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THEARTOFWOODWORKING

HOMEWORI$HOP

WORKSHOP IDE GU
SAFETY TIPS
POWER TOOTS
. Wearappropriate safetygear:safety glasses, faceshield extraprotection, a for protection. thereis no dust and hearing lf collection system, weara dustmask.For exoticwoodssuchas ebony, a respiuse rator; sawdust maycausean allergic reaction. Wearworkgloves whenhand l i n gr o u g h u m b e r . l o Drape the power cord of a portable power tool overyourshoulder keep to it out of the way. . Concentrate the job;do not rush. on ' Never workwhenyou aretired,stressed, or havebeendrinking alcohol using or medications induce that drowsiness. o A l w a y s e e py o u rw o r ka r e ac l e a n k and tidy; clutter can leadto accidents, and sawdust woodscraps and can be a fire hazard. o K e e py o u rh a n d s e l la w a y r o m a w f turning lade r bit. b o . Do not usea tool if any part is worn or damaged.

HAND TOOLS . Use approprrate forthejob; the tool do nottryto make tooldosomething a forwhich was intended. it not o Clamp workpiecefree your to both hands anoperation. for o Cutaway yourself from rather than your toward body. . Donotforce tool; possible, a if try removing stock each less pass. on . Keep edges cutting sharp. the of tools

GLUING LEG UP BLANKS
Face-gluing Formany you table anddesk legs, will need thicker stock thanis commonly available. solution to make The your is ownlegblanks faceby gluing thinner stock. Start preparing stock by the slighily larger than thef inalsize the leg. ensure seamless jointthemating of To a fit, surglueup theboards to face, faces. Then face alternating endgrain the of thepieces arranging stock maximize andcolor. and the grain to The process identical edge-gluing (page except is to boards panels into 93), thatC clamps should used. shown right, be As at space clamps the at 3- to 4-inch pressure intervals provide to constant across entire the ioint.

J(lINERY ADHESIVES
TYPE White glue
Yellow glue

CHARACTERISTICS . Strong Polyvinyl-acetate nottoxic flammable based; or bonding; working 3 to 5 time o minutes Setting about to 45 minutes; time r 30 cures fullyin 24to 72 hours Dries r Does sand wellasyellow clear colorless and not glue as

USES General woodworking

o Aliphatic-resin based; toxic or flammable Betterimmediate not adhesion faster for General woodworking grabthanwhiteglue; . working time3 to 5 minutes Setting timeabout to 40 minutes; 30 o (faded curesfully in 24 Io 72 hours Dries yellow); opaque moreheat-resistant better for properties whiteglue sanding than Resin and hardener mustbe mixedpriorto use;not flammable maybe toxic but o strong, waterproof bonding; working time 5 minutes 2 hours(depending type) to on r Setting (depending type);curesfully in 24 hours time 5 minutes 2 hours to on

Epoxy glue glue Hide

Bonding acidic woods as such oak;useon exotic woods that poorly other bond glues with

Protein-based; available granular liquidform;nottoxicor flammable Strong o in or bondCabinet construction, antique r ing,workingtime minutes Settingtime hour; o 3-5 t cures'fullyin24 hours Sandable, restoration, veneering, fine and dries darkcoloro Notwater-resistant, bondcan besoftened water disassembly woodworking a glue with for Urea-formaldehyde-based, available powdered in form;not f lammable toxic but ' Strong . bonding, working time 20 minutes Setting time 4 to 6 hours; cures fully in 3 dayso Water resistance higher thanthat of aliphatic glues, doesnotstainacidic w000s, sanos cteanlv

Plastic resin

V e n e e r i na m i n a t i n g ,d l g, an edge-gluing hardwood

THEARTOFWOODWORKING

TABTES ANDDESI$

THEART OF WOODWORKING

TABLES AI\IDDESI$

TIME-LIFE BOOKS VIRGINIA ALEXANDRIA. ST.REMYPRESS MONTREAL. NEWYORK

THE ART OF WOODWORKING was produced by ST. REMYPRESS PUBLISHER KennethWinchester PRESIDENT PierreLdveill6 Series Editor Series Director Art SeniorEditors Art Directors Designers Research Editor PictureEditor Writers Research Assistant Cont r ibuting Illu strators PierreHome-Douglas FrancineLemieux Marc Cassini(Text) HeatherMills (Research) Normand Boudreault,Luc Germain, Solange Laberge Lina Desrochers, H6ldneDion, Doiron,MichelGigudre Jean-Guy Iim McRae Christopherfackson Andrew Iones,Rob Lutes Bryan Quinn GillesBeauchemin, RolandBergerat, Michel Blais,Jean-Pierre Bourgeois, RonaldDurepos,facques Perrault, lamesTh6rien NatalieWatanabe MichelleTurbide Roy Jean-Luc RobertChartier,ChristianLevesque Dominique Gagnd Judith Yelon ChristineM. Iacobs

THECONSUTIANTS
and writer fon Arno is a consultant,cabinetmaker, freelance who livesin Tioy, Michigan. He alsoconductsseminars on wood identificationand earlyAmericanfurniture design. I(am Ghaffari is a freelance writer and editor. He hashis own business RhodeIslanddesigning building one-of-ain and kind and limited production furniture. Kam'sbackground alsoincludesworking professionally furniture reproducin tion and fine carpentryand studyingwith furniture patriarchsWendellCastleof the U.S.and England'sFred Baier. Giles Miller-Mead taught advanced cabinetmakingat Montreal technicalschoolsfor more than ten years. nativeofNew A Zealand, hasworked asa restorerof antiquefurniture. he

Administrator Production Manager System Coordinator Photographers A dministrative As stant si Proofreader Indexer

Thbles Desks & p. cm.-(The Art of woodworking) Includesindex. ISBN0-8094-9s12-0 l. Thbles Desks3. Furniture making I. Time-Life Books. 2. II. Title: Thbles and desks. Series. III. TT197.5.T3T33 1994 684.r'3-dc20 93-49732 CIP For information about any Time-Life book, please l-800-621-7026, write: call or Reader Information Time-Life CustomerService P.O. Box C-32068 Richmond,Virginia 23261-2068 @ 1994Time-Life BooksInc All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced any form or by in any electronicor mechanical means,including information storage and retrievaldevices systems, or without prior written permissionfrom the publisher,exceptthat briefpassages may be quoted for reviews. Firstprinting.Printedin U.S.A. Published simultaneously Canada. in TIME-LIFE is a trademarkof Time WarnerInc. U.S.A.

Time-Life Booksis a division of Time Life Inc., a wholly ownedsubsidiaryof THE TIME INC. BOOK COMPANY

TIMELIFEINC.
President CEO and Editor-in-chief JohnM. Fahey JohnL. Papanek

TIME-LIFEBOOKS
President Vice-President, Directorof Marketing Executive Editor Executive Director Art Consuhing Editor Production Manager lohn D. Hall NancyK. )ones RobertaConlan Ellen Robling lohn R. Sullivan MarleneZack

CONTENTS
6 INTRODUCTION 12 14 16 18 19 2L 22 28 30 32 33 4L 54 56 57 58 59 60 63 66 68 69 72 TABLEAND DESK BASICS Wood movement Selecting orderingwood and Lumberdefects Preparing stock Designing tablesand desks Tableand deskstyles DESK CASEWORK TWotypesof deskcasework joints Casework Buildinga carcase Buildinga frame-andpaneldesk LEGSAND RAITS Legstylesand hardware joints Leg-to-rail Tiipod table Pedestal table Thpered legs Cabriolelegs Ttrrnedlegs Pedestal legs legs Octagonal joinery Leg-to-rail 88 90 92 93 96 101 II2 116 118 I20 131 133 138 TOPS Inventory of top designs Hardwareand accessories Preparing top a Attachinga top Adjustable tops Decorative elements DRAWERS Anatomy of a drawer Drawerjoinery Drawerhardware Mounting drawers Drawer stops

140 GTOSSARY I42 INDEX I44 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

INTRODUCTION

SimonWattstalksabout

HIS RECYCLED DESK
houses, small and furniture, building worked woodfor ahalf-century, with f have However, I as possibilities thematerial. of at I boats stillI marvel theendless and had woodthathasalready a career get I to getolderandthetrees fewer, prefer use if being treeasthefirst. a a or asabridge, boat, abuilding-two careers,youcount the woodstretches with recycled I've Farfroma limitation, foundthatworking is chalingenuity. boatlumber thegreatest Used and considerable imagination takes fastenings. spaced it and lenge becauseiscurved full of closely Douglas-fir apartment using Francisco in I made desk thephotofor mySan the fastenings, I wireall yard. Afterremoving visible wrecking reclaimed a local from planer.made attempt no I though thickness a and the brushed surfaces rantheboards previous life; of iron and bolt to conceal holes, stains, otherevidence thetimber's I them instead,incorporated intothedesk. The downcompletely. piecesmake I now thisoneknocks Likemost thelarger of strucand withoutglue thesupporting doweled together fourboards thetopare of joints pegs of tureconsists mortise-and-tenon anddrawpins.Drivingthetapered the and The is through legs secured pulls jointtogether. stretchertenoned the home wedges. with loose a is of there no point in making working you delusions grandeur, Unless have a reach whensittingdown.Thatmeans larger thanyoucancomfortably surface of thanhalfthatin depth-thesize thisdesk. longandno more maximum 6 feet of writingmatein I with I prefer keep theitems associate desks thedrawers: to only printers, and monitors' paper stapler, soon.Computers, and clips, rials, stamps, in unit. housed a separate I don'tlike better are, associated equipment I think,much monua of frrll filestorage into a deskDrawers of filesmake piece furniture built filing change, I so Also, in mental, intimidating, aDpearance. a person's needs even or a file to thinkit isbetter addor change unitsthanto remodel replacedesk. turned and its will It may happen thisdesk outlive usefulness thewoodagain that jointsandno hidden fastenings, wouldbe that else. intosomething Withno glued will The nature thepiece. desk of perhaps the suitable considering recycled easy-and in bemygiftto awoodworker thenextcentury.

r

He writer,and teacher. nowlivesin is SimonWatts a woodworker, classes wooden in nationallyrecognized wherehe offers SanFrancisco Woodworker Coast editor American He boatbuilding. isalsotheWest for manuals. threeboat-building and magazine lastyearpublished

INTRODUCTION

Kam Ghaftaridiscusses

DESIGNING TABLES
every typeof furniture, fromdecorative high-sryle chairs I nu* built practically I to kitchen cabinets, I'm fascinated tables. thefirstpiece furniture but by Both of I made thefirstoneI designed tables. anundeniable and were It's challenge creto atea beautiful chairthat is alsocomfortable, anelegant or entertainment center designed specifically around sizes functions its contents. for sheer the and of But simplicity design and freedom, can't a table. you beat Sooner later, or manywoodworkers to startdesigning ownfurniture. want their It'ssomethingstrongly I encourage; designing greatly increases satisfaction the derived fromwoodworking. table a great A is place start. table relatively to A has fewstructural elements technical and requirements:you've a flattop anda If got solidsupport system holdit up,youhave a functional to got table. rest up to The is you.Take account into strength requirements, andsize use, planning piice. when the Will thisbea heavy-duty kid-proof kitchen table a delicate or decorative table, hall for example? bringin forms shapes please Subtle Then and that you. points such as joinery, clever a delicately shaped decorative leg, a handmade mechanism, a paror ticularly handsome of woodcanbeshowcaseda table. piece in Your piece besimple complex, austere Shaker asostentatiousrococan or as as or as co,based designs the1930s the1730s-or on of or something unique imagiand native. design also Its can addressparticular notmetbycommercially a need available furniture, a telephone or abackgammon chess like table, or table. Thetable thephotowasinfluenced theclassic in by Danish designs Hans of Wegner, wellasbymyappreciationtheaspen hence name, as of leaf, the Aspen Thble. Thiswasdesigned streamlined for production withoutsacrificing handcrafted its look.I wanted tablethatknocked a downflat for shipping, wassturdy yet when assembled. A light-dury three-legged isstable thelegs evenly table if are spaced and farenough apart. also It doesn't require leveling uneven on floors. I tenoned turned intotheshaped thendevisedremovable the legs rails, a grooved metalplate that,with screws goinginto threaded inserts therails, themall in ties together. rails also The are countersunk screws fit intothreaded for that inserts the in stable multi-ply Theinlays thetops routed a collar top. in are with ridingin a female template. ivory-colored The material tinted is patching for solid-surface resin countefiops. green The aluminum veins computer are milled ensureprecise time to a fit after time.Fora single inlay, partcould cutwith ajeweler's andfile. this be saw

Kam Ghaffaridesigns, builds, and writesabout at hisstudioin Westerly, Rhode Island. furniture

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TNTRODUCTION

Tory Searer on

ASPANISH-STYLE DESK
creating uniqueandpleasing a furnitureshop, \ A f henyourun a commercial is Foremost theprocess listening in challenge. can Y V design beaninvigorating practical esthetic and considerations. and to thecustomer balancing piece fursculptural of in a Thebuyers thedesk thephotowanted handsome of consideraart Otherdesign niturethat wouldalsoallowthemto display objects. small file as incorporating threehanging drawers wellasnumerous tionsinvolved light with and drawers cubbies a self-contained source. traveling desks was by Thedrop-frontdesign inspired the originalvarguefio The motifsandturned of fromoldSpain thefrontier NewMexico. carved to brought era. fromtheSpanish Colonial Theentire frompieces survived that legs derived are pine,awoodnative thewestern to UnitedStates. piece made is fromsugar making northin and There anenduring richtraditionof carving furniture is and exemplifies centuriesthis Martinez, sittingat the desk, Ramon ernNewMexico. have most foreman, Thirtyyears thecompany, asashop with oldHispanic tradition. Ramon made desk the In this him crafsman. building piece, shaped intoatruemaster All within thecontext thedesign. theprimaryjointsare of asauthentic possible as panels floatfor The which appropriate. raised mortise-and-tenon, is historically features inset an is The hardware hand-forged. desk expansion thedecorative and to bolts pad.Theknobson theoutside connected concealed that are leather desk surface be can pad The so holdtheleather in place. boltscanbereleased theleather replaced. easily that a is and Theendresult a compact funaionaldesk adds verywarmandpleasfor years now The has in to home. desk been use some ingdesign element theuser's of hand-rubbed oils finishweapplied-a combination various andtheantiqued with age. lacquers-has improved only andsprayed

a ownsSouthwest Spanish Craftsmen, furniture shopin TonySearer in Colonial.Spanish Fe, Sante Nm Mexico,that specializes Spanish Previously, he soutlr,vestern styles. Provincial"and its own classic of designed andbuilt exhibi*for theMuseum Nnv Mexico.

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DESKBASICS AI\TD TABLE
to the mationyouwill need purchase chapters of the I tttrough following woodfor yourproject. ,t \ thisbookfocus thenutsand on in one With vourstock hand, crucial construction, boltsof tableanddesk you before canstartto stepremains of is to a there more building piece furpreparing put yourworktogether: the niturethancuttingjointsandassem(page Thisprocess l9). includes stock Before of this any blingcomponents. jointingandplaning rough woodsoit is canhappen, some timemustbespent to and and stock smooth square, cutting and the and designing piece, selecting length width.Forrough, and unsurfaced preparing lumber.This chapter the lumber, pasoneface first acrosthejoinfocuses the skillsyou will needto on producing surtwo tet thenoneedge, preparatory For steps. carryout these plane faces 90o each other. Next, the at to the are some craftsmen, preliminaries to it otherface theboard make paralof aspects a of among mostenjoyable the is lel to thefirst.Whenthestock square project.Hand-picking mahogany a you to andsmooth, areready rip it to or boardat thelumberyard, unwrapIf it widely, even widthandcrosscut to length. you pinga package exotic Lumberqualityvaries of woodfrom a whichalready both has grade.Takingthe time buyS2S stock, for can within thesame mail-order supplier, example, pass across the carefully faces surfaced, oneedge to examine selectboards and berewarding experiences. jointer,thenrip andcrosscut to size. you it you at alumberyardwillhelp obtain the First, need select kind of to prewhichhasall itssurfaces S4S stock, yourneeds. The thebeststock your project. that tableor desk suits for pared, beripped crosscut immecan and gallery styles illustrated oftable desk and such point in your diately. Onlyedges will bejoinedtogether, asboards that 22 a on beginning page canprovide starting need you to a The edge-glued make tabletop, to bejointed. for design. dimensions incorporate being search a suitable yourproject Finally, remember it isimportant tackle that to of and will affect both theappearance suitability thepiece. For efficienry,lay yourtoolsin the out 21. methodically. greatest are in on dimensions discusseddetail page Standard (or a directroutefrom you one selecteddesign sketched your- shopsothatyourwoodfollows relatively a Once have jointedyour Whenyouhave to The on self),it is time to buy thelumber. sections wood roughstock finalassembly. (page ordering d (page16), deriving stock cutit to size, your all fashion jointsandsand comand and 14), woo movement (page provide basic assembly. infor- ponents before list 17) the a cutting froma sketch

the An orbital sander smoothes topofa doublepedestal Afterafinal pass afinedesk. with gritpaper, desk beready afinish. the will for

t3

WOODMOVEMENT
andloses moisture as \ [ f ood gains V V therelative humidityof thesurrounding air changes. And as the wood'smoisturecontentchanges, so do its dimensions weight.These and problems a piece changes cause can for of furniture,somemerelyirritating, othersmuch more serious. Knowing how moistureaffects wood and making the appropriate allowances help will vou avoiddifficultv. ' The watercontained a pieceof in wood is measured a percentage as of the wood's oven-dry,or water-free weight.For example, a 50-pound if piece woodweighs pounds of 40 when it is oven-dry,the weight of the shed water-10 pounds-divided by the wood'sdry weight---4O pounds-is the moisture contentof the originalpiece: in this case, percent. 25 Wood containswaterin two ways: asfreewaterin its cell cavities and as bound waterin its cell walls.When wood is cut and exposed the air, it to sheds freewaterfirst. When all free its wateris expelled, wood is saidto the be at its fibersaturation point (FSP), which is typicallybetween and30 23 percentmoisturecontent.Up to this point, asshownin the illustrationat right, therehasbeenno change the in dimensionsof the piece;it simply weighs Aswooddriesfurther,howless. ever,water is removedfrom the cell walls,and the boardshrinks. Undernormalcircumstances, wood neverregains freewater, changes its but in humidity in the air do affectthe amount of moisturein the cell walls. At 100percentrelative humidity,wood reaches FSBholdingasmuchbound its wateraspossible. 0 percent At humidity, wood is devoidof all moisture. Usuallv, because watercontentof the wood reflects moisturepresent the in theatmosphere, moisture the content of mostwoodsranges between and20 5 percent. The fluctuationin relative humidityof nearly percent 80 between typicalNorth American wintersand summers can cause substantial wood movement overthe course ayear. of Because their size,tabletops of and desktops especially proneto moveare ment.A 3-foot-wide with thewood tou grainrunningalongits lengthcanexperience annualmovement morethan of I inch across width. This cancause its serious difficulties anextension for table, for example, which relieson the perfectalignment various of components. You can do several thingsto compensatefor the effectsof humidity changes wood.In your shop,usea on humidifierin winter and a dehumidifier in summerto keepthe humidity level asconstant possible. as Also,make allowances wood movementin the for construction your work. With an of extension table(page for example, 90), orientthewoodgrainof thetop to run across width of thetable, along the not its length.This way,wood movement will not affect alignment the pieces. of The methodyou useto attacha top is equally important. Severaleffective methods shown are starting page on 96. Usingframe-and-panel construction (page for thecasework a desk 31) of will allow wood to expandand contract without affectingthe stabilityof the piece.Somewoodstend to swelland shrinkmorethan others. Yourlumber dealer helpyou select can dimensionally stable speciis'for your projects.

Moisture content above 30% (no chanqe)

Moiaturecontent at FOF26% (no chanqe)

Moist.ure content at 17% (1" ahrinka7e)

Moiaturecontent.at. 13% (/o" ehrinka1e)

Moiature content at B% (h" ehrinkaqe)

Vhen themoisture content a 2-by-10 plain-sawn of plankof softwood lumber drops below frbersaturation its point (FSP), wood the shrinks. 17percent, At the qnother%inch of width boardis',/o nqrrower inch than it wasat lrsFSP; loses it whenkiln-driedto 8 percent. partly on thedensity the Shrinkage depends of wood; generally, denser a species shrinks swells and morethana less dense one.

TABLEAND DESKBASICS

WOOD SHRINKAGE
Tangential radial and shrinkage Wood not uniformly. shown As does shrink bythethedotted lines theillustration in paralat right, tangential shrinkage-roughly lelto thegrowth rings-isabout twice the radial shrinkage, occurs which across the rings. Thisdifference causes boards and panels warp when shrink swell they or as to Shrinkage along relative humidity changes. thelength a board usually of is insignifiplank, example, which cant. Z-by-IO A for its lose shrinks inchacross widthmight % less inchalong 8-foot an length. than%e and When building fortables desks, tops orient grain thedirection will the in that problems. cause fewest the Quartersawn which growth has rings areat that stock, rightangles theface, less a tento has of choice tops. for dency cupandis a good to

WOOD GRAIN JOINERY AND

Tanqential

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Tan7ential PEne

grain 0ptimizing direction Wood movement have effect can an on thestrength a joint. of Orient grain the pieces a joint they of themating of so willmove thesame in direction. the ln jornt mortise-and-tenonshown left, at planes theboards'tangential areparallelto each other, Consequently, the wood movement oneoiece that exoeriences beclosely will matched the by other thejointwill notbeweakand Assembling a jointwiththetanened. gential planes thetwopieces right of at angles could weaken joint even the or force aoart. it

15

SELECTING AND ORDERING WOOD
project or T umberfor yourtable desk l-l cancome from several sources, each with its own advantages drawbacks. and The locallumberyard the mostobviis oussupplier, oftenthe mostconveand nient,but the selection be limited may to construction woodssuchas pine, spruce, and other softwoods. Though you may find the occasional cache of hardwood, moreoftenthannot youwill haveto venturefartherafield,consulting the YellowPages woodworking or magazines find dealers to who specialize in someof the lesscommonhardwoodsusedfor fine furniture.Youwill pay usually more,but the qualityof the woodshould highertoo. be Thereareotherless costly ootionsfor finding the wood you need. lumber A mill maysellyou boards a reasonable at price, thewoodwill mostoftenneed but to be seasoned surfaced, and which means you mustown a jointerand that planer. Also,larger mills areoftenreluctant to fill smallorders. Rerycled boards arebecoming increasingly popularwith woodworkers, resultof the scarcity a of certainwoods.Salvaged wood is relativelyinexpensive because often and, it comes from old-growthtimber,it can be visually structurally and superior to recently harvested lumber.Regardless of your chosen supply, defineyour needs carefully before ordering wood.Thetips that follow will help you get what you need a reasonable Being preat cost. well paredwill alsospeed process the considerably. . Species: for the specific Ask wood species, rather thana broadfamilyname. For example, orderWestern cedar, red not simplycedar. besureyou getwhat To

CATCULATING FEET BOARD
Ordering lumber theboard by foot The"board foot"is a unitof measurement used calculate volume a given to the of amount stock. is commonly with of lt used hardwood lumber. shown theillustraAs in tionat right, standard the board is foot equivalent a piece to thatis 1 inch thick, 12 inches wide, and12 inches long. To calculate number board in a the of feet piece wood, of multiply three its dimensions together. Then, divide result the by 144 if thedimensions in inches, by are or 12 if iustone dimensionin feet. is
l" x 12"x 12"= I 572111urd board foot

NUMBER BOARD IN FEET OF 8 tINEAt FEET DIFFERENT OF SIZED BOARDS
1-by-3=2boardfeet 1-by-6=4boardfeet

Theformula a standard for board: I"x12"x12"+I44=I (or1"x12"xI'+12=I) plank Soif youhada 6-foot-long thatis 1 you inch thickand4 inches wide, would calculate board asfollows: x 4" x the feet 1" 6' + 12 = 2 (or2 board feet). Other examples shown the illustration. are in Rememberthatboard arecalculated the feet on basis the nominal of rather thanactual dimensionsthestock; of consequently, the board contained a 2-by-4 actufeet in that allymeasures lYz-by-3% inches would be calculated thelarger using dimensions.

1-by12=Bboardfeet

2-by-4 = 5% board feet

2-W-6=Bboardfeet

T6

BASICS TABLE AND DESK

you want,Iearnthe botanical nameof the wood you want and askfor it. . Quantity: When orderingwood, whetheryou want the stockin specify board feetor linealfeet.A linealfoot is merelyan expression a board's of length,regardless its width or thickof ness. boardfoot is a soecific The volume of wood;it is usually necesiary orderfor ing hardwoods, which areoftenavailable page16for in randomwidthsonly.See informationaboutcalculating boardfeet. . Size Woodis soldin nominalrather than realsizes. makeallowances so for

the difference whenorderingsurfaced l/"'-by-3Y.". lumber.L2-by-ais actually The thickness hardwoods often of is expressed an improperfractionin as cuarters an inch.A 1Z-inch-thick of hardwood board, for example,is expressed fl4. The nominal and real as green dimensions unsurfaced, of boards arethe same. . GradeWthin thehigherhardwood grades, primary difference the between the variousgrades appearance is rather than strength. Considering differthe ence price,it isbestto reserve best in the stockfor the visiblepartsof your projects, lower-grade usingless expensive, woodfor hiddencomponents. Consult

yourlumber for dealer achartof thedifferent grades available. . Seasoning: Lumber soldeither is kiln dried(KD),air dried(AD),or green. Kiln-dried woodisgenerally the most It stable. has moisture a content (MC)of 8 percent, whereas air-dried woodhas MC of 12to 20percent. a Airpreferred carvers. dried wood often is by . Surfacing: refers how to Surfacing is thestock prepared themill before at it comes thelumberyard. to Softwood lumber usually is surfaced bothfaces; on hardwood oftensoldrough. you is If have planer jointer, rough a and buying lumbe.r surfacing yourself it will and less expenslve. Prove

A CUTTING LIST Making using cutting and a list A cutting records finished list the sizes lumber of needed for piece a particular of furniture.oneis notincluded lf with you you your theplans purchase, will have make to own based a sketch thedesign. theformula on of Use shown page to totalthenumber on 16 of board foreach feet comoonentthe of project; 20 to 40 percent add (dependingthegrade) on to account waste defects for and in thewood. use nominal Also the (indicatedparentheses) C in thickness | l/ in of thepieces your calculations. For simple the table shown right, at which totals 25/oboard you feet, should ourchase to 35 board 30 feetof lumber. Assign each component for reference. a letter later CUTTING IIST

26Yr' ash 29' ash

1.5 6.0

t7

LUMBERDEFECTS
are that reduce T umberdefects flaws L a board's strength workabiliry or or adversely affect appearance. can its They resultfrom the way the lumber is preparedat the mill, the methods seaof soning storing, moreoftenthan and or, not, the naturalgrowingconditions experienced thetree. by Not all defects unwelcome. are Some naturalimperfections makea piece can of wood moredesirable someuses, for particularly whentheyproduce visually a stunningfiguresuchasbird's-eye. their If strength not compromised, is defective boards beused concealed to can for parts greatlyreduce project's a cost. In the end,it is the eventual of use the lumberthat determines what is an acceptable By blemish. recognizing the lumber defects illustratedbelow and inspecting your wood carefully before buyingyou canincrease your chances of gettingthe qualityyou want for the right price.

DEFECTS INW(l()D
CHARACTERISTICS REMEDIES

----4 < V2--Gum
Checks-_=------\

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Bow

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A tightknotappears a whorl as encircled surround- Tight by knots becutoutor used, can ingwood tissue; dead a knotis encircled a dark by asappearance dictates; knots dead gradually ring.Formed girthof treeincreases, as should removed be before working enveloping branches. branches the Live integrate withstock. withsurrounding dead wood; branch stumps cannot integrate formdead and knots. Anaccumulation of resin thesurface theboard on of Donotusestock a qualityinish if f or in pockets within board. the Usually develops when is required, gumwillbleed as a treehassuffered injury, an exposure fire,or to through most finishes. insect attack. Lengthwise ruptures separations wood, or in the usuCanbecut off. go allycaused rapid by drying. Splits right through board, fromoneface theother. compromise to May strength appearance. and Anendto-end curve along face, the usually caused Flatten bowed boards thejointon pieces, by improper storage. Introduces internal in stresses er,or cut intoshorter then thewood make difficult cut. that it to use jointer. the An edge-to-edge across face. curve the Common on tangentially stock, boards close thepith. cut or cut to Also occurs during drying oneface a board if of has less contact theairthantheother. with Cupmay correct itselfif bothfaces areallowed dryto thesame to moisturecontent. Cupped boards be can ripped narrower onthe into ones band orflattened thejointer. saw on

End-to-end along edge, curve the caused incorrect High by spots beflattened can on seasoninghaving pithof a board or the close the to iointer cut off ontable or saw. board Weakens wood, edge. the making unsuitable it forweight-beari ications. ngappl Uneven irregular warping where corner not or one is aligned theothers. with Results uneven from drying or grain pattern is notparallel theedge. a cross that to Board becut intoshorter can pieces.

