intervals, the with aligning witheach one frame also and centering them place bolsters stickers between frames. keep stack if sters; youaredrying stock, thin the pressed firmly, and the To the down insert closer together prevent wood to the from warping. thetop Cover wedges tightly between frames thetoprowof stickers. the and


hether wishto store you lummanufactured ber, boards, dow"shorts"-all elsor those odd-sized pieces cannot you affordto toss outyou should find a storage optionto suityourneeds thepages folon that low.Thedimensions provided the in illustrations are given strictly as guidelines. design beadaptEach can edto anysituation. Theonlydesign you element cannot skimpon is adequate support the for rack. dozen planks A l0-foot-long of6l+ whiteoakcanweighasmuchas400 pounds. supports Rack should secured be directly wallstuds to thejoists to or above theceiling nomore at than40-inch intervals. mosthomes In with 16-inch oncenter framing, means this tyinginto everv other or ioist. thewalls stud If and ceiling yourshop finished, a of are use stud finder locate framing to these members. Some racla,like cantilever the tlpe shown page mayneed on 91, footings, joistsupports both. or If space atapremium yourworkis in shop, need consider design you to the placement and ofyour wood storage systemcarefully. end-loading of The type rack used most at lumberyardsimpracis for tical storing stock most long in home shops. are better You far offwithafrontloading system, which makes easier it to loadup newmaterial to shiftwood and around findtheparticular plank to you want.Avoidusingtriangular-shaped brackets support to lumber; waste they preclous space.

Commercial lumberracks availare ablein various sizes canbeadjustand ed to dffirent heigh*. Thetypeshown canbescrewed a concrete or to wall to wall studs. Four brackets hold will morethanonetonof lumber.

'fil- "ill' "'ul"'III".lll""lIl" ffi llf lll* IIf
Storing wood to preaerveits moieture aonient lf you are in the middle a of project and haveNoleaveitrtor a you may find Vrobleme couVle weeke of onceyou return,A change humidity-a in suddenperiodof humidwealher, examplefor maycauoetrhewoodto ewell shrink.You or can eolve the problem etoringLhewoodin a plaetic by qarbaqe baqor in vinyl, oealing any loooe endewith trape. Wrapping boardwillkeep Nhe Nhemoislurecontent of lhe woodconelant,prevenlinq dimenoional any chanqee,



rack Buildingpipe a storage Thestorage illustrated leftfeatures rack at vertical supports bolted wall to three-piece pipes, The buttress steel the studs. supports which You one carry lumber. willneed the at end withan support each of therack, one 32lo 48 inches along additional every for thewall. 2-by-6 Use stock themiddle for strips thesupports 2-by-4s the of and pieces; steel pipes side the should roughbe ly 20 inches witha 1 inchinternal long diameter. cutting Mark lines theedges on point of themiddle strips each at where youwantto locate pipebracket. a Make brackets thesame in horizonsure the all will height. the Saw tal row beat thesame middle strips thebrackets, for angling the cutsbyabout above horizontal 3" the so (below) the pipes I tilt up slightly wil to prevent lumber sliding . Once the from off a l lt h em i d d l s t r i p a r e u t ,n a i o nt h e e s c l sidepieces, forming brackets evenly with notches thepipe for supports. Bore spaced pilot holes 24-inch intervals thewall into at holes the studs drillclearance through and supports %-inch bolts. for lag Secure the with vertrcal brackets thestuds bolts to that penetrate 2 inches thewall, into then slip thepipes their into notches.




Making cantilevered a storage rack Therack shown above at rightis and anchoredthejoists theceiling in to to keep from it toppling forward. lines Mark workshop directly onyour floor under each joist. providesturdy fortheposts, To a base nailshort lengths 2-by-6 thefloor of to as footings, centered themarked on lines. 4-by-4s theposts, cuta joist Use for then post asmany anchor each for and arms asyouneed from2-by-6 Angle stock. the topedge thearms of slightly tilt the to lumber toward wall. a mortise in the Cut post at thetopof each forthejoistanchors, point andat every along post's the front you edge where want locate arm. to an M a k e u r e l lt h em o r t i s e n t h es a m e s a is horizontal areat thesame row height. Cut tenons theends thejoistanchors at of andarms, thenbore holes through the sideof the posts 3/q-inch for dowels: two joist holes each andoneforevery for arm a n c h o r . s e rtth et e n o n a n dt a ot h e In s dowels place. in Toe-nail posts the the to footings. clearance through Bore holes theanchors pilot and holes thejoists into forcarriage bolts, thensecure anchors the (above). in position

Arma 13/+" 51/2"x 20" x



rack wall Fastening a lumber-and-plywood anunfinished to made entirely 2-by-4 of stock, attached exposed is to Therack shown below, joists. plywood Lumber bepiled thearms, can on while wall studs ceiling and You at 8% isstacked edge on against support the brackets. willneed least feet panels. in Begin space one of therack beable slide plywood at end to to offree (nghf). them the brackets bycutting triangular-shaped andscrewing to thestuds and them theshop to floor. Cutthefootings, themunder brackets nail slip the their to and Next, theuprights length toe-nail ends thefootings the saw to and joists. asmany aligning firstrow the withthetapered Cut arms youneed, as the to endof thesupport brackets. carriage to fasten arms thestuds Use bolts in row The in making thearms thesame arelevel. rack the sure anduprights, features soaced 18-inch arms at intervals. illustration

9upport bracket


)ole plate

Footinq 11/2"x31/z"xB"




Leq 11/2"x31/2"x36"


rlll illl iltl ull tlll lllt fiIl I]l1llll lm llll fill illt I]t] lllt llll ilu illt
Holdingplywoodpanelo a4ainet a wall Treventplywood panele etackedon edqeaqainel a wallfrom fallinqover wiNh someropeand a eash Vairof window weiqh|o.)eNtwo 20inch-lonq 2-by-4eon the floor in fronLof Ihe wall. Thenecrewlwo eye hooke into wallebude abouN 41/zfeet,abovethe floor.Cut,two 7-foot lenqlhoof rope,and Nieoneend o f e a c h N o h o o ka n d t h e o N h ee n d l o a a r weiqht wrapVed pipeinsulation. in eland NheVanels on lhe 2-by-4oand leanthem aqainoN wall. the OraVe weiqhlooverNheplywood keep the to Ihem in Vlace.


plywood Makingfreestanding a rack Therack shown above holdplycan panels edge wood on without wall any support. thebases legs Cut and from 2-by-4 stock nailthepieces and together. reinforce rack, trianTo the nail gular plywood the braces t/z-inch of to outside andthebases; solid legs use lumber braces support legs to the in themiddle Toconnect three row. the sets legs, rails of cut from1-by-4s and nail themin place: halfway the one up legs another thetopof thelegs. and at you Setuptherack where canslipthe panels andoutend-f in irst.



plywood rack Buildingvertical a plywood storage, stacking Forlong-term from keeps panels the onendnotonly precious f loor shop warping; also it saves shown rightis built at space. rack The threaded and rods fromfurring strips, two wingnuts. Start screwing furring by wall, and 2 5 strips thestuds one to of Then screw rods two feetfromthefloor. 4t/zfeelapart thetopstrip.Cuta into through strip a thirdfurrrng andbore hole a it 2 inches oneendandsaw notch from openings oI at an interval 4VzfeeI.Both be larger thediamethan should slightly pads on Place wood two terof therods. the the and thefloorbetween rods stack plywood Place upright them. on sheets stripacross face the thethirdfurring panel, slipptng rod one through ofthelast into Slide thehole theother theslot. and nuts onto rods the and washers wing and pulling furring the strip tighten them, (inseD.o f tightly against plywood the fromthestack, loosen remove sheet a strip thewing nuts swing furring and the down outof thewav. and

Woodpad 3/+"x31/2"x12"

illr lll lllllll lIllll llllilllilllfill lllllllt llfl ill] llll llll llt lllt
Atemporary plywoodpallet, ForehorN-Nerm etoraqe . of of a few eheeLe ply' make palleLfrom wood, a four ueedcar Lires,Tlacea Lire at eachcornerof a 4-by-B-foot sheels on area;sNacklheplywood top.lhe Lireswillkeep Nheeheete level and elevaled above anv moieLure on on Ihe floor.Do noNeLackanyLhinq top of the eheeLe:Lhe addiLional weigh|maycau6e Nhem bend. No


Wrapping dowels rope with Dowels to rollaround tend when theyarestored Stacking flat. them upright a better is alternative, then problem to but the is keep them from sliding down falling or over. answerto loop 0ne is them togetherwith a lengh rope, shown left.Drilla hole of as at t t h r o u ga p a i n c a nj u s tb e l o wh er i ma n dt i e o n ee n do f t h e h t rope it; forma loop theother to at end. Drive column nails, a of spacedfewinches a apart, a wallstuda fewfeetabove into the c a n .S t a n dh ed o w e l is t h ec a na n dl o o p h e r o p e r o u n d t n t a t h e mt w i c e . u l lt h ec o r dt i g h ta n dh o o k h e l o o p e e n do n P t d o n eo f t h e n a i l s h a ta l l o w t h er o p e o h a n ga u t .M o v eh e t s t t t loop ordown thesize thedowel up as of bundle changes.

Storing dowels theceiling in joists a shop Thegaps between exposed in ceiling often are considered wasted good of them space, youcanmake but use to hold dowels. Screw couple 1-by-3 a of furring strips across thebottom thejoists thenrest stock topof strips. of and the on This method particularly forlong is useful dowels, which can clutter workshoo. a



a rack base Constructing witha mobile pile a wood in a Sorting throughjumbled for of corner theshop a piece short of size befrustrating. can stock theright of pieces stores short Therack shown right at is The section according size. bottom to pieces ideal a box withdividers, forstoring with of plywood; boxis made %-inch the plywood, the dividers t/q-inch while are plywood. topsection, from The built %panel, consists a back of inchplywood, plywood sides triangular-shaped andr/q" accordingthediameter to shelves spaced you between them. of thecontainers place features S-gallon cans Therack shown shelf andplastic tubes below bottom the Keep of varying ontheother sizes shelves. in and Cut short stock thecans tubing. cutouts thetopof thesides near triangular mobile, dowels Tomake rack flat. the to hold fasten to a shop-built withcasters it dolly (below). a pieceof plywood the to Cut asthe of same dimensions base therack, to side. Attach then screw corner blocks one corner block. a heavy-duty to each caster



Making combination rkbench a wo andshort-cut bin I n a w o r k s h ow i t h l i m i t e d p a c e , p s b u i l da w o r kt a b l ew i t h s h o r t - c u t s t o r a g s p a c e n d e r n e a t h , c ha s e u su t h e o n e s h o w na t r i g h t .C u t 2 - b y - 4 s t o l e n g t h o r t h e l e g s ; u p p o rtth e m f s w i t h 2 - b y - 4b r a c e s - o n es e t n a i l e d a f e w i n c h e s b o v e h e f l o o ra n d a a t s e c o n d e t a t t a c h e dl u s hw i t h t h e s f t o p o f t h e l e g s .C u t t h e t o p a n d t w o " s h e l v e sr o m3 / q p l y w o o dt,h e n n a i l f t h e mt o t h e b r a c e sS a w n o t c h e s . o u t o f t h e c o r n e r s f t h e s h e l v e tso o f i t a r o u n d h e l e g s . a k ed i v i d e r s t M f r o m r / qi n c h p l y w o o d n d a t t a c h a t h e m b e t w e e nh e s h e l v e s s i n g t u q u a r t e r - r o u md l d i n g t r i p s a i l e d no s n i n t ot h e s h e l v e s .

Front brace 11/z"x5t/2"x36"

Stacking between studs stock wall Store short stock between studs the o f a nu n if n i s h es h o p a l l T ok e e p d w . thewood fromfalling over, screw spring clips thestuds insert to and d o w e lis t o h ec l i p s o s p a nh e n t t t gaps (/eftl. between adjacent studs To stand shorter lengths stock of h i g h eu p o nt h ew a l l c u ts h e l v e s r , andsupport cleats fromscrap wood. Screw cleats thestuds the to and rest shelves topof them. the on


for landscape more . rees have formed partof theEarth's a first before dinosaurs i',, than 300nillion vears- since developedrernarka in roamed ulanet. thattimetheyhave the tnolethan i,000varieties nurrbering able diversity species, of Tiees comein manysizes shapes, and in theUnitedStates alone. to fiorn thestunted spruces northernCanada thesublime, of Wood's diversiti' giantsequoias. of torvering stands California's and is also apparent thewidearrayof colors grainpatterns in from thebold vermiiionhueof to available theu'oodworker, to swirling padauk theinlyblaci<ness ebony theintricate, of ancl designs rvalnut of burl. werechoof The 78 species woodshownin thisdirectory foremost of senn ith theneeds interests thecabinetmaker and woodsarehere-species in rnind.The basiccabinetmaking a andash. there also number But are suchasoak,pine,cherry to woods too,from afrormosia ziricote. familiarexotic of less you others maybe seeyou mayhave only readabout; Some the andinformaing for thefirst time.In eithercase, photos in tion may inspireyou to nervadventures your upcoming projects. woodworking to alphabetically according a The directoryis arranged a mostcommonly used name. Sometimeswoodmay wood's you llames; avoidconfusion mayneed to beknown by several namewhenbuyinga particular species to usethe botanical ("spp."indicates species from several that the wood comes werephoto The belonging that genus). woodsin thischapter with a clearlacquer finishto highlighttheir colorand tographed of variafigure.For this reason-and because the inevitable wood that you buy may tionswithin species-theunfinished different. look somewhat with an (H); softwoods with an (S). Hardwoods indicated are do However, not takethe termstoo literally.Somesoftwoods For harderthansomehardwoods. moreinformaareactuaily 24. the see tion on the differences between two groups, page gives informationaboutthe ease Theworkabilitycategory species or difficulty of workingrvith a particularwood.Some you of the maybetoughto planeunless reduce angle theblade, for while othersmayrequireyou to pre-bore nailing. cost fbot-rvhiclr Rather thanproviding specific perboarcl tr priceislisted a relatit'e on scale, rvood, canfluctuate-foreach thc are to Usuallv, priciertvoods from inexpensive expensive. of of chosen a specialpart a piece funtiturc.\btr nrisht for pull, for to a a of selectpiece cocobolo, exalnple, make tlt'atvt'r touch a chailleg. to to or an inlayofebony adda decorative in North All thewoods shown commercial\'available are rvooc'lfind iocally, check for you America; species cirnnot Howeter, soure ivorking magazines nrail-order fbr sources. rare, tropicalharclincreasingly anda tbrv species becoming are is Iradein matty'sPecics lvoods in danger extinction. are of woodrvorliers oftetr and restricted, for this reason, severely u,oods. Fortunatcll', traditional mustseek alternatives using to have long Some are and there many, theirnumberis growing. pau for rvhich strikingll'sirnis available: ferro, exampie, been Braziiian roservood. Othersendangered ilar to the costly, "good with grorvn woods," andharr,ested a vietvto so-called growth-are recent arrivals in conservation sustainable and imported priThese lesser-known species, North America. America present, iginatc at or marilyfrom Centrai andSouth as from sources aremonitoredin orderto be certifieci that in woods fbatLrred thisdirecare well-managed. of these Four and chactacote, chontaquiro amarillo tornillo.(You tory:bayo, to woodsand rvhere buy them canlearnmore aboutthese Protectioir Alliancefor Rainforest throughtheWoodrvorkers in the Alliance NervYork;or in CoosBay, Oregon; Rainforest in California.) Scientific Certification Systems Oaldand, building Youmaywantto avoidtheproblerns scarcityby of with more plentifulwoodsor pl1nvood, then your projects veneer. Anotheralternative is themrvitha beautiful covering crates wood,scavenged old buildings, from shipping rec,vcled you can transform With effort and imagination or pallets. pieces. itemsinto handsome manyworkaday


This symbolindicates species a that in one is rare or endangered at least of whereit is harvested. thecountries

