REPORT On Practical Training At

Submitted To: Mr.R.S.Tyagi (Head of Office)

Submitted By: Pratibha Chauhan (B.E 2nd Year) M.B.M Engg. College

PREFACE
Practical Training is an important constituent of any curriculum and B.E course is no exception to this general rule. Practical Training helps a student in getting acquainted with the manner in which his/her knowledge is being practically used and this is different from what he/she has learnt from books.Hence,when he/she switcher from the process of learning to that of implementing his/her finds an abrupt change. This is exactly why a practical training session during the curriculum becomes all the more important.

The duration of the practical training period prescribed for awarding the B.E degree is 100 days in our College. This period has been divided in two parts viz. 40 days practical training after 2nd year ,B.E session and a 60 days Training after the 3rd Year ,B.E session.

This report is describes my practical training after the 2nd Year, B.E session that I completed at the Doordarshan Kendra, Jaipur. This Training was in the form of, practical study of broadcast station. The report gives an introduction of the Doordarshan Kendra and its different sections. The whole transmission of a TV program from production to broadcast is explained in detail in this report. This complete chain is divided in different segments for clear understanding. This report consists of the working process of the production unit, Earth station satellite and transmitter.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It gives me immense pleasure to express my gratitude to the family of Doordarshan Kendra, Jaipur for their prudent response in course of completing my summer training .I am highly indebted to Mr.A.K.Sundrani, Station Engineer DDK, Jaipur and Course Coordinator Mr. Harish Chandra (ASE) & Mr.R.K.Jain (AE) for their guidance and whole hearted inspiration, it has been of greatest help in bringing out the work in the present shape. The direction, advice, discussion and constant encouragement given by them has been so helpful in completing the work successfully.

I am extremely thankful to all the staff members of Doordarshan who have spend their Valuable time in guiding and providing valuable information and data required to accomplish this project. I am extremely grateful to Mr. Arvind Rai(Dean, M.B.M Engg College) and Head of ECE Department & all the faculty members of ECE Department for guiding me.

Pratibha Chauhan

CONTENTS
 About Doordarshan  Digitization  Basic TV Systems  Earth Station  Video Cassette Recorder  Video Tape  Microphone  Loudspeaker  Studio Camera  Vision Mixer  Concept Of Satellite communication

ABOUT DOORDARSHAN
The first television broadcast was viewed by the people of Rajasthan on 1 st August 1975 under the satellite Instructional Television Experiment targeting the district of Kota, Sawai Madhopur and Jaipur. The footprint of the American satellite ATS-6 fell on 388 villages in these district which were provided with direct receiving sets. Special educational programmers were then produced at Delhi. On 1st March 1977, Upgrah Doordarshan Kendra (UDK) was set up at Delhi. The programmes produced at UDK for Jaipur were relayed via high power transmitters. On 1st June 1987, Jaipur Doordarshan Kendra was set up. Initially the Kendra produced only 30 minutes of programming and this was gradually increased. Presently the Kendra originates about four hours of programming daily. The terrestrial channel covers 78%by population and &by area of Rajasthan. The total numbers of transmitters are: 1) 2) 3) 4) High Power: 8 Nos. Low Power: 80 Nos. Very low Power: 18 Nos. Transposers: 2 Nos

Transmitters in Rajasthan for DD2: 3 No‟s (Jaipur, Jodhpur & Kota) With its vision of Satyam, Shivam and Sunderam, Doordarshan has a mission to reach every person with reliable news, balanced views, innovative educational programmes and wholesome entertainment. The Jaipur Kendra Seeks to project the life and literature, art and culture of Rajasthan in its variegated forms. It strives not just to portray the resplendent past and the momentous present but to redesign a human future.

Doordarshan promotes discussion and dialogue to foster understanding and goodwill among all sections of society. It endeavors to inculcate scientific temper among the people. It attempts social reconstruction by waging a war against casteism and superstition. It aims to wipe out illiteracy and ignorance and promote health and well-being. As a public service broadcaster Doordarshan never-even in the midst of the vicious competition abandon its values and standards of decency. It does not merely inform but also educates, not merely entertain but also enrich the lives of all its viewers.

DOORDARSHAN - TODAY
Channels Studio Centers Transmitters 24 64 1400

DIGITIZATION
Prasar Bharati, the umbrella organization under which Air and Doordarshan function crosses another milestone as its these two media units, enter the digital era. The inauguration of a new Broadcasting House and Tower B of Doordarshan in New Delhi recently is an important milestone in the history of public broadcasting in India as it marks its entry into the digital era. Prasar bharati sought to reorient its growth strategies and succeeded in making its presence felt as a vibrant and socially relevant public broadcasting organization; Going digital is the latest manifestation of this trend. Doordarshan has acquired state-of-the-art facilities for production and transmission of programs. With a network of over 1400 terrestrial transmitters, Doordarshan covers 90 % of the population and is way ahead of the reach of all the satellite put together. Moreover, as the Review Committee envisionised, Doordarshan‟s channels telecast a healthy mix of entertainment and socially relevant programmes reflecting the varied cultures and languages of the nation. The Tenth Five-Year Plan‟s proposals for Doordarshan focus on digitization ,Currently 20 out of doordarshan‟s 25 channels are digital. Digital earth stations have already been set up in Mumbai, Hyderabad, Bangalore, Patna, Jallandhar Chennai, Thiruvananthpuram, Ahmadabad, Kolkata, Bhubaneswar, Shilling and Aizawl. Engineers of Doordarshan put up, in record time, the Ku band transmission facility at Todapur, near New Delhi, for broadcasting DD Direct Plus, And the Direct TO Home (DTH)broadcast service. Ku band transmission, which ensures near total coverage, is a cost effective alternative to terrestrial transmission. Doordarshan has distributed 10,000 DTH receiver systems and 200 cable head ends in select states of north, central and north eastern India, where television coverage is below the national average. One of the compelling reasons for introducing DTH is to ensure that programmes of AIR and Doordarshan reach every household in the country. The DTH service would help Doordarshan and AIR expand their reach with investment much lower than that require for increasing the number of transmitters.