Lengthwise separation thegrain, of usually between Cutoffshake, allowing possibilfor thegrowth rings. Results improper from drying of itythatthedefect maycontinue wood felling or damage. lengthwise under surface. the

18

PREPARING STOCK
TUMBER SURFACING

Jointingboard a lumber, byjointing face. start one lf youareworking rough with a face on table fewinches Lay workpiece down theinfeed the two against fence, place the and from knives, itsedge the butt push centered between the blocks squarely thetopface, on (Use your with handles keep hands to edges. push blocks angled Feed slowly steadily and across fromhitting fence.) theboard the

, p e d t h e k n i v e s( a b o v e )a p p l y i n g o w n w a r d r e s s u r t o k e e pt h e f t a l o b o a r d l a t o n t h e o u t f e e da b l e , n d l a t e r ap r e s s u rte h o l dr t N , o . f l u s ha g a i n stth e f e n c e . e x t j o i n ta n e d g e f t h e b o a r dW i t h r a a t h e f a c ey o uj u s tj o i n t e d e s t i n g g a i n stth e f e n c e n dt h e e d g e w ec o n t h e t a b l e , e e dt h e b o a r d i t h a h a n d - o v e r - h atn d h n i q u e . f two parallel faces. Next,planethe board(stepbelow) create to

Planing stock depth Xoinch.Stand to to Setthe cutting e o n es i d eo f t h e w o r k o i e c a n d u s eb o t h h a n d s o f e e dt h e s t o c ki n t ot h e m a c h i n e , t p t k e e p i n t h e e d g e s f t h e b o a r d a r a l l e lo g o . t e t h e p l a n etra b l e O n c e h e m a c h i n g r i p s a t s t h e b o a r d n d b e g i n so p u l l i t a c r o s t h e s i c u t t e r h e a d ,u p p o r t h e t r a i l i n ge n d t o Thenmove keepit f lat on the table (/eff). r t o t h e o u t f e e d i d eo f t h e p l a n e a n ds u p s p o r tt h e w o r k p i e cw i t h b o t hh a n d s n t i l e u it clearshe outfeed oller. o prevent t r T p g , s t o c k r o mw a r p i n ga v o i d a s s i n o n l y f t o n ef a c eo f a b o a r d h r o u g hh e m a c h i n e ; t i n s t e a do l a n e h e s a m e m o u n o f w o o d . t a t from bothsides.

I9

TABLEAND DESKBASICS

CUTTING ST()CK SIZE T()

(

-

(

Rippingworkpiece a Ripstock width your to on table sawusing ripfence a the as guide. Raise blade about inchabove workpiece. the to % the P o s i t i otn er i p f e n c e o rt h ew i d t h f c u t ,t h e nf e e d h e h f o t pressingagainst fence stock intothe blade, it the withyour (above). lefthand andpushing withboththumbs it Stand to

t h e l e f to f t h ew o r k p i e c e ds t r a d d lte ef e n c e i t hy o u r an h w r i g h t a n dm a k i n c e r t a i t h a tn e i t h eh a n d s i n l i n ew i t h h , g n r i your theblade. Once fingers approach blade, a push the use (Caution: guard partially stickto complete pass. the Blade retracted clarity.) for

Crosscutting stock Cutyour stock length thetable to on saw. With workpiece against miter the f lush the g a u g e , l i g n h ec u t t i n g a r k i t ht h e a t m w blade. Position ripfence away the well from piece thestock prevent cut-off to the from j a m m i nb e t w e e n eb l a d e n df e n c e , g th a you. your andkicking back toward Hook gauge, the thumbs themiter over hold board against gauge flatonthe the and t a b l et,h e nf e e dt h e b o a r d c r o sts e a h (Caution: guard partialtable(right). Blade ly retracted clarity.) for

20

AND DESKS TABLES DESIGNING
of a of I crucialpart building piece its final is on A furniture deciding A that dimensions.desk is toohighor a tabletop lowwill beuncomfortable; mealits will thatcrowds diners make Once experience. timeanaggravating style youhave chosenparticular from a starting oftables desks and thegallery its 22, on page it is timeto size parts. for range of dimensions awide Standard
traditionaland moderntableand desk Dining tables below. are styles provided in shouldprovide24 inches width for from each diner.Allow at leastl2 inches place for to tableedge the center each the will an additional4 to 6 inches setting; To providespace serving for dishes. allow about7 'linchleg adequate room,leave and the esbetween chairseat theunder2 between top,andat least feet side ofthe the floor andthebottom of the tableor however, these that deskrail. Remember, furniture should figuresareguidelines; fit thoseusingit. A tableor a deskalsoshouldfit into its environment.For desksand dining to tables, remember allowfor theheight chairs.Bedside of the accompanying shouldnot risemorethan6 inchtables the esabove bed.

DIMENSIONS TABIE DESK STANDARD AND
TABTES (night Bedside table) Butler's table ly Butterf table stand Candle table Card Coffee table table Conference table Console Dressing table table Drop-leaf Extension table dining Gateleg table Library table table Occasional Round dining table Tilt-top table table Trestle DESKS desk Computer desk Executive desk Office Pedestal desk desk Secretarial Secretary Typewriter stand

HEIGHT 24',-30" 24',- 36', on Dependsuse 2 5 ' -3 1 ' 25',-29'. 12'- 22',
?nn

[ENGTH 18" 36'- 48' Depends use on 28"- 36' on Depends use on Depends use 36',-72', 40'- 48', on Depends use 60" 96"; Open: closed: Depends use on 60'- 84' 24',- 28',

WIDTH 18' 20' Depends use on

DIAMETER

12"- L7', 28',-36', 20' Depends use on 16' - 20' 18' - 22', Depends use on - 42', 36', Depends use on 24',-36', 24',- 28', on Depends use 24',- 28', At least 40" 24',- 26', 48',- r20', 48"- 50' 72',- 84', 60' 30'- 42', 60'- 66' 30'- 44'
?nil

30' 2 9 ' -3 0 ' on Dependsuse - 31' 29" 2 9 ' -3 0 ' , 30" 27"- 29', 29',-3r', 26',- 28', 29',- 31', 20' - 26', 2 9 ' -3 0 ' , 29',
?nil

At least 30" 24" -30', 36',- 42',
?nil

30" -86"; Total height:74" 29' Writing surface: - 30'
?nr

18-22" 30"- 32' 18'- 22', 18'

2l

TABLEANDDESKSTYLES
f.f undredsof table and desk L I styles haveevolved throughout the ages, each with its own specificpurpose. butler's The table, for example, alsoserves a serving as (page comtray.The secretary 26) bines bookcase,desk, a chest a a and of drawers, supplying amplestoragespace books,papers, for and otheritems,and a writing surface that canbefoldedup out of theway when not in use.The following pagesillustrate more than two dozentypesof tablesand desks to inspire your designs.

The knockdowntrestletable is a design that tracesits rootsback to the Middle Ages. The example shown above was built from cherry by Thos. Moser Cabinetmakers Auburn, Maine. in

Card table A aquare table, aomet.imea with dishedcornero for holdtn4 coina. Oneaide ta normally left undecorated and placed aqainet a wall whenthe table ie not in uae.Thetop folds in half and the aide raila fold inward to move Lhe le4ecloeer to4ether

Eutterfly table An Americandropleaf table, uLiltzinq a prvotinqeupport to hold up wideleavee on eiLhereideof a narrow,central tabletop

Coffee table A lowoccaatonal table deeiqned be uaed to with eofa and chaira

Eutler's table A portable table, the eideeand ende of which fold up Lo form a qallery, or fence,and handlea

TABLEAND DESKBASICS

Extenaion table Any table whoaelen7th can be increaaed with one or more leaves;the top eep' enablin7 aratea alonqelidee, a hinqedleaf to ewinqup or a aeparate leaf to be added

Conaoletable A side,or entry, table with two front legethat are eet cloeer Lo7etherthan backleqo; 6ome examplea are aecuredLo a wall with brackets and eupported by only LwofronL leqe Droo4eaf table Kefbra u any of oeveraleLyteeof table with htnqedleaveethat hanqdownwhennot in uae:whenopen,the leavesare eupported in a variety of waya, includin4qate lego, ewin4le4a,or bracketo fastened to the raile

Gateleg table A eLyleof drop-leaf Lable with extenatonleavee eupported by ewin1in4 le4aattached to bottom Ieqatretchere

Handkerahief table A trianqular drop-leaftable; whenthe table ia opened, the top io equare

23

TABLEAND DESKBASICS

Harueat table Any of variouaAmerican otylea of larqe diningtableo, often with leaveeon both aidee of a narrow top

Nest of tablea A aet of occaaional tablea eizedeo that they can be etored oneineide the other when noLin uae

Pedeetal table A table with a top fagtenedLo a central column; the columnie uaually mountedon three (Lripod)orfour le4e

Trestle table A larqe tabletop eupported by Lreetlea; Luektenonajoin leqo Lo aLretcherEallowinq for eaay disaeaembly

TABLEAND DESKBASICS

5tand Any omall table to deaiqned dieplay objecta; a candleatand is one example

Tilt-top table A variation of the trrpod pedeatal table fea' turin7 a top that to pivote verEically 9Pace con?erve

Pembroketable A type of drop-leaf table with leavea oupported by brackete hin4edto the table raila;commonIy feat.ureoone or two drawera

Night table A amalloccaeional table uaedto eupporElampeand other bedaideaccesaorrea; ofLen with one or moredrawerqand a ahelfor amall atoraqe compartment

Taverntable Lowrectan7ularor circulartable with etretchera and turned leqo:occathe eionally, tabte hae carvedeupporte at the enda connected by a stretcher

craftsmanHank Seattle Holtzer built the "Morrison table" shown above from walnut. The extension table features a S-footdiameter top that opensto 8 feet. It will seatfrom 6 to 10 people.

25

TABLEAND DESKBASICS

l 4 M lM M I l
Iilt --

Fall-front desk A desk with a workingaurface that "falla" downinto the openpoaition, held up by eupporte that btideout of receeaea the deakfront in

9earetary
A otyle of elant-top deek featurin4a fall-front wriLina eurfacewith a cheat of drawera belo-w a bookcaeewith and wood or 4laoa doore above

Pedestal deak (kneeholetype) Featurea a top eupporLedon both aidee by drawer carcaoeacalledpedeotala:the kneehole is cloeedat the backand mav contain a

Writing table Any flat-topped deak with a writinq eurface and drawere below the top

Lap deak A amall lift-top deek held on the lap whilein uae

TABLEAND DESKBASICS

Writing deek Aleo known the by Eriilah term Daven' porL, 'hau thie amalldeek u, an4led,tifLin4 top wrth etoraqe epaceunderit; draw are erq or cuPvoaraq locatedon the Eidee of the carcaee,rather than in thefront Pedeetal deok (partner'e type) pedestal Similar to the kneehole desk,but the Lop ie lar4er and Lhegap betweenthe pedeotala ta lefL open on boLheidea-oriqinally to allowtwo peo' ple Lo uee the deEkat the aametime

Roll-top deok A deak wtth a elidinq cover,or tambour, that can be drawn downto coverthe wrrtin4aurface;the top may be eupporred by pedeetaleor lege

5tanding deek Alao known a ae clerk'edeak,thia ta ll, ela nti n4 |ifL-top desk typrcally hae one or two amall drawera and may havea shelf the eurface below wriLin7

Suggestive an open of fall-front the desk, pieceshownat left incorporates includotherdesign elements, curvealongthefront inga graceful wasbuilt edge the top. Thedesk of cherryand mapleby ludith from Amesof Seattle.

27

DE,SKCASEWORK
on As andshrinkage. illustrated aseworkis the fundamental page individual frame-and-pan31, buildingblockof mostdesks. are el assemblies joinedto form a It canbe assimpleasa four-sided is in frame case. opening each The as box or aselaborate a frame-andin filledbyapanel rests grooves that as panel cabinet.Suchelements edges theframe. of cutin theinside dividers, shelves,drawers, face pieces glued the are Although frame frames,and dust panelsprovide is the together thecorners, panel at refinementsthat transform this withoutadhesetinto theframes into casework a pieceof furniture. and to sive allowit to swell shrink. will This chapter showyou how around Thepanel oftenbeveled is techniques to to apply casework decorative that touch theedges-a the constructionofa two-pedestal into it allows to fit moreeasily requires manyclamps. also carcase Gluingup a large desklike the one shownopposite. itsgroove. bar are ln thesetupshownabove, clamps to Carcases easier build than are for The methodyou choose and aligned with thepanek of thecarcase with As frame-and-panel cabinets. shown joined to thecarcase acarcase frame-andor sides. assembling thedustframesbeing consist of on page30,all carcases panel will influence charjoined to form a box. the case on Applyinguniformpressure all of thejoints four panels of acter individuality yourdesk. and square solid. and will helpmakethecarcase Make surethat the wood grain of joineryoptions shown are Various direcrunsin thesame all thepanels joint wood solid rabbet worlawellwitheither 32.The to tion. Thiswill allowthepanels swellandshrinkat thesame onpage panels. are Through dovetails moretime-conor plyr,vood If a humidity levels change. you assemble carrateasrelative and suming make theyaremoreattractive considered to but panels right angles each to othat with the grainof adjacent case assemblies can Frame-and-panel of asign finecraftsmanship. er you risk splittingoneof the panels. or the with mortise-and-tenons moredecotype of casework-frame-and-panel-solves beput together The second joint. for cope-and-stick by the problemofwood movement allowingspace swelling rative

carcases two Thedouble-pedestal shownat leftfeatures identical desk joinedtogether rails,whichareconcealed thetop.Thepedestals sit by by drawers. to and aredividedby dustframes accommodate on molded bases

29

TWO TYPES DESKCASEWORK OF
CARCASE CASEWORK
Duet frame (page 56) A frame-and-panel aaaembly thaL adde etrenqth to the carcaee and oupporLadrawera; frame ia connected to carcaeeeides by twin morLiee-and-tenon blind and jointo. A larger frame eupportoa spline-and-qroove middle drawer betweenthe two deak pedeatale 9pline .)

Back Typically%-inch plywood nailedand glued into a rabbet routed around the back edgeof panela;can alao olip into qrooveo routed ineidethe facee of panele \Rear connectin7 rail (pase 53) Connecte Lheback of the two deak pedeatalawith blind morLtge-and-tenon joinLa;alao hidea backof middledrawer

Twin tenon

Cornerjoint (page 33) )ec urea panele togeLher. KabbeLjointia ahown, but through doveLail and plate jointe are aleo popular choicee: a aelectionof for joints, eeepaqe 32 ?topped groove Accepto opline of duELframe \ Dovetail halflap joint \ Panel Ueed Lo form the top, boLtom, or eidee of a carcaae.Canbe madeof plywoodor solid lumber; if aold, typically made from qlued-upboarde

/--l
---------'

Frontconnectins ) rail (paqe 39) ,/ ConnecLa Lhe --/ front of Lhe two deokpedeatale: jotned to the carca9e50y aovetailed half-lapo

Eaee molding A decorative frame of moldedetock beveled at Lheende andjoined witn plate (or biecuit)joinLe. Carcaaeaite in rabbeLa routed around top edqe of frame; brace at back providee oupport

Qaseao)

-__----f
Eraae 9upporto back of carcaae

30

DESKCASEWORK

CASEWORK FRAME-AND-PANEL
Haunahedmortiaeand-tenonjoint Rail Hortzontalmember of frame-and-panel bottom aooembly: railo may feature a decorativearch alon4 bottom edqe

Rear aonneatingrail

Dovetail twtn mora,oeand-tenonioint

Front conneating rail

.'

\
)

\

/ (
\

A\ // ,/
) t
t

) Middledrawerrail (pase52) ConnecLa frametwo and9tile Verticalcomponent of a frame' ana-Panel aeeembly; ettle ehownia parAof both rear and aideaeaembltea paneldeekpedeataleand eupporto middle drawer; joined to pedeetala by twin mortt ee-a nd -te non I ointe

Drawer rail Qaqe a9) Supporte drawere and 7trenqtheng caee;joined to eLilee fo twin mortiae-andjointo f,enon

Panel (page 4) )olid woodpiece that. fite into qroovetn frame:can be flat.or haveita edqearabbet"raiae" ed or beveledto cenLerof panel

Blind mofiieeand-tenonjoint

Decorative bot'tom rail

lnner frame-andpanel asaembly Featurea lar7er Lop rail and than ouLeraoeembly, omaller correopondin4ly panel:rail te lar7e enou4h to accept duatframe below center drawer

Bottom (page 51) Attached to caee by led4eretdpe on raile, or seL into groovecu1, around ineideed4ee of bottom ratla

Ledger etrip (page 51) Ueed to faef,en bottom panel to ca6e; one edqe ie acrewed Lo inatde facea of bottom raila while the other edqe ie screwed to bottom

31

CASEWORKIOINTS

l
Rabbetjoint

(pase33)
Ueedto join carcaae panele toqether; end of one panel fita into rabbet cut in the matin4 panel. Kabbet ia typically routed in carcaae aidee to conceal end 7rarnof top and bottom panela Stopped groove-and- epline (pase 57) Ueedto join etretchere and duaL panele to carcaae aidee.)topped qroovez are routed in both the edaeof the atretcher or the duat frame rail and the ineide face of the carcaae aide; a floatinq eplineallowa .....-: for wood 1!.e* movement

Twin mottiee- and-tenon Ueedto join duat panele to carcaee aides and drawer raila to frame-a nd-pa nel etil ee Stopped tonqueand-dadojoint An alternative to the etopped for 4roove-and-epline atta chin7 atretchera to carcaoesidee;a atopped tonque cut in edgeof stretcher fita into
atopped 7roove cut in carcage ./ ^s\ q '--\.,. . .

Qase5a)

Blind mortieeand-tenon (pase 36) Uaedto aeoemble duet framee and connect deekpedeotala toqether; connecte raila and atilea in frame' and-Panel aeoembliee

Made on connectinq raile to join deek pedeatalo Eeveledplate joint (page 4O) Uaedto aasemble pieceaof baee moldinq Loqethery biecuita of compreaaedwood fit into alote cut in beveledenda of mattnq aurtacee Cope-and-atiakjoint A decorative alternative to blind and haunched mortiaeand-tenonafor frame-and-panelconatruction. A aet of router bile cute matching profilea in raila and atilea; 7roovefor floating panelie cut srmultaneoualy

?late (biaautt) joint Uaed to ioin carcaae panela to4ethei without havi'nq ahape to the piecee:biacuita of compreeeed wood fit into elotg cub in the matinq boards. Slota are typically cut into enda of top and bottom panela

Haunahed mortiee-andtenon (page 41) Uaedto join raila and etilee in frame-and-panel aesemblies: tenon haunchin rail filla panel4rooveo routed tn atilea Through dovetaila (pase 125) Tapered pina on top and bottom panele interlock with an7ledtaile cut into the eide panela:uoed wherethe joinery ie an important element of deoi4n

32

BUILDINGA CARCASE
joined forma box: The to I ourpanels l- carcasethesunplest mostbasic is and ng buildi blockoi furniture construction. provides rigid framework A carcase the for itemsasdiverse a bookcase a as and Buildtwo boxes join them and drawer. together and you havethe heartof an attractive two-nedestal desk.The sechow to do this. tion that followi shows Carcase Danels be constructed can from plyruobd, for fine furniture, but made the panels most frequently are joint into The twin mortise-and-tenon from narrowboardsedge-glued (page The panels and structurwider panels 93). are offersmoregluing surface jointedon oneedge, to thenplaned, cut al stability than a simplemortise-andTo to tenon,and k oftenusedtojoin size, sanded. allowthepanels and with changes in stretchers carcase to sides.Here o contract and expand in twin tenon is being test-fittedinto its humidirythegrainof allpanels a carcase alisnedin the same is direction. mating mortisesin the side of a desk. with Carcases be assembled several can joint types ofjoints (page Therabbet 32). The is a popularchoice: joint offers a largegluingsurface and is simpleto make. illustrated As below the rabbets arebestcut into thesideoanels that so t h ee n dg r a i no i t h et o p a n d b o t t o m panels The willbe covered. endgrainof thesides oftenconcealed thetoo. is bv Whenplanning carcase,iswise a ii to takeinto consideration typeofshelvthe ing or drawers(page116)that will be built into it. For example, desk the shown on page 2B fiatures dust frames(page Ihat both supportthe 34) drawers provide and strenghto thecarframes case. ioinervneeds these The of mustbe takeninto account before the is carcase gluedup.

PREPARING SIDES: THE RABBET J()INTS
rabbets thecarcase in sides 1 Cutting w I T h er a b b e t i d t h h o u l e q u atlh e s d thickness thecarcase mark cutof top; a t i n gI i n e o rt h er a b b e to nt h e l e a d i n g f s panel. edge one of side Installdado a head wider the on slightly than rabbet your table Attach auxiliary fence the wood saw. an to ripfence raise dado and the head cut to a notch thewood in fence. thecutSet tingheight one-half stock at the thickness for andadlust fence thewidth cut. the of Clamp featherboard fence a to the directly above blade hold panel the to the securely against table, the thenmake cuI(left). the Cuta rabbet theopposite ofthepanat end el andboth ends theother panel. of side

DESKCASEWORK

r) Cutting grooves the backpanel for L Once vou haverabbeted carcase the you needto prepare four panels sides, the t o a c c o m m o d at h e b a c k , h i c hc a n b e e w set into a rabbet a groove. the rabor For bet, repeat step 1, but makethe cut along t h e b a c ke d g eo f e a c hp a n e la n d a d j u s t t h e c u t t i n gd e p t ht o t h e t h i c k n e s s f t h e o b a c k - t y p i c a l l y i n c h .F o rt h e g r o o v e , % adjust dadoheadto a widthof % inch, the n e t h e np o s i t i o t h e f e n c e o t h e g r o o v w i l l s b e % i n c hf r o mt h e b a c ke d g e f t h e p a n e l o (left).CUIthe backfrom %-inch plywood t o f i t t h e o p e n i n gn t h e c a r c a s e ,d d i n g i a the depthof the grooves its dimensions. to

MAKING FRAMES DUST
Cutting tenons thefront in rails twin 1 I Thedust frames willsupport that the pedestals drawers joined thedesk are to joints withtwinmortise-and-tenon (page 36).Start cutting tenons each by in the f r o n t a i lo ny o u r a b l e a w t h e y i l lf i t r t s ; w i n t om a t c h i nm o r t i s e n t h ec a r c a s e g is ( y s i d ep a n e l ss t e p ) . E q u i p o u r a b l e 3 t witha dado saw head inch % wide, then j g i n s t a al t e n o n i n ig i n t h em i t e s l o t . l r Mark twintenon each of therail, a at end and thecutting set height X inch. at Clamp therailto thejig end-up shift jig and the sidewaysalign of thetenon to one marks with dado the head. make cut,push To the thejig forward, feeding stock the the into (right). therailaround cut blades Turn to theother tenon shoulder. Repeat cuts the at theother of therailandat both end e n d s ft h er e m a i n i na i l s . o rg

34

DESKCASEWORK

r) Clearing waste between tenons the j g Z . S t r i ttth et e n o n r nig t o l i n eu pt h e between twin the dado head thewaste with passes until Make several tenons ?ight). wood. cleared awav excess the vouhave

in sides thedouble mortises thecarcase Q Chiseling f f a c eo f t h e s i d e p a n e l o r t h e r - J M a r kl i n e so n t h e i n s i d e p a n e l . l a c e h e r a i lf a c ed o w no n t h e P t l o c a t i o n f e a c hd u s t o p a n e l , l i g n i n gh e e d g e s f b o t ha n d p o s i t i o n i nt g e e n d o f h a t o o t h e r a i lf l u s hw i t h t h e t o p l i n e .0 u t l i n et h e t w i n t e n o n s n , p a n e l ( a b o v e / e f f ) .R e p e a f o r t h e o t h e rr a i l s .T o c h o p t the . c t o u t t h e m o r t i s e s ,l a m pt h e p a n e l o a w o r ks u r f a c eT h e n , g , s t a r t i n g t a n e n d o f o n eo u t l i n e h o l da m o r t i s i n c h i s e l a l w t s q u a r eo t h e f a c eo f t h e p a n e a n ds t r i k e h e h a n d l e i t h a t

w w o o d e n a l l e t U s ea c h i s e t h e s a m e i d t ha s t h e m o r t i s e s m . l . d t a n d b e s u r et h a tt h e b e v e l e s i d ei s f a c i n g h e w a s t eC o n t i n u e r t s % m a k i n g u t sa t i n t e r v a lo f a b o u t i n c hu n t i l y o u e a c h h e c o l o t h e r n d o f t h e o u t l i n e U s et h e c h i s e t o l e v e r u t t h e e . C t w a s t e o t h e r e q u i r e d e p t h . h o po u t t h e a d j a c e nm o r t i s e t ( a b o v er,i g h t )a n dt h e o t h e rd o u b l em o r t i s e sh e s a m ew a y . t w T e s t - f itth e j o i n ta n dw i d e n r d e e p e nh e m o r t i s e r t ht h e o t reouired. c h i s e la s .

35

DESKCASEWORK

Making dust frames the
P r e p a ra r e a rr a i l ,a f l o a t i n g " p l y w o o d e % p a n e l a n dt w os t i l e s o r e a c hd u s tf r a m e s , f a y o uw o u l d o r a n o n - r a i s e da m e - a n d - p a n e l f fr ( a s s e m b l yp a g e 8 ) , s i z i n g h e f r a m et o f i t 4 t t h e i n t e r i oo f t h e c a r c a s e . s t e a d f c u t t i n g r In o groove rabbets, a %-inch-deep rout around the i n s i d e d g eo f t h e f r a m et o a c c o m m o d a t e e s t h e p a n e lt;h e g r o o v ew i l l a l s os e r v e s m o r a t i s e s o r t h e s t u bt e n o n sh a tj o i nt h e r a i l s f t a n d s t i l e s o g e t h e r . l s or o u ta g r o o v e l o n g t A a t h e o u t s i d e d g e f e a c hs t i l et o a c c e p t h e e o s p l i n e h a tw i l lf i t i n t oa m a t c h i ng r o o v en t g i a carcase sidepanel(page 37).