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trl{o{tNioslA ,.,
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g O t a n i C a l N a f f i e : i , r 1 r , , r , " , , . , r . i i i ' r i l ' , . i r : r i ,-ijrr' : ; 1i1t , i . r t r i r , t ., t r . 1 1 1 : 3 9 i i : . i 1 i 1 ; 2 ' bj i q ( a . a . f . y ' 1 : 1 . 2,.' ] . . . : tr l r i r , , , , i i ai I t r r, I I ';: O i l 2 l ) , e t : t , . a O , l a i t , L . n . . ) 6 t , t t . :):',..,): fi r . r ' r irti :.:.. , : : , l r a c r , t t , e A u r a i e a t J : i q i t l ' , , ' t e r , , l . ti .: ., r ' - ' ! r a i . r , . ' ' : ' . , r L . , -.1 , - , , m r r i c a n f f i a l c q e a . i a r , ) | : a : ' , i f : r [ ] r ' a , : i i n r . r '-rn . ' r | r : , , , r . ' . = - , , r e l q i . l , ,a . c a : t , o r a 0 a a . a : a ) ? \ i L ' a a : i . ; f . r i | i ! ' r r i i : . : ' i . a : qt:ir1a|\t. fna<ilq ii aaaa.ta.)2t',1 :)t:-a-.i.)i:i-::rr,' .-,|i" i.a

i o l a n i c a l N a r n e :I

qrain: moder' lo tl.t:rloc',F.t:d ovtn,c)arKart-"oa rich qci)aen
boa*' btl C nq. caDi-

a ! ) t t a a zV a l \ \ \ l e 1 )

',vaen +"h;,:t oe:ecLtr'q t,mber. Other Names: I o:a 17 tit i ::t:.t ;.,r::'. i,.,,i..: i -rr,i ;;ir it :1,. | /',,nqc lliaeriar,r;:l;:r Lll.i... nili2 I.i-..;,;..4; a): l; t; "ri....,r.:ir.,i rnantbc r: ( I'tiler:: ). ?ource: Troptca \t"ieel,ltir ca. Characterietice: 5tr ai4itt ia a ) r"r. t;,','.,i 1; i.f i:1'1:1 a',ntl 1 ; qratn:moderat.ei,1 finei.a'tt,t.)ra: ...:i trr:r:.j\', ti.-r,,,N.,r1'1.1'l a V t n ll.: t L . lL)raiaq,? :lrooa, l;it:i: I; : l.:lil'rrl. :rl.rlf rlr. Uaes: i-:Lrniltre., rr pare tnr4 and occaairlna '! ror \t',ttrt-.r:t'::. W o r k a b i l i t y O e n e r a l l , lr , e r yd o o ) : : : ti q ' r ' , | L r r t r r . , lril : lo'n al.1l',er5', Denitna pro2erlter,: aJftl t',!{,'arar..J ittr! aarae aeN bladeaL.obntr.t. Finiehing:l\c,:;eg-'"z fintel.,ee trltet i tt:t1. we.i,l Weight: 32'1. f-v. ?rice: l,/oderaf,e.






bolanical Name: ,r',iiti'srtibra -,a ?..ea der ie eao'1 cfv o.a iL LakeEfinieheevery we)|, a e e 2 e c i ay i f a , t , a e h o e L o l r . a t n n . de A e a c i e a p V i e d c L b e i o r ea i a i n i n q .T h i ev t c o dc a n b e o f e i q n i f i c a n v a l a ei n \,taca\Narki.q. ite nodeel repuT,ation. despir-,e re atrively z-vert aelective alder eAcaldnoL be geqqedlor lirewood. ) e f e c L z .a l c i a e b u d e a n d e l a i n s , c a n p r o d t c e b e a t f i ' ft ,ig.n"rru. a1der, areqon a der. Other Names:\"leer"ern 9ource; Tacfic CoaeLof Nor"thAnter'tca. Cha r a cle rieti c e : G ene r aily eLraiqht' qr ai n; fi ne, eve n Lo lexltiret paieye:iovt readieh-brown. r f r niLu e. c arvinq, plyw od and veneere. o Ue es: I ur nin,2,',-t Workability:Generaly qood: reduce bladeanqle when p)anrrqLo prevenl LearouL:only oliqht bluntinqof cuL' r er-.. 'ot b.r d r q ?-o?e-! e4. ee Finishing: l,c c epLefi nieh vtell, WeighhSS b, ?rice: lnexgeneive.

(H) 6ot anical Namer Lm b ura na c. a r. n.ii. qf,. amo,Lrarta a qr::::t) :s KelaLt'tely alranqfcr tLe v,te c h o t c ef o r l o i n e r y .l L e i r r e q u l a ra r a n E . r a y e 2 r c l t o e -rrat)aa T a L L r a c l i v ev e n e e ( a . o a n Am a i r ' y : r - , " h e , cr',\ :.t: reqione of SouLh An:enca.the NreeeciLer',.otver' 1 a a f e e t . I h e v t o o dc a n p t a t e L i e e e n e e ew t l l : a n c a , : r of vaniJ . a .uffiare. cumart. rajada Other Namea Cerejeira, ( 3 r a z i ) : r o b l ed e l p a t e .V a l ol r e b o ( , A r 4 e n t i n a l ' . i e h p i n E( 7 e r u ) . o 9ources: Cenlra and SauLh /tmer'tca. Characterislice: lnteriockecand irreqt)ar qrain: rqettt r, -vexture: *vo ye)iow pale brownw)Ll a eJb::, e: ta coaroe v'ti",h darkeninqeiiqhLly ex2ceure. oranqe r.inr., joinery,boal butdinq ani var,aero. Uses: FurniLure. Workability:GooA;aulla culti.q edqeo nod,erately. i r e d u c ec u L L i n q n q l eo f b l a d ew h e np l a n i n 4 r r e 4 t l a r a qrain; ?re-borefor nailinq:moderaLebendinqprogert'iee. Finiohing:t',ccepteftnieheewellwhenii )ed.. Weight 37 \b.lcu.ft. ?ricet Moderale.



(H) bolanical Name: Fraxtnuentqra OiLen k.nown ewall? ar waLera",h,blackaeh qrov'te aa mainiy tn lhe wellande of eaeNernl')orth America.Ae +,.1e solLeat y',mericanaeh, it, te more ik.e1y be lound Lo i n i n t e r i o r on e r ga n d c a b t n e L w o r k t h a nn e p o r L ee q u i p i 1 m e n L ,w h e r ev , r h t t ae h i o c o m m o n ) y s e d . l t a l e o h a e a ,o u eiqniltcan"v hieLoryae a weavinqwood for many Lygeeol b a e l . e L e . 3 1 a c k h ' a r a L a r yc J t a n d e l i c e dv e n e e r z r e as a hiqhrydecoraLive and much oouqhtr afler. Other Namee; 3r own aeh, hoog aoh, owamp aeh, waLer ' - ' . ' o - ?e ' n b r o n na o \ . 1ources: l,).3.4,. and Canada. Characteristics: 1LraiqhL qrain: coaree,eventext ure: dark, qrayieh brown. Uees: )oinery,, glywoodand,veneere. Workability:Generallyqood; blun|e cultero moderaNely: .,cel er beadi"q 2-o2ertiee. F i n i s h i n g A c c e p t e f i n i a h e sw e 1 l . : tNeight:35 lb./cu.fL. ?rice: lnexpeneive.

(H) 9otanical Name: Fraxinue amencana V ' l h i t e e h c a n b e c o n o i d e r e d h e a l -f , m e r i c a n e i e t r c a L J wood.SLronq and very ehock-reaielanf,it. le ueed Lo make oare, pool cuee and baaebaI bala. lt ie a eo Lhe wood of choicefor qarden-I.ool handles,aeed exten"tive y i n b o a L b u i l d i n q n d ,c u t i n L o d e c o r a t i v e v e n e e r 6 . o f L e n a t hae a hiqhlyvarieqated hearfwood,k.nown olivea""h a., o r c a ) c oa o n . Other Nameei A\rnerican whiLeaah, Canadianael . A m e r i c a na e h , Souraes: Canada and U.3.A. Characterielicat 3lr aiqhL qr ain; coa rae LexLur liqh-ve: brown hearLwoodwilh almoeL white eapwood. Usea Saeeballbats, pool cuee,oare, f,oolhand ee, boat. bu i d , i n , f u r n i X ue a nd ve nee re . l q r Wo rkability : 3 aLiof a cLo ry : mod, r aLe b)u nti nq of c ut e Lero:excellenlbendinqproperLieo; pre-borefor nailinT. Weight: 42lb./cu. ft. Trice: Inexpeneive.




9otanical Name:Tu rreanLh afr tcanua ue Considered beoneof Lheworld's t's beoL qualitybloni wooda, rarelyie available lar7equant"iLiee. avodird in II; normally cameg North America veneer, to ae which poeoeoeee aLi.racLive an molLledoall,ern.LhaI ueedin ie finecabinef,makinq Vanelinlq. and, Olher Names:African satinwood. Africanwhite mahogany, apeya(Ghana): apaya(Niqeria): enqan (Cameroon); (Zaire): lueamba aqbe(lvory Coael): eeu (Conqo): AfricanfurniLure wood, olon, )ourcea WeeI and Equat orialAfrica. Characterialica:LighL, elronq wood;mainlyebraighL grainbuLcan bewavyor inLerlocked: medium fineNexlo t"ure; qolden yellow. Uges:Cabinetwork, veneere, marquetryand plywood,. Workabilityt Fair:increaae bladeanglewhenVlaninq ae qrain intrerlocked lende to causeLearout; Voorbending prop eo'. erri pre-b I or nailinq. ore F i n i o h i n g :e n ea l l yq ood . O r W e i g h t : 3 6 l b . l c ur . f. TricetExoeneive.

(H) 9otaniaal Name:Ochroma pyramtda le Saleahaethe ltghLeoL weiqht any commercially of ueed hardwood,.Thie properLy madeiL a keyinqredient. has of life rafLs and a widevariely of eafeLy and buoyancy ll.ln devicea ainceWorld,War facL,thewordbalsameane rafLinSpanish. A,lthouqh difficulltodry,onceiLaoeo iria it ie a relalively elableand sLronq wood iLeweighL. for Oiher Names: Guano(TuerloKico,I'ondurae): lanero ( C u a ): po la k ( 3e l i z eN ca raq ua ) ' N o a ( ?er u ): I a m i b ,i , p (Solivia). ?ources: Weer" lndiee, America, Central Lroeical 7ouLh (Ecuadoi. America Charaal,erieticaz 7traiqht,qrain:fine,velv t exture: ety whiteLo oaf,mealbrown a pinkieh wiLh tint. Ueea:\/todelmakinq,toye, watere?orteequipment and proos, Nheaf,rical qood, Workabilityt ExXremely bladee are kept Vrovided veryeharV: not bendwithoutbucklinq: will little blunlinq of culNers. Finiehing: Acceptefiniehea well: absorbsa qreaLquanNityof finiohing malerial. Weightt 6-16 lb.lcr'. fL. TricetModerahe.


102 .


(H) 9olanical NametTtlia amencana hae conLiqhrweiqht eaoyto work,basewood been and foremoeN wood,e for eidered of the world,'e one carvinq c e n N u r i e e . l a nb e e h a p e do r e m a r k a bfl iy ed e l a i l . I cL t n l ie odor-free for and hae beenused, exLeneively d,omesLtc qood,e euchae kiLchen ulensilo andfoodconf,ainere. ie for Saeewool, coneiAered uneutLable ouLd,oor d,uLy bec au"e i16e21116o poorly. A,merican linden, lime linn, f,ree: American Olher Namea. l i r r e( U . K . ) . 5ourcea EaeternCanada and U.9.4. qrain: Characberistics: Straiqhx finelerturei creamy whitedarkeninq creamybrown. lo Turninq, toyo,pianokeya, Ueea: carvinq, ?attern making, match eplinto, boxeo and, cratee. ly; WorkabilitytVery qoo blunf,s d: cutLeroeliqht poor bendinq proVerDiee, qoodwiLh finishee. Finiohing: all Generally W e i g h t t2 6 \ b . / c u . f L . ?rice:lnexpeneive (eliqhl;ly htqheror thick 12/+ 16/+ f kilnand driedcarvinq efock).

(H) 9olanical Name:Aepido epermac ruenLu m A wondertd, eaey-workinq Limber, bayote a "lesoerhardwood in known epeciee" Lhaf,iEofLen available larqe sizesand, someLimee inlo veneere. orly aL|raccul Noi tive, bayoio alooverydecay-reliotant. 3 fr I 5ouraes: oubh aot Mexico, elize, ondur e as. qrain', interlockinq Charaaterislicot Slraight lo eliqhlly medium fineLexLure: Lo heartwood'. brownieh eappink; waod: a blueh throughouL. creamwiNh Vinkioh Lurninq, framinq, furniLure decoUsea Cabinebwork, and, raLive veneere. qood:doeenoLLakenailEwell: Workability: Generally good, properLiee. bending Finiohing: AccepLo finiohee well. Weighu37-46lb./cu. ft. ?ricetModerate.



(H) OotanicalNamerFaquaqrandifolta leavy, hardand eLronq, American beech uaedfor ie everythinq from floorinq woodenware. Lo Althouqh coneidered leosallracLivethan European beech, American b e e c h a e2 r o m i n e n ta y ea n dv i o i b lte n y p o r e e , l t a h r r i i hiqhly fiqured when quarlereawn. Other Name:1eech. 5ourceq EaeternU.3.A. and Canada. Characteristicot Straiqht qrain: fine,even Lexture; reddieh brown liqhl brown Lo hearLwood almoel witrh whiLe eapwood. Ueee:7enlwood furniNure, turninq,handlee and cabineLmakin4. Workabilifyt Satiefactory: qoodwif,hmoettoole bu| may burnwhen croescutor drilled: may bindon aawe: exc ellenL turninqwo excellenlen q properLi od; b d,in ee., hiqhohrinkaqe makesiL unelable use, in Finiohing: AccepLe finiahee well. Weight:46lb.lcu.fL. ?ricetModerate.

(H) Dolanical NametDeLula papyrifera 7aperbirchio a Louqh, heavy wood, a)Lhouqh ie eolLer iI. Lhanolher birches. barkwaeuaedby lr)ative lIe Americane to faahion wigwame canoee thaL manypeop)e and eo "canoe eLill referLo it ae birch." woodpoeeeeeea The an atLracLive figure, ie and, aometimee eliced into decoraT,tve veneere. Other Namea WhiLe blrch. eweeL btrch. American birch. 5ouraesz Canada, U.A.A. Charaaterietica: grain; SLraiqht finet exture: wide, pale-brown creamy whileeapwood: hearLwood. UeeetI urninq f or d, meeIic ulensila, dow e, Loothpi o el cke, eVoolo, bobbine, hooVo and, toye, plywood and decoraf,ive veneerg. Workability: qood;moderatedullinq Generally of cutfere:unueual curlyqrairtmaypick. in planinq; up oatief acNory en q properLi b din ee. Finiehinq Acceptefiniehes well. WeighV39 lb./cu. fr. Trice:lnexpenoive.


: 104


(H) 9otanical Name:Cordta aop. A beautifuleubstiLuLe roeewood. for bocoteie oneof LhemanyLypee cordia-a qroupof hardwoode of found Lhrouqhout West lndieo, lhe LroVical America, Africa and Aaia.frocotre'e LexLure similar teak-although ie No it, ie eomewhaL harder-and iXewildfiqurepal\erno produce eNunninq cabineLwork.fhe woodie available only i n s m a l ls i z e s . Other NametCordia. Souraes: Mexico, Selize, I'ondur as. Characterielica; 1traiqht, grain:moderat coaree ely qreenLo qolden LexLure; yellow wiLhblack fiqurepaLterne. Usea Furnif,ure, cabineLe, erior joinery, int turninq and decorative veneerg. WorkabiliNy: qood;bluntocu|tinq edqes Generally qoo oliqhLly; d ben dingprop erLieo. Finiohing: Accep|ofinieheswell. Weighh4b lb./cu.fL. TriaetExpeneive.

1otanical name:Guibourtiaeoo. A rosewood eubetibut bubinqa'o oflen weigh e, loqe morethan 10 tons:they can becut into exlremely wide Kevazinqo,veneer a from irreqularly peeled Vlanke. qrained loqe, a fiqure Voeeeooeewild,,flame-like that io et eopular f or cabin work. Olher Namee:African roeewood, eseinqanq, kevazinqo \r otary cut veneeronly). Souraee,Equatorial Alrica (Cameroon, Gabonand 7_aire). Charaat,eriatiasz denee; grain: Very fine purplieh pink lo ealmon red,wiLh dark Vurple veining. QuarLereawn boardeofLenehowveryatlracf,iveblackmotlle fiqure, UeeetTurninq, f urniture, cabin work a nd ven ere. et e Workabilityz qood:irregular Generally grainNende to tear when hand-planed: pre-bore nailinq. for Finiahin1 Excellent. Weight:55 lb./cu. fr,, ?ricez Expeneive.

\,\rOOl)t) I ll.HCTC)ItY

(H) ctnerea bolanical Name: Jt.rqlane i , m:rrtberof "vle 'ua rtaLf haa aeeumed olLen ciosen lor cAurcA a r.) .tc.: of l tono; ae lhe vtr:od'.fhielree tr' lrea"'tred for more LAan i-"ewood: '.'1. ?a....a.6 a rich. deiic aro nJ-,ane ?roducea -vltat e used, o mal.ea eweeLeyruV simi ar t a aag 1.., me? . t'!rn?. vtalnuL, nt,ti. oi Other Namee: V.lhfie . 1ourcee: a+od'.0.1.tCharaclerietica: Straiqlt qratn;eofl but coaree lexI . ' .- e , m a ' l b ' o * r . Ueea: 7lrnir.lre. inl,etor Lr'tmon boate, int eriorjo nery. aaf"/n4. venaafa. WorkabilitytGenerallyqood: becaueewood ie eofL, it ie imgorLantto keepct)ttera eharg: willfuzz uV when a a n d e d ;g o c r b e n d i n 7 r o g e r L i e e . p Finishingz Accepl,efinieheevery well. fl. Weight 2b',t. Price: ModeraLe.

(H) 6ot anical Name: CaLa Ipa apt:c rt:t a /,, co7r, at.lracltve vtor:d.oaLal2a t:' a l,n,':aatit',e-;",'rt:r:,:i o aa ey ta rvork with a vtavy I qt;re. I Ite't't,::rj ia i a eLi't.:: J\' y. inerpertei,,,e. olLen di+Jictt to lini ctcal Le c:ptn btL a qrain and exceear'ie aaflnea'afial.e tl L)1a.t-iar lor r.r, fr.trnilure Lhal wtllraae:e aeaq '.pe. F.r:ai'"lanl decay, iL ie tdea for r:tldor:r oar\'flQi. a O t h e r N a m e e :C a t a w b a . q e - ; r c e . n d i a n - l t . a n t. r : r L r t ' ern caLel?a. 5ourcet 1-).3./:. a Cha r a cleri sti c s : G e ner a|ly L) eve., wa,"" qr ai n: m edi t m 1' caarae,evenLetLrr.i Iigl:f tan wii,ha 2ro':ninent qrowilt nnq fiqure. i L U e e e :C a b i n e l m a k t n q .t r n i n q ,p i r : L t r e r e m e e a n d q e n ' e r a lo r n a m e n l a u a e a . Workability Generally very qcod: may fray til'tencrr:ee' c t t : d u l l ec u L t e r s o n l ye l i q h t l y . t',cce2Lo finiaheevtel. Finiohingz Weight: 2b-32 lb. cu. tL. I ?ricezInexpenaive moderale. to


i: I It I


b otanical Name;Cha maecy a rie nooLkaLeete p n A'taeka yellow ced,ar etableand remarLably ie reeisLanl to aecay, Likemoet, members the cedarf amily, hae of iI a dJeLincLive that,f adeeae Ihe wooda4eo.Thie odor woodia not, abundantly available. Ireee qrowtro60 The lo ba feel;in heiqhtin Lheforest,e Lhe?acificnorLhof weef,, an) if,can take up tu ZaO yearefor them to reach marketable eize. Olher Names:Yellow cedar,?acificCoasLyellow cedar, nooLka falee cypreoe, yellow cy?re6e. Source:TacificCoasLof Norfh America. Characterisliae; SLraiqht, qratn; fineLerture;paleyellow. joinery. Uses:Furnilure, boat build,inq veneers. and WorkabilitytVeryqood:lowdullingof cutLere. Finiehinq: Acceptefinishee well. Weight:31 lb./cu. ft. TricetModerale.


OotanicalName:J uniperue virqiniana Like mosLol,her Lreee known "cedar," ae aromaLic cedar ie nol boLanically"cedar" all.ln f acr., Lreefrom a at, the which thie softwood comee a iuniper. Ihe timber ie 7uL conNaine cedaroilandqivee offihefamiliar"cedai' ecenl that, is eaidto reVel moLhe.fheae characleriettca two are f,hereaeon whyLhewoodis frequently usedIo line cloeef,s and chesLe. Other Namee: Kedcedar, eaeLern cedar,fenneeeee red juniper, red cedar, SourceaCanada and eaEtern U.9.A. Characterielicsz aiqht,qrain;finetexLureireddieh7Lr browni boa rd e ofLen have knoLe and ba rk incluaione, Uaeo: Cawing,lininqo cloeeLe cheete, of and veneero and pencile. Workabilityt good,but briXtle: Generally may breakor chipwhen drilled,; eplit in nailinq. may Finishin7: Acceplefiniehes well, except, Lurpenlinefor baoedVroducf,e, WeighttSO lb./cu. fL. ?rice:lnexpensive.

'f ' 1 .'t :ll

':,\.1;iiF '.'..''

r i


botanical Name:Thujaplicata Lree, weet red, ern ced,ar qrowLo ffiore can A qrand-eized l. l x h a n1 5 O e e t i n h e i q h LL i a o n eo l t h e l t q h t e ea n d f for makinq ideal ouLdoor it mosLdurable eofLwoode, nng alLraclivecolor uoe.lte dielinct qrowLh li4ureand, value panelinq veneer. for and, aleoqiveiI eiqnificant, "knotty Thie are cedar." Eepecially knolty pieceo eoldae levele ie currenNheavy of epeciee elow reqeneraLe;if lo coneumpf,ion noLabate, weelernredcedarcould do become rarewoodin Lhe21el Century, a (U.3,A.); ced,ar red, Other Namea Gianl arborviLae (C ada): 9 ribi Columbi red,ced, (U.K.) anoe-ceda r. ar eh a an ;c 1ourceetCanada, l.e.A. qrainicoareelexLure. Characterietice: Straiqhf, exLerior millwork. furniture, boat buildinq, Ueesz Outd,oor qood:keepculLeroaharp. Workabilityz Generally well. FiniehinqAccepLe finiehee ft. Weiqht:23 lb.lcu. ?rice: ModeraLe.


B olanical Name: Thuja occ td enta lie Whtte cedar ie oooular in NorDhAmerica for if,e reeia' Lance lo decay. lt is ofl.en ueed far canoea,ehinqlee a n d o t h e r e x L e r i o a p p l i c a t i o n e . W h i ln o l e e p e c i a l l y r e etronq, the wood ie eaey Lo work and is wellauited objecle. Smal er Lreeeare ueed Lo out door d,ecoraLive f o r p o l e ea n d p o e t e . T h e w o o d i ee e l d o m f i q u r e d n d , a neverubea a9 veneer. almo1T, Other Names: Arbowilae, eaglern whiLecedar, ewamp cedar. Sourcea Canad,a and,U.3.4. CharaaNerielicezStratqh| 7rain: even terLure; liqht brown hearlwood; eapwood ie white; many knol,e commonly ?reoent,. fencinq. poele and d,ecoraLtve Ueea; 7oai, buildinq, Workability..Good. Finiohinq Accepte finieheewell. Weight;23 lb.lcu,ft. Tricet lnexpenoive.


i 108


(H) 9otanical Name: 9ickinqia ealvadoreneie ChacLacote,a hardwoodlrom wellmanaqed eourcee, q r o w oi n l h e Y u c a t a n a n d C h i a p a i o e q i o n o f e o u t h r o eaef,ernMextcoand Selize.Seau|iful and eaoy f,a work, iL ie a wood, inlenee color and olLen poeeeeeee qorof a q e o u ef l a m e f i 7 u r e . l Li e r e c o m m e n d , e d u e e a f i n i e h Lo wiLh ulLravioleL proLecLanN, ray since iLe incredible hue fadee wiNhex?o6urelo f,he eun. Other Namea Chacahuante;Kedwood(Selize\ 9 ources: 9 out\ eaar, M ex'co, 3 elize. Charaateristiae: Fairly irreqularqrain;fine LexNure: hearLwood,: brilllanl crimson red; eapwood:crearn, Ueeq FurniLure, cabinelworkand Lurninq. WorkabilityzVery good, FiniehinryAccepf,efinieheswell. Weight: 40 -45 lb./cu. tt. ?riaet Mod,eraLe.

(H) OotanicalnametFrunueeeroLtna Extremely eLable when camee checkinq warpil Lo and inq,and excepLionally beautifu|black cherryia oneof NorLh America'e fineet, cabinef, woode, However,Nhere to a ?ronaunced, variance colorbeLween eapwood in ite and hearlwood, which can somef,imee problemaNic. be lf Lhetwo are ueedoide-by-eide, finiehed workmaydieplaya discrepancy color, in which inNeneily the will ae wood agee. goodportionof black A cherrywoodcont ainequrndeVoeiLe Lhrou7hout. AlLhouqh doeenot. thie affecI the lumber, showe veneero;1oqe it on wiLh qum exceaeive are avoided veneers. for Other nameat American cherry, rum cherry,whiekey cherry, wilA cherry, fruitwood. 5ourcee; Canada, U.9.A. CharacterislicetFineqrain;omooLh lexture; reddieh to brown deepred hearLwood. Us ea FurniLue,f,u nin ca winq, joi ery,mueical r r q, n insf,rumenLo, boat interiorsand decoralive veneer.. Wo rkabil*y: Very good, blunte cutli nq edqee moderat e: ly:qoodbendinq properLiee. Finiehing; Acceptefiniehes wet| Weight:36lb./cu. ft, TriaetModeraNe.



(H) Ootanical Name: Castanea cenlta[a dieeaeeknownae by i'irt.ra ;r er.r"erninaLed a fun4t-te -vle ma)onL'1 chesLnul .ow corie. of clteelntfi b tE6*', f i r o m r e , c y c l e L t m b e r e r o n b a r n ea n ) ' o t h e r b u i l d i n q c d the b qlL. )l hae a eo beenavailable ll,a-v Stre-dale irorr eLandtnqdead treee t'hai have beenaLLacled by "wormy :.naecle, eaE cheeLnut" is noneLhe Ihe ree,-t Ltrq s an cor,eidered atLreclive wood Lhat' retaine cAeaI'nut, for uee and makeeit' excellenL or,tldoor .eL.Nradurabt|Ny Or.her Namee: !\torrry cheeLnut',oweet cheaLnuL. ?ourcee: Canada ana Eaelern U.3.4,. Characterislics: Toroue qrowth rinqe reeulNin promipale brown. rtenLfiqure;coeree t,ey.rilrei l J s e e z t c ; 1 e e L a k e e ,g i c t u r e l r a m e s , f u r n i L u r ea n d I ,o veaeera. deacraLlve WorkabiliNy Generally ea6y Lo work: ferroue mer.ale rnay otatn lhe wood blue:eplir'oeaeily;medium bendinq properLiee. finieheevery well. /^,ccepte Finishing': fL. Weighr,: 3a b.lct-t. \. ?rice: "loberaLe ta P\ ?c4a" e.

(H) g o t a n i c a l N a m e z) . 1 | t , c ' | | a c t hara,f'eavy imber, honLaquiromariio ie iot:nd:.t L , i a b u n a a n c e n l l e t r o g i c a if o r e s l " o i 7 e r t .a t A l : r a z i . wood,wiil a atrikinq fiqlre or boLr: t ie a beatft,ift-t I . a p l a t n ' e a w n n d q a a r L e r e a w nu m b e r U . a A a c a \ l a a a ri e e, mah o4 a ny e obst tLr-tt Lhie 1 s s er - kno\N 5p. ci. a |) fcr into l loft'h l'.merica tae to beqinninq be exporr,ed i n f t n el u r n i i u r e a n d c a b i n e L m a k i r : q . . O l h e r N a m e s : 3 t c u 2 i r oc a l - t l c . S o u r c e : 3 o u L hA m e r i c a . rncaer' Characteristico: )LraiqhL to intedocLea4ratn', at ely coaroe Lo coar6e lexLLrei iqht t o dark.brout'n y cr hearLwood: ellowieh earn eapwood. an , U s e s :F u r n i t u r ec a b i n e t ' m a L t n q d a r a a q . a l c o n eLrucLionusee. doee naL t)r. or ehape tve)i. Workability:Generally,qoo,): ve F i n i o h i n qA c c e p t e l t n t e h e e r l l . : Weiqht: 5B lb.lcu.tL. ?rice: \,4oderate.



v(H) 6olanical Name:Dalber4ia retuea A durable, hardwood, cocobolo someinler?ae6egee6 eelinqworkinq properLiee.lN conLaina nal,ural euba oily of,ance f,haI noLonlywalerproofe Ihe wood,but makee iNveryeaeyto workand finieh.However, fine eawdueL ile may caueeitchinqand eneezing ofLen and, temporarily d , y e oh e e k i no r a n q e . t , i s r e c o m m e n d eN oc o v e r t l d expooed when ekin working with cocobolo. Other Nameo Granadillo (Mexico): Nicaraguan roeewood, qrendill. Source:WeeN coaeL Cenbral of America. Characterietico:Heaug, deneewood:otraiqhtlo irreqular grain;medium Lexlure: purple, oranqe, ruel and yellow colorwifh blackmarkinqe, d,arkening exVosure with Lo a deepred,d,ish oranae. Ueeo:Turning, knifehaidles, bruehbacke, oolhanaws, t inlaye and veneerg. galief acilory:eiqniticanL Workabilityt dullinq cuttersi of blad,ee ehould exiremely be eharp:reduce blade anqle for planing: verydifficult f,o qlue. FiniohinqAcceptsfinishes verywell. Wei1httOB lb./cu, ft. ?riae:Expenoive.




Ootanical Name: Taxodum d taLichum r N o r m a l lfyo u n di n w e Lr e q i o n e n d e w a m p eb a l d a , cy?rees lumber truly al homein waLer. f acL,iL io ln ie ofLen usedin bridqee docke, and Old-qrowLh timber ie eignificantly moredecay-resieLant. secondLhan grow\hwood,thouqh bobh coneidered are ideal for o u L d o o u e e .V a l u r e s l a n d s o f t h i e e p e c i e s r e r a gcarce, becoming and ae gwarype drained, te are iL sufferingfrom a lose of habitat, whichwillmakeiI increaeingly ao Limepaeeee, rare Daldcypreee occae^ionally yield,a intereelinq veneere panelinq. and, Olher Names Soulherncypre6e, ewam?cy?re6e, li dew aLercy?re6e,yellowcypr eoe, while cypr eee, red cypreee, blackcypreeo Source:3 ouLh eaeLern U,9.A. Charaaterietice: Straiqht,Train:oilytexture; yellowbrownto arkbrown. d Uaeet chemical Joinery, vaLeand tanke,boaLbuildina. poleo, poeteand manyconetruclion applicatione. Workabilityt Generally qood:keepcutters sharp. Finiohing: AccepLa tinisheswell. w eight 2B-35 lb. cu.tL. / Trice:lnexpenoive.