Kear rail
Ort roove ,r for apltne

Groove for ,/ floaLinq panel

9tile

Float;inq panel

9trte

.9Lub tenon

,r'
_l

l

Front dust frame ratl

---t

I

Gluing thedustframes up f, r-,f Sandanvsurfaces the framethat of w r l lb e d r f f r c u lt to r e a c h f t e rg l u eu p . a S p r e a d d h e s i vo n t h e t e n o n s n dt h e i r a e a g g m a t i n g r o o v e s . o n o ta p p l y l u ei n t h e D p a n e g r o o v e ; e p a n e m u s tb e f r e et o l l th m o v e G l u eo n eo f t h e s t i l e s o o n eo f . t t h e r a i l s , n s e rtth e p a n e lt,h e na s s e m b l e i t h e o t h e ro i e c e sC l a m o h e d u s tf r a m e . t a c r o sts ej o i n t s i t hb a rc l a m p sc h e c k h w , i n gf o r s q u a r e n d u s i n g o o dp a d st o a w protect stock(below). the

36

DESKCASEWORK

UP GLUING THECARCASE

iill 'tl drill du lliliiil,illdtlll llilrlll llii,illllllJllllililli
)HO? Tt?
n 5 crewi g d rawer's uppo rt' frames to a carcase oupporl lf you are ineLalltnq offera quick framea,woolocrews and eaoyway No fix f'hemIo of lhe eid,es a carcase,Ueetwo secure eachframesLile ocrew;L,o clearSorean elongat'ed in place. ancehole(paqe96) for each the ecrew Nhrouqh etileand inlo side,makinq -..' lhe carcaEe
s u r e N h el w o h o l e s for Ihe same elile a r e Ve r -e c L l ya l i q n e d . f

sides the Grooving carcase t I E a c h u s tf r a m ei s s e c u r e do t h e d groove-andsideswith stopped carcase j t t s p l i n e o i n t s h a t w i l l e n a b l eh e f r a m e n . w t o m o v e i t hc h a n g eis h u m i d i t yE a c h j o i n tc o n s i s to f a h a r d w o os p l i n e h a t t d s grooves routstopped will sit in matching e d i n t h e c a r c a ss i d ea n dt h e s t i l eo f e in To the dustframe. cut the grooves the s t n l c a r c a s ei , s t a l a % - i n c h t r a i g hb i t i n y o u rr o u t e r n ds e c u r e n eo f t h e s i d e o a p a n e l sn s i d e - f a c e t o a w o r ks u r f a c e . i up l g t a C l a m p n e d g e u i d e o t h e p a n es ot h e b i t w i l l b e c e n t e r eo n o n eo f t h e d o u b l e d you rails.For mortises cut for the drawer groove frame,routa stopped eachdust a b o u tI i n c hf r o mt h e m o r t i s e s starting ( a b o v ea n d s t o p p i n g b o u t3 i n c h e s ) a R e d g e . e p e afto r t h e f r o mt h e o p p o s i t side. c other arcase

'l

DESK CASEWORK

r) Installing dust the frames L Cuttwo hardwoodplywood or splines f o re a c hr a m eT h e p l i n es h o u l b ea f . s s d you littleshorter thegrooves cut in than step1 to allow wood for movement; for maximum strength, grain the should run across splrne's the width. Place side one of thecarcase inside-face on a work up glueto thetwinmortises surface, apply a n dt e n o n s ,n ds e tt h ef r a m eis p l a c e , a n m a k i n s u r e h a tt h e yf i t s n u g l o v e r g t y (/eft). thesplines

Assembling carcase the Q \,, With thedust all frames place in and theremaining grooves, splines in their set assemble rest thecarcase. the of First g a a p p l y l u e l o n gh er a b b e ti s o n e i d e t n s p a n ea n ds l i d e h eb a c k n db o t t o mn l t a i (right). position Next, thetopin place. set glue Spread some ontheremaining twin mortise-and-tenons andcarefully the lower other panel topof theassembly, side on guiding splines their grooves the into and thetwintenons their into mortises. Install barclamps across front thecarcase, the of aligned each with dust frame, across and both topandbottom theassembly. the of pads protect stock, Use wood to the Reinjoints theback force rabbet the and with countersunk orscrews nails which latcan er beconcealed plugs. with

38

DESK CASEWORK

RAII A CONNECTING INSTALLING
half-laps dovetailed 1 Cutting rail connecting I inthefront are desk. ln a two-oedestal thecarcases rg a b y c o n n e c t i n a i l s n da d u s t loined The drawer. frame supportscentral that a rail to front connecting isjoined thecarjoints. To half-lap with cases dovetailed prepare rail,cut it to size andsaw each end half-lao each witha in a dovetailed saw(right). dovetail

)pline qroove for central dust frame

TwinmorEiaee for central duat frame

r') Cutting mating the Z dovetailsthecarcases in you half-laps cut Use of thedovetailed one the dovetail in step1 to outline mating Then mortise each in carcase. usea saw (/eft). Next, andchisel cutthemortise to (page to fit between make dustframe a 36) and the drawthecarcases support central grooves mortises theoutand on er.Rout carcasesaccommodate to the side both of joinery. cui a railto span carcases the Also of at theback hide back thedrawer and the (page 53).Jointhisrailto thecarcases joints. mortise-and-tenon Assemwithblind (page the together 53) bleandclamp desk

39

DESKCASEWORK

BASE MOLDING
Making base the molding I T h e b a s em o l d i n s o r t h e c a r c a s es f i m a d ef r o mt h r e ep i e c e s f m o l d e d t o c k o s a n da b r a c eT o p r e p a rte e m o l d i n gr,o u t . h a decorative detailalong oneedgeof each y b o a r d u s i n g o u rt a b l es a wf i t t e dw i t h a , m o l d i n g u t t e rh e a do r a t a b l e - m o u n t e d c r o u t e w i t ha m o l d i n g i t .T h e nc u t a r a b r b b e t i n e a c hp i e c e l o n g h e o p p o s i ts i d e a t e o f t h e s a m e d g e t h i sw i l l f o r ma l i p t o e ; s u p p o r t h e c a r c a s eS a wt h e b o a r d so . t l e n g t hb e v e l i n b o t he n d so f t h e f r o n t , g p i e c e n do n l yt h e f r o n te n do f t h e s i d e s . a p A l s os a wa b r a c i n g i e c e h a tw i l l f i t , f a c e t u p , b e t w e e t h e s i d e s t t h e b a c ko f t h e n a m o l d i n gb o r ea h o l ef o r a s c r e w h r o u g h ; t t h e b r a c eT h es c r e w i l l a t t a c h h e b r a c e . w t t o t h e c a r c a s e .h em o l d i n gn t h e i l l u s T i t r a t i o ns a s s e m b l e di t h p l a t e o i n t s T h e i w l . boards mateend-to-end, will except the at b a c ko f t h e m o l d i n gw h e r e h e b r a c e s , t i t o t h e i n s i d ea c e s f t h e s i d e sA f o . loined joiner plate withan adlustable fencemakes i t e a s i etro a l i g n h e t o o lw h e nc u t t i n g h e t t slotsin the beveled ends//effl. 'l

r) Gluing thebase up molding L Workingquickly, glue allthe apply to joint, slots, insert biscuit each one for and assemble base the molding. Secure the brace thesides a barclamp, to with using pads protect stock; wood to the install a webclamp withcorner brackets around . t h em o l d i na t t h em i t e j o i n t sT i g h t e n g r theweb provided clamp, using wrench the (right), thentighten barclamp. the Once theglueis dry,install base applythe by ingglue only along rabbet thefront the in (This piece setthecarcase place. and in willcause wood any movementtheside in pieces takeplace to towards back the of preventing miters the themolding, the at front fromseparating.) thebrace Attach to thecarcase driving screw by a through the y d h o l e o u r i l l e id s t e p n l

40

DESK BUILDINGA FRAME-AND.PANEL
panel offers construction Tl rame-and to -F on. solution theperennialprobis The Iemofwood movement. principle "floats" cut in a groove simple:A panel of on the insideedge a frame.The panel can be flat, asin a dust frame (page "raised," cut with bevels alongits 4B),or edge.The bevelingallowsthe panelto fit into a groovein the frameand preface sentsa decorative to the public. A oanelcanbe raisedon the router table (page 44)or the table saw(page45). desk To construct frame-and-panel a 31, Iiketheoneshownon page you need frame-and-panto join four individual (page 47), arearassembly el assembliesi (page drawershdes a front assemblywith 49),foursiderails,andtwo sidepanels. (Thestiles the front and rearassemin for bliesdoubleasstiles thesideframes.)

"raised," beveled, or were panekfor frame-and-panel construction Traditionally, like planes-a time-consuming Modernpowertools, task. hand with specialized muchsimpler. madethisoperation a tablesawwith a tilting arbor,have

JOINTS MORTISE.AND.TEN()N HAUNCHED

in tenons therails 1 Cufting a equal to /efti. the rail each (above, Position fence leave haunch frame-and-panel of and the I to toin rails stiles individual for set of to install mortise-and-tenons, a dado in width thedepth thegroove thepanel; theheight with assemblies haunched With the % head cutabout inchinto tenon. the to on table of thedado of the wider than length thetenons your head slightly gauge guide intothe it to and use on head notch stock edge, thefence miter to the fence saw. Attach auxiliary andraise dado an (above, side on to right). Repeat cutthehaunch theother To length. cut the blade to it. Setthewidthof cut equal thetenon which of assembly, hasno For and against fence the miter of thetenon. therails thefront the butt cheeks, thestock tenon (page making shoulders panel, blind equal 42), the cut tenons and the gauge, feed face Turn railover repeat the it down. then tenons. the of vou end cheeks theother of to thewidth thenotch cut into haunched at Next, tenon cut side. cutontheother

41

DESKCASEWORK

A TENONING FOR TABLE JIG THE SAW Youcanusethejig shown right at to cut blind tenons thetable on saw. Adapt dimensions the suggested in the illustrationcustomize jig to the foryour saw, necessary. if Cutthejig fence back and from plywood sawa 45" bevel %-inch and at oneendof each board: oieces the should wider be thantheheight of yoursaw's fence. rip Fasten two pieces together to face fashface to iontheback, thenuse countersunk screws attach fence back to the and in an L shape. Make sure fastenthe e r sw i l ln o tb e i n t h eb l a d e 'o a t h s you the when use jig.Next, the cut brace from solid stock, bevel ends, its andattach flush it withthetopedges of thefence back, and forming tria angle. gluMake clamp face the by ingtwopieces %-inch plywood of andcutting assembly the the into shape shown. a hanger Use bolt, washer, wingnutto attach and the clamp thejig back, to leavinggap a between edge theclamp the of and thefence equal thethickness to of you thestock willuse. Offset the boltsotheclamp pivot can eccentri(You drilladditional cally, can holes in thejig back youcanshift so the clamp accommodate to different stock thicknesses.) cuttherunNext, nerfromsolidwood. When attached to thejig fence, runner stradthe will dlethesaw fence, eliminating any wobble. some you For models, will have milla groove to down length the of the runner, shown, fit the as to r i pf e n c eF i n a l l y ,u t a p i e c e f . c o p c g c l e a r l a s t i a sa b l a d e u a r d n d a screw to thejig back lushwith it f its frontface.

Kunner 1"x2"x24"

Fence '1"x5/,"x24"

Groovefor rip fence T o t t s et h e i i p . s e t i t o n t h e s a w
l l b ' v v ! | l \

table front theblade in of withthe r u n n ea n df e n c e t r a d d l i nh er i p r s tg fence. Clamp workpiece jig the in the andposition ripfence align the to the cutting mark theworkpiece on with

theblade. Feed jig intothecutthe (Your use thejig tingedge. first of willproducekerf theback.) a in Flip theworkpiece around repeat and to (below). cuttheother cheek Remove thejigto cuttheshoulders.

42

DESK CASEWORK

r) 0utlining mortisesthestiles in the on locations the mortises each of L ltrarV, aooroximate the stile (See oase foran overhead Then oneof the 52 use view.) y o h e r a i l s o uc u t i n s t e p1 t o o u t l i n t h el e n g t a n dw i d t h f t h e flush against of the Start mortises. byholding cheek thetenon of make sure thattheedge the thefaceof oneof thestiles; h h . r a i li s a l i g n ew i t ht h ee n do f t h es t i l e O u t l i nte el e n g t o f d

(above, f o mark mortise width, hold the the lefil. thetenon face and the flush against marked of thestile edge a tenon of (above, ExIend lines the right). of thetenon outline cheeks the (shown theillustrationdotted lines). Once as in the along face o y c , i s et lh e m u ts l i g h t ld e e p e r h ar a l lt h em o r t i s e s eo u t l i n e d 35). a chisel length, using mortise thanthetenon @age

grooves thepanels for Cutting mark locations and 0n therails stiles, g r o o v eh a tw i l lh o l d h e p a n e l . s t f o rt h e t a in Youwill need make groove two to aligning cuts the of rear sides each stile, you 2. withthemortises cutin step Then your head setup tablesawwitha dado % typically width thegroove, as thesame in ceninch. cutthegroovestherails, To over of tertheedge a raildirectly thedado against the the head position fence and Use height %inch. to stock. theblade Set board, a featherboard, bya support braced against fence the to hold workpiece the in the during cut.Tocutthegrooves the but do the stiles, notmove fence, adjust and of thepositron thefeatherboard supportboard. Feed stock the witha push stick(/eft).

43

DESKCASEWORK

MAKINGRAISED A PANEL THE ON ROUTER TABLE
the 1 Setting fence I Start cutting panel size. by the to Test-fit rails stiles theframe, the and of thenmeasure opening the between them. Add%inch each thedimensions to of to allow beveled the edges the panel of to restin thegrooves routed theframe; in thiswillleaue inchon each lq side to allow wood for movement. fit a router Then witha panel-raising mount tool bitand the in a table. ensure thecutting To that depth position fence linewith is uniform, the in theedge the bit pilot.Withthetool of switched place scrap off, a board along the fence. Adjust fence the untilthebit pilot turnsasthe board touches (/efil.Set it therouter make shallow atfirst. to a cut tvpically inch. %

r) Making cut the L Lower guard thebit andturn the over ontherouter. minimize To tearout, cut the ends first,beveling top andbotthe tomof thepanel. Feed stock the the into bit outside-face down, keeping butted it against fence(right). the Repeat the for twosides. Test-fit panel thegrooves the in (page youcut in the rails andstiles 43). panel less lf the sits thanYo inchdeep, increase cutting the depthby %e inch pass andmake another around panel. the

44

DESKCASEWORK

r

TABLE SAW PANEL THE ON A MAKING RAISED
of the panel the 1 Beveling ends I C u t t h e p a n e lt o s i z e ,t h e ns e t t h e r . t b l a d e n g l e o y i e l dt h e p r o p eb e v e lT h e a "reveal," o r b e v e l ea r e a f a 3 A - i n c h d o usual y t h i c k p a n e lr s a p p r o x i m a l e Il Y ^i n c h e s . groove, beginby marking Fora %-inch-wide corner the of at square the bottom alo-inch p a n e lT h e nd r a wa l i n ef r o mt h e f r o n tf a c e . l o c t o f t h e p a n e t h r o u g hh e i n s i d e o r n e r f e t h e s q u a r eo a p o i n to n t h e b o t t o m d g e t Install a % inchfromthe backface(inset). t y 6 - i n c h - w i d a u x i l i a r w o o df e n c e , h e n e a o a d l u s t h e a n g l e f t h e b l a d e n dt h e p o s i e t i o n o f t h e f e n c eu n t i lt h e c u t t i n g d g e r t l w a l i g n s i t ht h e m a r k e di n e .N e x t , a i s e h e the beyond bladeuntil onetoothprotrudes a Clamp guideblock frontfaceof the panel. l t t o t h e p a n e s o i t w i l l r i d ea l o n g h e t o p o f t h e f e n c e .M a k ea c u t i n o n ee n d o f t h e p a n e l( r i g h t ) , n d t e s t - f i tt h e c u t i n a a groove. the panelrestslessthan %inch lf to deep,move fencea littlecloser the the . a r a b l a d e n d m a k e n o t h ep a s s R e p e atth e e c u t a t t h e o t h e r n do f t h e p a n e l .

Auxiliaryfence

CutLin4line

r) Beveling sides the y th a Z - B e v e l i n g es i d e s f t e r o uh a v e m h b e v e l e d ee n dg r a t n e l p s i n i m i z e th on and Set tearout. thepanel edge feed flush keeping back the it into blade, the over Turn panel the against fence. the (left). edge to cut the remaining

DESKCASEWORK

A PANEL.RAISING JIG FOR TABTE THE SAW To raise panel the tablesaw a on without adjusting angle the the of jig blade, theshop-built shown use at right.Refer the illustration to for suggested dimensions. Screw lip along bottom the the edge theangled of fence; make sure youposition screws the where they willnotinterfere theblade. with Prop theangled fence against auxiliary the fence thesame at angle thecutas (page ting linemarked a panel on 45), using sliding a bevel transfer to theangle. triangular Cut supports to fit precisely between twofences, the thenfix themin place withscrews. Countersink fasteners the the so panel slide will smoothly along the angled fence. Touse jig,position onthe the it saw table withthejointbetween the l i p a n dt h ea n g l e f e n c e p p r o x i d a mately inchfromtheblade. % Butt thetable saw's fence rip against the jig'sauxiliary fence, screw and the twotogether. Turnon the sawand crank the blade up slowly cut a to kerfthrough lip. Next, the seat the panel thejig andadjust height in the proof theblade untila single tooth trudes beyond frontof thepanel. the Make testcut in a scrap a board the same thickness theoanel then as and check fit in thegroove; its adjust the position thefence blade, necof or if essary. cutthepanel, Then beveling the ends(right,bottomlbefore sawino thc qideq

Anqled fence

12" 30" x

Auxrliary fence I x30'
LiP 1%"

46

DESK CASEWORK

THE FRAME-AND.PANEL ASSEMBLING BACK
in thepanel theframe 1 Fitting you you raised panel, the I Once have nowready glueup theframe-andto are panel the that assemblies provide backs for cases needed a two-pedestal of thetwo the desk. Startbytest-fitting parls(right) f i n a la d j u s t m e nltfsa n y . a n dm a k e n y a joints tootight,usea chisel of the are you wood. Once are away some to pare the ied satisf withthe f it, disassemble will be any that frame sand surfaces and has once assembly the difficult reach to g l u e d p .Y o us h o u l d l s o e c i d e a d been u you to a which method willuse install top (page techniques 96); some these of pocket holes therails in or require boring grooves therails stiles. in and routing

r") Gluing up as the width andthickness glue withwood blocks same any cheeks. notinsert adhesive thestock Do L npply to thetenon o t l . n c the mustbefree move. to Clamp frame t h er a i l sT i g h t ee a c h l a m pn t u r nu n t i a t h i nb e a d f g l u e the in thegrooves; panel (above), protecting squeezes of thejoints. out the using clamps bar across rails andpanel

47

DESKCASEWORK

BUILDINGNON-RAISED A FRAME PANEL AND
(page I Lrke dustframes 34), the panels o f f r a m e - a n d - p a n e ls k s a n b e m a d e de c f l a t i n s t e a d f r a i s e dT o b u i l d h i st y p e o . t o o f a s s e m b l y , uc a nf o l l o w l l t h e s t e p s a (page for a raisedpanelframe-and-panel
41) cvrenl fnr hpriplino fhc pdooc nf tho

a around frame 1 Routinsrabbet the t -

p a n e lA n a l t e r n a t i v o p l a c i n gh e f l a t . te t p a n e i n a g r o o v es t o a s s e m b lte e f r a m e l i h w i t h b l i n dm o r t i s e - a n d - t e na n dr,o u t ons a rabbet around frame receive panthe to the g e l .T o c u t t h e r a b b e t , l u eu p t h e r a i l s a n ds t i l e s n ds e c u r eh e a s s e m b lty a a t o w o r ks u r f a c eI.n s t a la % - i n c h i l o t e d a b l r o beting in yourrouter. the depthof bit Set c u t a t l e a s t i n c hd e e o etrh a nt h et h i c k % ness yourpanelto leave of roomfor deco( r a t i v e o l d i n p q t e n ) R o u tt h e r a b b e t m 2 a r o u n dh e i n s i d e d g e s f t h e f r a m e , t e o d k e e p i n gh e b i t p r l o tp r e s s ea g a i n stth e t (far left), Ihen stockthroughout cut the square corners the with a chisel(near left).
b \!' vY 4 "

the and O Installing panel L decoraliue molding l d C u t a p a n e f r o mv e n e e r ep l y w o o t o f i t d t h e r a b b e t s(.A s o l i d - w o op a n e lw o u l d d provide splitthe frame, since rabbets the n o r o o mf o r w o o dm o v e m e n t S p r e a d .) s o m eg l u e i n t h e r a b b e a n d s e tt h e p a t . n e l i n p l a c e F o rt h e d e c o r a t i v e o l d i n g , m s h a p e h e e d g eo f a % - i n c h { h i cb o a r d t k l o n g n o u g ho y i e l dm o l d i n f o rt h ei n s i d e e t g edges yourframe;makesurethe board of i s w i d ee n o u g h o f e e ds a f e l y c r o s t h e t a s tablesawor router tableyou useto shape t h e m o l d i n gR i pt h e m o l d i n gr o mt h e . f b o a r d n t o Z - i n c h - s q u ap ee c e s . h e n i ri T s c u t f o u rp i e c e t o f i t t h e i n s i d e h e f r a m e , t m i t e r i n gh e e n d s . l u e h et o pa n db o t t G t t o m s t r i p s f m o l d i n g o t h e f r a m ef i r s t , o t p o s i t i o n i nh e mt o h o l dt h e p a n e il n tg p l a c eT o c l a m pt h e m o l d i n gu s et h i n . , strips slightly longer thanthe gapbetween the moldingpieces(right).

,r/,

48

DESK CASEWORK

lnstalling molding sides along panel the the the securing topandbottom Once glue h c , t m o l d i ns t r i p s a s u r e dg l u e h em o l d g (right). of ingalong sides the panel the t t A g a i nu s ec l a m p i ns t r i p so h o l d h e , g i m o l dn gi n p l a c e .

CASE A BUILDINGFRAME-AND.PANEL

glue all thecontacting surfaces thejoints of Apply to tenons.) up assembly 1 Gluing thefront across of the each pedestal a desk, Install barclamp a the for begiq' andassemble frame. a I Toassembleframe-and-panel of the alternating between topandbottom theassembly shown pag*37, rails, on frame. thedesk For bygluing thefront up pressure protect possible. distribute and the clamping where To and rails, twostiles, a of thisframe consists top andbottom at Tlghten clamps little a the a strips. stock, twoclamping use with rails to of series drawer joined thestiles twinmortise-and( out until continuing gluesqueezes of thejoints. r w b t e n o n s .T h e o t t o ma i li s i o i n e d i t hb l i n dm o r t i s e - a n d - Iime(above),

49

DESKCASEWORK

Assembling pedestal the
l T o c o m p l e t t h e p e d e s t a b,u i l ds i d e e

assemblies between front rear to fit the and (page assemblies 47).Each assembly side needs a panel tworails, only and since it w i l ls h a r e t i l e s i t ht h ef r o n t n dr e a r s w a assemblies. a double-pedestal For desk, t h et o pr a i lo f t h ea s s e m bfla c i n gh e y t s e c o n o e d e s t s h o u l d ew i d e t h a n d al b r theheight thecentral of drawer between (page you thetwopedestals 31).Once prepared theparts, have all test-f them, it glue then sand inside their faces. Apply to allthejoints-with exception the ofthe panel grooves-and assemble pedestal. the Clamp pedestal barclamps the with (left); wood spanning siderails the use pads protect stiles. to the

C h e c k i nl g r s q u a r e o Q r - , 1 M e a s u rte e d i a g o n a lb e t w e e o p p o h s n s i t ec o r n e r o f t h e p e d e s t a m m e d i a t e l y s il a f t e rt i g h t e n i n gh e c l a m p s( r i g h t ) . I h e y t s h o u l d e e q u a l ; f n o t ,t h e p e d e s t a s i b il o u t - o f - s q u a rT o c o r r e ctth e p r o b l e m , e. i n s t a l a b a rc l a m pa c r o s sh e l o n g eo f l r t t h et w od i a g o n a lT i g h t e nh i sc l a m p s. t a I r t t l e t a t r m e ,m e a s u r i na s y o ug o u n t i l a g t h e t w o d i a g o n a la r ee q u a l . s

50

DESKCASEWORK

THE INSTALLINGBOTTOM
I n s t a l l i nl g d g es t r i p s e r 1 l r l u I T o i n s t a la b o t t o m s i n g e d g es t r i p s , t ro c u t f o u r 1 - i n c h - s q u awe o ds t r i p s o f i t o a l o n g h e r a i l sa t t h e b o t t o m f t h e c a s e . t s b T h ee n d so f t h e s t r i p s h o u l d u t ta g a i n s t t h e s t i l e s .B o r et w o s e t so f c o u n t e r s u n k d h o l e s n e a c hs t r i p :o n ec e n t e r e a l o n g i h , o n ee d g e f o r s c r e w i ntg e s t r i pt o t h e r a i l , a t a n d a n o t h ea l o n g n a d j a c e ne d g ef o r r p . h a t t a c h i n tg e b o t t o m a n e l S t a g g et r e h each will holes the fasteners notcontact so l W o t h e r . i t ht h e p e d e s t au p s i d e - d o w n , p o s i t i o a l e d g es t r i po n t h e i n s i d e u r f a c e n s r of a bottomrail about1 inchfrom its top of holes Markthe positions the screw edge. . w i t h a n a w l a n d b o r ep i l o t h o l e s U s i n g s c l a m p so h o l dt h e s t r i pi n p o s i t i o n ,c r e w t t t h e s t r i p i n p l a c e( r i g h t ) .R e p e a f o r t h e
nfhpr lpdopr ctrins

r) Installing bottom the p L C u t b o t t o m a n etlo f i t t h ec a s e , a its to the notching cornersfit around stiles.
Tn mnrrni lhp nanpl cpi tho nodpci:l nn

a i t s b a c k . o l d i n tg e p a n efl l u s h g a i n s t H h m w t h e s t r i p s i t h o n eh a n d , a r kt h e s c r e w w h o l e s i t h a n a w l a n d b o r ep i l o t h o l e s . (/eft). the Thenscrew bottomin position

DESK CASEWORK

JOINING DESK PEDESTALS
thejoinery 1 Planning pedestals glued I Once bothdesk are up,you ready jointhem. diagram are to The at leftshows joinery the involved. the At back thedesk, rear of a connecting is rail attached thestiles thepedestals to of with blindmortise-and-tenons; provides thisrail structural support hides back and the of thecentral drawer. thefront, conAt a p n e c t i nr a i l , h i c h r o v i d e s p p o r t r g w su fo joined thestiles thetop,is to withdovejoints. tailed half-lap Directly below this (visible theillusrailis a support board in tration below) thecentral for drawer. is lt connected thestiles to withtwinmortiseand-tenons.

r) Attaching connecting the rails L and drawer support Test-fit rear the connecting andthe rail drawer support the pedestals. the in For front connecting cuta dovetailed rail, halflapat each witha dovetail (page end saw 39).Use half-laps outline matthe to the ingmortises thetopends thestiles, at of thencutandchisel them out.Test-fit the (right), paringthe railin the mortises halflaps necessaryensure tightfit. if to a

52

DESK CASEWORK

jlljtlllilillll llllllllll|| llllllllillJ lllllllllll lllJ llll llll lltl llll
)HO? TI?
Uoingpipeclampsin paira enouqh glueup adeok,double lo are lf your'Viipe clamVo not,lonq To uniN, do thie, to ao clampo lunction a einqle upIwo shorLer alonq Nhe deskeo the laweaL lhe two clampo pooilion t'he etoVo the handle endqriplhe deekwhile Nail t'he unLil TiqhLen of the clamVo one overlaV. you conLacl,,Ae tail eNoVo .make :-:6-g
n c o n N i ne t i g h b e n i 4 , t h e d e e k u

G l u i n u pt h ed e s k g Q r - , 1 A p p l yg l u et o a l l t h e j o i n t sb e t w e e n r a t h e c o n n e c t i nrg i l sa n d d r a w es u p p o r t ln h a n dt h e p e d e s t aas da s s e m b lte e d e s k . w h C l a m ph e u n i ta c r o sts e b a c k i t ha l o n g t p i p ec l a m p( a b o v e ) , s i n g o o dp a d st o w u p p r o t e c t h e s t o c k .I n s t a l l s e c o n d i p e a t t r c l a m pa l o n g h e d r a w e s u p p o r a t t h e t C f r o n to f t h e d e s k . h e c k h e o p e n i n g for by between pedestals square meathe l a s s u r i n g c r o s t h e c o r n e r sI.n s t a la t h i r d c l a m o .i f n e e d e d .

togebher willbe pulled lueL a ae il you wereuoin7 long clamV. single

LEGSA}{DRAILS
choosing an before of the piece and egs railsarethestructural leg appropriate style. and tables desls. heart most of leg Thedelicate cabriole (page vertical legs Thefurniture provide popular feature of a 63)has been and and support, therailsconnect for more furniture high-quality whilealsosupportthe brace legs Simple cut to thantwo centuries. the ingthetop andframing drawis the on thebandsaw, cabriole er assembly. to the designed suggest legofa leapmustbein and Strength beauty legs 60) Tapered (page ing animal. and here: shape proThe harmony saw can cuton ajointeror table be portionof thelegs railsmust and of for suitable awiderange andare of other complement elements the They a tables desks. are simpler and the piece furniture, balancing of legs 66). to alternative turned (page of of weight thetop andthesize A tableis onlyassturdyasthe a Smoothing turnedlegis simplya matter for thedrawers, example. joinery usedfor the leg-to-rail it of leaving rotatingon thelatheand allowing demonchapter Thefollowing joints, such as Traditional assembly. to thesandpaper do itswork.Theprocess for strates techniques making the (page or themortise-and-tenon 34) with 8}-grit paperand worles typicallybegins types manyof themostcommon joint are reliable. thepiece If grit dowel itswayup to 180 orfiner. including legs, of tableanddesk frequently, commerwill bemoved pedestal, turned, cabriole, tapered, (page thatallows legs be the to hardware 84) instructions cialor shop-made pieces. isfollowed detailed by This andoctagonal your or In option. designing table removed beyourbest may to for joininglegs rails. you the to the take in is the Making legs usually firststep constructing desk, intoaccount method will use attach the you woodbuttons If, thanis topto therails. for example, planto use thicker stock mostlegs require Since a tableor desk. in will to 98),you need cutthegrooves therailsbefore stock (page must thinner you commonly available, usually face-glue rail, can A to Make size front into ablankof appropriate (see endpaper). sure theyarefastened thelegs. lower or stretcher, be effect; or for strength decorative gateto table extra height added any to thelenghof theblankisproportional theintended rails as these bottom to serve anchoring may without legtables require enough or and of thetable desk, thatit will bestrong legs. for use points anyextra and Also the too appearing bullcy. consider design planned

joint connects stretcher thelegs a to of the A tusktenon the beyond through trestle table.Thetenonwill extend wedge beinsertcan mortise thelegsothat a tusk-like in edto lockthejoint whileallowingit to bedisassembled.

55

LEGSTYLESAND HARDWARE
Cabriole Ieg

(pase63) Ite 9-ehaped curve
imiLatea,the aweep or an antmal le4

Tapered leg (paqe 60) A equareleq with two adjorntn7 facee or all four facea tapered; vtrbually ae atronq ae untaperedleq

Tripod/pedeatal Ieg (pase 68) Typtcally aawnin a ehallow curve;Lop end iejoined Lo a central columnwith oltdin4 jotnt doveLarl

Octagonal leg (pase69)
A etratqhL le4 wr1;h etqht etdee

Turned leg (pase66)
FeaLures decorative beadE and filleLe; ohaped on a lathe

COMMERCIAL HARDWARE tEG

Leg braaee Hinqedatrute that allowleqato fold undert.ableLop

Corner brace Allowa lega Lo be removed;aLtached to leq with hanqer bolt and to raila with ocrewo Tableglide and leveler 9prtn4-loaded nylon feet automaLically levelfurntture on uneven floora:mounted with T-nuL and bolt

Castera Allow leqa to roll; wheele availablein braae, wood, porcelain, nylon, plaotic, or leather mountedtn braaa,wood. or caet-iron brackeLa. Clockwiae from too lefL: equarecup,plate, atem, and clawfoot caetere

Adjustable levelers Flastic feeL screwedinto bottom of leqe f,o levelfurniLureon uneven floore; mountedwith T-nut and bolt

56

LEG-TO-RAIL IOINTS

Elind moraiseand-tenonjoint (pase 76) joint An invieible with excellent in otrenqth. Tenon rail fita into matinq mortioe in leg

;
- - - . ' - _ ,

,.- '- _ - . ) < : -

H ""----','
- : ; 1 - - , . - " " - . -

"'.-.:: thop-made corner brace (paqe O6) Allowa leqo to be removed. corner blockte faa' Wooden tened to le7 and raile; 4roovea and aplineareinforceconnectton between blockand raile

-\, '\,

11.1-'," ? ./' ,/'

joint Dowel (pase74)
A retnforced corner butt joint; dowele extend into leq Commeraial hardware (page 84) Allowa leaa to be removed.Corner brace ia bolted to le7 and ecrewed to raila;to accommodatebrace,Ieq ie notchedand raila are arooved

Tuak tenon joint (page 72) uoedto join f,heleqeand etretcher of a treatle Commonly tuak, or table. Tenonextende beyondthe throuqh morDise; iL to wedqe, inaerf,ed lockjoint and removedto dieaeeemble ia

57

TRIPODTABLE
" .. The simpleappearance a tripod toblebelies of the joinery needed build it. The three legs precise to are to the centralcolumn with liding dovefails, ctrt fastened with angledshoulders sit tight againstthe turned column. The to legsmust be exactly120oapart and the column centered under the top. Togive the legs addedstrength, metalplate can be mountedunder the legs a and cohrmn. The top end of the column isjoined to the rail with a round mortise-and-tenon.