111 l

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7otanical Name: FEeudotouqa menzteeii ane of r,he moet wtdelyuee),woode in North America, , a n d t A e c o n l i n e . I ' o m o e t p l e n t i l u le p e c i e eD o u q l a a - f i r ie htqhlyvaluedas a conetrucLionwood becauseol if'e etrenqth, eLiffneoe,moderaLewelqhl'and availabilityof wilhout't'he epelled, Iarqe eizetimbera, 1Lie f requenLly "Oouqlae iyphen ae fir," althouqh lL ie, in f acL, not' a fir or"falee hemaL all baL part of Lhe qenuo Teeudot'euqa, ock," Current ehorLaqeoof t'his umber are due more Lo if'6 loq1inqbans Nhanany real ecarc'tt'y.With prominenL qrowLh rinq fiqure, Douqlae-firaleo yieldear"traclive "/eneera ana ?tywaoa. ColumbiaVine,Oreqonpine,yellow Other Names: Srir"ieh ftr, red fir. Souraee; Canada, WeaLern U.3.4.,Europe. Characterieticat 3f,raiqhf'qrain; mediumlexLure: red' d,iehbrown:may be reeinoue. joinery, veneere ani a wide ranqe of Useet ?lywood,, c c o naLrucLio n a 2 p|| a'i o na, Workability: Oenerally qood',beLLerwit'h machine toole: aLely. blunLecuLLeremoAer finiehesfairly well, Finiehinq AccepNa


7otanical Name: Dtoepyroo .pp. L e A I e b o n yi e r a r e a n d e x p e n o i v e ,e p e c t a l y h e f a r n e d , aI' inLeneeblack ebonyv'thich, one Iime. wae obta ned grimarilyfrorn )ndiaand )ri Lanka.Today,il e loun) in limited quantir.ieain areae ol Equatorial V'lesLAfri':a. A l - ) n l i kM a c a e e a re b o n y , f r i c a n e b o n yi e q e n e r a l ye o l i d e d w b l a c k , t t h o u t e t r i p e eo r m o l L | n q . 3 h 1 p 2 e t o N o r t h iL billet'e, ie uaed in the America in ehorL hearLwooA Sawdustlrom ebonycan cauae finestwood oblecLe, reepiratory probleme. ebony,Ceylonebony, Olher Names: SaLulinau,lndian Africanebony,MaAaqaocarebony,Gabon ebonyetc., a c c o r d i " qt o c a ) n t r y o " o r q t . 9ourceq lndia,Sri lanka, Africa. Charaateristics: )enee wood with a coaroe I'exture; qrain: very d,arkbrownI'o b1ack. eLraiqht to inLerlocked, brueh backs,mueical inetrumenf'e,han' Ueee: Turninqa, y c d l e o , i n l a y , b u l t ao f b i l l i a r d u e e ,o c c a o i a n a l lv e n e e r b applicaLione. and other ht4hlydecoraNive W orkability : Diffic ulf,:dulle c ut ler s a ever ely: Vr e- bo r e for nailinq. Finiehinq AcceVte finieheewell. Weight 65lb.lcu, fL. ?rice:Very exVeneive,

Weighu, lnexVeneive. ?rice:



(H) Botanical Name:Droepyroe opp. Macaeear ebony, unlike black ebony with iLeintenee i d e e ph u e , e m u l L i c o l o r e d ,u a l l m o r el i q h tl h a n d a r k . ue , y in 7oLhMacaeear ebony and, black ebony ueed, I,he are fineel inlayand, work. Macaeaar ebony cabineL comee from a number d,ifferent of epeciee Nhatare all parLof Lheebonyamily: f Nhere may be eomevariaLion deneiin t Ly.Lext)reand, from onegiece o anor"her. a??earance wood, Olher Namea Calamander coromarlel(U.K.); qol en e0 d ony,marblew d. oo 1 o u r c e 3 ot L h e a e tA a i a . : Extrremely with verybrittle Characteriatica: denoe grain,buf,may be irreqular heafLwood,: moetlyetraiqhL dark brown black, to with or wawt fine,evenf.eKLurei liqht-brown ef,reaks. Lurninqo, bruehbacke, walkinq eLicke, Usea Cabinetwork, mueical inelrumenLe, work, inlay billiard cueeand deco' veneers: ral,ive saowood usedfor lool handlea. Workability:Very d,ifftcull';: exlremeblunting cuLLere; of o fo p r e - b o rfe r n a i l i n q ;n e u i t a b l e r g l u i n g . u Finiahing: Acceptefiniehee verywell. Weightz -bO lb,cu.ft . 60 I Trice:Very expeneive.


(H) 9otanical Name:Ulmue americana Whiteelmie Lhelarqeet. arquably moet. and the eLately Moreso than olher elme, elmof a1l. Lhiemajeelic lree waedevaet af,edby Dutchelmdiaeaoe iaaay tt i5 ana relarively difficultLo lind whiteelmlumber.Ihe wool,ie exI;remely eaeyto bendand ie moet,olLenueedLo make furniNure, When eliced the quarLer, on whiteelmproducee lov ribb ef,rip veneere. ely oned Other Namest American elm,water elm,ewamp e\m qray (U.9.A.); orhamwooA, elm(Canada), Souraesz Canada and, U.3.4. Charaaierietico:oually aightqrain,Lhouqh sLr U often inberl cked: coa r ee f,eKLur lighf,,y ellowieh- brown color. o e: boat. buildinq, o?arf,6 equipment. Usee:FurniLure, and decoraf,ive veneerS. qood:dullecuLtinqedqeemoderWorkabilityt Generally alely;goodbendinq bux Io properLiee, prone warpinq. Finiehing; AccepLo finiohea well. Weight:35lb.lcu. fL. Tricez lnexpeneive, increaoing to ecarciLy. but. d,ue




(H) Ootanical name: AaLrontu 7raveolene m SeauLifal, durable and etronq, qoncaloalvee eomef,imee bears a reeemblance bolh roeewoodand Macaeaar f,o ebony.II ie ueed, fine applicalionelikeknife handlee, lor billiardcue butt a, bruah back.e, and dampero in grand pianoo.SecauEeLhe tree has becomean endanqered qoncaloalvee ie difficult.Lofind in NorLh epecieo, America. lL ie availableprimarilyin veneere. Olher Name:Iiqerwood 5ourcer Srazil. Characteristice: Dense,very heavy wood; irceqular, int e rlocked,qr ai n: m edium LexLu e: r ed dieh-br own r marbled with black elreako: large variatione in color and qrain. Uses: FinefurniLure,cabineLmakinq, Lurninqand veneer6. Workability: Difficult: blunLecu|I;inq edqee moderately to eeverely; for nailing. Vre-bore Finiahing AcceVX.o finieheewell. Weight:59 lb.lcu.fL. Trice: Expeneive.

GONCALO L v u v .N-; AIVF,S' l >

(H) Ootanical Name: CelLtaocctdenta|te lackberry ie elaeLic, ehack-resi""tanL and eaey to bend, characf,erieLice eharee with elm and,aeh',iL ie ofLen iX uaed ae an aeh eubstitut e in Lhe farniLureindu""fry, HackberryLreee qrow to more fhan 1aO fueI Lall. All,hough moeL hackberryie ueed for conetraction, the wood'sdistinct,figure makeo if, an att racLivechoicefor g, veneer cabineLwork d,lurniLure. an Olher Names: euqarberry, hack-f,ree,baeLard e m, net XleIree, beaverwood. Sourceet Eaelern U.3.A.and eouLhernCanada. Characteristics: lrregularqrain; moderalely coaree t exture: liqht brownwith yellowbande. Usest Furnif,ure, I?orlo equtpmenL, cabineAwork, plywooa and veneer?. Workability: Generally qood: dulle cuttero moderately: interlocked, qrain requireereduced planinqanqle;qood bendinqproVerLies, Finiahinq Accep|e ftniehea well:ea?eciallyaLLracLivein naLuralcolor. tNeight':40 lb.lcu.fL Tricet lnexpeneive.


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(H) 9otanical Name:Caryaepp. For ol;renqLh, hardneoa flexibiliLy, hickory the besL ia and commercially available woodin NorLh America. ie ueed lL for Loolhandlee, euchae axeeand, maule, eporL' and,for inTequiVmenL. iIe woodchiVe ueeful: Even are Ihey are in oflen uaed, emokinq meal. hickory, mockerOther NameetShaqbark piqnuthickory, nuLhickory, hickory, red whitehickory. 9 ource:Eaef,ern A. U.5. qrain, can be Charaoleristice: Normally buL etraighL irreqular wawi coaroet"exlure: or brown reddieh-brown to he arlw ood; whitre apw d. e oo furnilure, Ueee;SporLtnq equipmenL, benLwood chaire, handlee, eLrikinq and plywood veneere. Workability:DifficulL: blunLe cutLingedqeemoderaLely: qrain,reduce whenplaning irregular blade'e cutf,ing angle; veryqood, bendinq proVertieo. Finiohing: Acceptefiniehee wel| lb./cu. Weight:51 ft. ?rice:lnexpeneive.

(H) 6otanical NametIlexeoo. A clooe-qrained, whitewood, almoetr with vtrLually no viaible fiqure, holly valued inlaywork. io for Holly veneer, eubatiLulee ebony.Very for dyedblack, little of thie timberie cut,eachyear,makinq a difficullwood il Lo obtain. Spri7e holly, of however, Lheirehinyleavee with and red berries, common are Chrietmae decoralione. Olher Names:Whiteholly. Sources: Europe, U.9.4. and weelern Aeia. qrain;fine,evenlexLure: Characterielice:lrreqular whiLe grayioh-white; Io lo ?rane blueeLain. Uees:)rnaLe Lurninqe, musicalinof,rumenle, inlay, rnarquetry and veneere. Workabilit"y: Difficult:keeV cuNNing edqeovery oharV and reduce cuLbinq anqle plane of blade. Finiehing; AcceplefinieheE verywell. rN eightz35 -5O lb./ ft . cu. ?riae:Expeneive.







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(H) en 9otaniaal Namet Hym a ea courbaril A etronq, hard wood, iatoba has shock-reEist'ance similarto ash and hickory, and i6 olLenueed qualitieo Althouqh diffia in tool handleo and eporte equipment. glowwhen cult woodIo work, obalakee on a e?ecial lat lte it io planed, bark is similarto that' of paperbirch of and eheeNe iL are usedin canoe-makinq. courbaril, est lndian W cuapinol, Olher Namee Amerelo, (U.9. U.K.); A., |oouet,etinkinqtoe (W eot,|ndieo): |ocuet, jut'aby, guapinol (CentralAmerica): iatai vermelho (Arazil): alqarrobo. and )outh America andtheWestlndies. SourcesrCentral qrain;medium to CharacteriEtiaaMootly int'erlocked ^almonre+Lo oranqebrownhearLwood coa?6eteKVu?ei to with dark brownstreake,darkeninq reddishbrown: oagw d. whiie t o oinkish oo turnin4,tool handles, UeeetF urniiur",c)binetmakinq, froorin4, and o?ortin7equipment, Vanelinq veneero. Worl'abilityt Faia lough to sawi interlockedqrain hard moAeraNe bendinq to plane; poorfor nailinq; ?ro?erbiee. Finiehin1Accefio stains well,butdoesnot poliahto a hi7h-qlooofinioh. tNaighrz4B'56 lb./cu. tN. ?riaezModerate.



cearenaia 1ot aniaal Name; Dalberqta ie kinqwood heavyand very Likemost rceewoodo, Nhie Nimber was of aLiraclive.Oeeewinq ite reqalname, ueedin lhe finesLfurnilure built for LouieXIVand ie an LouisXV France.Today,kingwood endanqered of Thesmall e*remely ecarce. epecieo lhal is becominq find ueein reetoralionwork, amounf,o lhat are available finelurninqoand veneere. Violetwood, violetta (U.9.A.); Alher Nameez violete(brazil). 5ouraetOrazil. Characterislioez )traiqht qrain; line texlure: violel' yellow lo brown, dark violetand blacketripeeaqainet' viol eL-b ownbackqr d. r oun Turninq and veneero inlayand marquetry. for Useez qood;blunto lool and blade WorkabilltyrOenerally alely. cuthinq edgeemoder Finiahingl Aaaepto finishes well;well euit'edto a naturalwaxfinieh. 7 Weiglrf,r O-75 lb. cu. fN. / ?rlcelVery expen6iv6.




Aotanical Namer Guaia cum officinale "wood ile vitae or of life"received namelor the Lignum eVecieo, oupVooedly curaf,ive qualilieeof its resin.Thie one whichis extremely olow'qrowinq, producee ol t'he timbere,and io virLually world'sheavieslcommercial This due self-lubricating Io ito hiqhraeinconhent. and use,ao bearinqo makeait idealfor ito prinaiVal shafas,lor which there buohin7 blocksfor ehiVpropellor oubot'ilute. ie preoentlyno elfective oynNhebic Olher Nameerlronwood(U,5.A.);7uayaaanneqro,palo oanio (Cuba);bois gaiac (Franae). de 5ouraea Trooical America and Weet lndieo, Charact'erlEblaetHeavy,denoe woodi intarlocked, irrequ' to lar qrain:qraenioh-brov,n blaak. malleb heads,pulleyo u)minqz. and lJEes:Manne bearin4a, Worlability, Difficuli'; dulls autters moderawlg not ouitablefor qluinqunleaotreated frroL, Flniehing AcceVto finishes w ell. .' Weighb-77lb.lcu.ft, ?riaet,Very il?eneive. ,j,;i;l

(H) 9 otanical NamezArbutu a menzieeii Madrone varieogreatly in size,sometreeo reaching bnnchee somelirnee 125teeLin heiqhtwilh enormouo oLrelchinq overan area of IO,OOO aut which, thouqh diffiaultto t offerea beauliful imber, srnoothfinish.Smaller a dry,canbeqiven remarkably madronetimber often has burlqrowthoatit's baee; inf,ootunningveneers, these are frequently developed It ie also knownas one of r,he beat,sourceeof charcoal for makin1 6unpowden OhherNameal 7aoftic ma*rone,arbutuo, madrona. 9ourceat Canadaand western U.5.4. to aini fine,even Chalz,otnriallcet5t raigWb irreqularq? to iet&urei palereddioh'yellow deeVerred or brown. UeeszFinefurniture, htrninq ani decoraiiveveneero. Wo*abiltq6 9 atisf act'oryt blunto cutting edqeo r aiher eevar ely mediumbandin ?r o?efti es. i 6 FlnlehingzAcce?t o finishes well Waigltu48lb.lcu.ft. ?dcrltModerata.



(H) Oolanical Name: Acer eaccharum f' denee wood, harA maple'eueea afLenLake advantaqe of ite reeiet,a.ceto wear and,abraaion.)i ie ueed in a i b a w i d er a n q eo f c o n o L r t c t i o n , n c l u d i n q o w l i n q l l e y oa n d an dance floora. Olten poeeeeeinq atlraclive liddleback l o r c u r l yf i q u r e ,L h i e i e a l e o l h e m a p l ew h i c hp r o d u c e e h e veneere. f arroue bird,'a-eye Other Names: Rock maple,euqar maple,whiLemaple m q ( e a p w o o d )b i r d ' e - e y e a p l e( 1 tt h e d i o t i n q u i e h i nq r a i n , ie preaent). S o u r c e s :C a n a d a ,U . 3 . 4 . Char a ct'erist'i 3t rai7ht qrai n, o c c a eio nally c urly, wavy cot ia f\ne texLure:hearLwoad reddiehbrown: or bird'e-eye; eapwoodio whiLe, mueical furnilure, 6?arLo equiVment', Ueee: Turning, flo ood plyw inetrumenf,s,butcher'a block.e, orinQ, and veneerg, Workabilit'y: Dttficult: blunle cutLing ed4ee mod,erately: pre-borefor nai inq:qood bendinqproVerLiea. Finiehing:Acceple finieheowe1l. Weighi 42lb.lcu.ft. ?rice: lnexpeneive moderaf,e, lo on depend,ing fiqure.

(H) caltforntca botanical Name:Umbellularta for and burlfiqareA well Eopecta)ly known iLeclueLer lor ftnecrafLErnen myrLle a favorif,e io amonq veneerg, tl e an c a b i n e t n a k i n q d m a r q u e L r y . W h t lh a ea e t r o n q oncezeaeoned and warpin dryinq, Lendency check lo muchwear myrtleio a touqhwood, ableLo withet'and ie myrf'le turntnqwood, Aleoa preferred and, abuse. canaboticko, amanq frequenLly madeinlo bowla and, q otherfine oode. laurel, laurel, mounlain Alher Names:Californta bayrtree, epiceLree. I).3.4. 1ources; Oreqon California, and Ch acl eristicotGenerallyoI raiqhLqrain,bul occa 5ionar qol)enLanXoyellowieh-qreen, fine allyirreqular; LexXure: joinery, furniLure, cabineImakinq, panelf Uees; urninq, inq,and veneera. and Fair:dullscuLtinqedqeeeeverely quick' Workabilisyt l y :r e d u c e u t L i n g n q l e f o r l a n t na n d e h a V i n q . c a p q verywell. Acceptsfiniehee Finishing: ft. Weight:3b lb.lcu. ?rice:ModeraLe', io exVereive. burl




(H) botanicalname;Quercue epp. Kedoak,l:he moEt. caffirnan varieLy North oak in America, qrowa veryquickiy-youn treeo olLena2rout q a foot.a year.fhe wooA an al,lracliveand valuapte ia hardv,tood hae beenoneol Lhemoef,popularNor1h and, American oako' ueedin Europe eince earlylBLh Lhe Century. ie coneidered Il uneuiLable exLerior for work. Olher Names:NorLhern oak,American oak, red red Canadian oak,qrayoak. red Sources: Canada and eaeternU.3.A. Char cterietice; 7tr aiqht.qrain coa ree texLue: pinka r ; ieh-red color. Uses:Furniture, joinery, inLerior floorinq, Vlywood and veneerg. Workability: Generally qooii moderaLe blunlinqof cuLlere; moder ben ate dinq?ro? ee, erLi FiniahinqSatief actory:becauoe openporee, of iL ehould filled, be before finishing painLinq. any or Weight:40 lb./cu.fL ?ricet N4oderale.


(H) Ootanical Name: Quercue epp. Thie oak-a wood of uniqaeveroatility-prodacee Lhe fineeLoak veneerzand lumber,and ie very reej",t anL t o wear.Tieae qualiLiee maV.e eiqnilicantlymore vallable it Nhan red oak.7ut perhapeita moeL-valued property ie ",ublhe preeencein iLe cells of tylosee, a honeyconblike etance thaL makeeI;he wood waLerLiqhL and idealfor whiekeybarrela.Kecently,lheee barcelshave bequnLo be reuaed,red,ucinq the larqe drain on whtLeoak. for that purpoee, Other Namee: American while oak, burr oak, swamV while oak, cheotnJf,oak, overcuVoak, ewamp cheetnuL oak. Sourcee: Canada and l,).3.A, Characteriatice,t aiqht qr ain: moderately coaroe 1f,r lexLure: liqhl Lan wif,h a yellowiehLint. joinery,cabinef,making, Ueea: FurniLure, boat buildinq, barrele,Vlywood and veneers. Workability: Good; pre-bore for nailinq:qood bendinqproperLiee. Finiahing;Accepte finioheawell. rNeight:47 lb.lcu.ft. ?rice: ModeraL.e.




(H) Aotanical Name:)lea europaea caaot, olivethe lr4ed,itrerranean European Grownalonq wood tree,andyielde fine,att'racLtve a woodie a comely Thie Lhat,ernitaa oweelscent.wheniL is worked,. tree in for oil. ie aleof amoua iLefruil and, Available very ia olivewood and prone d,efecte, Lo amallamounte, or emallLurned cawedqoode ofLen uaedto produce imee anA ie for salein EuroVe'e trourislmarket', iT' aomef veneer. cul inLo NametlNalian olivewood. Otcher Europe, Califarnia. 1ourcee;ltaly and, eouthern qraiwfiner'ex9Ir to Characteristicat aiqhl' irreqular wit'hd, arkereNr ake. e f,ure;liqhL dark brownbackqround Lo work. carving and lnlay UeeetTurninq, d, WorkabilityrGener goo t'houqhrelatively difficult' ally to oaw. finiehee well. FiniohinqAcceVto l Weight:5&b.lcu.ft. TricetExpeneive


(H) ooyauxii Ootanical Name: ?t;erocarpue ie 6f,ronq, durable and slable. Africanpadauk exf,remely than f,herareAndaman leeawellknown padauk, Thouqh well, muchmoreavailable i6 Lrulya is ana iL comparee ln handaome woodin iNe ownriqhL. eomeVarteof lhe ie ueedfor floorinq, worldAfricanpadauk commonly whereif,iE coneidered, excepLional of qualiNy: pad,auk for veneera no leasvalued their beauty. are camwood. barwood, Olher Namest7ad,ouk, Africa. 1ourcetWeet grain; )traiqht' xo intrerlocked, moder' Characleristiaet wif'h deepred to purple-brown alely coaroelexfrorei red et"reake. g, g, etm Ueest Furnilure, cabin akin joinery,lur nin ha ndlesand veneerg. WorkabiliNyz Good:dullscuttere eliqhlly. verywell. FiniohinyAcceplefinishee Weight:45lb./cu.tL. ?riaetModerate.


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boLanical N a n f e : , i r ' ! I : , : r . r 1I. , . l - i r : t : : f ' . 1r . . : ; r ' ; : ; i i i i l l i . t i : , ' i . , ] :r . , , 1 r t t , i , ; . t i , " ' ' ' , ' . , . . i , r 1 . , r , : . l a f . t t : , . r , ; , t r j _ i r , L n t - ; , ' ,a j' l,' j a i : ) a : i ' 1 t",,t:itt) .: r: .l ,, i, ,111,, ;,,.,,.,'i '-:i )l)a'a:t.a.t.,a.,.,,,',l.,fiaa: at:' .\, ;r111t.1 ':', j l ritr f ilklti.'iitr: f ,'t tl't...1-lt'l.t' .j \,',,i1..: t:tl' .),tft aa. t: )t . f ' , ' ' r . ' . . . : l ' : , 1 . t t - t l l.,lt , ) i t . , ' a ) \ \ t \ t ' . \ . : t r r r 'l.. l r a :d t . t . , : , f t , J : , 't)i:'.a)l:..\,\iaoa1 j',, ,1,,'t-rf ,al:f. ,rr,.r'a':.1i,l:-i l,:it--;f'a:t t' ,17,11 ',,;:, ,;i,i ri' ri;i../,ilf r l t , ' : a ' , , i ! : . 'l.f t l L r , r l t 1 l t e t t . ) a l a t \ , , a t . ) t : ) , . a , , " r . . : : i i li r , l ' i ' l i r ' . : l f l , i - : i l : , t . , . . l , " i l - . r 1 . t - . , - , t l a : : l ] r : : aa f.ii.'ia , " , a O ' l ' I , . , . i . . : , : t , . : . - , , r : . . , - r . r . r t r a r . . l . i a : :iitl, 2 L t r r ' .^ r r : i O f l i _ r , . t t - l r c .i i . r l : 't i i ri ,-'1-.1. | .2t:) aari-,t qi.,t),t.. al at.i.:.ltqr.l.,. l)1..a);'tl):, i t i , : : ' . t l'lr. ; ' , [ l , t Otrher Nameg' t. .\,\aaL )a:a,aa,',^,,1Lar I : . i i . , r - \ / .i ) 'j . . ' , . t t ) i : a . 2 i . . i , ' l , 1 , fl t L t l . i t t [ . O 1 " r . i -tt)fi i).r,

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: . tZ t i : 1t.' , 1 , . ,r,.f i , r r i l i ' : . ' l i . , r , , r i l t " ! , : r i r r , , ' . , . ' , , r I . f : , - , : r i l i ' i l 1 : . . f i i ; , t 1 r i l 1 i , r j i ,i t ' r t : r t i l i f l t : r l - , ,i,r l : j r ' f r , a . , . , , , , i t . t i i : : . i I r I ' -r: : . f f a t h e a l - 1 . ' , ^ , , i - ,a :,t!:. . a N ) . , i J t a t ] ' : . i ' : l l r ' a ', 1, i i r' i i , , a i , - r ; 1 r ' , ' . a l I n r , - r i i ' ] i - - , ' l . . r r r l i r , . , i . ' . : . : : : i '):l,' 1t t ) . . ' : l r / ] l , i ' : l .af'1 t , z a ) l ' i r , i " ; , t i n aL r ; ; l i t, ' : , i , . r ' r i : l ' i - l ] i r . l , t 1 , , ' , ; t 1 : i ; , 1 r [. ' ,; r .. I'i .l' l : e a , ) . . i , ) , : t - , a = i ; r 1 ; l l y . 1 . 1 ..,. ' . IirJLrrr. c2rt ltit,,it .ia all.,t a)aIt\.,a, . .a r . O l h e r N a m e g l : , o t t . , o o l , . ' r r a r ; r - ; , ; r ; , tr - . r i r : . 1 , { "rr', . , . ' r r . , l , 1 , I :r 1 . / . fl l / j : ': i 'j l t i f ' r , l ' ' . . ' f l . )J l l 1 ,\ ' l . l q i f , t . a ; l ; f . c L ; t r . f l r : r i t t l l f l r | i r i .l' 9 o u r c e g : i . , - ' . r . " ; r an r ' i : , r - r r t l r i : , 1 . : p . . i i . ; ':ira'al:i.. . . i Characleristics: a t a a t i ' i l ' . t .a i ! ' a i f l 1 - r i rr t ' / : :I f t .r! ir, r;ii-;'',1';. . la're lar'r. t:'of,\/N i:'rt:,t.|.:,'i..rt Or ,,k:,.,'.t),,j1)\\(.)t)) ,l-' t lrrr'.rjr,, U s e s : G o l ' t . . t b l ' , r a l z ,. t: '.i 1 I i l I oolrq atd 1't.r'r,ii,t.,r"e. .it,.,.1r'r ' : W o r k a b i l i t y : ( i o r , t : : r a |1 r l t t t . t Ar - . l l : - ,a , l t i1 .!.a c , : . 1 r 1 r : , , . , : ) } 1 t 1 a .i : ) p 5l r p r ' . ,f;r i , l ' a a-ta {, radJat. ctri.r..inq nqlt v',|-'tn . n a r i n q : n , c t i i t , r ^ a - , i t ; \ n q ? i a i ) . i r i . . . : : . .i't, ( l ' t i , f i i . i . r - r , : r i : t '...t. | . r t F i ni ohi n 6 : i', r:r: t-, L.. "':,t i",r,a r., !/ar'v f r/r' 1t


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t:.t-'f,,rta, iadtae Workability: iztr: i.:ar, ),t. eiqe!, ee',,t:rt.-lyt , . ' . . ' ; i t r . , , : t , . ) a:t\A\ , , , ) t .;.t.,l,t:.r , i r , q r 1 | : l ; t p : n qt . r e ! ' . t a r o , r ' , ; i n t , o " , i t t ' a i - . ) . . i .i : : t r : i l t t r j ; ' , , 1 1 i1',,a : . : l l : t : , n ) i n q 2 r O p e i i e e . Finiehing: W e i q h t : I ( , . ' i . , ir - ' . r : . ' i . . 7 ri c e'. i',,1ri : r'ial r:. o r :.

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,' 11








OotanicalName:Finueponderoea t"he Oneof the mo6Laf,f,racf,ive pinee, ponderoea qrowe acroeawegtern Norf,h America and eometimee makeo iLehome elevaf,ions morethan 1O,OOO in the atr of feeL K o c k i e eD e c a u e e f i L s r e s e m b l a n cie c o l o ra n d . o n texLure whiLe lo pine, ponderoea increaeingly has been usedas a eL)boLiLute that wood, for Tonderoea ie pine eornetiffie. elicedinLoknoLIypineveneer, i|e primary buL ueeis in conelruclion and ae inLerior frim. Other Namee: 3iq Vin bir e-eye pin kn e, d' e, otty pin e, polepine, prickly yellow pine,weoLern pine. Sources: Canada and wesLern U,3.A. Characteristics:Wideliqhi-y ellowsapwood; darker yellow reddieh-brown to hearLwood: qenerally eilraight, qrain:eventexture. Usea Furnit,ure,turninq cawinq(eapwood): joinery ani and qen al conelrucLi n (hearLw od ): occa eionauy er o o panelinq veneers. and Workability: Good;blunLs cuLLinq ed4eealiqhr,ly: ooor properl,iee. bendinq FiniohinqAcceVLo finiehee well,butdoes not etain ae well whibe ae pine. tNeighfr 32\b./cu.tL. Tricez lnexpeneive.

DotanicalName:Finueaoo. yellow 7ouf,hern pineie Lhe heavieet commercial eofLwoodand cerLainly foremoetr of im?o-ancefor the conef,rucf,ion pulpinduef,nee. and 7ut, becauee the of d e c r e a e i no u p V l y f w h i t r e i n e , i l h a er e c e n t l y e q u n g o p b to be usedexleneively veneere,which darkerand, in are markedby dieLinclgrowLh rinqe. Theee Lreeoaleo s u p V l yu r V e n L i n e ,i n eo i l a n d r e e i nu e e di n l h e c o e l p meNice induetry. Other Namea ?il,ch shorLleafpine,long pine, leaf pine,loblolly and several pine tree namee. of,her 5 ourcetI outhe aetern \J.3. A, Characteristics:SLraighL ain:coareeNexf,ure; qr yellow-brown reddieh-brown to hearLwood. Uses: FurniNure, conetrucf,ion, plywood and veneers. Workabilityr Fair;high reeincontentwill cauaeqummy build-up Loolo: on LendeLo Learwhencrooecut.. Finiohing: AccepLo finishee fairly well;becauee of hi7hreein conhenL, finishee eomelimee bubble eeVeup, cially roundknole. a Weight:3O-3B lb./ lt . cu. ?riae:lnexoeneive,



9otanical Name:FtnueeLrobue workabilily non-reeinoue WhiLe verealility, and Vine'e naturemadeif,a preferred wood both conolruclion for lor EarlyAmerican seLllero and woodworking cenf,uriee. pine, puNtinq on the coloniee' olLenhonored, whibe Nhe it, f l a 4 d u r i n qI h e A m e n c a nK e v o l u t i o a n d o n o t r h e r n flaqe and coinethrouqh Lheyeare.l-)nforf"unalely, becauae iLewideeVread whitepinehae become of uee, g q e c a r c e r a l t h o u q h e c o n a e n e r a t i o n t r a n i ga r e , b preeently maLlrinq. whiLe whiLe Olher Namee:EaeLern pine,norLhern pine, norLhern sofl pine,baleam pine, Quebec pine, Vine, whif,e Canadian pine. 1ources:Canada and, U.3.4. liqhtCharacterielicet)Lraiqht grain;even exLure: t y ellow reddiah-b n he row lo arLw ood. joinery, FurniLure, boat buildinq, Uses': conef,ruclion, plywood and veneere. Workability: Good;blunte cuLf,ere eliqhf,ly; poorbendinq propertieg; sofLfor somefurnilure uses. too Finiehing: Acceptefinieheswell. Weight:28 lb.lcu.ft. Triaet lnexpenetve.

(H) 9otanical NameszLrriodend tulipifera ron Muchof the remaininq eupply thie wood, of reqarded ao valuable oneof lhe moeL timberein Ihe eaelernU.3.4. lieein the Appalachian Mounlaine. l-)eed, in ex\eneively |,he Europe f,heearlyl9OOs,Loday woodie ueed, tn mainly the l-).3. a ranqe woodworking in for of applicaThe ie Nione for Vulp. eapwood eometimes and called whilewood. Olher Nam s; Ca noe wood, xuliV opla r, tuliplree. e p Souraet U.3.4. Characterieliaa: Straiqht qrain;fine,even LeKLorei whif,e oapwood pale-brown Lo hearLwood wiLhgreen or darkbrown ef,reake. Uaeoz oin ry,f urnilu e, cabin o rk,muei al ineLr r elw c u' J e rYtent7, cawingand veneerg. Workabilityt Good:dullecu+vLere eltqhtly. only Finiehingz Accepbe finiehee ell. w ft. Weight:, 30-35 lb.Icu. Trice:lnexpeneive.




(H) DotanioalName* Cybiotax donnell-emit hii, eyn.Tabebu donnell amithti ia Somelimee wronqly referred ae"whilemahoqany," Lo "blond" ie oneof the fineetr cabineL woode in Vrimavera the world. Secauee the depleLion oupply,however, of of today iNio relatively hard to geL Thewoodie wellknown for ile beautifulliqht-colored veneere. OfIenLheyare elriped or havea handeome moLLled fiqure. Olher Nameo:Duranqa (Mexlco);)an Juan (Hondurae): alo bla nco (Guatemala); cortez, corLezblanco V (El Salvador). Source:CenLralAmerica. Charaateristiae; qrain;medium SLraiqhtto irregular Lo coar ee tefrure: y ellowieh-white y ellowieh-brown, to Ueeq Cabinetwork, fine furnitureand veneero. Wo rkabilityt Very good: moderale bending properLi ee. Finishingl. AccepLe finiehee verywell. Wei6ht: 3O-bB lb./ fL cu. ?riaez Expeneive.