ANATOMYA TRIPOD OF TABIE

Dovetatl aocket

Metal

TABLE PEDESTAL
tableare of As on thetripod table,thelegs a pedestal usuto attached a centrqlcolumnwith slidingdovetails, to with a metalplate.Therailsaresecured thecolumnwith ally reinforced edge of bridlejoint consisting crossing halflaps and a typeof interlocking of by The mortises. largetableshownat right issupported twosets legs casters havebeen weight, considerable of Because thetable's and columns. to easier move. to to aneched thelegs makethepiece

TABLE ANATOMYA PEDESTAL OF

Detail of dovetaile Mortiae for interlocking bridlejoint Column

Dovetail socket
Leq

Dovetail

TAPERED LEGS
CUTTING A FOUR.SIDED TAPER

TaperatarL line

Thpered stop-tapered like those and legs shownabove frequently are used on drop-frontand rolltopdesks a wide and assortment tables. of Theylightena piece's appearance withoutseriously diminishingitsstrength.

up the 1 Setting andstarting cut I You taper quickly accuratelya jointer. byoutlining dimencan legs and on Start the sions thetaper thebottom thelegblank a cutting (above, of on gauge of with top).fhen mark lines thefourfaces thestock indicate on of to where taper begin. the will Install a clamp hold guard of thewayduring operation. thedepth cutfor to the out the Set of x inch and, holding blank the against fence, the align taper the start withthefront line of theoutfeed table. a stop Butt block against bottom thelegandclamp to the the of it infeed pass, table. starteach To carefully lower blank the onto cutterhead the while (above, holding firmly it against fence thestop the and block bottom). Make sure both hands over infeed of thetable. are the side

60

LEGSAND RAILS

r) Jointing taper the L feedthe legacross cutterhead the pushing witha push stick, down the on pressing end while it trailing of thestock (left). your flushagainst fence Keep left the fromthecutterhead. Make as hand away passes necessary youhave many until as t r i m m e t h es t o c ko t h et a p e o u t l i n e , d t r thenrepeat process shape the to the number remaining faces. Make same the on side. of oasses each

A STOPPED TAPER J()INTING

Using stop twin blocks where the Mark lines all faces the legblank indicate on of to r w a ll o t a p e r i n gi l lb e g i n n de n d .I n s t a a c l a m p ny o u j o i n t e r ' s out Set depth infeed table hold guard of theway. a %-inch to the against fence the withthetaper line of cut,thenbuttthe blank (The of table. extra about inchin front theedge theoutfeed % of for tableis %inchwillcompensate thefactthat,asthe infeed Butt block against lowered it willalso later, slide back.) a stop Next thefootof theblank clamp to theinfeed and it table. align Butta end end table. thetaper linewiththeback of theinfeed

second block stop against topendof theblank clamp the and lower workit to theoutfeed table. make firstpass, To the the piece theknives, onto keepingflush it against fence stop the and table.Feed workpiece the using push a block the infeed on to the against the stick (above); yourleft hand press blank use well Make fence. Keeo bothhands clear thecutterhead. one of pass each inchandrepeat on face, thenlower infeed the table% theprocess all foursides. on Continue, increasing cutting the pass witheach untilthetaper completed. is depth

61

LEGS AND RAILS

A JIG TWO.SIDED FOR TAPERS Tapering on a table canbe legs saw t d o n e a s i l w i t ht h er i g h j i g .T h e e y i f o n es h o w n e l o w s m a d e r o m b plywood, %-inch some solidwood, andtwotoggle clamps. is sturdier lt models; thanmany commercial the clamps ensure thestock held that is f irmly place in while cut is being the made. Refer the illustration to for suggested dimensions.

Toassemble jig,setthesaw the blade itsmaximum to cutting height, buttoneside thejig base of against theblade, position ripfence and the against other the sideof the base. Lower blade mark cutting the and a lineforthetaper oneside your on of legblank, thensetit on the base, aligning mark the withoneedge of thejig. Hold workpiece the securely guide andbuttthe plywood bar

against Press lipsnugly it. the against theendof theblank. Screw guide the barto thebase thesolid and wood shim thebar, to making certain that their edges aligned. are Attach the t o g g l c l a m pts t h es h i m C l a m p e o . down secure blank thejig to the to wiihthetaper mark aligned the with edge thebase. of Screw handle the to thebase least inches at 6 away from theside thatwillpass theblade. by T oc u t t h ef i r s tt a p e rc l a m p , a featherboard support and board to thesaw making they table, sure will (The notinterfere the blade. with featherboard press onthe should only jig base, ontheworkpiece.) not Set theblade height slide jigand and the legblank across table, making the sure neither that hand in line is with theblade beloil. Tocutthesecond t a p e r n a n a d j a c e n ti d eo f t h e o s blank, repeat pass the withthetwo untapered of theblank sides against thejig base guide (Caution: and bar. guard Blade removed clarity.) for

62

LEGS CABRIOLE
MAKINGCABRI(ITE A LEG

the 1 Designing leg to length I Fora template, a piece stiff cardboard hardboard the same cut of or leg The at a and andwidth your blanks. design as shown above topwillyield stable Begin well-proportionedbutyoucanalter design suityourproject. leg, the to drawing its thelegbyoutlining post the block. Make length equal thewidth therailthat to of willbeattached it; thepost to block should wide be enough accept railtenons. to the Next, of using French a sketch toeandthefront thelegfromthetoeto theankle the (above, point, ankle the should measure about twocurve bottom); its narrowest at width.Move to the knee, sketchinggentle a curve fromthe post fifthsof thestock on Then block thefrontedge thetemplate to of about to 4 inches 3 below block. the jointheknee theankle line. to witha relatively straight Complete outline the the at back theleg, of connecting bottom the legwiththeback theankle, the of of then a fromtheankle the bottom the postblock. mayneed to of You to sketchingcurve redraw curves several times untilyouaresatisfied thedesign. with the

Despite its delicate appearance, a cabriolelegprovides excellent strength.A well-balancedleg should be able to stand by itself.

63

LEGS AND RAILS

a ^ L U U IO U ty o u r l e m p t a l e0 n a D a n os a w , t h e n s a n d t h e e d g e st o t h e m a r k e do u t -

r') Transferringdesign the

l i n e .T o t r a c e h e o u t l i n e n t h e l e gb l a n k , t o l o l a c eh et e m o l a tfe a to n o n eo f t h e i n s i d e t f a c e s f t h e b l a n k , a k i n g u r et h a tt h e m o s e n d s f t h e t e m p l a t e n dt h e b l a n ka r e o a aligned thatthe backof the postblock and i s f l u s h i t ht h e i n s i d e d g e f t h e b l a n k . w o
f rzcp alans ihp pdopc, nf ihp ipmnl:to

T u r nt h e b l a n k v e r n dr e o e atth e o r o c e o a dureon the otherinside face(/efil. this At point, prefer cut morsome woodworkers to joinery. tisesor drill holes the leg-to-rail for ( l t i s e a s i etr c l a m p n dc u t j o i n t s n a o a o r e c t a n g u lla rgb l a n k h a no n a l e gw i t h e t cu 0 D r o n o u n c e d r v e s . )t h e r w o o d w o r k e r s c u t t h e l e gf i r s ta n dt h e nd o t h ej o i n e r y .

Cutting theleg out
S e tt h e l e sb l a n k n t h e b a n ds a wt a b l ew i t ho n eo f t h e o u t o l i n e sf a c i n gu p a n d t h e t o e o f t h e l e gp o i n t i n g w a y r o my o u . a f j A l i g n i n t h e s a wb l a d e u s tt o t h e w a s t e i d eo f t h e m a r k e di n e g s l f o rt h e h a c kn f t h e l e p f e e dt h e s t o c k n t ot h ec u t t i n p d p eT r r r n e i o f f t h e s a wa b o u t a l f w aty r o u g hh e c u t a n dr e m o v t h e b l a n k . h h t e T h e nc u t a l o n g h e s a m el i n ef r o mt h e o p p o s i t e n d .T o a v o i d t p f d e t a c h i ntg e w a s t e i e c e r o mt h e b l a n k n d l o s r n t h e m a r k e d h a g o u t l i n e n t h e a d j a c e n t c e ,s t o pt h e c u t a b o u tZ i n c hf r o mt h e o fa first kerf, leaving shortbridgebetween two cuts (above, a the / e f f ) .R e t r a ctth e w o r k p i e c eh e nc u t a l o n g h e l i n ef o r t h e t, t f r o n to f t h e l e g ,a g a i nl e a v i n g r i d g e s . u r nt h e b l a n ka n d s a w b T alongthe marked lineson the adjacent side (above, ilghil.fhis t i m e ,c o m p l e t eh e c u t , l e t t i n g h e w a s t e a l l a w a y . t t f

o+

LEGSAND RAILS

the Cutting bridges Turn thesaw off androtate blank the you up. sothatthefirstside cutfaces Slide inio theblank forward feed blade the to the kerfat thefrontof the leg. Turn the on m a c h i na n dc u tt h r o u gth eb r i d g t o e h e piece. Then through release waste the cut between kerfs theback the at the bridge of the leg(/eff,).

and the f, Shaping smoothing leg r-,f Tof inish leg shaping cabriole and the remove blemishes bythe band left saw its with blade, smooth surfaces a spokeand shave, followed a rasp sandpaper. by in bench Begin fixing barclamp your by a v i s et,h e ns e c u rte e l e gi n t h ec l a m p . h hands at Holdingspokeshave both a with thetopof a curved edge the leg,pull of you, toward cutting the with thetoolslowly (right). grain is Repeat untilthesurface Turn to smooth. thelegin thebarclamp to clean theother up edges. a rasp Use cannot smooth area thesookeshave an that pushed reach. toolworks when This best Finish job diagonally thegrain. across the withsandpaper, progressively using f iner grits until surface smooth. the is

65

TURNED LEGS
TURNINGLEG A

Most turned legs for tables,like the one shown at right, feature a squtre section, or pommel, at the top. This enablesthe leg to bejoined to the teblerails without cutting or attaching hardware to the turned segments.

Defining pommel the 1 I Toturna legon a lathe, start separating pommel thecylindrical by the from (step and, section. cylindrical The section thenturned is 2) finally, beads the and (step Begin marking pommel the legblank, hollows added are 3). by the on then mount blank thelathe move toolrest close theworkpiece the on and the as to as possible without touching it;thepommel should long be enough accommodate to joinery you the legto-rail method will use. Next, a skew use chisel cut a V-shaped to pommel Bracing blade notch themarked at line. the against toolrest, the begin withthecutting point thetip cuts edge angled slightly oneside thelong to so of intotheblank. This define side theV. Now, will one of angle blade theother the to (above). side define other to the side theV nolch of Continue angling blade the fromside sideuntilyou to reach desired the depth. much possible, the As as keep bevel theblade of rubbing against stock all times. the at

r) Turning cylinder the gouge 1 tlsea roughing-out to round thecorners theblank of below oommel. the With tip of thegouge the tilted against up la t g t h er o t a t i nb l a n kg r a d u a lr y i s eh e , h a n d l e n t i l h e b e v eu n d etrh et i p i s u t l rubbing against stock thecutting the and edge slicing thewood. is into Work from below pommel the toward bottom the the of leg(right). Keep toolat a rightangle the to theblank throughout cut.Continue the until blank cylindrical smooth. the is and

66

LEGSAND RAILS

A d d i n g e a d s n dh o l l o w s b a c T o f o r mb e a d sw o r kw i t ha s k e w h i s , e l a n dl h e s a m e e c h n i n r r e e d o d e f i n e t us t t h e n o m m e lS l a riln s e a c hc u t w i t ht h e r , t t o o la l m o s h o r i z o n t a la r s eh e h a n d l e t s i . u n t i l h eb l a d e l i c e sn t ot h es t o c kC u to n e t t s i d e f t h eb e a d t a t i m eb yt i l t i n g h ec u t o a t i n pe d p e ' i r s1 oo n es i d e n dt h e nt h eo t h t a F u e r ( a b o v e ) .o rt h e h o l l o w s , s ea s p i n d l e
onrrop Si:ri p:eh erri :l nno pdop o{ thp

h o l l o w i t ht h e b l a d e n e d g e o t h a tr t s w o s
.nn.2\/p cidp ic f:e ino thp nnnnc.iio pdoo nf

. s t h e h o l l o wR a i s e h e h a n d l e o t h e t i p t i , b e g r ns l i c r n gn t ot h es t o c kT h e n s w e e p s . s t h et o o lt o w a r dh eh o l l o w 'o p p o s i te d g e , t e r o l l i n t h e h l a d e o t h a l ,a t t h ec e n t eo f p s r th e t h e h o l l o w , e c o n c a vs i d eo f t h e b l a d e . i sf a c i n g p ( l e f t )R e m o v t h e g o u g e n d e a u
rono:l lhp errl frnm thp nnnncitp pdop nf

t h e h o l l o ww i t ht h e c o n c a v s i d eo f t h e , e b l a d ea c i n go w a r dh e h o l l o wC o n t i n u e f t t . s w e e n i n p dr n l l i n ph e b l a d e r o ms i d e an t f t o s i d e a l w a yw o r k i nd o w n h i lu,n t i l t h e , s g l h o l l o ws s y m m e t r i ca n ds m o o t h . i al

PEDESTAL LEGS
The pedestal, tripod, leg is bestcut on the band or saw. The legshavea flat sectionat the bottom and a dovetailat the top that fits into the centralcolumn. Because dovetailsare tnore dfficult to cut in a contoured workpiece,it is bestto prepare the leg blank shapingit. for joinery (pages79and 82) before

CUTTING PEDESTAL A LEG

Sawing legontheband the saw Cuta dovetail thetopendof your blank, on leg using either the tablesaw(page or a router 79) table(page 82).Then, outlrne thelegonyour blank; a pencil a French use and curve you as would a cabriole (page for leg 63).fhere three are absolute rules fordesigning a pedestal Thegrain leg: should follow slope the of

theleg, topandbottom the ends mustbeperpendicular to each other, thespread thelegs and of mustbeless thanthediameter of thetabletop. youaresatisfied thedesign, the Once with cut firstlegon the band saw(above) useit asa template and for projects. theothers. Keep copy thetemplate future a of for

68

LEGS OCTAGONAL
LEG AN SHAPING (ICTAGONAL

saw Cutting legonthetable the the unplug saw, Tosetupthisoperation, setting, and to the crank blade itshighest a t a d j u stth ec u t t i n g n g l eo 4 5 " .T h er i p so fence should positioned thatthe be fromit. Layoneface is blade tiltedaway witha coron of the legblank theblade thenbuttthe on table, nerresting thesaw (above) lock and fence against stock the To the it in place. make f irstcut,buttthe a against ripfence the face-down stock Adjust in fewinches frontof the blade. just height untilonetooth prothecutting the trudes beyond faceof theworkpiece. straddling into Feed blank theblade, the Rotate leg the hand. withyour thefence the and 90' clockwise repeat cut on the ie ft . a d j a c e na c e C o n t i n u n t h i sm a n n e r (right) are unlilthe sides cut.

The attractive octagonal leg is simple to cut on the tablesaw.

69

LEGSAND RAILS

CUTTING GR(|(IVES INLAY FOR

Commercialmarquetry banding adds a decorativetouch to a tapered leg.

Using table a saw groove inlay, a table witha dado Tocuta straight for use saw head same the width astheinlay. youareworking thickshop-made setthecutting lf with inlay, height to slightly lessthan thickness the inlay; commercial setthecutting the of for inlay, height its exact to thickness. a cut in a scrap Make board, thefit, andadjust test thewidth cutting and height the blades, necessary. mark lineforthe of if Next, a groove theleading of thelegandalign withthedado on end it head. Butttherip (above). fence against stock, the thenfeedit across blades the Using router a Tomake groove requires than a that more onestraight at different cut angles, use a router witha commercial guide. edge Secure legto a work the surface, fit then the router witha straight the same bit widthasthe inlay andsetthecutting depth. Remember, groove the should be slightly shallow shop-made but for inlay, full-depth commercial Outline for inlay. thegroove theleg, on align bit over the one thelines runalong grain, of that the guide's andbutttheedge fence against thestock. Gripping routerirmly, the f cut thegroove; remember move tool to the against direction bit rotation. the of Repeat (left). theshort grooves to cuttheother For cutsagainst grain, the clamp wooden a guide edge across leg. the Finally, square thecorners a chisel. with

70

AND RAILS LEGS

THE DOWN INLAY GLUING
in Setting inlay thegroove the lf inlay length f it thegroove. to to Cutthe you using inlay, a table use shop-made are for in box; comsaw a backsaw a miter or To wood chisel. install inlay, a use mercial groove make shown, in inlay thefour-sided pieces. theinlay at of miter cuts theends at one to It iseasiest cutanddryJit piece y o ua l i g n h em i t e r t g a t i m e ,m a k i n s u r e With of cutswiththecorners thegrooves. match try inlay commercial marquetry,to to one at thepattern thecorners form cons O a t i n u o ud e s i g n . n c e l lt h ep i e c ea r e s gluein of spread thinlayer a cutto size, ends thegroove onthemitered of the and W a i n l a y I. n s e ro n es t r i p t a t i m e . h i l e t with the dries, secure inlay strips theglue tape. of masking

A LEG DETAILING
detail Routing edge . S e c u r e h e l e gt o a w o r ks u r f a c e M a r k t g l i n e s n t h e l e gf o r t h e b e g i n n i na n de n d o l e o f t h e c u t ,t h e n i n s t a la d e c o r a t i vb i t q bi . i n y o u rr o u t e rA p i l o t e d u a r t e r - r o u n dt b i s s h o w nt;h i s b l t w i l l r o u ta r a i s e d e a d o a l o n gt h e f r o n tc o r n e r s f t h e l e g .S e t a o c u t t i n g e p t ha p p r o p r i a t e t h e p r o f i l e d y o uw a n tt o m a k e t h e na l i g nt h e b i t w i t h , t t h e s t a r tl i n e .H o l d i n gh e t o o lw i t h b o t h g u i d e h e b i t a l o n g h e c o r n eo f t r t hands, o the direction f bit rotat h e l e ga g a i n s t i o n . K e e pt h e b a s ep l a t ef l a t o n t h et o p of surface the legandthe bit pilot pressed throughout operation the the against stock ( / e f f . S t o pw h e ny o ur e a c h h e e n d l i n e , t and reposition legon the worksurface, the pass, riding baseplate the makea second o n t h e a d j a c e nf ta c eo f t h e l e g .T h i si s u s u a l l y o n eo n l yo n t h e l e g ' so u t s i d e d c s c o r n e rb u tt h e o t h e r o r n e rc a na l s ob e , r o u t e d e p e n d i no n t h e l e gd e s i g n . d g

LEG-TO-RArL IOTNERY
TUSK TENON JOINTS
Marking location thewedge the of 1 I Cuta four-shouldered (page tenon 76) long enough extend to beyond legby the e a t l e a s2 i n c h e sh i sw i l lp r o v i ds u f ift t; c i e n t t o c ko r e s i sb e i n g p l i tb yt h e s t t s wedge. a through Cut mortjse accomto modate tenon assemble joint. the and the T h e nh o l d i ntg ep i e c ets g e t h e r a , h o on work surface, a line thetopof the mark on cheek where tenon the emerses the from morlise(lefD.

A nrk tenonioins the stretcher thepedestal of the to leg tableshownaltove. Although the tuskjoint is assembled without glue so that the tablecan be disassembled, is it as strongas a glued blind nrortise-and-tenon.

r) Drilling hole thewedge the for Z. Disassemblejoint the andmake drilling a markYta onthe tnch s h o u l ds ird e f t h es c r i b el dn e ; t h iw i l le n s u ra t i g h f i t w h e n e o i s e t thewedge driven place. a mortise is gauge one-third into Set to the thicknessthetenon use gauge outline hole the of and the to the in middle of thetopcheek, third borderingyour on mark. Using bit a slightly smaller diameter theoutline, thehole in than bore through (above), thetenon thedrillpress on

LEGSAND RAILS

hole the Q Angling wedge and chisel, enlarge a r.J Using mortise you to square hole drilled accommothe at the Holding chisel a date wedge. the shoulders, from tenon the away 10"angle by slot, cut a tapered as indicated the (/eff). lines theillustration Then in dotted h , c h o p u tt h ew a s t eh o l d i ntg ec h i s e l o the facing waste. withthebevel

Inserting tusk the wedge, hardwood Cutan angled to called tusk,that is tapered fit the a n 3 s l o ty o uc h o p p eid s t e p ; i t s l e n g t h width. To the canbe uo to twice tenon i t s a s s e m btl h ej o i n t , l i d e h et e n o nn t o e firmly the and the mortise strike wedge untilthejointis Iight(right). witha mallet as Donotuseglue, thisjointis designed to bedisassembled.

73

LEGSAND RAILS

D()WET JOINTS
Locating boring and 1 I dowel holes therails in Start marking location thedowel by the of holes. Holding of therails one end-up, set gauge one-half thickness a cutting to the of thestock scribe line and a across end the of theboard. thegauge a slightly With at wider setting, scribe lines intersect two that w i t ht h ef i r s tl i n eo nt h ee n do f t h er a i l (lef\. f o avoid splitting stock, the use g r o o v e d w e ln o m o r e h a no n e - h a l f do s t thethicknesstherails. a drillpress of Fit or anelectric with bitthesame drill a diameterasthedowels bore hole each and a at point; location thedepth should slightly be more than one-half length thedowthe of e l s .U s e h es a m ee c h n i q u e b o r eh e t t to t dowel holes theopposite of therarl at end andin theother rails.

r) Pinpointing mating dowel hotes C- lnserl dowel centers theholes. in Then align topof therailwiththetopof the the leg(right), swing railup sothatits and the outside is %to %inchinside edge face the l o f t h e l e g . p e n c im a r kl i k et h eo n e A s h o w w i l lh e l p l i g n h er a i l . a p h e n a t T t other of therailwitha wooden end mald l e t . h ep o i n t e e n d s f t h ed o w ec e n T o l t e r sw i l l p u n c hm p r e s s i o n s h el e g , i o nt p r o v i d i n ga r t i np o i n t f o r b o r i n t h e s st g g mating dowel holes. Repeat theother for rails less. and

LEGSAND RAILS

holes dowel Boring mating the
to Borethe holesin the legs the same

more in depth those therails-slightly as lf of one-half length thedowels. the than you drilling a tapered ona drill leg into are part press, sure keep square of the to the be table. legflatonthemachine's

the and Assembling legs rails
t a s a S p r e a d l i t t l eg l u eo n t h e s u r f a c eo f t h e l e g s n dr a i l s h a t

in of amount adhesive each then willcontact other, daba small scrap. Avoid holes a smallwood with of thebottom thedowel gl d t; a b y s p r e a d i n gu e i r e c t lo n t h ed o w e l sh e y b s o r m o i s t u r e q u i c k la n dw i l ls w e l lm a k i ntg e m i f f i c u tl o f i t i n t o h e y t t h d , n t t h o l e s . s e r t ed o w e lis t o h el e g st,h e n a pt h er a i ll i g h t l y In th

( t l w i t h a m a l l e t o s e a tt h e s h o u l d e r .B ec a r e f ua b o u tu s i n g o o F , a m u c hf o r c ew h i c hc a nc a u s e l e gt o s p l i t . ) i t e a c he n do f t h e with a bar left) andholdthe joint together railontoa leg (above, Alignthe barof the clamp,protecting legswith woodpads. the righil unlil a beadof clampwiththe rail,thentighteniI (above, g l u es q u e e z e s t o f t h e j o i n t . ou

75

LEGSAND RAILS

HAND.CUT MORTISE.AND.TEN(lNS BTIND
the cheeks 1 Cutting tenon I Outline tenons therails, the on markinga shoulder allaround ends line the so thatthelength thetenons beno of will more thanthree-quarters thethickness of the leg.Secure of therails one end-up in a vise. along lines theend Cut the on of therailwitha backsaw; thesaw tilt forward cutto theshoulder of and line the tenon(lefil.f hencomplete cut the withthesawlevel.

r) Cutting tenon the shoulders L f o remove waste the fromthetenon cheeks, clamp rail the face-up a work protecting stock on surface, the witha wood p a d C u ta l o n gh es h o u l d eirn eo nt h ef a c e f t h er a i l ; u r n . t l o t over stock the andrepeat operation theother the on side (above, left).To away waste theedges thetenon, cut the on of

secure railend-up a vise saw theshoulder on the in and to line both edges therail.Finally, of clamp railedge-up cut the and through shoulder on bothedges therail(above, the lines of right).Repeat steps and2 to cut thetenon theother 1 on end of therailandat both ends theremainins of rails.

76

LEGS AND RAILS

the Q Outlining moftises leg r-,1 Mark mortise the outline each on in twosteps, using of therailtenons one First, hold cheek the of asa guide. the withthetop tenon flush against leg, the with of therailaligned theendof theleg. of Draw pencil a along edges thetenon the then to outline length themortise, the of across usea trysquare extend lines to the the leg. mark width themortise, To the of centered flush hold edge thetenon the of cheek against legandmark the along each (right).Withtrysquare, a extend marks the interalong leguntilthetwooutlines the sect.Repeat process theadjacent the on faceof the leg.

Chiseling mortises the mortise, For each clamp legto a the protecting stock witha work surface, the pad. wood Then, starting oneendof the at outline, a mortise hold chisel square to it thefaceof the legandstrike witha . a w o o d e m a l l e tU s e c h i s etlh es a m e n width thetenon besure as and thatthe beveled of the blade facing side is the waste. Make another %inchfromthe cut first.Continue youreach other until the endof theoutline, levering thewaste out exceeds length the to a depth slightly that of thetenon. Test-fit tenon widen the and or deepen mortise required. the as Repeat to cuttheremaining mortises. spread Then g l u el i g h t l yn t h em o r t i s e s do n t h e i an Fit and cheeks thetenons. thelegs rails of withthe together, close thejoints then up for same clamping setup used thedowel joint (page75).

77

LEGSAND RAILS

TRIP0D TABLE: ASSEMBTING LEGS, THE AND C0LUMN, RAIL
the on 1 Turning tenon thecolumn I Start turning railtenon thetopof thecolumn, by the at as shown right. at Then thedovetail rout sockets thelegs the for at (step Next, thedovetails the legs column's bottom 2). cut in (steps and4)andassemble pieces (step Mount 3 the the il. (page column blank your on lathe turnit intoa cylinder and 66), leaving lip andenough a stock near bottom the leg for the sockets. turnthetenon, a parting (right), To use Iool moving theblade fromside side. length thetenon to The of should be about one-half thickness themating lts diameter the of rail. should at least inch be % andmatch of thebitvouwilluse that to drillthemortise therail. in

Faceplata

r) Routing dovetail the sockets (- tJnplugyour andturnthecolumn lathe end-for-endcut on thefaceplate vertical clamp drive to is and the shaft witha jig (inset). each thesockets, using router a shop-madeconsistinga handscrew a and of Cut socket twopasses, using in first a plywood clamped the lathe %-inch box to bed.Make boxas straight thena dovetail Adjust router's the bit, bit. the cutting depth, plate. wide the router as base Attach tworunners the the so align bitwiththesocket mark, a stopblock the end butt against plate router willcutthesockets its base bit plate, screw block thejig. Holding with sitting them. therouter on base and the to Next, mark location thethree the plunge bit intothecolumn, of sockets thecolumn; on they therouter both in hands, the starting should I20" aparL be Also mark upper the ends thesockets, at thebottom, guide toolalong runners the of and the the until plate about inches 3 fromthebottom thecolumn. help of To align base contacts stopblock. the Repeat thedovetail with bit thecuts, transfer socket the marks from column thelathe (above). cutthesecond thirdsockets, the to To and rotate column the faceplate. rotate column hand Now, the bv untilone themarks sothesocket of mark each is vertical. for cut

78

LEGSAND RAILS

the Q Cutting dovetails r-,1Thedovetails the legs cut in twosteps: firstcut to thetable support blanks. clamp guide in The are to the Also a block to is made thetable on saw, thesecond hand. is easiest theblank; block ride and by lt the will along topof thefence, the help(page ingto guide workpiece. formthedovetail, to cutthedovetails legblanks on before shaping legs the the To make pass a (above), rotate workpiece feed your 68).Adjust table saw's blade angle match of the to cut onecheek to that then the and you sockets cut in step2. Setthecutting height slightly to less theopposite along fence saw other. face the to the Once both thanthedepth thesockets. of Outline dovetails theedge cheeks thefirstdovetail been check the on of have cut, them against holding blank endonthesaw in of onelegblank and, the on table, a socket thecolumn. necessary, theblade lf adjust angle or mark withtheblade. theripfence Butt align cutting a against height thecutting or widthandmake another of passes. set it thestock lock in place. and Clamo shimmed a featherboard Repeat theother for dovetails.