(H) gotaniaal Name: Feltogyneepp. A uniquely altraclive and durable hardwood a chaland lenge workwiLh. Lo Cuttinqcan be hampered qum by depoeiLe, which eeep will ouLof Lhewoodif iI io heahei wiLhbluntcuttinq ed,geo. Sladee, Lherelore, mueN be keVN exlremely eharp, and woodehould run elowly be throuqhmachines. While woodie purple,lheee Lhe qum deposiLs ranqe can from coalblacktowhile,and olten etreakthewood. Ot,h Na mee:Amaranth, violelwod ( U. A.); eakavalli, er o 3. oaka,koroboreli (Guyana); roxo,nazareno (Venezuela): ?au amaranNe (Orazil): (Colombia). Lananeo ?auroxo, 5ouraeet CenLral 9ouLhAmerica. and Charaateristiaet StraiqhLqrain;moderateto coarae Lerture:deeppurVle, maburinq a rich brownafLer Lo lonqexpoeure. Uses:Veneers, turninq,indoorand outdoor,furniture, tool ehafls and handlee, butls of billiard and cues. Workabilibyt )ifficult: moderaLe o eeverebluntin4;pret borefor nailinq; propertiee. moderaLe bending Finiohing; Acceptefiniehes well:lacoruer pur?reoeNeo plecolor:alcoholbased finiEhee remove color. lhe Weightz 54lb./cu.fL. Trice:Moderate.


gotanical Name: I equoi eempervi e a ren ThetascinalinqCalifornia qrowoto an incrediredwood bleeize.NaIiveto coaslal California and )reqon, it io capable reachinq over3OOfeex in heiqhN of well and oneLreemayyieldlhoueandeof boardfeet of lumber, Allhouqheuppliee this woodhavebeeneeriouely of redwood depleted, can eomelimesstill be acquiredin ertremelywideplanko. woodie noted for ito stabiliThe Iy, durabiliLy and resisLance decay:ito larqeburle to are cul inlo veneers. Olher Namet Redwood, SouraetWestcoast of U.9,A. Charaoteriatioez?traight qraini fine, eventexf,uretaeep reddish-brown. Ueea Joinery,furniture, Vooto,panelin4, ?lwood and veneere, muchliqht ouldoor con;lruction. and Workabiliiy: Good:dulls cuttera only sli4htly:moAerate bendin7 properliee. Finiehin6zAccegta fi nishee well. Wei6ht;26lb./cu.ft, ?ricet lnexpengive moAerale, to


6otanical Name; Da Iberqi eteveneonii a Thiehard,heavy, durable rosewood primarily ie valued in lhe makinq marimba of bareand qrowsonly Selize, ln lhe formerDritishHondurae. euppliee verylimitAo are ed,iLs other mainuseeare confined fine cabinelwork, to marquelry andlurned iteme.1ome epecimene very are oilyand willnottake a hiqhnaturalpolieh. Other Namet Naqaed. 5ourcet 1elize. Characteristicst3t r aiqhLIo somewhal, streaked fine to 6rain:moderately texLurctpinkieh-brown purple with dark,irre4ular linee, 6rain Uaes:MueicalineNruments, veneero fine aabinetfor workand Lurning, Workability. Fair,toughlo machine becauee hardof nesaiseverely dullocuLtingedqee: poorbendinq ?ro?ertiea. Finiahin1z Accepto finishes well,Vrovided wood the io nottroo oily. Weight:60 lb./cu.fL. ?rlcet Exoensive.



(H) 7otanioal Name: 7aeeafrae albidum S a s e a f r a a .a m e m b e ro l L h e e a m el a m i l y a e c i n n a m o n , ie beel knownfor it e fraqranl oil, ueed lor flavorinq and ocentinq,and Lhe Nea made from iLe roof, barK. \ N h i l e t m i l a ri n c o l o r ,q r a t na n d L e x L u r eo b l a c ka o h , e t aaeealrae Limber ie briLtle an), aoft and ie ee dorn in availab)e larqe aizee.ILe decay reeietanceand reaonance rnakeiL an alLractive choicefor eorneepeciAt z e da p p l i c a t i o n e . Olher Names: Cinnamon wood,red aasaafrae,qumbofile. Source: EaeLernU.e.A. Charact erieiice: 7Xraiqht. qrain; coar ee f,exture: ljqhL io darkbrown. Uees: Aoar"buildinq, kayak Vad,dleo, conlainere,furnitJre and,mueical ineLrarYentg. Workability: Fair: wood is briLLleand eofL, oo keep tool edges very eharV:pre-borefor nailinqLoavoid eplittinq: qood bendinqproperLiee, Finishing:AccepLefinieheewell. Weight:2b lb,lcu,ft. Tricet lnexpeneive moderate. f,o

(H) Ootanical Nam e: ChIo roxyIo n ewieLen ta Ihouqh Lhe name eaLinvtood hae beenqivent"o many world Limbero,CeyloneaLinwood one ol very few that le h a v ef o u n d o i q n i f i c a n L a e i n N o r t h A m e r i c a .) l h a e u b e e na e e d i n f i n e w o o d w o r k i na n d c a b i n e L m a k i nf q r q o c e n l u r i e e , u LL o d a y t a v a l u e dm a i n l yf o r i t e e t l n n i n q b veneere-ea?eciallyIhe f amoue bee'o-winq rnot;Lle. )n aoliAforrn it qenerallyie ueed lor fine Lurned qoode euch ae brush backa,reaordereand inlay v',ark. Olher Names: Eaet lndian eattnwood.'yeltow eanAere; ( ( b i l l u m a a h w a l l n d i a ) : e y l o n a L i n w o o d. 3 r iL a n k a ) . , C o S o u r c e s :l n d i aa n d 3 r i L a n k a . Char a cterieli cs : Inle d ocked qr ai n; f ine, eve n *'exLLlei r liqhtyellowLo old. q U e e a tC a b i n e L m a k i nfq ,r n i t u r e ,L u r n i n qj,o i n e r ya n d u decoralive veneere. Workability:)ifficult: qrain lende ta tear in planing quarLerb qood bendinggrapertiea. awn maLerial: Finiehinq AccepLofinieheewellwhenfilled, Weightt 6l lb.lcu. ft. Tricet Expeneive.





J \:X (H) gotanical Names:Fiet inera7uianenoio. eyn.Droeimum 4uianenbio lLomarktnqo, which reeemble thoeeon enakeektn, qive r.hte emall, relaLively timberile name. rare Found limin iNed in quantitiee Guyana and Surirtarn, ie predomiit. nanlly ueedin Lurneditemsand carriesa cerLain cachel . A enakewood canear umbrella,lor insf,ance, miqhL be poeseeeion. considered orecioue a Secause iLshardof nese, ie enakewood,verydifficultto work. Olher Namee:Lelterwood, leopardwood, epeckled wooa. SouraetSouLh America. Characteristiaot Straiqh| qraln;fine,even Lextrure; deepredLo reddieh-brown irreqular, wiLh horizonLal blackmarkinqe. Fine violin Usesz turnedqood,e, bowe, knifehandlee, marquetry and veneers. Workabilityz Difficult:d,ullo cutt inq ed,qee. FiniehinqAccepr"o finiahes well. W e i g h tB 1 l b . / c u . f L . ; TricetVerv exzenoive.



(H) Ootanical Name:Cedrelaeoo. A.lLhouqh opecieo markeled many are unAer name f,he Spanieh cedar, moel imporLanL LheNorLh the in American woodLrade, qrowein CenlralAmerica Cedrela mexicana, and Mexico. Exlremely in lor Vrized iLenativeregion ito eLabiliby, weatrhering qualitiee and relatrive eLrenqth, ie expor1ed iN on "cedare," a verylimiLed, scale.Like olher this hardwood will Lhe arouoe senses witha pleaeanl, aroma. Olher Names;Srazilian cedar,Hondurae cedar, cedro, rouqe. ced,ro Mexico, Sourcesz Central and SouthAmerica. eristiae;)tr aiqht,occaeion inf,erlcke qrain: Charaat ally o d, fineLo coarse, Lexf,urei uneven pinkieh-to reddtsh-brown hearLwood, darkenewif,h expoaure a deeeerred,occalo eionally wilh a purple Nint:eaVwood whit,e Vink. ia f,o joinery, Usea:Furniture, cabinef,work, boal building, muaical inetrruntente,lead pencile, ciqarboxee, plywood, decoraand veneere. T,Me good: Workability: Generally difficulttroboreand veneere may goodbendinq tend to bewoolly cuLLing; in properLiee. FiniehinryFaicwood conlaine andqumwhich betrouoils may bleeome,bu|if filled, canbebroughtto emoothfrniah, rt a fL. Weightt 3O lb.lcu. Tricez VoderaLe.










Ootanical Name: Ttcea eitchenato

(H) Ootanical Name:FIaLanuo occtd enLate I Arowing heighle to lhat tropZaO fuet,thie opeciea and f,ulip are in 2oplar r.helargeolhard,woodeeaelernNor|h America.With liqh|qreenleh-gray American iIE bark, lycarAore a prominentr ie in ?reeence anyforeoi,and ie eomeLimes called qhoallree.When the quarLereawn, Lhietimber?abaeaoeed,iolinctive fiqure. fleck a Ueed, to gycaorcre a qrear eKterLin furnilure,Arnericar occa6oaallyia roLary culfor veneer6. planeNree, plane Other Nameet American buLLonwood, water beech. f,ree, 9ouraeet Easf,ern centralU,3.4. and Characterieliaa etraiqhl qrain:fine, Ueually even f,exture: pale reddieh-brown. Ueea Furnibure, buXcher's blacke, veneere, and, 1oinery, qood:may bindon eaws', Workabililoyt Generally mainlain v e r yo h a r p u t t i n qe d g e e : h i 7o h r i n k a q e w i ah e n d e n c h l t cy to war?. Finiohin1AccepNo finiehee well. tNeightt 35lb./cu.fL. TricetlnexVeneive.

, - - ' - a n r r e l h e l a r n e a l a n e e i e a a f a a . t e e r-a-n ' , r o w -r marethan ZaO feeLhighwiLh d,iametera exceed,inq eix feet,. Albhouqh ie probably it. mooL valued newepaper lor prod,ucLion becauee iLewhiLeneee,ite of etrenqthand workabiliLy rnake a favorilein wood,workinq coniL an) oLrucLion.lL alooa veryrezonant io woodand ie widely ueedtnall typeoof otrinqand keyboard inef,rumenls. SiLka eoruce olLenauarLereawn. ie Other Namesz 1ilvere?ruce, eeq,-toia eilver ep'uce, tideg?ruce, )ande2ruce, Menzies o?ruce, coael, we6f,ern g?ruce andwesl coaoLo?ruce. 5ources:Canada. and U.9.4. U.K. qrain;med,ium, lexfure: Characteriaticot SLraiqhL even whibe yellowieh-brown a eliqhL Lo wiNh tinge.Very Vinkioh qth hiqh etr en -t o-weiqht,rabi o. UaeatlnNerior muaical ineNrumenr,a, buildboat 1oinery, qlidero, inq,oare,rowing eculla, conotrucLion plywood, and veneers. propertiee. Workability: Good:ver! qood, bendinq FiniehinqAcceptefiniehee well. W e i g h t ; 2 bl b . l c u . f t . ?riaetMod,eraf,e.




(H) Ootanical Name: Dalberqiafruteacena Thieie an extremely valuable limber,liqhterin colorlhan normally smallcultinqo any olher rosewood, availablein it only.Likeall rosewoods, qrow6very olowly and needs r,op-qualitycolor. for io cenNurieo the heaibwood develoV 1ecauee ita pooravailability,tulipwood not,uoually i6 of for ueedin eolidform, bul ae veneer inlayon frnepieaeo. Whenit, is worked, this woodt ends tn oplinf,er antd,like qiveooff afraqirant'aroma. manyof the rosewood^, Ath er Namea b razili pinkw od, pinkw od ( U. A,); an o o 9. pau de fuoo,jacaranda rosa (Orazil), 9ourae:5outh America. t*xhure: Charao't'enetlcat lrre4ular4raint meAium-frne rich qolden-pinkioh with salmonto red otripeo. hue j;auelryboxeo, Uaeal Turnin6,brush backs,woodware, marimbakoyo, cabinztwork,inlay work,inlaid bandin1o, decorativeveneersfor inlay workand marquetry and antioLue reVaire. Workablf Difficult; extreme dullinqof cuttnr6: ?re fty: borefor nailinq. Finfahing: As6ePo frniahesvery wallicah be brouqbb w ahigh naturalpolloh. WeQltu65lb./,


(H) 6otanical namet Juglane niqra Owin4to itreqreatbeauty and 4oodworkinq characlerisLice, blackwalnutr oneol Lhemool valuable is naLive woode Norbh in America, times,it e wide 1incecolonial ranqeof figureahas qracedLhefinee| American cabinetwork.Alxhouqh known iLeworkability, for walnutdoee juqlone, chernical aontain a believed caueedermatitie to in gomewoodworkerg. NameetAmericanblackwalnut,American OI,her walnul, Virqinia walnut(U.K.); walnui, walnuf. Canadian 5ources; EaeNern U,9.4.and Ontario,Canada. CharacterielicslTouqhwoodof rnedium deneity;4enerallyoiraiqht qrain:medium coareeNexlure; dark brown tn purVliahblack. interior joinery,cabiUaeotFinefurnil,ure,qunof,ocke, muoical inslrumenls, nobmakinq, t urninq, boai buildinq, and clockcaeee, carving, panelinq veneere. ?Wood, qood iiy: Workabif Good; blunts cuttere moderaNely; bendinqproperlieo, Accefio nal,uralwoodfrnishesee?ecially Flniehingz well. WeQhtl40 lb.lcu.ft. ?naezModerata



(H) 9otanical Name: MilleLl,ta elp, t', eLronq.lteavy",laravtrtod, vtenqe offere a f amiliar combinati:n lo Lle difficllL Lo work, bul )L A e t i q h l f ul o o o ? a L . a r i q i n a t t n q f r o ma L r e e o f m o d e r . a"te.ize, Lh e dee2 crovn and blackwood can offer distincLiveveneer. vtit"h characleriotic ItqhLetreake of a -"reelieeae involved food eLoraqeand, in 2arenchyrna, con6um?Lio..For beoLreautLe, wenqeehoula be worked V'/ia.t), 'f)ar? Cl,Ller7, very Other Namee: Dikela, mibotu, African palieander. 9 o u r c ee: 7 oru r tal Al ric a (Ca rner oo n, G abo n, Zair e). aio Characteristico: Heavy,denee wood:etratqht 7rain; coarae LextJre: dark brown wiLh blackiehveinoand, e o m e l i f f i e e L r e a k e d i L hf i n e . l i q h L r o w n1 i n e a . e w b Uaee: Twninq, inLeriorand exLerior joinery,cabinef,rnak'.1q. ve('eerq. ear'eirq atd deco'ar.lve WorkabilitytGenerallyqoad; blunte cuLtinq edqeo rapid, 1y:pre-borelor nailinq;poor bendingproVerLiee. Finiohing:SatielacLoryt mu.JL filledlor qood reeulto. be W e i g h L : 5 5l b . l c ut L . , ?rice: lloderaLe.

(H) gotanical Name:)alix ni7ra W h i l e I e E u r o 2 e a n o u a i ni e u e e dm o e f , o L a b l yn i c n t c r i c k e L a L e , l a c k i l l o ws m o e Lf r e q u e n t l y e e di n b b w i u NorLhAmericaby echool woodworkinq ehope: ie LAe iL moel commercially valuab)e lhe moreLhan1Oatypee of o f n a l i v eN o r L h m e r i c a n i l l o w e . i l l o w ' e L r e n q L h A w W a n d , e l a t i v e i q h t n e e e a k ei t ,L h ec l e a rc h o i c e o r r l m f a r t i f i c i al i m b e . Other Name:3lackWillow. Sources Canad,a, Eaef,ern U.9.A, and Mexico. Characteristiaer Liqht, Louqh wood; otraiqht, grain; fine t eKLue; qrayieh- br own with r eddieh- brown eNr aks. r e Ueea ArLifi al limba, t oye, wicke o rk,ba skete,boxe ci rw e, craf,eo, decor e ven ero. aLiv e Workability: SaLief actory: mainLain ehar?cLttteraf.o ent, e ai ?rev f rayinq: poor bendinq properf,i e: ofLenconL ne reacLion waod. Finiahinq Acceptefinishee wel| W e i g h t : 2 6 l b , / c ut.. f ?ricetlnexpeneive.