Cufting angled the shoulders Theshoulders the legdovetails of must cutat anangle theylieflush be so against column. the Once dovetail the cheeks all cut,clamp blank a are a to work surface thecheek extendwith cuts ingoff thetable. Then a backsaw use to cuttheshouldersroughly to match curthe (/eff). vature the column of Test-f the it dovetail itssocket trimtheshoulin and if ders, necessary, yougeta suitable until f it. Repeat theremaining for dovetails.

79

LEGSAND RAILS

the to f, Fastening legs thecolumn r.,/ Once thedovetails in theirsockets, off thetop all fit trim % i n c h f e a c h o v e t aTl h i s i l lh i d e h et o p s f t h ed o v e t a i l s o d i . w t o when fromview theyarepushed thewayintotheir all sockets. (page andattach you Now areready cutoutthelegs to 68) them t o t h ec o l u m n . p r e ag l u e v e n lo nt h ed o v e t a ias di n t h e S d e y ln h u wn s o c k e t T . e nh o l d i ntg ec o l u m n p s i d e - d oo nt h ef l o o r , sh , into and with slide legs place tapthemintofinalposition a the wooden mallethbove). strengthen assembly, a threeTo add the (page Next, therail plate fromsheet armed cut metal 58), cut B a n t h a tw i l lc o n n e ch ec o l u m t o t h et a b l e t o o .o r e m o r t i sie tt n thecenter therailto accept tenon thetopof thecolumn. of the at Usea router fittedwitha rounding-over or chamfering to bit the edge around. Finally, stand shape bottom of therailalltheway glue spread onthetenon in themortise, fit thetable upright, and (righil. the therailover tenon, screw railin place and the

80

LEGSAND RAILS

TABLE: UP LEG PEDESTAL GTUING THE ASSEMBTY

for legs the 1 Preparing column the near I Mark lineacross column a the the bottom define square to the section thatwillbejoined thelegs; area to the a o s h o u l d ea sl o n g st h ew i d t h f t h e b head your table legs. Install dado a on height rough sawandsetthecutting at gauge, ly %inch. Using miter the make across column the to several Dasses remove waste the fromall foursides of (above). thecolumn

r) Cutting dovetail the sockets lnstall L plo*a dovetail socket each on side thecolumn therouter of on table. a router mount toolin a table. and the Mark lineforthesockets a straight in your bit align socket withthebit,buttguide a mark boards against down center each the of side, Feed column across table cut the to thestock, clamp boards thetable. and the to the thefirstsocket, stopping cutwhen bit reaches endof thesquare the the the section. Leave column place, offthetool, clamp handscrew stop in turn and a asa block the Repeat cutontheother the sides thecolumn, of stopagainst endof thecolumn. the pass ping when stock contacts handscrew. the Complete task the witha second the on each sideusing dovetail (above). a bit

Preparing topofthecolumn the
0 n c et h e d o v e t a i la r ec u t ,t u r nt h e c o l u m n n a l a t h e , e a v s o l

Fuehatick

the and inga square section thetopto accommodate rails a at to the of lipjustabove bottom the square section conceal tops r w t h el e g s(.T h ei p i s v i s i b lo n p a g e 2 . ) T h e a i l s i l lf i t i n t o l e 8 twointersecting mortises in thecolumn's cut square section. Mark lines themortises thecenter each for down of side cutting width be the of thecolumn; mortise the should one-half thickness therails. thesawblade height thewidth the to of of Set railsless edge the recess shown step7 (page Tofeedthe in 83), push column safely, make jig to holdit upright. a large a Take stick screw piece wood theside, and a of to forming L. With an in the mark withthe thelegresting snugly theL, align cutting blade lock ripfence and the against face thepush the of stick. (it Lay spacer topof thefence must thesame a on be thickness asthefence) screw to thepush and it stick; screw guide a board so a over Check to thespacer thejig forms channel thefence. and a of thealignment, thelegin place, make sequence clamp (left). Repeat cutson cutsuntilthe mortise wide is enough all each face ensure themortises oerfectlv to that are centered.

81

LEGSAND RAILS

Cutting dovetails thelegs the on Install dovetail in vour a bit rouier and mount toolin a table. thecutting the Set depth make dovetails to the slightly shorter you thanthedepth thedovetail of sockets cut in step1. Position fence that the so projects about one-half thecutter of beyond itsface. With featherboard a clamoed the to table support workpiece, a leg to the feed blank(page on endacross table, 68) the (\efl.f urnthe pressing against fence it the blank end-for-end repeat complete and to thedovetail. Test-fit jointandadlust the t h ef e n c e n dm a k e d d i t i o n c u t s , f a a al i necessary. Repeat theother blanks. for leg

the to column f, Joining legs the r-,f Cutoutthe legs a bandsaw(page on notch topendof thedove68),then the tails thatthey so stop short thesocket of This conceal joints will end. the between glue thelegs column. and Spread onthe dovetails in thesockets slide and and the dovetails place, into tapping them witha mallet necessary. additional if For strength, y0ucanmake four-armed a bracket out metal fit under column of sheet to the and legs, screw in place, shown and it as on page 58.

82

LEGS AND RAILS

Preparing rails the
T o a l l o w h e r a i l s o f i t t h e e r o o v eis t t n

9top block

in the thecolumn, recesses middie cut of both faces therails. of lnstall dado a head onyour table andsetthecutting saw depth t he t o a b o uo n e - o u a r t e r r a i lt h i c k n e s s . g S c r e w n e x t e n s i oo t h em i t e r a u g e . a tn Make cutsin a piece scrap be of to test will in sure therails fit snugly themorthat tises. Mark shoulderstherecesses the of onone sothey aslong thewidth rail are as at thetopof thecolof thesquare section w h u m n A l i g n m a r k i t ht h ed a d o e a d . a a n dc l a m p s t o p l o c ko t h ee x t e n s i o n , a b t flush against rail, the Feed rail the with the gauge, pressing stock miter the against t h es t o pb l o c kF l i pt h e p i e c eo c u t a . t , s h o u l d e r t h eo t h e f a c e t h e nr o t a t e on r t h ep i e c e n dc u tt h es h o u l d east h e a rt Repeat the other ends therecesses. of on other then rail, remove stop the block and remove remaining the waste.

Edgehalf-lap

J o i n i ntg er a i l s o t h ec o l u m n h t I , / T o c o n c e a lh e m o r t i s eo n c et h e r a i l s r ei n p l a c e c u t a / s a t r i i n c h - d e e pe c e s sn t ot h e b o t t o m d g eo f e a c hr a i l ,a l o n gt h e e i l e n g t h f t h e r e c e s sn t h e f a c e .N e x t ,n o t c ht h e m i d d l eo f t h e o e d g e sT h i sc a n b e d o n e i t ht h e d a d oh e a d ; t h e i d t hs h o u l d . w w e q u a t h e t h i c k n e so f t h e l a p p e d e c t i o n f t h e r a i l s A d j u s t h e l s s o . t t b l a d eh e i g h t o c u t h a l f w a yh r o u g hh e r a i l ,t h e n s a wa n e d g e h a l f - l a p n t h e b o t t o m d g eo f o n er a i la n dt h e t o p e d g eo f t h e i e

other, making thenotches centered sure are between shoulthe /eff). Adlust blade the height thesecond to for rail ders bbove, for recess. both Once edge half-laps cut,round are account theedge glue theends therails theband of on saw, spread some onthe contacting surfaces column rails, thecolumn ofthe and set bottom(above, endup on thefloor, fit the railsin place and right).

83

LEGSAND RAILS

COMMERCIALHARDWARE LEG
the 1 Preparing rails I Commercial hardware connects that legs rails and should installed be following themanufacturer's instructions. usethe To page, hardware shown thefacing on testassemble leg,rails, the andmounting plate, thenmark location theplate the of flanges therails. cuttheslots the on To for flanges, each align mark withtheblade, thenbutttheripfence against rail. the Settheblade height thelength the to of flange, adding inchforclearance. %u Feed gauge therailinto blade themiter the with (left).(Caution: guardremoved Blade for clari$.) Repeat theother Slipthe for rail. flanges theslots mark screw into and the pilotholes holes thestock. on Bore and plate screw mounting to therails. the

r') Notching legforthemounting plate the I Anotch mustbecut at thetopof each plate. legto accommodate mounting the Stand legup andhold rail-andthe the plate assembly topof it, aligning on the ends therails of withadjacent of the sides leg.Mark 45' diagonal across a line the plate. topof the legalong mounting the Next, align topof the plate the withthe legandmark linealong topof the a the bottom edge the plate of across inside the corner theleg, of adding inch clearXe for ance. cut the notch, the legon a To set band andtilt thetable 45" to align saw to with theblade thediagonal Butta line. board against legandclamp to the the it table a ripfence. as Feed legintothe the blade, clamp stopblock place then a in to help withrepeat cuts(right). Complete the notch using handsaw. a

84

LEGSAND RAILS

bolt Preparing legfor the hanger the Q tl e T e s t - a s s e m b he l e ga n d r a i l - a n d rJ p l a t ea s s e m b la g a i n n d m a r kt h e h o l e a y bolt provided the stockfor the hanger on h a r d w a rk i t . F i t y o u rd r i l lp r e s s e w i t ht h e b a w i t h a b r a d - p o i n ti t a n d b o r e p i l o th o l e i V u s i n g s h o p - m a d e- b l o c jk g a f o rt h e b o l t (right).Repeat the other legs. for

uAttx " x7" 6

Fastening legtotherails the lnsert screw-thread of the the end rn hanger intotheprlot bolt hole theleg. fasteners, a hanger has bolt Unlike other screw threads one at twotypes threads: of other; it endandmachine threads the at nuts the has Screw two onto also nohead. t m a c h i n e - t h r e a da n dt i g h t e nh e m n o r a g a i n s ta c h t h e w i t ht w ow r e n c h e s , e f o r m i n a t e m p o r a hy a d nt h eb o l t , g re o withone thewrenches of Tighten bolt the into then to drive screw the threads theleg, from bolt. unscrew nuts the the Slipthe rail-and-plate assembly theboltand over the screw nuton it. Keeping topof the a f w t r a i l s l u s h i t ht h et o po f t h e l e g , i g h t enthe nut (/eff).

85

LEGSAND RAILS

SH()P.MADEHARDWARE LEG Youcanattach legto rails a using a wooden corner block, hanger a bolt, andfourscrews. Begin making by the corner block. a oiece wood Cut of thin enough drive hanger through to a bolt it intotheleg. Then make 45' miter a cut at each end.Next, grooves saw for j t s p l i n e w,h i c h i l lh e l po i n h eb l o c k s w t o t h er a i l s I n s t a la d a d o e a d n . l h o your table sawwitha width andcuttingheight equal one-third thickto the ness therails. of Screw board the a to gauge anextension, align miter as then the midpoint oneendof theblock of withtheblade. Clamp block the the to piece extension. a waste Butt from the miter cutsagainst workpiece the to serve a stopblock as andclamp it to theextension. thestock Feed intothe blades, turnit over then and cut a groove the otherend(above). in

B6

LEGSAND RAILS

on sideof Next, mark holes each two hole theclearance anddrillcounterpage, bottom), holes(facing sinking a bit theninstall smaller to drillclearfor shanks. ance holes thescrew first Tojointhelegandrails, fasten Spread block therails. to thecorner gluein thegrooves theblock in some andinsert splines the andtherails, Then in intothegrooves the block. against rails the and hold block the (left). Prepare leg the it screw in place hardware for asyouwould commercial (page cutting notch of the a out 84), a block boring and topforthecorner pilothole a hanger Fasten bolt. the for slipping a legto therails withthebolt, washer between nutandthecorner the unlil Tighten nut (below) the block. fit together. the legandrails snugly

against rails, the Test-f the block it in and thenmark cutthegrooves the m c r a i l s N o w u tt h es p l i n e s , a k i n g . than them%.inchshorter the comPlane of bined depth thetwogrooves. to sure the splines carefully make in thattheyf it precisely thematching grooves. maximum make strength, For runs thatthegrain thesplines of sure rather thanalong across width, their theirlength. and Nowbore countersinking clearfor bolt holes the hanger and ance the to that screws willsecure brace Install brad-point a thelegandrails. the and brt in yourdrillpress mark edge the block of center the long of the for a hanger bolt.Secure workpiece a handscrew clamp to it and rn withthecenter drillpress table, the bore with aligned thebit.Then thehole.

87

'r-,

TOPS
The or desktbeing. stru
1 1 c e : n u s t ! e I l 1 I 1 n a s | ! l 4 r ! r e I l ! | - l w l l d . J g 2 \ L t l l J t t , l l L d u l t J . I l l L I l L

design ofthe tableor d, piec made glued-up of

*nhffftrH*ffii;:ffH: topmalesa tablemoreflexible; varietyof topsfor tables.and ffii#1"*TJl.b';ffHdesls, An adjustable the fully to create illusionthat the
(p.age to 93) fromgl-uing the-top up a under table extenders sliding bymounting wide is from a single surface made attachingit to a base(page96). the top, table with a divided youcanexpand to board.Todo this,youwill-need by a Whileyou qanmake tabletop leava. to room additional table make Thke until experiment yousucc€ed. for products suchas veneering.sheet planks, for yourtime Fouror five of the plywood, solidwoodremains buildingmaterial choice; litto can ixample, beflippedind turnedend-for-end create and edge banding areoftennot as require materials sheet combinations. of erally scores possible as visually solid.w-ood. in whendiningtookplace great appealing DuringtheMiddleAges, on Thetypeof topyoubuilddepends thefunctionofyour norm:Dozens of were tables ihe huge trestle communilhalls, storwhile-reducing seating If to table. yourgoal-is maximize knocked downfor be could people be could fedandthetables gateleg, or 10I) adjustable s!7gSe for drop-leaf, top space, publicandprivate age for rooms As afterdinner. separate itorage unusuIf are tables a goodidea. youwantt9 addanadjustable extension in into dinin! came vogue thel5ttr Gntury,smaller, (page shows elements 112) on the drop-leaf altouch, section decorative These so-called flapsevolved. tableiwith hinged as elements contrasting woodwith such modifi- youhowto combine Other and in wereused coffeehouses taverns. tables glass, leather, slate, felt. and for room split tables could in twoto make that included cations

of Theedge a tabletopisjust asimportant to its At grain and color. left, as appearance the wood's to bit a routerfitted with a rounding-over is used tabletop. of edges a mahogany softenthesquare

89

INVENTORY TOPDESIGNS OF
(pase1o5)
5ix-legged gateleg table

Drop-leaf type table featuring two 1ate le4ain addition to four etationary leqa; receaeeain raila may be required to allow ewin7ing le4eto be tucked out of the way whennot in uae

Four4egged awing4eg table (pase106) Drop-leaf type table with two of four le4e that ewin4out to eupport leavee: ewin7inqle1a are hinqedto raila of table baee

Tabletops not haveto berecdo tangular and wooden-or pre"Folia dictable. The Table" shown left,built byRhode at Islandcqbinetmaker Kam Ghaffari,featuresa curly mapletabletop dyedblack and green, cut into a stylistic and representation a leaf.The of blackhalf of theleafis lower than thegreenhalf; it is coveredby a paneof cut glass that rests stainless "veins." on steel

TOP SHAPES

E[]E
Kectanqular

Koundedenda

Curvedaidee

t

l

\

/ Round
Oval

Koundedenda and curved eidea

(lF METHODSATTACHING A T(|P

Tabletop raSf,enera

Deektop
TA6Lene16

TOPS

TABTES EXTENSION
Non-dividing extension table (pase lOO) Onlytabletop and decorativeapron io aaeembly divide:leq-and-rail acrewedto gtationarv center geament of table extendera. (Decorative apron removedfor clarity.)

Dividing ertension table (paqe 1O7) Entire table dividee in two: movinqee4menLaof table extendera are acrewed to both halveaof tabletop from underneath;le7e movewhen tabte ie opened Non-dividing treatle table (page 11O) Breadboard ende pull away Tromcenf,eron treatle table alidea

HARDWARE AND ACCESSORIES
Table locke Mounted underextenaton tablea to lock halveein place:lonqarma allow eaoyacceoe.9pring-loaded and levermodels available

Elind pivot, hinae

,z\

Table fork cloaure handlemounted U-ohaped underextenaton tablee to tocktabletop halveain place leaf tablee to ali4n leavea or halvesae they are cloaed

u e e d i np t a c a 7 \ o ) a dowelin a ,Q1 y pivot rail or \)D/ butLerfly Lable Table leaf latchea Mounted underexteneiontablea to [ockleavesin place;available brass in and steeL Modelshownbelow(lefI) featurea eccentricalot thaL drawa the leaveeanuglytoqether whencloaed

a-

/A\ t=l

)

Steelfastenera Q/z/n',. UeedLo aL.tachLope.to ./ V teq-ana-rail a'aem2teo.\ f Deektop,or fiqure-eight, V faetener ie tnetalledflueh wtLhtop
Of ratlE and gcrewed intc +t4b +a^. 7-

ehaped Labl eLopf^ *tr ti' i" u"[tr1a to top and maLeewith 0roove6routed along inaideof table raila Table leaf alignment pina Ueedto alian tabletopa and leaveafluai on extenLionf,abtee; braaa, hardwood,and plaatic modelaavailable tnuuote avauauro I

Cranked hinge Uaedto tnstall the adjuatableleqeof fourlegqedewinq-leqtablea: whencloaed,hinqeholde le1 flueh with table rail joint hingea Rule Ueedto connect leaf and top of drop-leaf table with rulejoint; lonaerhtnae ioint: lonqerhtnqe leaf brid4eo the ./the joint

coved half of

6)r- N/,Nr/ \)). \)r)"
Drop-leaf aupport Mounted underneathdropleaf tabletop to suppor, leavea. Metal bracket mounta to underside of top; movablewood alide eupporto leaf

Z

)

-,.1W

NN

-,')

s)t
Treatle table slide Hardwoodolidea with d oublealidi g dovetail n jointe mountedin paire underneath breadboard endo of a LreaLlef,able; typically exLendafrom 26 to 40 inches ,-/

Table extendera Mountedin paira underboth dividingand non-dividin7 extenaion tablea. Outer eeaments,acrewed eiLher to half oftabletop, are puahedaway from each other by rack-and-pinion mechaniam; center eeqmenL rematneetationary. Typical lenqthaare 26 and 3B inchee

PREPARINGATOP
and are osttopsfor tables desks madeby edge-gluing boards Few are that together. boards available arewide enough mostof those and would unsuitable, be becausethetenof to dency wideplanks twistandcup. of However, selecting by boards carefully andmatching themfor colorandgrain you the of direction, cancreate illusion piece wood. Assess color the a single of of by the andgrain lumber planing surface lightlyto reveal whatliesunderrough neath plank's a exterior. flat with proper A sturdy, top starts preparation stock. Make youuse of sure kiln-dried woodor woodthathas been long in to stored enough theshop have 8 a moisture content between and 12 percent. lowmoisture A content means thatthewoodwill berelatively stable. Alsosteer clearof bowed twisted or many have finished tops a boards. Since inch,4/4rough-sawn thickness % of you stock anideal is choice it allows to as plane sand inchofwood. and offupto % glued allat Widetopsareseldom up it to once becauseismucheasier thickplane panels ness than several smaller you onelarge Theglue sequence one. up will followfor yourprojects depend on thefinished widthof yourtop,andthe For if size yourplaner. example,you of and owna l2-inchplaner wanta 30inch-wide tabletop, isbest glue it to up panels plane three to l2-inch-wide 8and gluingthem themindividually, before intoasingle Tohe$ keep boards top. the some woodaligned duringglue-up, spaced workers dowels biscuits use or every to 8 inches, 6 although isnot this essential. Unlikestandard tables. the grain tops extension should for for tables to length. beperpendicular thetable's Ideally, quartersawn for these use stock tops, wellasfor theleaves. as Aftertheglue driedandthepanhas planed, edges been the ofthetop elhas (page 95).With dropJeaf can shaped be this is andgateleg tables, shaping done is before joinery. exceptionthe the One rounddrop-leaftable; leaves its should (page before circle 101) the beinstalled iscutto ensure thetable beperthat will fectly round.

Theedges a rectangular of desktop or to tabletopare oftenshaped softenits with a contours. Herea routeris used jig commercial to roundthecorners of a tabletop. a galleryof top For see shapes, page90.

A MAKINGTOP
the 1 Jointing boards I Prepare board firstjointing each by a faceandan edge, thenplane other the face.Next, roughly crosscut boards, the 1 leaving about inchlonger the them than top's finallength. thestock thatthe Rip so combined width alltheboards roughof is ly 1 inch wider thanthefinished then top, jointall thecut edges (/eff). Next, arrange theboards appearance, intoconfor taking sideration leaves youaremaking any if drop-leaf, gateleg or table. anextension, (Leaves typically glued separately are up from tabletop.) minimize the To warping, arrange planks theendgrain adjathe so of centboards in opposite runs directions. you When aresatisfied thearrangewith ment, a pencil chalk mark referor to a use This ence triangle topof theboards. will on you for help correctly realign them glue-up.

93

TOPS

Applying glue the your clamps Tohold bar upright duri n gg l u e - u p ,u t n o t c h e w o o d l o c k s n d c d b a s e t t h e c l a m p s n t h e b l o c k sS p a c e h e i . t clamps least at every to 36 inches. 24 To a v o i dm a r r i n gh e e d g e s f t h e p a n e l t o w h e ny o ut i g h t e n h e c l a m p sc u t t w o t , w o o dp a d sa s l o n ga n d a s t h i c ka s t h e . b o a r d s e i n gg l u e dA p p l y n a r r o w e a d b a b o f g l u e o o n e e d g eo f e a c hj o i n t a n d t u s ea s m a l l s t i f f - b r i s t l e du s h o s p r e a d , br t t h e a d h e s i ve v e n l y n t h e b o a r d d g e s e o e ( a b o v e )M o v eq u i c k l y o s t e p3 b e f o r e . t
ihp olrrc hpoinc tn cpt

Tightening clamps the Q r.,l Laythe boards face-down the bar on c l a m p s n da l i g n h e i r n d s m a k i n g u r e a t e , s t h e s i d e s f t h e r e f e r e n c ei a n g l a r el i n e d o tr e u p .T i g h t e nh e c l a m p s n d e r h e b o a r d s t u t j u s te n o u g ho b u t tt h e mt o g e t h e T.o b a l t r p e a n c e h ec l a m p i n g r e s s u ra n dk e e p h e t t p a n efl l a t ,p l a c e a rc l a m p s c r o sts et o p b a h l o f t h e p a n e b e t w e etn e o n e su n d e r n e a t h . h F i n i s hi g h t e n i na l l t h e c l a m p s n t u r n t g i (right)until there are no gaps between t h e b o a r d a n da t h i n ,e v e n e a d f g l u e s b o squeezes of the joints.Remove out excess g l u ew i t ha s c r a p eo r a d a m pc l o t h . r

94

TOPS

A TOP SIZING
Cuttingrectangular a top glued rip it to Once tophasbeen the up, width trimit to finallength. thetop and lf istoolarge cutonyour to table saw, a use router fitted witha straight First, bit. secure work surface cut it and thetooon a broad saw, about roughly using circular leaving a %inch trimonallsides. to Clamp edge an guide thetabletop oneside that to near so will about one-half the therouter remove waste withthefirstpass; reset depth the of cut to trim the restof the waste tighil. Repeat theother for edges.

Making round a top t S c r i b a c i r c l e n t h eg l u e d - utp pa n dm a k eh ec u tw i t ha e o o comrouter. small-diameter youcanuse commercial For tops, a jig; jig pass to cut larger tops, theshop-built use compass shown in theinset. Make device the from%-inch hardboard, it to sizing suityour router. therouter ofthejigto thesize shape Cut end and plate, make armat least inches ofyour tool's base and the 2 wide you Bore andlonger theradius thecircle willbecutting. a than of hole clearance forthebit in thecenter therouter and of end. fix

thetoolto thejig.Draw linedown center thejig armand a the of mark radius thetabletop it, measuring theedge the of on from of mark screw jigto the thebit.Drill hole thiscenter a at and the with center theworkoiece. of Secure stock a work the to surface cleats a scrap and board underneath. Plunge bit intothe the (above). stock routthecircle a clockwise and in direction Make passes, thecut in twoor more increasing depth cut the of between pass. each

95

ATTACHINGATOP
a or is 1\ ttaching topto a table desk a f 1" straightiorward task-so longasyou woodmovement. a consider Screwingtop for in place withoutproviding theswelling that occurs with humidity andshrinking wood. will ur changes result splitor cracked Because wood expands alongthe grain muchless across mosttoDs it, thanit does withtheplanks running lengtharernade wise. to Oneexceotion thisruleisexlension tables, wherelhegrainmustbe aligned across width of the tableso that the the in two halves not expand width at difdo ferent rates, the to causing slides bind. popularmethods securing for Several in toDS tables desks shown this to and are section, including screwing rails the the to below) usingwood buttons and rop (see (page ledgerstrips (pnge screws 97), 98), (page andsteel holes desktop in pocket 9B), (pnge100). eachof these fasteners For methods, the rails of the leg-and-rail for assembly to be prepared thetop need and up. before legs railscanbeglued the

Itr Trestletnblesore often desigred to be disasserrrbled. the exantple shownabove,tlrc screws nttaclrirrg ltose tlte o.l'thcttble lo The screwholes the top can easilybe rerrroved. cottntersurtk across groirr. the are elongated allowfor wood rrtoverrretlt to

THE T() TOP SCREWING RAIL THE
D r i l l i ntg eh o l e s h 1 I T o a t t a c ha t a b l e t o p r d e s k t o po a o t l e s - a n d - r aa ls s e m h l v o r ea s e r i e s f i b o c o u n t e r s u nh o l e si n e a c hr a i l f o r t h e k s c r e w sb e f o r eh e l e g sa r ej o i n e dt o t h e , t r a i l .D r i l lt h e h o l e s n a d r i l lp r e s sn t w o o i a s t e p s F i r s t , o r eh o l e s t 6 - i n c hi n t e r v a l s . b y s a b o u th a l f w a t h r o u g hh e t h i c k n e so f t g t h e r a i l . l a m p n e d g e u i d e o t h ed r i l l C a t o r e s sa b l et o k e e o h e h o l e s n l i n e .T o t t i h t a c c o m m o d a t e e m o v e m e no f t h e t o p , s b t h e h o l e s h o u l d e l a r g etrh a nt h e d i a m y h e t e ro f t h e s c r e w e a d s o uw i l l b e u s r n g . I n t h e s e c o n d t e p ,b o r ec l e a r a n c h o l e s s e s l i g h t l y a r g e t h a nt h e s c r e w h a n k l l l r s a the waythroughthe rails (right).

TOPS

llllffiIII lII fiI'llll''fi1'"1ll1]ll tlll lllllll'lltl lil lfll'llll'fil lllt
1HO?Tt?
Addingledgerotripo lf you havea Labletop deekLop or wilh thin raileLhaI wouldbe weak' you ocrewholee, enedby enlar4ed olripo Io Ihe can ocrewledqer four ineide faces of the rails.Cut, olripo lo fiI alonqNheineide of Lhe rails,and boreIwo holeein oelo of oversized adiacenl edqeeof each .*d.= eNrip(paqe96).)crew ,,..-nl Ihe ledaerstrips to all four ratrs,lhen' atlach 4 Ihe oIriVoNothe IoV.

r) Attaching rails thetop the to Z- Setthetooface-down a worK on surface, center leg-and-rail and the assemblyon it. Screw siderailto thetop one fisl (above), washers allow using to the wood move. Square thetop(page 100), to side then screw opposite railin place. the Lastly, screw twoendrails thetop. the to

TOPS

P()CKET H()LES
D r i l l i n t h eh o l e s g Y o uc a nu s ea n e l e c t r id r i l la n da c o m m e r c cialjigto drillpocket holes attaching for the t o p t o a l e g - a n d - r a i l s e m b l y . o l l o wh e as F t manufacturer's instructions adjust lig to the t o t h e d e s i r e d e p t h f c u t a n dc l a m pi t t o o a work surface a backup with board against t h e s t o c k .P l u n g eh e b i t i n t ot h e w o o d , t m a k i n g h e p o c k e tc u t ( l e f t ) . h e n ,f i t a t T d r i l lw i t ht h e b i t s u p p l i ew i t ht h ej i g a n d d bore clearance connecting pocka hole the e t h o l e o t h et o po f t h e r a i l ,u s i n gh e k i t ' s t t g u i d eb u s h i n go d i r e c t h e o p e r a t i o n t pocket Space holes every inches. 6 /lnsef). Screw top in place shown page the as on 97.

\Tocket cut

W()OD BUTT()NS
Making buftons the 1 I T o a t t a c ha t o p u s i n gw o o db u t t o n s , youwill needto placea woodbuttonevery 6 i n c h e s l o n g h e r a i l s . e g i n yc u t t i n g a t B b a g r o o v e n t h e i n s i d e a c eo f e a c hr a i l o f a b o u l7 i n c h f r o mt h e t o p . Y o uc a n c u t s e v e r all" - b y I 1 l " b u t t o n sr o m a s i n g l e f b o a r d m a k et h e t h i c k n e so f t h e s t o c k ; s equal the gapbetween bottom the to the of g r o o v a n dt h et o po f t h e r a i l s l,e s s ei n c h . e X Cut a rabbet frt the groove eachend to at o f t h e b o a r dt,h e nr i p t h e b o a r dn t o1 - i n c h i s t r i p s n a b a n ds a wa n d c u t o f f t h e b u t o tonsabout1%inches fromthe endslinset). T o m a k eh o l e s n t h e b u t t o n so r i n s t a l i f l a t i o n u s ea n L - s h a p ec o r n e 1 i gf a s h , d r d i o n e d r o ma s c r a p f l - i n c h p l y w o o a n d f o t w op i e c e s f w o o d . l a m p h ej i g t o y o u r o C t d r i l l p r e s sa b l ea n d s t e a d yh e b u t t o n s t t w r t ha h o l d - d o wfn s h i o n e f r o ms c r a p a d w o o d .B o r et h r o u g h h e c e n t e r s n t h e t o (rrghf). portions the buttons unrabbeted of

9B

TOPS

ill llrirl, illlfiIl 1lll lllr llllll[llillllilltllliliJ lJl llr ljll fiIl
5HO7Tt?
Ueingeteel tabletop faetenere f aesteelNableLop Commercial LenersworklikewoodbuLNonst Theyare screwed Nhe Lo Iabletop and from underneath qripa groove face rouf,ed cuL in the ineide or commercial of the rails.Secauee
f a e t e n e r e a r e L h i n n e rN h a nl i -' w o o d b u L l o n o , l h eq r o o v a

r) Installing buttons the e L C e n t e r eg l u e d - ulp g - a n d - r a i l th it on and assembly thetabletop screw to you the buttons cut thetopusing wood ends in step1. Fittherabbeted of the in of buttons thegroove one theside into Screw rails, spacing every inches. them 6 (above), in leavinga Xthebuttons place gap inch between lipped of the the ends of to buttons thebottom thegroove and the allow wood for movement. Square top (page at 100) andinstall buttons the side. install butthe theopposite Lastly, the rails. tons along end

be doesnot haveLo cut blade: can iN wiLha d,ado be madewiLha strandard eawblade, with a Nhreeor winqeloiting culler in mounledroul,er. a t,ableLengion, make Toensure ?roper the groove little farLherfrom lhe top a lhan',,tou wouldwith the woodbuLlons,

,

8,ffi;P
fq"*

TOPS

DESKTOP FASTENERS
Installing fasteners the Desktop fasteners a popular are choice for attaching lnstalledshallow tops. in notchessothey flush lie withthetopof therail, they thenscrewed theIop(inset). are into The fasteners pivot can slightly and back f o r t h st h et o ps w e l l a n ds h r i n k s .o a s T i n s t a lt lh ef a s t e n e rrs ,u t r c h i s eo u t o o l recesses themin thetopof each for rail, spacing notches the every inches. 6 Screw thehardware therails(/efl), to thencenterthe leg-and-rail assembly thetop on it andscrew in place through fasteners. the

SSUARING T()P THE
Checking square for Before crewina topto a leg-and-rail s g a s s e m b l y , a k e u r e h a tt h e s u r f a c es m s t i c e n t e r e d n d s q u a r eA b a rc l a m pa n d a . woodpadswill do this. Place top goodthe s i d ed o w no n a w o r ks u r f a c es e tt h e l e g , a n d - r a ia s s e m b lo n t o p , a n d a t t a c h n e l y o s i d er a i l t ot h e t o p . B u t to n ej a wo f a b a r c l a m pa g a i n stth e e d g eo f t h e t o p a t o n e j e n d ,a n dt h e o t h e r a w a g a i n sa l e ga t t h e t o p p o s i t e n d .U s ew o o dp a d st o p r e v e n t m a r r i n gh e s t o c k .M e a s u r t h e d i s t a n c e t e b e t w e e nh e e d g eo f t h e t o p a n dt h e e n d t r a i l sa t s e v e r ap o i n t s t b o t he n d s .A l l l a y o u rm e a s u r e m e n th o u l d e e q u a l l f s s b . n o t ,s q u a r eh e a s s e m b lb y t i g h t e n i n g t y t h e c l a m p ( r i g h t ) . h e c kt h e m e a s u r e C m e n t st,h e ns c r e w h e o p p o s i ts i d er a i lt o t e t h e t o p . R e m o vte e b a rc l a m pa n ds c r e w h t h ee n dr a i l s n o l a c e . i

100

TOPS ADIUSTABLE
for has \J ot everyone thespace alarge the although extra l\ diningtable, One surface is oftenneeded. soluarea top. with an expandable tion is a table open choices to you. There several are have long typically Drop-leaf tables parallel with thegrainthat hang leaves Small out of thewaywhennot in use. by may leaves besupported a pull-out Extension tables leaves morethandouble that bar.Large featuredividing tops that openin themiddleto makeroom swinglegsor area the surface require dining leavel Themahogany gate to beadded. legs for spacer slides openusing legs Swing arepart of a four-legged tableshownabove (page ender installed s gate commercial tableext 106); assembly leg-and-rail of underbothhalves thetop.Steel used set legs an additional of legs are (page whenthe eveners together lock 105).Ifyoa tabletop for specifically support a ensuring flush surface. top is closed, length, extena wantto increasetable's feature thatsplitopen tops siontables spacer additional on sliders accept to tables bebuilt so can leaves. Extension (page 107), tableopens thattheentire justthetop (page 108). or in tops made muchthe Adjusable are 93), same assolidwoodtops(page way Drop exceptions. with a fewimportant up leaves bestglued from quarterare rings are the wood, where growth sawn Thiswill to at right angles the face. of reduce tendency thewoodto cup. the less and swells than it Since shrinks quartersawn is wood plain-sawn stock, tables, ideal thetopsof extension for also the where grainrunsacross width the of thetable.

TABLE F(|R A IOINT A DROP-LEAF MAKINGRULE
the in 1 Routing cove theleaves a wav make ruleiointis to I Theeasiest cove and setof piloted a byusing matchei install the First, round-over router bits. a router shape and bit round-over in your andthethree the bead around tabletop Make cut the of outside edges the leaves. passes, %-inch lip leaving a in several thepiloted Then install the around edge. the in bit cove andmount router a table. the withthe bit pilotsothe Align fence the one-half cutter widthof cut eouals at of diameter. thedepth cutshallow Set your passes reach to first;make several gradually. thetable Feed finaldepth the of leafintothe bit, pressing edge the firmlyagainst fence(/eff). the workpiece pass, until test-fit pieces the After each witha and thetabletoo the leafmesh gap the very slight between two.

101

TOPS

r) Installing rule jointhinge the Z. Position shorter the hinge against undersidethe leaf the of tabletop thelonger and hinge against table leaf the leaf; the pin hinge should aligned thestart theround-over be with of cut (inset). pin inch onthetabletop Offset hinge Yzz toward the the

edge thetabletop clearance. of for 0utline hinge both the on t h et a b l e t oa n dt h el e a f n dr o u to u tt h ew a s t eC h i s e l u t p a . o pins(above), screw themortises accept hinge to the then the h i n g eis p l a c e . n

SUPPORTING LEAF A DROP
Using commercial a drop-leaf support Cuta notch themiddle therail in of adjacent thetable to accommodate to leaf the (For support. drop leaves than feet more 3 long, twosupports, use located about 6 inches each from end.) With leaves the installed thetabletoo and attached. set thetable upside-downa work on surface. positioning Slide support thenotch, the in i t s ot h a ti t f u l l ys u p p o r t s el e a,f a n d h screwit in place(right).

r02

TOPS

ir;

DROP.IEAF SUPPORTS supports are drop-leaf lf commercial you for table, caneasily toobulky your that make supports willcomplement your the Before attaching legdesign. cut to and-rail assembly thetabletop, of in twonotches thetop edge each . a siderailadjoiningdropleaf The 6 should about inches be notches to of fromtheends therailandsized you For frt thesupports will make. from each leaf, twosupports the cut your you to stock used build same should suffibe The table. supports leaf; one the to the cient hold drop at in the illustrationsrightis cut 2 long wide inches and14 inches from stock. %-inch-thick you To prepare supports, need the down to routtwogrooves themiddle screws of eachoneto accommodate halfway Cut andwashers. onegroove wider than slightly through support the you centhewashers will use(inset); groove thefirstone, in terthesecond wider thanthescrew making slightly it the right through and shanks cutting should stop2 Bothgrooves support. from end inches each of thesupport. a Attach knobto oneendof the in it to support make easy slide the to rail notch. thef ullyassembled Set on down a worksurface, tableupside into and slide support the notch, the position sothatit supports leaf. the it into and lnstall screw washer thetop a driving end at theinside of thegroove, the thescrew untilit meets washer (right, Thisscrew bethesupwill top). port's To the outward stop. mount stop,retract slidesothe the inward is withtherail,and knob-end f lush the screw washer and install second a bottom). way same asthefirst (right,

Outwardetop

Support tL"x2"x14"

103

TOPS

PIVOTING DR()P.LEAF SUPP()RTS

illllllllllr ljlt lllllllt illjtjll t]il llllilijtllj ilIl llll t]l] llll iltl lll
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Leveling drop leavee OroVleaveo thal droop can be leveled eaeily with a ehallow wedge. Glue lhe piece of woodto the underside of Lheleafin linewith lhe droVleafeuVVort. Thewedqe jack will the leafup when the oupporlie elid inLopooition.

Making installing pivot and the rail Analternate method buttressing of drop leaves withpivoting is supports. Housed in a notched section thetable the of rail, pivots a dowel holdthe support on to d r o pl e a fw h e n h e l e a fi s e x t e n d e d t (above, left),thenaligns withthe rail when leafis notneeded. the Begin by cutting supports thesame the from stock used thetable: for Make fora drop one leaf thatadjoins endrail, twofor an and a l e a f d j a c e t o a s i d e a i l T h es u p a nt r . ports should asthick therails, be as onehalf their width, twice long the and as as distance between railandthemiddle the of thedrop when table assemleaf the is bled. Angle ends thesupport the of and notch topedge therailto match. the of This allow support close will the to almost f l u s h i t ht h er a i l .B o r e h o l e n t h e w a i centers thesupport thenotch of and for t a d o w eo r a b l i n dp i v o h i n g ee a c h l ; hole should slightly be deeper onethan half dowel hinge the or length. the Glue dowel install hinge thehole or the in in place support the therail(inset), the on dowel, assemble table. and the

t04

TOPS

TABTE LEGS A GATE F()R SIX-LEGGED
legs the 1 lnstalling gate gateleg leaves supported are the tables, table I 0n six-legged gate and rails stretchhinged thetable to bytwoswinging legs leg-andfour-legged has shown right a standard at The ers. table installed called stretchers, set railassembly, additional of rails, an is The legs. tabletop and of near bottom the legs, twogate the joints(pages fhe 101-102). with to connected twoleaves rule portion thetopcanbe narrower on a drop-leaf than of central the should exceed height not of table, thewidth theIeaves but are when they not will the or of thetable, theleaves touch floor is to after legs attached thebase joined the are in use. gate The (pages rails: to jointhe two Cut 96-99). fourgateleg tabletop to the gatelegs thetablerails, twomore connect legs to and to to the be enough hold gate The should long thestretchers. rails rails thelegs to Join near center theleaves. thegate the of legs joints to 76);usehinges fasten withmortise-and-tenon (page rails and of tight), near middle thestretchers table the therails the will restbetween fixedlegs the making sure gatelegs are when leaves down. the

a

gateleg stops O Installing stops hold gate to the L ,lsewooden are legs place in when leaves in use. the surdown a work on upside Setthetable legs until face swrng open gate the and Butt on they centered theleaves. a are of wood block against outside the small gatelegandscrew to theunderit each sideof the leaf(left).

105

TOPS

Swing legswere traditionally attached to table rails with wooden hinges.Sometimes called knucklejoints, thesewere made by cutting interlockingfingers into the hinge rail and the swing-Iegrail. The two rails were then connected a woodby joints qre still en or metal pin. These usedon reproductionsof antique swingleg tables.On most modern tables,a metal crankedhinge now used. is

SWING FOR FOUR.LEGGED LEGS A TABLE

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Using cranked a hinge In a four-legged swing-leg table, there twofixedlegs are and (abovd.fo twoswing thatpivot to support leaves legs out the assemble table, this firstprepare topwitha rulejoinl(pages a 101-102), make legs rails, then four and making necessary any preparationsthemethod willuselater attach top you for to the (page 96-99). only legs therails opposite Join two to at corners; joinls usemortise-and-tenon (page 76).Setthetwootherlegs aside swing as legs, jointherails thetworemaining and at corners dovetail boxjoints. with or Next, the hinge cut and swing-leg onefor each rails, swing Cutrecesses the leg. in t a b l e a i l st,h es w i n g - l ea i l sa n dt h eh i n g ea i l s o rt h e r rg , r f cranked hinge; willallow swing-leg to sit flush this the rails against table the rails. cuta notch thelegs they Also rn so will wrap around table the rails when leaves down. the are Screw thehinge to thetable andjointheswing-leg to rails rails rails joints. theswing withmortise-and-tenon Fasten swing legs the legs place in withcranked hinges, screwing leafof the one (teft). hinge thetable andtheotherto swing-legrait to rail the place tabletop Now the position swing-leg top-side down, the assembly place, screw twotogether. in and the

106

TOPS

TABTES EXTENSI()N DIVIDING
extenders the 1 Positioningtable table extension I To make dividins a when that-move thetop withlegs rails and assembuild is expanded, a leg-and-rail thanattaching blyanda top.Butrather table saw. in them, both halfonyour cut (Toensure thetabletop halves not do that of rates a result as at expand different of changes, thegrain the align humidity the its Attach leg-andtopacross width.) making to the railassemblies tophalves, of andtops the sure cut edges the rails p f a . a l i g n e re c t l yT h ec o m m e r c ita lb l e are shown thispage screwed on extenders halves. of to the underside thetabletop of the Todetermine position theextenders, on halves upside down a work setthetable lines the underside on surface mark and fromtheside of thetoos4 to 6 inches are To the rails. ensure lines perpendicuthe larto thejointbetween top halves, (right). square usea carpente(s

r-) Installing table the extenders of center each of segment the L ltiarV,the posiwith Then table extenders a pencil. face on tiontheextenders down theunderthe aligning center side thetabletop, of table marks thejointbetween halves with s t i a n dt h e i n s i d e e g m e nws t ht h e l i n e s youmarked step1. Before screwing in open themslightly; theextenders down, w th t h i se n s u r e s a tt h e r e i l l b e n og a p when tableis the the between top halves halves butted With closed. thetabletop flush, screw outthe together ends and to sidesegments the extenders the of through predrilled the top,driving screws (/eff). a leafto f it theopening holes Cut the between tophalves.

r07

TOPS

NON.DIVIDING EXTENSION TABTES

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the apron 1 Making decorative I 0 n a n o n - d i v i d i n g t e n s i o n b l e - w i t ht a b l e t o p a l v ets a t assembly each ex (above, ta h h for tabletop andscrew half each place in (page and openwhilethe leg-and-rail assembly remains stationary-the top right), aprons posts loined The and are 76) attached to halves attached the outside are to movable segments the exten- thetop(page of 96)inthesame fashion a leg-and-rail as assembly. d e r sa n dt h e r a i l s r ef a s t e n e t o c r o s s p i e c eh a t a r es c r e w e d Fasten table d a ts the extendersthetophalves youwould a to as for t o t h e m i d d l ef i x e de x t e n d es e g m e n t ( a b o v e/,e f t ) .S t a r tb y r s dividing extension (page Iable 107). thispoint, assembly At the c u t t i n g h e t o p i n h a l f .N o wb u i l da d e c o r a t i va p r o n - a n d - p o s t islike ordinary t e posts an dividingtable, corner in place legs. with of

r) Preparing leg-and-rail the assembly y L t o s u p p o rtth e t a b l e . o um u s tn o w b u i l da l e g - a n d - r a is s e m b lty a tw i l l f i t al h i n s i d eh e d e c o r a t i v e r o nT o a t t a c h t ao . t h e c r o s s p i e c eh a t j o i nt h e a s s e m b l y ts t o t h e t a b l ee x t e n d e r s ,u t f o u r n o t c h e s c i n t h et o pe d g e f t h e s i d er a i l s s i n g o u a chiseland a woodenmallet (right).Make s u r et h e n o t c h e sn o o o o s i t r a i l sa r e i e p e r f e c t la l i g n e dS c r e w h e c r o s s p i e c e s y . t t o t h er a i l s .

r0B

TOPS

r-,1 assembly thetableextenders to C o m p l e t te e t a b l ew i t ht h e t o p u p s i d e h on Center leg-andthe down a worksurface. r a i la s s e m b liy s i d eh e d e c o r a t i v e r o n . n t ap T h ec r o s s p i e c e s l l r e s to n t h e f i x e ds e g wi m e n t s f t h e t a b l ee x t e n d e r s .c r e wh e m o S t in place(right). a leafto f it the openCUI i n s i n t h et a b l e .

the 1 Attachins les-and-rail <.

PEDESTAL EXTENSION TABLES
Attaching base thetop the to Tomake extension witha pedestal an table base, witha topandanapron-andstart post assembly thatof a non-dividing like extension table(page l0B). Attach the o u t s i ds l i d i n s e g m e no st w ot a b l e e g tf extendersthetoohalves. arenow to You porready attach base thefixed to the to tionof theextenders. sure rails Make the of thepedestal extend base beyond the fixed holes counfor segments, bore and tersinking screws through rails. the Align theholes themiddle over f ixed segments of theextenders screw and them toeether.

Apron-and-rarl aeaembly

Pedeatal baee ratl

r09

TOPS

INSTALLING ON TRESTLE LEAVES A TABTE
Installing slides trestle table 1 I To install leaves a trestle spacer on table, cutandrout "breadboard" first two ends using same youused shape the bit to t h e r e s to f t h et a b l e t o o . h e n e tt h e T s t a b l eu p s i d e o w n n a w o r k u r f a c e , d o s align breadboard withtheendof the ends thetop,andposition commercial two trest l e t a b l e l i d e f a c e - d o w n t h et o o ' s s s on underside. ends theslides' The of inside segments should f lush be withthejoint between table the andthe breadboard e n d st;h es l i d e s h o u l a l s o e p a r a l l e l d b to thetabletop edges. Screw inside the segments theslides thetabletop of to (left).Before screwing outside the segm e n t s o t h e b r e a d b o aed d s o p e n t rn , t h es l i d e s l i g h t lty e n s u r t h a tt h e r e o e willbenogaps thetopwhen table in the isclosed.

leaves the O Installing spacer L Cutandshape spacer leaves fit to between tooandthebreadboard the ends. Make leaves the slightly narrower the than table opening they be inserted so can and removed To leaf easily. hold each in alignwhen installed, dowels its ment use at breadboard-end andtabletop edge eveners (page at theother 92) edge. the dowFor els,bore holes theedge the breadin of board endandthe leaf (page 74), Ihen gluethedowels the leaf Screw in . three oairs eveners theundersidethe of to of leafat theother edge thetabletop. and To usethe spacer leaves, extend each breadboard fully, theleafin place end set (right), push table and the closed until thedowels into fit their holes allthe and pieces together. butt

110

TOPS

TABLE.TOCKING HARDWARE

ilIl lrll lllltlll llllllllllrl illlilllllllilillll llllljll illt t]ll llll lll
)HO? TI?
Aligningtable leaveowith dowelcentero Tokeep Nable leavee aliqned withlable' Vroperly holee dowele aliqnmentr LoVe, maLinq for or Vins mueLlineup precioely, Oowel cenlerl are idealfor Nhie Naek. lhe Nable For ohown here, in boreholee oneedqeof Nhe leaf and ineerL dowel cenNers.Then alian /-' the leafwith Nhe and butt them rZffi the leafwithLhe oVandbutt them f:: t NoV

Installing a table lock Toorevent extension from an table slidingopen when is moved, it install tablel o c k i n h a r d w a o e t h eu n d e r s i d e g rn of thetop.The table lock shown normally keeps top halves the together. simBy plyreaching theend thetable under of a n dp u l l i n g nt h ew i r e t h el a t c h s o , i opened. install table To the lock, center joint. andscrew latch thetable the on Then extend wireto oneendand the f i x i t i n p l a c e s i n gh es c r e w n dc l i p u t a provided (above).

;;11':';ilni^:;'oZnouffi Zi\%ifcenNerewill ^-- -=.*NRlnil* -- -i*"r----::-:: of r,hedowel
impreeeione Nhe on punch edqeof Nhe Nop, providing eLarlinqpoinf,e .,/- ."a' lor borinqhe I matinqholee.

ELEMENTS DECORATIVE
A glass canlightenthe top Iookof a largetable.Thetop caneitherconsist a single of paneofglass, incorporate or glass a design as element, top asin theframed-glass of the mahogany coffee table shown right. at

A FRAMED.GTASS TOP INSTATTING

the 1 Preparing frame pieces shaping outside I Prepare fourframe the by their edges to the Use that andrabbeting inside the edges hold glass. siock is at least inchthickand2%inches wide. theshaping For % molding in your router mount and cuts, install decorative a bit featherboards the thetoolin a table. three Use to suooort workpiece: clamped thefence either of thebitand two to on side (above. face-down onesecured thetable. to Feed stock the

attach auxiliary an wooden fence to bfil.fo cut the rabbets, your head, its to table andinstall dado saw a adjusting width width-about inch. thecutting height the to therabbet % Set glass thickness. Using three featherboards to support workthe piece, position fence thewidth cut andsawtherabthe for of (ln right). bothillustrations, featherboard the on betshbove, side has removed claritv.) for theoutfeed of thefence been

LT2

TOPS

Gluing theframe up and installing glass the you shaped rabbeted and the Once have pieces, them length 45" frame cut to with For miters their at ends. added strength, jointhecorners biscuit joints. with Clamp the oieces a work to surface usea and j p l a t eo i n etro c u t m a t i n g l o t s n t h e i s (above). glue one mitered ends Insert and (left) clamp biscuit each at corner and the Next, frame together. attach frame the to t h el e g - a n d - ra sls e m boyy o u r a b l e ai lf t (page 96).Measure opening the the in glass frame have sheet tempered and a of %-inch thick to f it. To install cut at least glue of theglass, strips feltintotherab(inseil, bets actasa cushion to thenset theslass theframe. in

113

TOPS

A LEATHER TOP INSTALLING
panel leather a base to 1 Gluing for and can I Tops tables desks incorpoThis rateleather theirdesign. example in panel features leather-covered surrounda ed bya wood frame. start, a piece To cut of leather cover faceandedges a to the of panel, plywood; base typically %-inch using leather weighs least ounces that at 4 persquare (about inch foot Xe thick) will prevent surface thepanel fromshowthe of ingthrough leather. contact the Use cement to attach material the faceof the the to (right).To panel smooth down and it enable leather bond the to cleanly around squares each at theedges, outsmall cut (inset). glueit to theedges. Then corner

the in O Installing panel a frame L tttat<e glueupa tabletop and frame panel fortheleathered asyouwould a for glass-framed (page top 112).Fitthepanel in theframe settheassembly and upside Fasten oanel down a work on surface. the to theframe, spacing screws 6- to 8at (/eff,). inchintervals

tr4

TOPS

INSTALLING TOP A TILE

-{Il "llr"ll}1ll"1ll-llll .lflr{r llll llll llt'II1 ffi-.llf1th{r-llf"tll
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A felr-iopped writing deok felt Decauee is nol ae sLift as leaLher, makin7 felN-covered a deekto?can be a tricky taek. 1larL by receoo culNinq ehallow a in the top for Lhefabric, ueinqa rouherfil.' ted with a etraiqht bft. Cut a pieceof heavy felttc; fitthe recess, ironout any wrinkleo, -''\ .i, and qluethe malerial ]:, ", in olace. noI use Do \-liquidqlue,a6 iNmay bleed throu1hLhefabric: instead,ueea oprayadheeivelormulated Io bondfab' ric t o wood. SmoothouI lhe fabric wilh a veneerroller.

Ceramic, marble, slatetilescanalso or beincorporated tops tables into or for deslcs. Making a tile top is muchlike making leather (pagell4). The a one of tilesaregluedto a substrate 'h-inch plywood, to whichis thenscrewed a tabletop As the tilesare being frame. glueddown,rubberspacers inare stalled maintaintheproperspacing. to dries,thespacers Oncetheadhesive and thegapsbetween are removed thetilesaregrouted.

115

\

DWRS
and many irtually all desks And no tablesneeddrawers. matter what their use,all drawers

to woodthatis resistant durable and warping.Ash, maple, cheroak, enough withto ry areall strong like species heavy Softer use. stand the must meetessentially same pineandpoplar usable, only but are you are Whether requirements. cabinetdrawers. Some for smaller drawmaking three foursturdy or woods contrasting makers choose pedestal, theone like ersfor a desk likewalnut ash thefrontand and for 116, in on shown thephoto page or when to the sides highlight joinery each a single for anendtable, unit is thedrawer opened. mustfit precisely withand drawer and Beyond appearance strength, stress, considerable whilealso stand A mustfit perfectly. drawa drawer the of complementing design the whenit is er thatjamsor chatters it. furniture holds that more will and opened closed wear a Thefirststep building drawin quiquickly thanonethatwhispers a Ratherthan measuring draweropening Whatwill its er is to consider use. partsthemwaysto etly. There are several How thedrawer contain? muchuse with a tapeor a rule,usethedrawer beginmountdrawers, shown as into its Here,a drawersideis inserted matters will selves. These will it receive? 133. method is ningon page Each on and opening a cuttinglineis marked the the determine typeof woodand preto the designed support drawer, joineryyou of in stock linewith thefront edge theopening. choose. ventit fromtippingasit is pulled that ensure thedrawer A shimat thebackwill front.It is with thedrawer Start home. and out, andstopit asit slides than theopening will piece, it is slightly shorter themostvisible not only for Preparing frames bottomdust the A not close against backof thecarcase. themoststress. also undergoes run drawersis shown in the joint is required to solid, durable (page (page Thesection drawer on stops 28). chapter methods shown Casework are it firmlyattached thesides. to keep foinery from presents effective to stopdrawers being ways several page The also 120. front should blendattrac' J38) on beginning in out it. tivelywith thegrainof thewoodsurrounding Forstruc- pulled or pushed toofar. The Hardware thefinaltouchto a drawer. selection adds run grainof thefrontshould horizontally. the turalreasons, Locks applied suggestions. are 119 some on it be grain notproduce joints; will also prone shown page offers solid Vertical will traditionvaluables to copy and to drawers for securing both with changes. movement moisture to greater lock for a not al pieces. Steps installing half-mortise areshown does youusefor thedrawer sides back and Thestock 131. on a as have bethesame for thefront-providedyouchoose starting page to

are half-blinddovetails strength with appearance, Combining joining drawer Here,a dovea popularchoice frontsto sides. for desk. taileddraweris slid into onesideof a double-pedestal

ANMOMYOFADRAWER
is an A drawer essentially openbox, A consisting a front,a back, of two sides, a bottom.The front is most and oftenmadefrom thickerstock thanthe sides and back;the bottom is typically madefrom Z-inchplywood.Beyond these general similarities, drawers vary in style,methods joinery,and techof niques mounting. of Manydrawer-mak1

ing options illustrated are below andon thefollowing page. Threepopulardrawer front styles are shown directlybelow. Installing drawa er canbe a tricky operation, especially if thedrawer poorlymade. out-ofis An square draweriansometimes conbe ceiledwith a false front,but if it isbadly twisted, will be almostimpossible it to

install thatit opens so smoothly. Several joints for assembling drawers also are shownbelow;each possesses different qualities strength durability, of and Installing hardware the final,and is usually simplest, in buildinga the step drawer. The selection drawerhardof wareshownon page119will provide youwith manyoptions.

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Flushfront: Allowsthedrawer tofit entirely within thecarcase; also knownasan inset drawer

Lippedfront: A rabbeted front creates lip that is useful cona for cealing commercial runners when thedraweris closed. performs Lip double dutyasdrawer stop

Falsefront:A separate front is attached thestntctural to f'onr; conceals grnin of drawersides end

DRAWER J()INTS
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Half-blind dovetail Thetraditionaljoint for connectingf,he fronf, to the eidea; conceale end 4rain of eidee.9uitable only for Eolid wood Dado Commonly join Lo the backto Lhe aidee:for aolid woodor plywood Double dado For any corner of a arawer;conceal1 end 7rarnof eidea, )uitable only for aolid wood

Rabbet For back-to-aide jointe; aloo etronq enouqhfor joininq the frontto Lheeidea tf reinforced wrth ecrewoor natle. 9uiLablefor aalid woodor plywood

Through dovetail )Lronq, decorative joint for any drawer corner;end qrain of drawer aides can be concealedwith falae front. Appropriate for aalid woodbuL not plywood

DRAWERS

HARDWARE DRAWER

Commeraial elide runners Uaed to mount drawera in carcageo; bottom runner (top) and aide runner(riqht). Farticularly ouitable for drawere that will carry heavyloada

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Half-moft,ise loak Mounted in half-mortiae cut into back face of drawer front; bolt extends into mor' tiee cut in rail of carcase

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Drawer handlea one or more are mounrea o, arawer irontr;avatape in stvlee as varied ae Chippendale and thaker to

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Esautaheona ?rotect woodeurroundin4keyhole; plate eacutcheon(letr,tup) and decorativebraaa threaded eacutcheon (lefE,botbom)

METH(lDS DRAWER-MOUNTING Commeraialelide runners .... Metal elideescrewed to drawer eidee mate '1fi"' with runnera acrewed iii,i
. i LO Carjage i i l ,t: "'i l"'t' ' "--;":t' iiji ''\

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side-mounted
Wooden elidea ecrewedto carcaoe eidepanelarun,in qroovearouted in
drawer Eides ;.