9 otaniaal Name: Microberlinia brazzavi|enaie | OiehincLive appearance, in zebrawood from Lwo comee opeciee larqeNreee of foundmainly Cameroon in and Gabon,Wes| Af rica.Whil il ie ueu eeena6 a veneer e ally ir NorthAmerica, when quarLersawn Nimber lhis can givebeaulifulresulte in eolidform.kbrawood ie difficult Nowork,however, veneers and tend Nobefragile. Other Names:Zinqana(France, Gabon):Allen ele, amouk(Camercon): zebrano. Source;West Africa. Charao.t erietiaoz avyto interlocked ain;medium o W gr t pale coa?oe teKVurei hearLwood, yellow brownwilh lhin darkerstreaks;eapwood white. Uoeoz Turninq, tool handles, ekio,inlay, furniLure, cabineLwork decorativ venee(6. and e Workabili?y: Fair:dulls cuttinq edqeomoderately: interlocked {ain willtend to leari suffersfrom hiqh ohrinkaqe and may be unslablein use.Flal-aut boarde hardlo dry. Finiahingz Faic may be difficult,to finieh becauseof inLerlocked 6rain. Weightz45-50 lb,/cu. fL, ?ficetExoensiva.

(H) Ootanical Name;Cordiadodecandra A ehunninq, wood, dark ziricoleio eaeytroworkanI can be broughttoa veryemooLh finieh,fhough difficulLNo dry, onceNhisie achieved ia relabively it etableand hiqhly durable. Likebocote, ziricoteie a Cenbral American member the cordias. two woodo of The are,in f act, quite eimilar, differing mainly color, in Olher Name:Cordia, 5 ourcesz elize, exi B M co. Characteristiaa: Sbraightqrain,medium moderately No finetexlure; black, gray or dark brown with blackebreake. Us e s t Fu rn i t ur e , ca b i n I wo r k , in t e r io r j o i ner y e and veneers. V Workabilityr ery qood:liLllebluntingof cutLers. FiniohinglAccepte tinieh well. Weightz45-50 lb./ fN. cu. TricetExpenaive.

A-B Absolute humiditv: A measure the of weightof watervairorper unit volume ofair, usuallyexpressed grainsper as cubicfoot; see relative humidity. Air-dried lumber: Dried lumberthat hasreached equilibrium moisture its contentby exposure the air. to Angiosperm:Belonging the botanito cal sub-phylumor group ofwoody plantsthat haveencapsulated seeds suchasa walnut or acorn:includes all hardwoodtreespecies. Annual growth ring: Thevisiblelayer of growththat a treeputson in a single year, includingthe earlywood the and latewood; seen the endgrain ofwood. in Bark The outermostlayerof a tree's trunk that protects innerwood the and cambiumfrom the elements; composed the outer,deadcork of and the inner,living phloem. Bird's-eye figure Figureon plainsawn and rotary-cutsurfaces few ofa species wood-most commonly of maple-exhibiting numerous small, roundedareas resembling birds' eyes; caused localfiber distortions. by Blister figure: Figureon plainsawn or rotary-cutsurfaces lookslike that various-sized elevated depressed and areas roundedcontour. of Boardfoot A unit of wood volume measurement equivalent a pieceof to wood I inch thick, 12incheswide and 12inches long. Bookmatch: veneering, decorative In a patternin which successive veneers in a flitch arearranged side-by-side in a mirror formation,like pages an of opened book. Boundwater:Moisturepresent in wood found within the cellwalls; see water. free Bow:A lumberdefect which a board in is not flat alongits length.
Bucking: Crosscutting a tree into logs ofa desired length. Burl veneer: Highly decorative veneer taken from bulges or irregular growths that form on the trunks of some speciesand on the roots ofothers. Butt veneer: Veneercut from the area in a tree'strunk just abovethe roots; also known as stump veneer. C Cambium: A layer of actively growing tissue, one cell thick, between the phloem and the sapwood, which repeatedlydivides itselfto form new cells of both. Cant A log that has been debarked and sawn square in preparation for further cutting. Case hardening: A lumber defect resulting from drying a board too rapidly; the outer layersofa board are in compressionwhile the inner layersare in tension. Celft The smallestunit of wood structure, eachwith its own specialized function; cells include vessels, fibers, rays, and tracheids. Chedc A lumber defect in which splits develop lengthwise acrossthe growth rings during seasoning becauseof uneven shrinkage of wood. Clear: Describesa board facethat is free of defects. Common grade lumber: In softwood, lumber with conspicuous defectssuch as red or black knots and pith. Compression wood: Reactionwood formed on the undersidesofbranches and leaning or crooked stemsof softwood trees. Conifer: Any of several families of softwood trdesthat bear cones;see softwood. Crook A lumber defect where there is an edgewise deviation from end-to-end straightnessin a board. Crossband: In plywood with more than three plies, the veneersimmediately beneath the surface plies are oriented with a grain direction perpendicular to that of the surfaceplies. Cross grain: Generally, lumber in which the wood fibers deviate from the longitudinal axis of the board; seespiral grain. Cross section: A viewing plane in wood identification seenin the end grain of lumber, cut perpendicular to the axis of the tree trunk: also known as a transyerse section. Crotchveneer: Veneercut from the fork ofa tree trunk. Crown-cut veneer: Decorative veneer that is cut from flitches using the flatslicing method. Cup: A lumber defect in which the face of a board warps and assumes a cupJike shape. Curlygrain: Seewavy grain. Cuttinglish A list of the sizesof lumber neededfor a specificproject. D-E Deciduous: Any of severalfamilies of trees that shed their foliage annually; seehardwood. Defech Any abnormality or irregularity that lowers the commercial value of decreasingits strength or attectrng rts appearance;seewarp. Dendrochronology: The scienceof dating past events and changesin environmental conditions by comparative study of annual growth rings. Diamond match: In veneering, a decorative pattern formed when successive veneersfrom the same flitch, usually with a diagonal stripe figure, are arranged in a diamond shape. Diffuse-porous wood: Hardwoods in which the pores tend to be uniform in size and distribution throughout each annual growth ring.



Earlywood: The portion of the annual growth ring formed in the early part of the growing season;seelatetuood. Equilibrium moisture content The moisture content that wood eventually reacheswhen it is exposedto a given level of relative humidity and temperature. Extractive: Resinsand other substancesdeposited in the heartwood during a tree's growth that impart both color and resistanceto decay. F-G Faceveneer: Veneer used for the exposed surfacesin hardwood and softwood plywood. Fiber: A specific hardwood cell type, elongated with narrow ends and thick walls; contributes to the strength of the wood. Fiber saturation point (FSP):A condition in which wood cell cavities are free of all water, yet the cell walls remain fully saturated. Fiddlebadc An attractive figure resulting when wood with curly or wavy grain is quartersawn; commonly used in the manufacture of stringed instruments. Figure In the broadest sense,the distinctive pattern produced in a wood surfacebv the combination of annual growth rings, deviations from regular grain, rays,knots, and coloration. Finish gradelumber: Softwood lumber graded for appearance,not strength, seasoned a moisture conto tent of 15 percent or less;includes superior and prime categories. Firsts and seconds:The top or premium grade ofhardwood. Flat-slicedveneer: Veneer that is sliced offa log or a flitch with a veneerslicer. Flitch: A section ofa log cut to extract the best figure and yield ofveneers from a log; also known as a cant.

Free water: Moisture present in wood found inside the cell cavities;see bound water. Grade stamp: A stamp applied to most softwood and some hardwood lumber indicating the grade, strength properties, speciesof wood and the mill that manufactured it. Grain: Generally,the direction, size, arrangement, appearance,or quality of the elementsin wood or lumber; specifically, the alignment of wood fibers with respectto the axis of the tree trunk. Green lumber: Freshly sawn, unseasoned lumber having a moisture content abovethe fiber saturation point. Gymnosperm: A botanical sub-phylum or group of woody plants that have exposedseedslike a pine seed; includes all softwood tree species.

Hygroscopicity: The ability of a substanceto readily absorb, retain, and desorb moisture. Interlocked grain: Wood that features repeatedalternation ofleft- and righthand deviations of fibers from the axis ofthe tree trunk, usually over several growth rings; results in ribbon figure on quarter-sawn surfaces. Key: A master list of wood species used in identification, ordered by criteria such as gross anatomical features, macroscopic features,or microscopic teatures. IGln: A heated chamber used in drying lumber, veneer,or wood products where temperature, humiditS and air circulation are controlled. IGln-dried lumber: Lumber that has been dried to a specific moisture content. Knot: The baseof a branch or limb that has been overgrown by the expanding girth of the trunk or other portion ofthe tree. Latewood: The portion of the annual growth ring formed in the latter part of the growing season;seeearlywood. ksser-known species(LKS) : Woods recently introduced to the market, such as chactacote,tornillo and chontaquiro amarillo, many of which come from sourcesthat practice sustainable torest management. Linear foot A measurement referring only to the length of a piece of wood; seeboardfoot. Lumber: Logs that have been roughly sawn into timbers, resawn,planed and sawn to length. Lumber-core plywood: Plywood in which softwood and hardwood veneers are glued to a core of narrow, sawed lumber. Lumber ruler: A tool used to measure the board-foot volume of a piece of lumber with a flexible wooden shaft and a hook for turning boards.

Hardboard: A type of manufactured board with smoother surfaces than particleboard, made by breaking waste wood down into its individual fibers, mixing them with adhesives, and matforming them into a strong, homogenous panel. Hardwood: Generally, wood from angiosperm tree species. Headsaw: The large bandsaw or circular saw at a mill that cuts logs into large slabs of timber for resawing; also known as headrig. Heartwood: The dead, inner core of a tree extending from the pith to the sapwood, usually distinguishable from sapwood by its darker color. Herringbone match: In veneers,a decorative match createdwhen successive veneersfrom one flitch, usually with a diagonal stripe, are arranged to form a herringbone pattern. Humbolt undercut: A method of felling treeswhere a wedge is cut in the stump of a tree rather than in the upper log before it is felled.



Luthier: A builder of stringed musical instruments such asviolins and guitars. M-N-O Macroscopic features: Referring to anatomical featuresof wood identification visible with low-power magnification, typically a 10x hand lens. Marquetry: Decorative inlay work done with veneers,metals or other materials. Medium density fiberboard (MDF) : A tFpe of tempered hardboard with a fine texture used in cabinetmaking. Moisture content: The amount of water contained in wood, expressed as a percentage ofthe weight ofthe ovendried wood. Mottled figure: A type of broken stripe figure with occasionalinterruptions of curly figure. Nominal sizs The rough-sawn commercial sizebywhich lumber is known and sold. Non-porouswood: Wood devoid of vessels, pores; softwood. or Oven-dried weighfi The constant weight of wood that has been dried in an oven at temperatures between 2l4o and22l" F. to a point where it no longer contains moisture. P-Q Parenchvma: Thin-walled cells in wood; reiponsible for the storage of carbohydr ates. Seeray. Particleboard: A tyoe of manufactured board made by breaking waste wood down into small particles, mixing them with adhesives, and extruding or mat-forming them into panels ofvarying thickness. Particleboard-core p\nuood: Plywood in which hardwood and softwood veneersare glued to a particleboard core for added strength.

Phloem: The inner bark. which distributes nutrients derived from photosynthesisin the leaves. Photosynthesis: A processby which plants synthesizecarbohydratesand other nutrients from water and minerals in the presenceofcholorphyll and sunlight. Phylum: A botanical group or class ofplants. Pitch pockeh A pocket found within the grain of some conifers, containing an accumulation of liquid or solid restn. Pith: The small, soft core occurring in the structural center ofa tree trunk. Plain-sawn lumber: Lumber that has been sawn so that the wide surfaces are tangential to the growth rings; also known as flat-sawn lumber when referring tb softwood; seequartersawn lumber. Plywood: A manufactured board consisting of an odd number of layers or Dliesof softwood or hardwood veneer;may also be made with a solid plywood. core, seelumber-core Pors A cross-sectionof a vesselas it appearson a transversesection of wood; see?esseL Porouswood: Wood that has vessels. or pores, large enough to be seenwith a hand lens; hardwood. Quarter-cut veneer: A veneer created by slicing a flitch to exposethe quartersawn surfaceof the wood. Quarter match: A decorative veneer pattern createdby arranging successive veneersfrom the same flitch, usually with a burl or crotch figure in a circular or oval formation; also known as fourway centerand butt.

Quartersawn lumber: Lumber that has been sawn so that the wide surfacesintersect the growth rings, at anglesbetween 45oand 90o;also known as vertical-grained lumber when referring to softwood; seealso plain-sawnlumber. Quilted figure: A distinctive, blisterlike figure found in bigleaf maple. R Radial section: A viewing plane in wood identification cut acrossthe grain perpendicular to the growth rings and parallel to the wood rays; the plane that extendsalong the axis of the tree trunk from pith to bark. Radial shrinkage Shrinkage that occurs acrossthe growth rings as wood dries. Ray: A ribbon-shaped strand of cells extending acrossthe grain from pith to bark that appearas streal$ on quartersawn surfaces:sometimesreferredto as medullary ray. Reaction wood: A lumber defect causedby stresses leaning tree in trunks and limbs; known as compression wood in softwood, and tension wood in hardwood; characterizedby compressedgrowth rings and silvery, lifelesscolor. Relative humidity: The ratio of the water vapor present in the air to the amount that the air would hold at its saturation point, usually expressed a as percentage figure; seeabsolute humidity. Resin canat Vertical passages between wood cells in conifers that conduct natural resins and pitch. Ribbon figure: Distinctive vertical bands ofvarying luster found on quartersawn boards of wood with interlocked grain. Riftsawn lumber: Lumber whose growth rings are at anglesbetween 30o and 60" to the board face;also known as bastard-sawnlumber.



Ring-porous wood: Hardwoods in which the pores are comparatively large at the beginning ofeach annual growth ring, and decrease size in toward the outer section of the ring, forming distinct zonesof earlywood and latewood. Roe figure: Figure formed by short stripes lessthan I foot in length, found on quartersawn surfacesof woods with interlocked grain. Rotary-cut veneer:A continuous sheet peeled from a log or flitch by rotating it on a lathe against a stationary knife. S-T-U Sap: The water in a tree, including any dissolved nutrients and extractives. Sapwood: The outer portion of a tree's trunk extending from the heartwood to the cambium; distinguishablefrom the heartwood by its lighter color. Sawyer: The person at a sawmill "read" whosejob it is to a log before it is cut and selectthe appropriate cutting patterns. Seasoning: The.process technique or . of removing moisture from greenwood to improve its workability. Selects:In softwood, defect-freelumber graded for clear appearancerather than strength, separatedinto firsts and second,C selectand D selectgrades. In hardwood, selectsis one grade below firsts and seconds. Semi-diffuse porous wood: Wood with pores exhibiting the clear distinction between earlywood and latewood that is lacking in diffrrse-porous wood, yet not so pronounced a difference as that shown by ring-porous wood; also known as semi-ring porous wood. Slipmatch: In veneering, a repeated decorativepattern createdby laying successive sheetsofveneer from a flitch side-by-side.

Softwood:Generally, species from the familiesof treesthat havea orimitive cellstructure, bearcones for the and mostpart haveneedle-like leaves; wood produced softwoodtrees. by Solarkiln: A kiln that drieslumber with solarenergy. Sound:Describes boardfacefreeof a defects would weaken wood. that the Specificgravity: The ratio of the weightof a wood sample that of an to equalvolumeof water.

Tensionwood: Reactionwood formed occasionaly the upper side of on branchesdnd leanin!br crooked stems of hardwood trees. Texture: Refersto the size ofthe cells in wood, indicatedby adjectives from fine to coarse;often'confused with grain. Tiacheid: Long, fibrous cells that conduct sap and help support the tree. Twist A defect causedby the turning or winding of the edges the board, of so that one corner twists out of plane.