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Bottom-run Draweralideaon rail-and-runner wtth or wtthoutduet aeeembly Lenona endaof ratle aL panel.Twin are qluedinto doublemortieeacuL inLocarcaaepanelo:one edqeof runnerecan be rabbetedto fit into groovecut into carcase aideeor joint (paqe37) groovedfor a apline Duet frame ia aesembledwith n morLi e-a nd -Le onj oInt7 e

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119

DRAWERIOINERY
hen you havesettledon the size of a drawer, is time to choose it the rightjoinery.Since corners the ofa drawer undergo different stresses, choose your joints accordingly. front-toThe side connections endure moststress the joinery.The and requirethe strongest connections between backandsides the are lessaffected everyday and by use therefore not have be assolid. do to The followingpages present several joinery options.Threeof them-the half-blind (below) throughdovetail and (page125), and the double dado(page 1271--<an beused only with solidwood. jointsis strong Each these of enough to connect front to the sides, the although thedoubledadoshould reserved be for small, light-dutydrawers. pllwood For drawers, a rabbetjointfor anyofthe use connections, a standard or dadojoint to attach backoiece thesides. the to Thejoineryoptions you choose will alsoaffect appearance the ofthe drawer. you areinstallinga falsefront, Unless choose joint likethehalf-blinddovetail a or double dadoto conceal endgrain the of thesides. Drawerbottomsfit into a groove cut in the sides and front.The groove can becut with a saw before ioinervcuts the aremade(page 123)or oncethediawer is assembled, usinga table-mounted routeranda three-wing slotting cutter. Before gluingup,makesure have you decided a mounting on method. sideA hungdrawer, example, for needs have to a groove in its side cut before drawthe (page er is assembled 133). Before begincutting,select you the mostattractive faceof eachpart and markit with an X to designateasthe it outsideof the drawer. Reserve most the visually appealing piece thefront. for

Dffirent joints for dffirent needs: joint workswellfor A dado-and-rabbet attaching the back to the sidesof a drawer. Thefront demandsa stronger joint that will conceal endgrain of the the sides-in this case, doubledado. a

HALF-BLIND DOVETAIT J()INTS

Marking pinboaro the I M a r kh eo u t s i dfe c e s f a l l t h eb o a r dw i t ha nX .T h e n t a o s gauge about seta cutting to two{hirds thicknessthepin the of board-the drawer front-andmark lineacross end, a the closer to theoutside the inside than face(above, Adjust cut/eff). the tinggauge thethicknessthedrawer to of sides scribe and a line theinside of thefront mark shoulder of on face to the line thetails. Next, a dovetail use square outline pins an to the on p o e n do f t h ef r o n tt;h ew i d e a r t f t h ep i n s h o u l d eo nt h e s b

'l

inside of thestock thefront face so does pullaway not from guidelines spacing thesides. There nostrict are for dovetail pins, for most but drawers,half-pin each a at edge two and pins evenly spaced in between makes strong attractive a and joint. complete marking, To the secure frontin a vise the and use trysquare a pencil extend lines theboard a and to the on endto theshoulder on its inside line face(above, right). Mark thewaste sections Xsasyougo. with

t20

DRAWERS

r) Gutting pins the with front L S"rrr" thedrawer in a vise you, thestock toward face the inside of with of the thencutalong edges thepins (left), yourway working saw a dovetail (Some edge theother, to fromoneboard prefer cutalltheleft-hand woodworkers to on thenmove to the of edges the pins, steady Hold edges.) theboard right-hand justto thewaste the blade andalign saw l a t o s i d e f t h ec u t t i n gi n e ; n g l eh es a w into to cutting the the toward waste avoid p i n s U s e m o o t h ,v e n t r o k e s , l o w . al e s s stroke. Conto ingthesaw cutonthepush l n , t i n u e h ec u tt o t h es h o u l d ei r e t h e n t end at the repeat saw pins theother of to theboard.

outthewaste Q Chiseling up frontinside-face on r.J Laythe drawer t a a w o r ks u r f a c e n dc l a m pa g u i d eb l o c k o s w r i t , a l i g n i n gt se d g e i t ht h e w a s t e i d eo f o a i t h e s h o u l d el r n e .S t a r t i n g t o n ee d g e f h t h e s t o c k , o l dt h e f l a t s i d eo f a c h i s e l s ; a g a i n stth eg u i d eb l o c k t h e b l a d e h o u l d portion of be no widerthanthe narrowest W l s t h e w a s t e e c t i o n . i t ht h e c h i s e p e r p e n t f s d i c u l atro t h e b o a r da c e , t r i k eh e h a n d l e a m , w i t ha w o o d e n a l l e tm a k i n g % - i n c h Thenhold deepcut intothe wasle(right). b p t h e c h i s e l e v e l - ua b o u t% t n c hb e l o w a faceand peelaway thin layer board the t u o f w a s t e C o n t i n u e n t i ly o u r e a c h h e . s c r i b e d i n eo n t h e e n d o f t h e b o a r d . l s R e p e atth e p r o c e sw i t ht h e r e m a i n i n g any waste sections, then pareaway excess (step 4). waste

t2l

DRAWERS

paring Final
W o r k i n g n o n et a i l s o c k ea t a t i m e , o t

remove remaining frombetween the waste press flatsideof the the pins. First the chisel against bottom thesocket the of with thumb your hand; your the of left with r i g h th a n d p u s h h ec h i s etlo w a r dh e , t t shoulder shaving thelast line, away slivers (lefil.f henpare of waste away waste any fromthesides thepins(inset). of

out f, Laying thetails r-,f Setonedrawer sideoutside-face down thework on surface. thedrawHold e r f r o n t n d - d o w ni t hi t s i n s i d ea c e e w f a l i g n ew i t ht h es h o u l d ei r e f t h et a i l d l n o board, making certain edges the the of b o a r da r ef l u s h O u t l i n t h et a i l s l t h s . e w (right), a pencil Ihenusea try square to extend lines theendof theboard. the on Mark thewaste all sections Xs. with

DRAWERS

Cutting tails the
U s ea d o v e t a is a wt o c u t t h e t a i l s l

way thesame youcut the pinsGtep2). (right), ralher thanthe Angling board the Secure the makes easier for cutting. saw, edges the of board thattheright-hand so and Saw tails vertical. smoothly evenare stopping at of ly along edges thetails, the in the line. theshoulder Reoosition board Once edges. to thevise cuttheleft-hand made, remove cutshave been allthesaw 3 with as thewaste a chisel in steps and4. remove about the Toavoid splitting tails, over then halfthewaste, fliptheworkpiece waste. to chisel theremainins out

Drawer aide

panel for drawer a bottom J Preparingthe bind; any where joints ihe and f Drylitthedrawer mark spots to a small amounts wood achievegood of usea chisel pare to (page joints 124).Next, your use fit. Loose canbetightened to in front table to cuta groove thedrawer andsides accomsaw its to Install dado a head, adlusting width modate bottom. the (typiyou to for of thethickness thestock plan use thebottom the front Mark groove thedrawer andsides; the on cally inch). % just groove the at be should located above half-pin thebottom mark head and Align groove withthedado the edge thefront. of position ripfence Adjust the the of the against edge thestock. (no than one-half of height thedepth thegroove more for blade the Feed frontacross table thickness). the drawer thestock (Caution: guard for Blade removed clarity.) stick(left). using push a Then install combination a sides. Repeat cutonthedrawer the flush withthetopof the of blade trimthebottom theback and g r o o v e n t h es i d e s n df r o n t T h i s i l la l l o wh eb o t t o mo w t t a . is when is slide intooosition thedrawer assembled.

r23

DRAWERS

Gluing thedrawer up Before assembling drawer, a the cut panel plywood solbottom from%-inch or id stock fit thedrawer to opening, adding (less inch) thedepth thegrooves %e of to itswidthandthedepth onegroove of panel its andthethickness theback of to joints, lengh. glue dovetail To up clampingpressure should applied thetail be to (On boards. thedrawer shown above, the back joined thesides through is to with presdovetails.)distribute To clamping properly, a specially sure make notched joint. clamping foreach block Each block s h o u l d ea s l o n g st h ew i d t h f t h e b a o stock notched it only and so touches the pressure the tailsanddoes exert not on pins. glue Spread evenly alltheconon tacting surfacestheboards assemof and b l et h ej o i n t sI.n s t aal b a rc l a m p l o n g l a pin each board, tighten clamps then the a littleat a Iimehbovd.Check drawthe (page erforsquare 128) adjust and the pressure, clamping if necessary.

fifi iltlllllltfirl illt l]It illltlll lll ilIl lI] lll rlll llll llll fill illl
1HO?TI?
Fixingdovetaile Evenexo erienced woodworkers cul,Nhe occasionat aoveLail thaX fits a liLIle looeely. ln mosl caoeo, emallgape can befilledIo improve the fiL and allearance of the joinL, smallwooden CuN wedqeo from the same woodas Nhe t drawer,aperin4 them eo Nhey w i l le l i d ei n to L h eo p e n i n q e . 1preadqlueon lhe wedqee and use a wooden mallet, No NaVhemin place,7and ny t a l o r o L r u e i o nfeu e hw i t h I h e surface of the drawer,

t24

DRAWERS

THROUGH D()VETAILS
Marking pinboard the joint, is to I the through dovetailsimilar thehalf-blind except T d h t h a tt h et a i l se x t e n f u l l yt h r o u gth ep i nb o a r d . o b e g i n , a o m a r k i ntg ej o i n t sm a k e nX o nt h eo u t s i dfe c e s f a l l t h e h a gauge thethickness thestock of Then a cutting set to boards. o t a b e o a n ds c r i b e l i n ea l o n g o t h n d s f t h eb o a r dts m a r k h e f of a N t h s h o u l d e r t h e p i n s n dt a i l s . e x s e c u rte ed r a w e r o n t in square outline pins to the end-up a vise use dovetail and a part thepins of should on be ontheendof theboard; wide the do t h ei n s i d ea c e f t h es t o c kA sw i t ht h eh a l f - b l i n d v e t a i l f o . (page but 120), spacing a matter personal the is of choice, for at edge twoevenly and spaced a typical drawer,half-pin each a pinsbetween provide good combination strength of and a (right). Mark waste the sections an X asyou with appearance go.Finally, a combination all use square extend thedovetail to lines. marks down both faces theboard theshoulder of to 'l

Cutting pins the front withitsoutside toward face Leave drawer in thevise the you.Use dovetail to cutalong edges thepins, a saw the of alignjust line. ingthesaw blade to thewaste of thecutting Cut side edges (left), fkst thencomplete left-hand the all theright-hand taking care keep blade to the edges. smooth, strokes, Use even level youcutto theshoulder 0ncethepins cut,leave lines. are as in saw as of theboard thevise use coping to remove much and a pin, thewaste possible as between pins. theside each the At of a saw into and the withslide coping blade thekerf rotate frame the Keep blade the about inch %o outstriking endof theboard. line on of above shoulder asyoucutto thekerf theedge the the pin Pare waste adjacent (above). away remaining witha chisany (page for 122).Repeat the el asyouwould half-blind dovetails orocess theother of thedrawer at end frontandforthe back of thedrawer, mark cutoutthetails thedrawer then and on sides.

t25

DRAWERS

DOVETAIL IIGS
joints a large Hand-cutting for dovetail number drawers considerable time of takes paired andpractice. router, Your witha jig commercial dovetail likeoneof those provides efficient shown thispage, on an alternative. Although router-and-jig cut dovetails lack hand-crafted may the look joints, of sawn chiseled and theyarejust fit asstrong, together welland,most as importantly, beproduced a fraction can in of thetime.Butremember factor to in setup timeforthejigs.lf youaremaking only couple drawers, tools a of hand may wellbea faster alternative. jigs popular Three dovetail areshown The below. model the leftfeatures on interchangeable templates. Depending onwhich template used, jig enables is the a router cut thepinsandtailsfor halfto joints blind, with through dovetails,box or The a single setup. jig in thecenter consists twof ixed of templates cutting for through dovetails. templates fasThe are tened backup to boards support that the workpiece. template used cutOne is for tingthe pins, other thetails. the for The jig onthe right beused routing for can joints. bothhalf-blind through and dovetail you Itssingle adjustable template allows to vary size spacing thepins the and of

a n dt a i l s g i v i n gh ej o i n t s o r e f a , t m o hand-crafted look. jigs Allthree work essentially on the principle. router f itted same A is witha dovetail anda guide bit bushing-both provided thejig.Byfeeding with usually thetoolalong template, bit is the the guided andoutof theslots cutaway in to

jig is thewaste. fixed-template shown The in action above. Once temolates the have been attached backup to boards, pin the andtail boards secured olace. are in For joints, stopblock several identical a can be clamped the backup to boards for producing repeat cuts. Thejig is shown thetails a ioint. of

t26

DRAWERS

DOUBTE JOINTS DADO
I M a r ko n ee n do f t h e b o a r dd i v i d i n g , i t s t h i c k n e s is t ot h i r d s T h e n ,i n s t a la n . l d a d oh e a do n y o u rt a b l es a w ,a d j u s t i n g s t h e w i d t ht o o n e - t h i r t h e t h i c k n e s o f d t h e d r a w e f r o n t .S e tt h e c u t t i n gh e i g h t r r e q u a il o t h e t h i c k n e so f t h e d r a w es i d e s . s N e x t , n s t a la c o m m e r c i t e n o n i nlgg ;t h e i l al i i m o d e l h o w n l i d e s n t h e m i t e rs l o t .P r o s s t w t e c t i n g h e s t o c k i t h a w o o dp a d ,c l a m p t t h e d r a w e f r o n tt o t h e j i g . M o v e h e j i g r s i d e w a yts a l i g nt h e m a r k s o t h a t t h e o s b l a d e c u t t h e d a d oi n t h e m i d d l e h i r d s t o f t h e b o a r d S l i d et h e j i g a l o n g o f e e d . t t h e s t o c k . u r nt h e d r a w e f r o n to v e ra n d T r c l a m pi t t o t h e j i g t o c u t t h e d a d oa t t h e other end (right).

front dadoes a drawer in 1t Cuttins -

the tongues ! Trimming dado 4- Installwooden a auxiliary onthe fence ripfence, mark cutting onthe then a line edge thedrawer thatdivides of front one f o f t h et o n g u e sn i t si n s i d ea c ei n h a l f . o W i t ht h es t o c kl u s h g a i n s h e m i t e r f a tt gauge, your inside down, face align mark with dado the head. thefence Butt against t h es t o c k n dr a i s eh e b l a d ets c u t a a t o relief notch thefence. thecutting in Set h e i g htto t r i mt h eh a l f - t o n g u eo l d i n g H. front thedrawer firmly against gauge, the feedit intothedado head. Turn board the around reoeat orocedure the and the at other end//eft).

r27

DRAWERS

t (

(

Cutting matching dadoes Q r-.f in the drawer sides c T o j o i nt h e d r a w es i d e s o t h e f r o n t . u t r t a d a d on e a r h e f r o n te n do f e a c hs i d e . t Thedadomustmatewith the half-tongue o n t h e f r o n t .S e t t h e c u t t i n gh e i g h t o t h e l e n g t h f t h e h a l f - t o n g u e ds c r e w o an e n t a w o o d e n x t e n s i ob o a r d o t h e m i t e r g a u g eT o s e t t h e w i d t ho f c u t , b u t t t h e . d r a w e r i d ea g a i n stth e f r o n ta n d u s ea s p e n c i t o o u t l i n eh e h a l f - t o n g u e t h e l on t d r a w e s i d e .H o l dt h e s i d ea g a i n stth e r w e x t e n s i oa n da l i g nt h e m a r k s i t ht h e n f . a d a d oh e a d C l a m p s t o pb l o c k l u s h against end of the stockandfeedthe the boardto cut the dadohbove).Repeat t h ec u t o n t h eo t h e r i d e s

dd iliifillllil,iit Jb llltijlillii,i[l:llilt lllllll ,llJ J' iltJ t:ll
Tt? 9HO7
drawersfor equare Cheaking To keepdrawersoquaredurinq qlueup,measure diaqonale Lhe imme' beNween oVpooif,e cornero a h d ia L e l y l L e rt i 7 h L e n i ntg e UseLwoeNicke a as clampo. jig. meaourinq bevel oneendof eachstick eo thaL iL can exlend inlo an inside corner the drawof er.Tousethe jtq,holdNhe ebicke face Lo face,eeal the beveled endsin oppoeiLe corners, and marka lineacroestheir edqee. Kepeatr wiLhLheLwooNher corn e r s . h el w o m a r k ee h o u l d T drawer aliqnexaclly,lfnoN,the the io out-of-square, CorrecL by the problem looeeninq clamVo, o l i d i n q n ej a w o f e a c hc l a m V o awaytromLhejoinl al oppooite qhlenin q. corners, and reLi

\28

DRAWERS

RABBET J()INTS LIPPED
front a rabbet a drawer in Cuttinglipped of Tocut lipped rabbets around edges a drawer the for lines its inside to allow an face front, mark on 3/a Also the overhang at least inch(inset). mark of to the rabbet depth itsedges-up one-half thickon front. the rabbets the Cut on ness the drawer of first the face table in twosteps, notching inside saw height to thedepti set of thefront withtheblade with These aremade thestocf^ cuts of therabbets. table. Then feed stoch the facedown thesaw on Set intotheblade endandon edge. theblade on align height thewidth therabbets, theblade to of and withthemarks therabbet for depth, buttthe Keeping drawer the front fence against stock. the flush thefence, it onendintotheblade feed against Turn board and the over to complete rabbet. one rabbet the otherend(right). repeat cut the to at into on to Then feed stock theblade edge cut the on edges. therabbets thetopandbottom

()R WITH GLUING A DRAWER DADOES RABBETS UP
Using clamps bar gluing a drawer, how Before up decide you willinstall (page it 133), since side-mountyou ingmay require to prepare drawer the finalassembly. glue Apply on sides before of and allthecontacting surfacesthejoints A r r a n gte ob a r w a s s e m btl h ed r a w e r . e clamps a work on surface laythedrawand aligning bars theclamps the of eronthem, withthedrawer andback. front Install two more along topof thedrawer. the clamps joints assemble lf youused rabbet to the drawer, install another clamps two along thedrawer sides. Protect surfaces placby pads ingwood between stock the and h t h ec l a m pa w sT i g h t etn ec l a m pls s t u l . fully(left), Ihen enough close joints to the (page for 128). check drawer square the Finish tightening clamps a bead the until of glue squeezes of thejoints, out checkingasyougothatthecorners square. are has scrape away Once adhesive dried, the panel glue. the into any dried Slide bottom p l a c e n ds e c u rie w i t hf i n i s h i nn a i l s t g a driven intothedrawer up back.

r29

DRAWERS

A BOTTOM WITHDRAWER SLIPS INSTALLING
the 1 Making slips I For drawer sides made fromstock is that grooved a bottom panel, for toothinto be greater install drawer slips. Slips provide also b e a r i ns u r f a cfe r b o t t o m - r u n a w e r s . g o dr prepare your Before drawer assembled, the is slipstock froma strip wood-1-by-1 of stock is appropriate most for drawersat least as length thedrawer of long thecombined as sides. Round onecorner the board, over of in thensetupyour table to cuta groove saw it. Install dado head, adjusting width its to a you and thethicknessthebottom willuse, of height about inch. to % Position setthecutting flush theslipstock against bottom the edge of thedrawer andmark location front the of on Align mark the with thegroove theboard. h a h t h ed a d o e a d n dp o s i t i otn er i pf e n c e . o a g a i n s h es t o c kC l a m p n t w of e a t h e r tt boards, shown, support workpiece. as to the it Saw groove, crosscut intotwo the then lengths equal thedrawer to sides measured from drawer the front.

,y' ./ ,//,t' ,,//'

./'

,/

./l)'

r) Mounting slips thedrawer the on Z. t"totcfrthe sothattheyclear back, slips the thensetthe glued-up drawer upside down a work on surface, spread some g l u e nt h ec o n t a c t i s u r f a c e st h es l i p sa n dc l a m ph e m o ng of , t

against sides drawer the and front(above,left). f,Aake certa n i is a f t h a tt h eg r o o v e n t h es l i p s n dd r a w e r r o n t a r e p e r f e c t l y (above, right). aligned

130

DRAWERHARDWARE
Thefaceplntebeingattached to the drawer"f"ont shownat right forms part of a halfmortiseIock.The lock bolt into a nrorlise in cut exlettds directly the rail or casework abovethe drawer.

INSTALLING A HALF-M()RTISE LOCK
Centering lock the I Set the drawer a worksurface on and m a r kt h e m i d p o i nb e t w e e t h e s i d e s n t n o the top edgeof the front.Thenusea comb i n a t i o n q u a r e o e x t e n d h e m a r ko n t o s t t t h e i n s i d ef a c eo f t h e f r o n t ( / e f f ) .N e x t , (seephotoabove) holdthe lockfaceplate front,alignagainst inside the drawer the of m i n gt h e k e y h o l w i t ht h e c e n t e r a r ka n d e k e e p i ntg ef a c e p l a tlep f l u s h i t ht h et o p h i w e d g eo f t h e d r a w e f r o n t .U s ea p e n c i lt o r e f o u t l i n e h e f a c e p l a t o n t h e i n s i d ea c e t a n d t o p e d g eo f t h e f r o n t . 'l

131

DRAWERS

Keceasfor faceplaLeIip

mortise Cutting lock the Youneed cutthree to mortises thelock: forthefacefor one
p l a t e a n o t h efro r t h e l o c kh o u s i n g , n da t h i r df o r t h e f a c e p l a t e , a l i p . T h i s i s o n eo f t h e r a r ec a s e s h e nt h e r o u t e ri s u s e df r e e w h a n d .I n s t a la s t r a i g hb i t i n t h e t o o l ,s e tt h e c u t t i n g e p t h o l t d t the thickness the faceplate, cut a mortise of and inside marked the f o u t l i n eo r t h e f a c e p l a t e . t a r tb y g u i d i n gh e t o o l i n a c l o c k w i s e S t d i r e c t i o no c u t t h e o u t s i d e d g e s f t h e m o r t i s ec l e a ro u t t h e t e o ; r e m a i n i nw a s t e y f e e d i n gh e t o o la g a i n stth e d i r e c t i o o f b i t g b t n r o t a t i o n . s ea c h i s etl o s o u a r eh e c o r n e ra n d o a r e o t h e l i n e . U t s t F o rt h e l o c kh o u s i n gm e a s u rte e d i s t a n c e e t w e e t h e e d g e s , h b n e o f t h e f a c e p l a t a n d h o u s i n g n dt r a n s f etrh e m e a s u r e m etn t a o the firstmortise. Adjust router's the cutting depthto the thickness o f t h e h o u s i n g n d c u t i t s m o r t i s eN e x t , s et h e c h i s etl o c u t a . u t h e r e c e s i n t h et o p e d g eo f t h e d r a w efrr o n tf o r t h e f a c e p l a t e s lip (above). Testthe fit of the lock in the cavityand usethe (/eff). chiselto deepen widenanyof the mortises, necessary or if

Cutting keyhole the Q r - J S e tt h e l o c ki n t h e m o r t i s e n d m a r k a . t h e l o c a t i o n f t h e k e y h o l eY o un e e dt o o f d r i l lt w o h o l e so rt h e k e y : n ef o r t h es h a f t o a n da s m a l l eh o l ef o r t h e k e yb i t b e l o w t . r i B o r e h e w i d e rh o l ef i r s tw i t ha b i t s l i g h t l y t l a r g etrh a nt h e k e ys h a f t . h e nu s ea b i t T s l i g h t l ya r g etrh a nt h et h i c k n e so f t h e k e y l s b i t t o b o r e h e s e c o n d o l e . s ea c o p i n g t h U sawto join the two holes(rrght). finish To i n s t a l l i nt g e l o c k ,m o u n t n e s c u t c h e o n h a on the outside faceof the drawer protect to t h ew o o d u r r o u n d i n h e k e y h o l e . s tg

132

MOUNTING DRAWE,RS
r-pr here several to install drawways are The method $. ersin a deskor table. of you choose shouldsuit the design you the and yourpiece theloads expect drawers bear. to a wav Thesimolest to moul-lt drawer belowand is with siderunneri.Shown this on thenextpages, methodinvolves in routing grooves the drawersides These mate with before assembly. mountedon the insideof the siides is casework. Side-mountine idealirt I caseworkpnge35) frarne-and-panel t drawand for small-to rnedium-sized loads. ersthatwillbearmoderate are slide Commercial runners anothir-t drawers of er method side-mounting Althoughpuristsmaydecry a carcase. are runners strolttheiruse, commercial and so area ger than wood runners, for that soodchoice drawers willbear are runners hear,ry loads. Commercial Buy in sizes. thehardavailable different ware and read the manufacturer's your beforeyou br-rild instructions runnersrequire specific drawers, since the clearances between drawersides andthecarcase. methodof securing The strongest Here, is drawers bottom-mounting. the in mounted ride drawers on runners milledin the sides the caseof grooves are work.Therunners joinedat thefiont whichproandtherearwith stretchers, for vide both a bearingsurface the the and drawers strengthen casework. (pnge canbe added to Dust panels 3a) and the frameformedby the runners themin a groove by stretchers setting woodedges. Some routed theirinside in in workers preferto rout a groove the which a carcase and install shelf, sides support as serves double-duty drawer anddustpanel.

doesnot Evertcorefulnteosurettlent alwnysgttorantceo per.fbct If a .fit. i i t r l r o w c r s / o os r r r r qr r i t s o p t ' t t i r t y,o t t u c o t tp l o t r cd o w r t t l r es i d e s r t t i l t h c orrd closes vrtoothly. trrtitoperrs

IN A DRAWER A CARCASE SIDE-MOUNTING
in sides 1| Cuttins srooves thedrawer -I C u ta s r o o v en t h e o u t s i d ea c eo f i f f e a c hd r a w i rs i d eb e f o r ei n a la s s e m b l y . g fs T h e r e r en o r i g i d u i d e l i n e o rt h eg r o o v e a a tl w i d t h ,b u t i t s h o u l d c c o m m o d asei d e s t t h a t a r e h e f t ye n o u g h o s u p p o r t h e l d r a w e rO ny o u rt a b l es a w ,i n s t a la d a d o . Draw headthe samewidthas the groove. w c u t t i n gl i n e sf o r t h e g r o o v e t d t ht n t h e g m i d d l e f t h e l e a d i n e n do f o n ed r a w e r o t s i d e .S e tt h e c u t t i n gh e t g h a t n o m o r e . t h a no n e - h a ltfh e s t o c kt h i c k n e s sB u t t w t h e l i n e s o r t h e g r o o v e i d t ha g a i n stth e f f , h d a d oh e a d p o s i t i otn e r i p f e n c e l u s h the and makethe cut (/eff). against stock, l f t h e g r o o v e i d t he x c e e dts e w i d t ho f w h , e t h e d a d oh e a d t u r nt h e b o a r d n df o r . a r e n da n d m a k e n o t h ep a s s R e p e atto i r c u t t h e s r o o v en t h e o t h e rd r a w es i d e .

t33

DRAWERS

r) Making installing and the Z- drawer slides Onyour table saw, thedrawer rip slides froma board is slightly that shorter than thedepth thecarcase. of Position rip the fence a cutting to width slightly narrower (sfep than groovesthedrawer the in sides l). Cuttwoslides each for drawer, using (Caution: guard a push stick(above). Blade removed clarity.) mount slides, for To the insert drawer thecarcase hold the in and l i t i n p l a c e h i l e s i n g p e n c ti o m a r k w u a thelocation thegrooves the front of on e d s e o f t h es i d en a n e l s .h e n s e s T u a carpenter's square extend marks to the a c r o sts e i n s i d ea c e s f t h e p a n e l s . h f o Bore three countersunk clearance holes through slides; the make clearance the holes slightly than screw wider the shanks t o a l l o wo rw o o d o v e m e n t . l d i n g f m Ho theslides recessed thefront from edge of thecarcase between marked the lines p t o nt h es i d e a n e l s ,r i l lp i l o h o l ea n d d s (inset), screw slides place the in Testf i t t h e d r a w e rU s es h i m s n d etrh e . u slides tighten ordeepen grooves to rt the to ease fit. the

lll1 lllt ljlt illJ lltJ lltJ lll1 tllj tllt rlll lllJ llll tllJ illl illJ rlll l]li tlll
?HO?Tt?
?ooilioning drawerslides Toensure drawerslideson oppooitre oideeof your carcaeeare aNprecieely the eameheiqhl,ueea wood gpacer cul from a oiece of ecraV. Makeite widLh equal to the neceooarv e0ace belween lhe eliiee.'Hota Nheedaeol the ezacer aqainoitheto? ndthe A face againeloneeidepanel,butl the elideaqainsl
lhe sVacer,and screw if,

in place, Kepea|Nhe for procedure the remaininq slidee.

r34

DRAWERS

DRAWERS IN FRAME-AND-PANEI CASEWORK Installing drawersin frame-and-panel caseworkis a Runners little more complicatedthan with carcases. cannotbefasdrawersupports connotbe usedbecause teneddirectly to thefloating panels.As shown at right and on page 136, the supportsore insteadanached to corner strips screwedto the stilesof the casework.The drawer supportsarefixed in the dedoes.During installation, hold the corner stripsin position with handscrewsand test-fit the drawers to make sure the supportshold them straight and level. The strips can run thefull height of the caseworkto support several to drawers,or be shortened mount a singledrawer in a pieceoffurniture like the night tableshownat right.