Spermatophyte: Any of a phylum or groupofhigherplantsthat reproduce V-W-X-Y-Z by seed; includes almostall treespecies. Veneer: A thin layer or sheetof wood Spiral grain: A form of crossgrain caused the spiralalienment wood by of fibersin a staniing trei. Stain:A discoloration wood caused in by fungi, metals, chemicals. or 3/+Sticker:A pieceof wood, usually to l-inch thick,used separate to boards of lumber in a drying stackto permit arr crrculatron. SubstrateA pieceof plywood,softwood or hardwoodusedin veneering asa core. Surfacing: The waylumber hasbeen prepared a mill beforeit goes a at to lumberyard. Alsoknown asdressing.
Sustainable forest management The processof managing forest land to ensure future productivity and maximize the flow of forest products without placing undue strain on the physical and social environment. Thngential section: A viewing plane in wood identification cut along the grain tangentialto the growth rings;plainsawn lumber is sawn tangentially. Tangential shrinkage: Wood shrinkage that occurs tangentially to the growth rrngs. sawn,slicedor rotary cut from a log or flitch. Veneer-coreplywood: Plywood that consists three or more plies of ofveneers, eachlaid at right angles to each other with respectto graln direction.

Veneerpress:A commercialor shopbuilt pressused to apply veneersto substrates. VessehWood cells of comparatively large diameter found in hirdwoodi, set one atop the other to form a continuous tube for conducting water and sap up the trunk; when viewed in cross-section, vessels appearaspores. Warp: A lumber defect or distortion of a piece of wood; seebow, croolgcup, and, twtst. Wavy grain: Grain resulting from repeated,undulating right and left deviationsin the alignment of wood fibers from the axis 6f a tree's trunk; also known as cuily grain.


references lralicsindicate in Page an illustration of subiectmatter. in Pagereferences bold indicate a Build It Yourselfproject. 49 Gradestamps,48, PIywood, T2 Lumber: Grades; Plywood: Grading.See Grades Grain,26,28-29 24,25,33 Growth rings,.15, Gum (wood defect),5O 51 Sizes,42,48 Storage, 79 racks,89-92,95-97 storingwood to preserve moisits ture content(ShopTip), 89 Surfacing/dressing, 53-55 43, abo See Manufacturedboards;Plywood Lumberyards,4l Machineburn (wood defect),5l Manufactured boards, 56,57,76-77 SeealsoPlywood Microscopic examination, 3I-33 Mottle figure,26 National Hardwood Lumber Association (NHLA),46,47 Newsprint, 17


Air-dried (AD) lumber, 43,79, 87-88 American Lumber Standards Committee,48 Arno, Jon,l0-ll Aversdon, Sven,45 Bark, 15 Bird's-eyefigxe,27, 59 Blue stain (wood defect),50, 5l 42, Board-foot measurement, 43, 44 17,98 Botanical names, Build It Yourself: jigs, 39 Log crosscutting Solarkilns, 84-85 Veneer-trimmingjigs, 66 Burlfigure,27 59 Burl veneers, Butt veneers, 59 Cambium,14,i5 Cant,37-38 34 Centerfor Wood Anatomy Research, Common gradelumber, 45, 46,47, 48,49 Crotch veneers, 59 Cutting lists,44

Hardboard,56,77 Hardwood,16,98 Grades,46-47 Identification,33 Plywood, 70,71,72,73 14, Heartwood, 15,25 Identificationkeys,34 35 InternationalWood Collectors Sociery34 figs: jigs, 39 Log crosscutting Veneer-trimmingjigs, 66 Jointing,53 Concave/convex surfaces, 55 Kiln-dried (KD) lumber, 43,78-79 Solarkilns, 84-85 Knots (wood defect),20, 50

Particleboard,56,76 Phloem,15 Pith, 15,25 Plain-sawn lumbet 24-25 Shrinkage,24, 86 Planing,54 Grain,29 Plywood,56,57,70-71 Edgeconcealm 74-75 ent, shop-made edgebanding (Shop Tip),75 Grades,72-73 Plywoodcarrier (ShopTip),73 Storage holding plywood panelsagainst a wall (ShopTip), 93 racks,92-94 Temporaryplywood pallet (Shop Tip),94 Types,71 Poynter,Andrew, 8-9 lumber, 24-25,37 Quartersawn Shrinkage,24, 86 Rays, 15,25,31 Reactionwood,50, 52 Resincanals, 33 3.1, Ribbon frgtre,27 Ring-porouswoods, 16,33 precautions, Safety front endpaper: Chain saws, front endpaper, 36 Sapwood, -15 14, 22-23,4l Sawmills, grade Select lumber,46,47,48,49 Sharp,]ohn, 6-7 ShopTips: Lumber carryinglumber by cat,42 checkinglumber for twist, 52 making a moisture indicator, 86 readingmoisture content in thick stock 83 storingwood to preserve moisits ture content,89 straightening an uneven out edge,55

Landscape fr9ure,26,27 Latewood, 16,31 15, Leaves, 16 42 Linear-footmeasurement, Linnaeus,Carl,17 Logs,13 Sawinginto lumber, 22-25,36-39 Squaring,37-38 jigs, 39 log crosscutting 87 Storage, Veneer-cutting,59,60-61 Lumber: Abbreviations, back endpaper Carryinglumber by car (ShopTip), 42 Defects, 20-2I,50-52 40, Grades, 41,42,45 hardwood,46-47 softwood,48-49 Measurement, 43 42, cutting lists,44 Moisturecontent,43,49,79,80-83 making a moistureindicator (ShopTip), 86 readingmoisturecontentin thick stock(ShopTip)83 its storingwood to preserve moisture content(ShopTip), 89 Purchasing, 42-43 Recycled,4l Sawingfrom logs,24-25,3G39 Seasoning, 43,50,7&79 air drying,43,79,87-88 solarkilns, 84-85 Selection,4l 24, 82, Shrinkage/swelling, 80- 86

52 Defectivelumber, 20-21, 50SeealsoWarped stock Density.See Specificgravity Diffirse-porouswoods, 16 Dowels,95 43,50, 78-79 Drfttg processes, Air drying, 43,79,87-88 Solarkilns, 84-85 Earlywood,15, L6,37 Edgebanding: Plvwood,74 shop-madeedgebanding (ShopTip),75 Veneers, 64 trimming edgebanding (ShopTip), 64 Edge-grain sawnlumber. See lumber Quartersawn T2 Edgemarks, Endangered species, 98 lumber,46,47 FASgrade Fiberboard,56,77 Fibersaturationpoint (FSP),80 Fiddlebackfigure, 26, 27 Figure,2G27 Veneers, 59 Finishgrade lumber,48,49 Flat-cutveneers, 59 Flat-grained lumber. See Plainsawnlumber


Plywood holding plywood panelsagainst a wall, 93 plywood carriet, T3 shop-made edgebanding, 75 temporaryplywood pallet,94 Veneers salvaging warpedveneer,62 trimming edgebanding, 64 veneeringa curvedsurface(Shop Tip),68 Softwood,16,33,98 Grades,4&49 Plywood, 70,71,72,73 Specific graity,27,28 Splits(wood defect),51 Stripedveneers, 59

Through-and-throughsawnlumber, 24,37 Tools: Chain saws, 36 Lumber mills, 36 Moisturemeters,79,83 readingmoisture content in thick stock (ShopTip) 83 Veneering,63 Wood identification, 30 Seealsoligs Tracheids, 3l 16, Trees: Anatomy, 14-15 Botanical names, 17,98 Conservation, 7,98 Felling,front endpaper, I8-22 Industrialuses, l7 Twisting. SeeWarped stock

Veneers, 57-58 Application, 63-68 trimming edgebanding (Shop Tip),64 veneeringa curvedsurface(Shop Tip),68 veneer-trimmingjigs, 65 Cutting bandsaws,6l-62 from logs, 59,60-6I Decorativepatterns,69 Salvaging warpedveneer(Shop Tip),62 Warped stock,50, 5l Checkinglumber for twist (Shop Tip),52 Salvaging, 53,54-55 salvaging warpedveneer(Shop Tip),62 straightening an unevenedge out (ShopTip), 55 Woods,13 Color,26,33 Figure,27


Grain,26,28-29 Identification,7, 3035 Luster, 33 Odot27,33 Species African mahogany, 120 27, African padauk,123 afrormosia,99 agba,99 Alaskayellow cedar,82, 107 alder, 100 amburana,100 Americanchestnut, /I0 Americansycamore, 82,87, 133 aromatic cedar,107 ash,82, 101 87, avodir6,58, 102 bald cypress, 111 balsa,102 basswood, 82,87, 103 bayo,103 beech,59, 82,87,104 birch, 104 blackash,I0I black cherry, 82,87, 109 blackwalnut,58,82,87, 135 blackwillow, 82, 136 bocote,I05 Brazlian rosewood,I 7, 58, 98 bubinga,105 butternut,82,87, 106 California r edwood.,129 Carpathianelm,27,58, 59 catalpa,82, 106 cedar,82,107-108,132 Ceylonsatinwood,58, l3I chactacote, 109 cherry 82,87, 109 chestnut, l0 I chontaquiroamarillo, I.l0 cocobolo, IIl qpress,Ill Douglas-fir, 18,82,87,112 12, EastIndian rosewood, 59 ebony,112-1lj e l m , 5 8 ,5 9 , 8 2 , 8 7 , 1 1 3 Europeanbeech,59 goncaloalves,.l14 grayelm, 87 hackberry 82, 114 hard maple,I2I hickory 82,87,115 holly,82,I15 Hondurasrosewood,129 imbuia, 58, 116 Indonesianrosewood,130 iroko,.l16 jatoba,1l7 kingwood,-117 koa,l18 lacewood,58, 118 lignumvitae,i19 macassar ebony, l.l3 madrone,82, 119

mahogann58,59,82,120 maple,27, 58, 59,82, 87, 121 movingue,26 myrtle, 58, 121 oak,82, 87,122 olivewood,58, 123 padavk,123 paperbirch, 104 pauferro, 124 pear,58,124 pecan,125 perobarosa,26 persimmon,35,82, 125 pine,31,82,87,126127 ponderosapine, 126 poplar, 127 primavera,128 purpleheart,58, 128 red alder, 100 redcedar, l08 red oak, 82, 87, 122 red spruce,87 redwood,87,129 rosewood,17, 58, 59,129-130 sapele, 130 58, sassafras, 10,82,131 satinwood, 131 58, sitkaspruce,133 snakewood, 132 SouthAmericanmahogann 82, i20 southernyellow pine, /26 Spanish cedar,132 spruce, 133 87, sugarmaple,82, 87 sugarpine, 87 sycamore, 82,87,133 teak,82, 134 tornillo, 134 tulipwood, 135 walnut, 58, 59,82,87, 135 wenge,136 westernred cedar,82, 108 white ash,82,87, 101 white birch,26 white cedar,108 white elm, .l13 white oak, 82, 122 white pine, 31,82,87,127 willow,82, 136 yelTowcedag107 yellow poplar, 127 yew,58 zebrawood, 137 58, ziricote,137 Texture,26 Weight,27,28 See alsoHardwood;Logs;Lumber; Manufacturedboardi; Plywood; Softwood;Trees;Veneers Wood samples,30,34 WoodworkersAlliancefor Rainforest (WARP),8 Protection


Theeditors wishto thank thefoUowing UNDERSTANDINGWOOD Industries B.C.,Vancouver, B.C.; Foley, Councilof Forest of Machinery, Guelph,Ont.; Sheila DeltaInternational Assn.,High Point, NC; Haddon Tool, Chicago,IL; Hardwood Manufacturers fim Gundy, Appalachian Richardfagels,Dept. of ForestBiology,Universityof Maine, Orono, ME; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Doug MacCleery ForestInventory and Planning,U.S.Dept. of Agriculture,Washington,DC; Duncan McTaggert,MacMillan Bloedel,Vancouver,BC; David Mitchell, CentennialAcademy,Montreal, Que.; WV JackPitcher,National Hardwood Lumber Assn.,Memphis,TN; Woodcraft Supply,Parkersburg, SELECTINGLUMBER A Inc., Cambridge, Ont.; LesBoisM & M lt6e.,St-Mathieu,Que.;fim Carse, & M Wood Specialty Norcross,GA; Delta InternationalMachinery,Guelph,Ont.; DaveDoucette, Communication Masters, Highland Hardwoods,Brenfivood,NH; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; Montreal, Que.;JackPitcher,National Hardwood Lumber Assn.,Memphis,TN; RogerLandreville, American Bob Sabastina, National Hardwood Lumber Assn.,Memphis,TN; Tom Searles, Committee,Germantown,MD.; Shopsmith,Inc., Montreal, Que. Lumber Standards VENEBRSAND MANUFACTI.]RED BOARDS Cable,Guelph,Ont.; AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont. DRYINGAND STORINGWOOD LeeValleyTools,Ottawa,Ont.; Bill Simpson,U.S.ForestProductsLab,Madison,WI; WOODDIRECTORY Monitoring Centre, Inc., Cambridge, Ont.; PeteAtkinson,World Conservation A & M Wood Specialty Woods and Veneers, England;R.S.BaconVeneerCo., Hillside, IL Tom Barrett,General Cambridge, Inc., Cambridge, Ont.; Iohn Curtis, The Luthier's Mercantile, A Montreal, Que.;Jim Carse, & M Wood Specialty Garandenr., St-R6mi,Que.;DebbieHammel, Scientific Healdsburg, CA; Michael Fortune,Toronto, Ont.; R€jean U.S.Dept. of the Inc., Oakland,CA; BruceMacBryde,U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service, CertificationSystems, Interior, Washington,DC; Gary Meixner, Pittsford Lumber,Pittsford,N.Y; Mark Platin,Wildwoods Co., WoodworkersAlliancefor RainforestProtection,CoosBay,OR Arcata,CA; JohnShipstad, The also in followingpersons assisted thepreparationof this book: Adrienne Bertrand,ElizabethCameron,Donna Curtis, LorraineDor€, Graphor Consultation, Maryo Proulx Harcc,CarolynJackson, LeonardLee,Ednaand William Mills, Brian Parsons, Marie-Jos6e

Cover RobertChartier 5,7 Mark Tucker 8,9 Bob Anderson 10,11 BobAnderson 12 CourtesyWesternWood ProductsAssociation 13 Gloria H. Chomica/Masterfile 17 Bob Anderson/Masterfile 18 Ed Gifford/Masterfile 19 Erik Borg 20 Al Harvey/Masterfile 21 CourtesyWesternWood ProductsAssociation 22 Erik Borg 23 Erik Borg (2) 33 CourtesyU.S.ForestProductsLaboratory(2) 36 CourtesyBetterBuilt Corporation a0 Philip C. Jackson 60 CourtesyDavid R. Webb Co., Inc. 78 Erik Borg


USEFUL LUMBER ABBREVIATI()NS AD BD BD FT CLR COM FT CU DIM E FAS Airdried Board Board foot Clear Common Cubic feet Dimension Edge LIN FT MC 0C 0G P PAD PC " RDM REG RGH Linear, lrneal, or foot Moisture content 0n center Ogee Planed Partially dried air Piece Random Regu lar Rough Ripped Random lengths Roud n Sapwood Seasoned Square edge Select Surface (1 square foot foot) Surface measure Sq uare STD STK Standard Stock ' SYMBOLS Foot feet or " Inch inches or x by(asin2x4)

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Qidp :nd


Firsts seconds and FT Foot (in FT SM Surface measure feet) RIP GR Green RL HDWD Hardwood RND HRTWD Heartwood SAP lN JTD KD LBR LGTH LIN lnches Jointed Kiln ried d Lumber Length L i n e a rr l i n e a l o SD SE SEL SF SM S0

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sls s2s s4s

S u r f a c e o n es i d e d Surfaced sides two S u r f a c efd u rs i d e s o

s 1 s l E S u r f a c eo n es i d e ,o n ee d g e d

s 1 s z E S u r f a c eo n es i d e ,t w oe d g e s d
Tnnsrrpand srnnvp

Vl o r n t Wider Weight width

Ave"ane mniaf.t tre rnnf.enl B%

, J


Asthismapprovided theU.S. by Forest Products shows, ideal Lab the moisture content wood for used to i fu b u i l dn d o o r r n i t u r e p e n d s de on t h er e g i o fn rw h i c h h ef i n i s h e d o t a r t i c lie i n t e n d e dn t h er e l a t i v e l y s I. drySouthwestern forexample, states, lumber should dried a moisture be to content 4 to 9 nercent. level of A of 8 to 13 percent would better be for theSoutheastern of thecountry region l g w h e r e u m i d i tiy g e n e r ahliy h e r . h s The national average between falls 5 and10 percent moisture content.

Average moteture conl;enL 6%

Average moteLure contenL 11%

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