CASE A DRAWER A FRAME.AND.PANEL IN SIDE-MOUNTING
the strips 1 Making corner and I Rioa board a width 4 inches to of it to reach fromtopto bottom crosscut The for inside case. dadoes thedrawer the on a radtal arm are to supports easy cut ig h e a da d j u s t i n t s , ll sawInstaa dado . of the width accommodate thickness to you use step Starting 3. thesupports will in of at theendthatwillbeat thebottom the for drawer. cabinet, a dado thelowest cut to the along fence cutthe the Slide board position. lf drawer second at thenext dado will between suoports be the thedistance into to equal, drive screw thefence serve a pin; the of asan indexing locate head the of fastener against leftedge thefirst the dado dado. cutthesecond andreooNow of the so sition board the leftedge this head. the Cut the dado rests against screw n n r e m a i n i n g d o eis t h i sf a s h i o ( l e f t ) , da into strips. thenriptheboard fourequal

r35

DRAWERS

r) Installing corner the strips L Bore clearance fora No.8 a hole near screw theendof each corner strip, thenwitha larger drilldeep bit, enough to recess screw the head. Nowoosition each stripin thecase, making certain that thedadoed edges flush are withtheedge of thestiles. Temporarily thestrips hold in place withhandscrews, and make (sfep and yourdrawer insert supports 3), testthedrawers thecase. in Adjust the height thecorner of strips, necessary, if to level drawers. remove the Then the drawers drawer and supports, the mark screw holes thetooandbottom near of pilot thestiles using awl,andbore an holes a No.8 screw. for Screw strios the to the case(/eff).

the supports Q lnsefting drawer r-,1 Measure distance the between the front andback stiles both on sides the of case. drawer Cut supports fit thegaps to pairs matching of dadoes. between Make sure thesupports wide that are enough to buttress drawers the adequately, and (rghfl. thattheyf it snugly thedadoes in

r36

DRAWERS

T() A DRAWERFIT FINE.TUNING
sides Planing drawer in of binds a piece f urniture, lf a drawer plane improve the youcanusea hand to thedrawer bind,remove f it. lf the sides a s a a n df i n da n dm a r k n ys h i n y r e a o n highspots can that are thesides-these . h b e s h a v ew i t ht h e p l a n eS e c u rte e d t h eb i n d i n g s e d r a w eo n a w o r k u r f a cs o r with the up. side facing Gripping plane is spots off hands, shave the marked both (right).fesIeven strokes with smooth, and in f it thedrawer itsopening continue p l a n i nu n t i li t f i t s p e r f e c t l y . g

Planing topofa drawer the rubs of lf thetopor bottom thedrawer plane part against of thecasework, the in secure To the top. hold drawer place, using wood bench dogs, between oneside pads protect stock. Plane edge the the to (/eft). pass even with to betrimmed a light, planing, necessary. as Test{it continue and

t37

DRAWER STOPS
.i stops control howfara draw{- rawer L r' ercan slide or out.Inward in stoos arealmost always needed. prevent They a drawer from beingpushed too far. in Outwardstops, prevent drawto a e r f r o mp u l l i n g u t o f a c a r c a s e , e o ar always needed whena drawer carries a heavy load,and may be desirable at othertimes well.Thefollowing as pages showa fewmethods installins for both types ofstops.

Tlrc inward stop shown ot lef'twill nllow thefrortt of the drawer to rest exactlyllush with tlrc cnrcase front. It is installedon the dust ptutel xtpporting the drnwer,oJfset fr"onttheJiont edgeby tlrc thickness oJ'thedrntverJront. To make this metlrcd work, tlrc drawer overhangthe bottorrtso the li'ont rrrtrst insidelace of the frortt c()ntacts stop tlrc whert the drawer is closed.

INWARD ST()PS
Attaching eccentric an stop T h i si s a n e a s y - t o - i n s ta dlj u s t a b ls t o p . al e B e f o r en s t a l l i n t h e b a c kp a n e l f y o u r i g o c a r c a s eu s ea b a n ds a wo r s a b e r a wt o , s c u t a 1 - t o 1 % - i n c h - d i a m e tie r f r o ma d sk p i e c eo f s c r a pw o o dt h e s a m et h r c k n e s s a s t h e d r a w e r i d e s .B o r ea n o f f - c e n t e r s h o l e h r o u g hh e s t o p , h e ns c r e wh e d i s k t t t t t o t h e s i d ep a n e l e a r h e b a c k . e tt h e n t S c a s eo n i t s s i d ea n d c l o s e h e d r a w e r . t L o o s e nh e s c r e w l i g h t l y n d r o t a t e h e t s a t s t o pu n t i li t j u s tt o u c h e t h e d r a w e r , e n s th tightenthe screw(right).

L3B

DRAWERS

ST0PS: CARCASE 0UTWARD

an dlawer stop Installing outward gluing the up wood. Before of Cuta stopfroma piece scrap Make the back. for cut drawer, a notch thestopin thedrawer and thanits narthickness wider deeper thestop's than notch t t h to r o wd i m e n s i o n a l l o w h es t o p o f i t t h r o u g t h eo p e n i n g pedestal you shown above, For the when install drawer. thedesk of f t t h es t o pi s f i x e d o t h eu n d e r s i d et h es h e l o r d u s tp a n e l . a t i T o m o u ntth es t o o . n s t a lt lh ed r a w e rn dm a r kh el o c a t i o n

Bore the on above drawer. a pilothole of thenotch theframe (above, Donot /eff). it thenscrew in position through stop, the Withthe long edge thestop of all tighten screw theway. the (above, parallel thesides thecase, thedrawer place in of slip to the completely through notch, right). Once stoppasses the the back edge parallelto drawer is rotate 90" sothatits long it the andtighten screw.

FRAME.AND.PANEL STOPS: OUTWARD
rail Installing a stop thefront on for of Thismethod works thetoodrawer a withdrawer frame-and-oanel orone desk railsbetween drawer. a drawer each Cut To the bore stop fromscrap. mount stop, near end.Screw stop one the a pilothole the to themiddle therail,leaving fasof just so tener loose enough thatyoucan Install the rotate stop of theway. out the clears the Once drawer the back drawer. the frontrail,rotate stop90" (/eff).

r39

GLOSSARY
A.B-C Basemolding: A decorative frame madefrom moldedstockthat supports the bottom ofa desk. Bound water:Moistureheldwithin the cell walls of wood; see water. free Breadboardend:A narrow strip of wood installedacross end grain the ofa tabletopto conceal that grain. Cabrioleleg:A type of furniture leg characterized roundedcontours by designed imitate the graceful to leg of a leapinganimal. Carcase: pieceof furniture with a A boxlike construction; madefrom solid panels. Caseworlc The frameworkof a piece of furniture constructed eitherfiom solid panels from frame-andor panelassemblies. Cope-and-stickjoint A methodof joining stilesand railsin frame-andpanelconstruction; joint features the mating tongues and grooves a and decorative molding. Crosscut A sawcut madeacross the grain of a workpiece. D-E-F-G-H-I Dado: A rectangular channelcut into a workpiece. Desktop fastener:Metal hardware that fastens leg-and-railassembly the of a table or deskto the top; installed in shallowrecesses into the matcut ing pieces. Dividing extension table: An extension tablewith a tabletopand legand-railassembly slideapart that to accommodate additionalleaves; see non-dividing extension table. Double dadojoint: A cornerjoint that features tonguein eachpiece a that interlockswith a groovein the other. Dovetailedhalf-lapjoint Usedfor joining the connecting of a desk rail to the carcase; half-lap at the end the of the rail is cut in a dovetailshape to lock thejoint in tension. Dowel joint Any joint relying on dowelsfor alignmentor reinforcement. Drawer slide:A type of drawersupport; usuallya wood strip fastened to the sidepanelof a carcase mates that with a groovein the drawerside,or a commercial metalslidefastened the to drawersidethat meshes with a runner screwed the carcase. to Drawer slip: A groovedwood strip fastened alongthe bottom edge ofa drawersideto supportthe bottom. Drawer stop:A woodenblock or disk attached deskor tablecasework to to preventa drawerfrom beingpulled out or pushedin too far. Drop-leaftable:A tablewith a narrow top and hinged leaves that fold down when not in use. Dust frame:A flat frame-and-panel assembly usedto supportdeskdrawersand preventdust from entering the drawers. Escutcheon: metalplateinstalled A arounda keyhole decoration for and protectionof the surroundingwood. Extensiontable A tablewith a top that openson tableextenders to accommodate additionalspacer leaves. dividingand nonSee dividing extension tables. False front A pieceof wood installed over a drawerfront, usuallyto conceal the end grain ofthe sides to create or a lippedfront. Fiber saturationpoint (FSP): conA dition in which wood cellcavities are freeof all water,while the cellwalls remainfully saturated. Flushfront A drawerfront that sits flushwith the front edges the carof case when the draweris installed; also known asan insetdrawer. Frame-and-panelassembly:A methodof casework constructionin which a wood panelsitsin grooves in a framemadeof horizontalrailsand verticalstiles. Freewater:Moisturecontained within wood cell cavities; boundwater. see Gatelegtable: six-legged A tablewith two legsthat swingout from the table railsto supportdrop leaves. Grain: The arrangement direcand tion of the fibersthat makeup wood; grain appearance varies with thewood species the sawing and technique. Half-blind dovetail joint Similar to a through dovetailjoint, except that the pins arenot cut through the entirethickness the workpiece, of therebyconcealing end grain the of the tail boards;idealfor joining drawerfronts to sides. joint: Haunchedmortise-and-tenon Similarto a standard mortise-andtenonjoint, except that one edgeof the tenonhasa haunchthat fills the groovecut for a panel. Inlay: A decorative strip of metal, wood, or marquetrythat is gluedinto a groovecut into a workpiece.
Lap jointA joint in which one or both of the mating boards are dadoed so that the surfacesofthe piecesrest flush with one another when the ioint is assembled.

I-K-r-M-N-O-P-Q

140

Ledgerstrip: A short,narrow piece of wood usedto supportthe top or bottom of a tableor desk. Lipped front A rabbeteddrawer front that overhangs sides, the conmounting hardware cealing drawerwhen the draweris closed: alsoserves asa drawerstop. Marquetry: Decorative inlay done metal,or other materials. with veneers, Mortise-and-tenonjoint A joinery in technique which a projectingtenon cut in oneboard fits into a matching hole, or mortise,in another. Nominal size The dimensions to which lumber is sawnbeforeolaning; wood is soldaccording nomito nal size. Non-dividing extensiontable: An that extension tablewith top slides open on tableextenders while the legand-rail assembly remainsfixed;see dividingextension table. Outward stop:A wood block that stopsa dropJeafsupportin the open position;also,a block screwed the to insideof a carcase preventa drawer to from beingpulled out too far. Pedestaltable: tablewith a top A that is supported a centralcolumn by usuallymountedon threeor four short legs. Plain-sawn lumber: Lumber that has are beensawnso that the wide surfaces roughly parallelto the annualgrowth rings.Also known asflat-sawnlumber when referringto softwood;see quartersawn lumber. Pocket hole:An angledhole bored into the faceof a workpieceand exiting from its top edge;typically usedto attacha top to the railsofa tableor desk.

Pommet The souare left section on a turned furniture leg;allowsroom for mortises needed receive to rails. Quartersawn lumber: Wood sawnso the wide surfaces intersect growth the 45" rings at angles between to 90o. Also known asvertical-grained lumber when referringto softwood;see plain-sawn lumber. R-S Rabbet A step-like in the edge cut or end of a board;usuallyforms part of a joint. Rabbetjoint A methodofjoining of wood in which the end or edge fits oneworkpiece into a channel cut alongthe edge end ofanother or workpiece; typicallyusedto join at carcases the corners. RaiftA board running alongthe bottom edge a tabletopto which the of legscanbe attached; also,the horizontalmemberof a frame-and-panel assembly. stile. See panet In frame-and-panel Raised panelwith a construction, carcase a a bevelcut aroundits edges, decora"raises" tive effectthat the centerand allowsthe panelto fit into the groove cut in the frame. Relativehumidity: The ratio of the in watervaporpresent the air to the amountthe air would hold at its saturation point, usuallyexpressed a as percentage figure. Rip cut A sawcut that follows the grain of a workpiece. Rulejoint A pivoting joint commonly features matusedin dropJeaftables; ing concave and convexprofiles cut into edges the tableleafand tabletop. of Seasoning: process technique The or of removingmoisturefrom green wood to improve its workability.

Stile:The verticalmemberof a frameand-panel assembly. rail. See A Substrate: pieceof plywoodor solid wood usedasthe foundationfor veneer, leather, or tile that covers felt, the surface a tableor desktop. of Swing-leg table:A four-legged table with two legsthat swing out from the railsto supportdrop leaves.

T-U-V-W-X-Y-Z
Thbletopevener:Hardwareinstalled on the underside adiustable of tables as to alignthe tablehalves leaves or they areclosed. Tirngentialplane: A viewing plane in wood identification cut alongthe grain tangential the growth rings;plainto sawnlumber is sawntangentially. Template A pattern cut from plywood,hardwood,or particleboard to reproduce multiple copies a part. of Through dovetail joint A method of joining wood at the corners means by of interlockingpins and tails,both cut to the thickness the workpiece. of Trestletable: knockdowntable A with a largetop supportedby trestles at eachend that areconnected rails to with removable wedgedor tusk tenonjoints. Thipodtable A pedestal tablewith a centralcolumn supported three by shorterlegs. Tusktenonjoint A type of through joint in which the mortise-and-tenon tenonextends through the mortise pieceand is fixed,not by glue,but by a tusk-likewedge. Wood movement:The shrinking or swellingof wood in reactionto changes relative in humidity.

I4I

INDEX
Pagereferencesin iralicsindicate an illustration ofsubject matter. Pagereferencesin bold indicate a Build It Yourself proiect. Tops,89-90,93-95 addingledgerstrips (ShopTip),97 felt-topped writing desks (ShopTip), l15 glass,112-113 gluing up, 94 hardware,92,99, 100 leather, 114 methods of attachment, 90,96-100 tiles, l.l5 using steeltabletop fasteners (ShopTip), ee SeealsoPedestaldesks Desktop fasteners,100 Dining tables,25 Double-pedestaldesks.See Pedestaldesks Dovetail joints: Fiing loose dovetails (Shop Tip), 124 Half-blind dovetails,116,118 HalfJap dovetails, 32, 39 figs and templates, 126 Sliding dovetails, 5& 59, 78-80,81-82 Through dovetailjoints, 32, 118,125-126 Dowel joints, 57, 74-75 Drawers,116,117-118 Adjustment, 133,137 Assembly, 129 checking for square (Shop Tip), 128 Bottoms, I30 Fronts, IJ8 Hardware,.l19 half-mortise lo ck. I 31- 132 foinery, 118,120-124 Half-blind dovetails,116,118 rabbetjoints, 118,129 Measuring,1-17 Mounting, 119,133-136 positioning drawer slides (ShopTip), 134 Stops,138-I39 DropJeaftables, 23 Tops, 101102, IO3, 104 leveling drop leaves(Shop Tip), 104 Dust frames, 3436 screwingdust frames to a carcase (ShopTip), 37 Frame-and-panel construction,29, 31,4l Assembly,4T Drawer, 135-136,139 Joinery cope-and-stickjoints, 32 haunched mortise-and-tenon loints, 32.41-43 Panels non-raised,48-49 raised,41, 44-45,46 Pedestaldesks,49-5.1 Gate-leg tables,23,90 Assembln 105 Ghaffari, Kam, 8-9 Glass: Desk/tabletops 112-113 , Gluing: Carcases, 29,37-38 Desldtabletops,94 Drawers, 129 Leg blanks,/ront endpaper Seea/soAdhesives Groove-and-splinejoints, 32

A.B-C-D
Adhesives: loinery, front endpaper Blind mortise-and-tenon joints, 57, 76-77 Boardfeet,16-17 Build It Yourself: Frame-and-panel construction panel-raising jigs for table saws,45 tenoning jigs for table saws,42 Legs jigs for two-sided tapers,62 shop-made hardware, 85-87 Tops drop-leaf supports, 103 Butler's tabIes,22 Butterfly tables,22 Cabriole legs,56, 63-65 Carcases,29,30 Assembly,3T-38 Drawer mounting positioning drawer slides (ShopTip), l3a Drawers,132-133,138-39 foinery dovetail joints, 32, 39 groove-and-splinejoints, 32 mortise-and-tenon joints, 33, 34-36 plate joints, 32 rabbet joints, 32, 33-34 tongue-and-dado joints, 32 Panels,33 Card tables.22 Circle cuts: Round table tops, 95 Clamos: Using pipe clamps in pairs (Shop Tip), 53 Coffee tables, 22 Console tables.23 Cope-and-stick joints, 32 Crosscutting,20 Cutting lists, 17 Dado joints, 32, 118,120, 127-128, 129 Davenport desks,27 Decorative technioues: Inlays,70-71 Desks: Assembly checking for square, .100 Design, 6-7,10-ll,2l styles,26-27 Repair iratching compounds, backendpaper Standard dimensions, 2l

H-I-I
Half-blind dovetails, 116, 118 Handkerchief t ables,23 Hardware: Desks,92, 99,100 Drawers,l-19 Legs,56,84-85 shop-made,86-87 Tables,92,99, 100,102,106, 111 Harvest tables,24 Haunchedmortise-and-tenon ioints, 32,41-43 Inlays: Legs,70-71 figs: Dovetail joints, 126 Table saws jigs for two-sidedtapers,62 panel-raisingjigs, 46 tenoning jigs, 42

foinery:
Adhesives, /ror t endpaper joints, 32 Cope-and-stick Dado joints, 118,120,127-128, 129 Dowel joints, 57, 74-75 Drawers, 118,120-124 Groove-and-splinejoints, 32 Leg-to-rail joints, 57, 72-87 Plate joints, 32 Rulejoints, 101-102 Tongue-and-dado joints, 32 Tusk tenon joints, 54, 57, 72-73 Wood grain, 15 SeealsoD ovetail ioints; Mortise-andtenon joints; Rabbet lomts fointing, .19

E-F-G
Extension tables,23 Tops, 89, l0l aligning table leaveswith dowel centers(Shop Tip), I I I dividing, 91,107 non-dividing, 91, 108-109 pedestalextension tables, 109 tableJocking hardware, I 1I Fall-front desks,26,27 Felt: Desktops(ShopTip), ll5

t42

K-L-M
Keyholes, 132 Lap desks,26 Leather: Desk/tabletops,.ll4 Leaves(table extension): Aligning table leaveswith dowel centers(Shop Tip), lll Legs,55 Gate-legtables, 105 Gluing up legblanks, front endpaper Hardware,56 foinery, 54-55,57 joints, blind mortise-and-tenon 57,7G77 commercial hardw are, 84-85 dowel lornts,57,74-75 shop-made hardware, 86-87 sliding dovetail joints, s8, s9,78-80,81-82 tusk tenon joints, 54,57,72-73 Pedestaltables,59, 81-83 Styles,56 cabriole, 56,63-65 octagonal,56,69 pedestal,56,58,59,68 tapered,56,60-62,70 Turned, 55,56,66-67 SwingJeg tables, 106 Tripod tables,5& 68,78-80 Locks. 131-132 Lumber: Cutting lists, 17 Defects,18 Measurement,16-17 Selection,13,16-17 SeeakoWood Martinez, Ramon, l0-11 Measuring and marking tools, back endpaper Moldings: Basemoldings, 40 Mortise-and-tenon joints, 32, 33, 34-36 Blind mortise-and-tenon joints, 57.76-77 Frame-and-panel construction,41-43 Legs,57,7G77 Legs-to-rail joints, 57

Panels: Frame-and-panelconstruction, 41,44-45,46 non-raised pan els, 48-49 Patching compowds, backendpaper Pedestal desks,12,26,27,29 Assembly,52-53 using pipe clampsin pairs (ShopTip), 53 Basemoldings, 40 Carcases, 33 gtuingup,37-j8 Connecting rails, 39 Dust frames, 34-36 screwing dust frames to a carcase (ShopTip), 37 Frame-and-panelpedestals, 49-51 Pedestaltables,24 Extension tables, ]09 Legs,59,68,72,81-83 Pembroke tables,25 Planing,.l9 Platejoints, 32 Pocket holes, 98 Power tools: Safetyprecautions,front endpaper

T-U-V
Tables: Assembly checking for square, i00 Design,8-9,2l styles,22-27,90 Reoair patching compounds, backendpaper Standard dimensions, 21 Tops, 88-90,9j-95 adding ledger strips (Shop Tip),97 glass,112-113 gluing up, 94 hardware,92,99, 100,102,106, 111 leather, 114 methods of attachment, 90, 96-100 round, 95 tiles,115 using steeltabletop fasteners (ShopTip), 99 Table saws: figs for two-sided tapers, 62 Raisedpanels,45-46 Tenoningjigs,42 Tabletop fasteners,99 Tapered legs,56, 60-62, 70 Tavern tables.25 Through dovetail joints, 32, I 18,125-126 Tiles: Desk/tabletops,.ll5 Tilt-top tables,25 Tongue-and-dado joints, 32 Tools: Measuring and marking tools, backendpaper Safetyprecautions,front endpaper Trestle tables, 22, 24 Legs,54 Tops,91,96 leaves,-ll0 Tripod tables: Assembly, 78-80 Legs,58, 68,78-80 Turned legs,55, 56,66-67 Tusk tenon joints, 54, 57,72-73 Two-pedestal desks.See Pedestaldesks

R.S
joints: Rabbet Carcases, 32,33-i4 Drawers, 129 118, Rails, 57 55, Ripping,20 Roll-topdesks,27 Roundtabletops,95 Routers: panels, Raised 44 Rulejoints, 101-102 precautions: Safety Tools, front endpaper Searer, Tony,J0-ll 26 Secretary desks, Shop Tips: Deskassembly, 53 37, Drawers, 124,128,134 Tops,J5,97,99,I I I joints, 58,59,78-80,81-82 Slidingdovetail Square: Checking square for drawerc, 128 tables. 100 Standing desks,27 (tables),25 Stands Swing-leg tables, 90 Assembly,]06

W-X-Y-Z
Watts, Simon, 6-7 Wood: Grades,backendpaper,13,17 Grain, 15 Moisture content, 14-15 Recycled,7 Shrinking and swelling, 14- 15,96 SeealsoLrtmber Wood buttons, 98-99 Writing tables,26

N-O-P-Q
Nested tables,24 Night tables,25 Occasional tables,24 Octagonal legs,56,69

t43

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
Theeditors wish to thank thefollowing TABLE AND DESK BASICS WA; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, Guelph,Ont.; Judith Ames,Seattle, WA; Hitachi PowerTools U.S.A.Ltd., Norcross,GA; Hank Holtzer, Seattle, Inc., Montreal, Que. Auburn, ME; Shopsmith, ThomasMoser Cabinetmakers, DESKCASEWORK AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools,Towson,MD; Delta International Ont.; Machinery/Porter-Cable, Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd., Mississauga, GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury, MA; GrisetIndustries,Inc., SantaAna, CA; and Tools Co., Scranton,PA; Frank Klausz,Frank'sCabinetShop,Pluckemin,NJ; SandvikSaws A.G. Switzerlandi Colonial Works, New Britain, CT; Steiner-Lamello Tools, Division of the Stanley Stanley SawCo., Kingston,MA; Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY; MN The Woodworker'sStore,Rogers, LEGSANDRAILS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln, NE; Black& Decker/EluPowerTools, Montreal, Que.; Guelph,Ont.; Allan Flegg, Towson,MD; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, U.K./BusyBeeMachineTools, LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; RobertSorbyLtd., Sheffield, Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; and Tools Co., Scranton,PA; Sears, Concord,Ont.; SandvikSaws Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY; WainbeeLtd., Pointe Claire,Que.i MN De-Sta-Co, Troy, MI; The Woodworker'sStore,Rogers, Corp., AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln, NE; Black& D..kl?El: PowerTools,Towson,MD; CabotSafety Montreal, Que.; Guelph,Ont.; Allan Flegg, MA; Delta InternationalMachinery/Porter-Cable, Southbridge, FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd., Mississauga, Ont.; GreatNeck SawMfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury, MA; LeeValleyTools Ltd., Ottawa,Ont.; Ednaand William Mills, Montreal, Que.; Tools,Division of the Stanley Works, New Britain, CT; Sears, Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; Stanley A.G. Switzerland/Colonial SawCo., Kingston,MA; 3M CanadaInc., London, Ont.; Steiner-Lamello MN Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY; The Woodworker'sStore,Rogers, DRAWERS AdjustableClamp Co., Chicago,IL; AmericanTool Cos.,Lincoln, NE; Delta International Ont.; GreatNeck Saw Machinery/Porter-Cable, Guelph,Ont.; FreudWestmoreTools,Ltd., Mississauga, Mfrs. Inc. (Buck Bros.Division), Millbury, MA; Frank Klausz,Frank'sCabinetShop,Pluckemin,NI; RobertLarsonCompany,Inc., SanFrancisco, CA; LeighIndustriesInc., Port Coquitlam,B.C.; PA; and Tools Co., Scranton, RecordTools Inc., Pickering,Ont.; SandvikSaws Tools,Division of the Stanley Works, New Britain, CT; Sears, Roebuckand Co., Chicago,IL; Stanley MN Vermont AmericanCorp., Lincolnton, NC and Louisville,KY; The Woodworker'sStore,Rogers, also in ofthis book: Thefollowingpersons assisted thepreparation (LesBoisD'Ecor,Montreal,Que.),LorraineDor€, Eric Cordeau Monette,David Simon Mr. and Mrs. RichardEttinger,Graphor Consultation,Genevidve

PICTURE CREDITS
Cover RobertChartier 6,7 RobertHolmes 8,9 Ian Gittler 10,ll MichaelTincher 13 Philip C. Jackson 22 CourtesyThos.Moser Cabinetmakers 25 Hank Holtzer 27 Judith Ames 90 Dean Powell/KamGhaffariDesign

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GU WORKSHOP IDE
TUMBER HARDWOOD GRADES
GRADE Allowablength of board A l l o w a bw i d t h le of board % Minimum of
elear face nr rfii nqs

FAS 8'- 16', 6 " o rw i d e r 83tA% 3"x7' 4"x5'

SELECT 6 -16 4 " o rw i d e r 83IA% 3"x7' 4"x5'

N 0 .1 C(]MMON 4 ' , -1 6 3 " o rw i d e r 66'A% 3"x3' 4 "x 2 '

N0.2A& 28 C()MMON 4',- 16' 3 " o rw i d e r 50% 3 "x 2 '

N(). 3A COMM()N 4' - 16' 3 " o rw i d e r 33'A% 3 "x 2 '

N O3 8 . COMM()N 4' - 16' 3 " o rw i d e r 25% Notless than 1%"wide 36 containing I s q u a r en c n e s Unlimited

s o M i n i m u mi z e f ngs clear cutti

n M a x i m u mu m b e r cuttings of clear perm itted

4

4

5

Unlimited

HardwoodLumberAagociation Chart courtagv of NaLional

TOOTS AND MEASURING MARKING USEFUT

PATCHING COMP()UNDS WOOD
TYPE f Woodiller CHARACTERISTICS 0n depending type. or Solveni- water-based, pre-tinted Canbe tintedwith stainor purchased in available a variety Waxand resin-based; of colors. Setsquickly d S h e l l a ca n d r e s i n - b a s ea v;a i l a b l e Setsquickly in a variety colors. of to form a hardsurface w , S a w d u sm i x e d i t hb i n d e rs u c ha s h i d e t g l u eo r s h e l l a c ;a n b e t i n t e dw i t hs t a i n c

usEs
gouges, holes, Fillinglarge and dents cracks F i l l i n g m a l lh o l e s , s and scratches cracks F i l l i n g c r a t c h ed e n t s s s, and gouges F i l l i n g a r r o wr a c k s , n c
^^^^ Bdp), ^^l dilu ^-^il )ilroil L^t^ilurtrJ

COMPATIBILITIES C o m p a t i b w i t h m o s tf i n i s h e s ; le or applybefore afterstain M a yb e i n c o m p a t i bwe t h l i a f l a c q u e r ;p p l y f t e r i n i s h i n g a l i M a yb e i n c o m p a t i bwe t ha l c o h o l finishes; apply or lacquer-based before afterfinishing or C o m p a t i b w i t hm o s tf i n i s h e s le

Waxstick s Shellactick

Shop-made f il l e r

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