VIDEO CASSETTE RECORDER
 Device that records audio and video electrical signals onto magnetic tape.  Machine that records on and plays a video tape  The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from TV broadcast so it can be played back later. Many VCR”s has their own tuner and can be programmed to record the signal on a particular channel during a particular time interval.

Introduction
The main purpose of the video recorder is recording and replaying video and audio signals. Although built-in tuners and timers have become integral parts of the average video recorder, they are not prerequisites for reaching the main goal audio and video registration and playback.

How the VCR works??
The Helical Scan System in an audio cassette deck, which only registers audio signals, the tape passes over a static recording/playback head at constant speed. The higher the speed of the tape , more tape particles pass the head opening and the higher the frequencies that can be registered. With the extremely narrow head opening, it is possible to record and play back the entire tone range, up to 18000 or 20000 Hz despite a slow tape speed of no more than 4.75 centimeters per second. However, to register video signals, a range of 3.2 MHz is required and so a tape speed of approximately 5 meters per second is prerequisite. This is over 100 times as fast as the tape speed for an audio cassette deck. The required high recording speed for video recorders are realized by the helical scan system

without such a high tape speeds. The system basically consists of a revolving head drum that has a minimum of two video heads The head drum has a diameter of approximately 5 cm and rotates at a speed of 1500 revolutions per minute. The ½” (12.65 mm) wide videotape is guided around half the surface of this drum, in a slightly oblique manner. This is achieved by positioning the head drum at a slight angle. The tape guidance mechanism then ensures that the tape is guided through the device at a speed of approximately 2 cm per second (half of the low speed that is used in audio cassette decks). In the meantime, the rapidly revolving video heads write narrow tape tracks of no more than 0.020 to 0.050 mm wide on the tape, next to each other, diagonal track which equals half an images The first head writes one track, i.e., the first field (the odd numbered scanning lines). The second head writes a second track, i.e., the other half of the image (the second field; the even numbered scanning lines), which precisely fits in the first image. This corresponds to the interlacing principle, as applied in television. One full revolution of both heads results in two diagonal tracks right next to each other, together forming one entire image scan (a frame) . This means that two apparently contradictory requirements can be realized simultaneously; low tape speed of only 2 cm per second and at the same time a high registration speed (relative tape speed) Of no less than 5 meters per second. These two requirements make it possible to record the high video frequencies up to 3.2 MHz at the same time; the low tape speed gives a time capacity up to three hours.

Azimuth Settings
Compared with early video recorders, modern day video recorders have their video tracks lying right next to each other. To avoid interference, the two video heads are angled slightly away from each other. To avoid interference, the two video heads are angled slightly away from each other. As a result, the video head openings that transmit the magnetic tracks to the tape, create an angle between them. The heads are 15 degrees angled in opposite direction, making a total angle of 30 degrees. This diverted registration angle ensures no problems

are caused if the heads slightly lose track when playing back and touch the next track. The heads only register tape information at an angle that precisely corresponds to the position of the head opening. This system is called the azimuth recording system. If the video heads stray too far from the track, which could lead to distorted images, tracking control can correct this.

SYNCHRONIZATION TRACK
The revolutionary speed of the head drum and the video heads needs to maintain constancy within strict parameters. Moreover, the tracks must be scanned during playback in precisely the same way as they were recorded. Each tape track is synchronized at the recording stage by means of field synchronization pulses. These pulses are generated in the video recorder by a separate head which are recorded on a separate narrow track at the side of the video tape. This is called the synchronization, servo or control track.

Video Systems
There are three major video systems in use today:  Video Home System(VHS)  Betamax  Video Hi8 When the video recorders were first introduced, Philips also developed a system called V2000. Despite the fact that is a high quality system, it was not successful in the market. Although Betamax was reasonably successful at first, its popularity waned and VHS was adopted as the world standard.

Betamax
The Spony Betamax System, launched in 1975, was based on the pre-existing professional Sony U-matic-system. In the Betamax system, the video tape is guided along the head drum in aU shape for all tape guidance functions, such as recording, playback and fast forward/backward. When the cassette is inserted, the tape is guided around the head drum (called threading). Threading the tape

takes a few seconds, but once the tape is threaded, shifting from one tape to another can be achieved rapidly and smoothly.

VHS
In VHS, the tape is guided through in an M-shape; so-called M-tape guidance system. It considered simpler and more compact than the U-shaped system. Threading is faster and is done every time the tape guidance function is changed. It is therefore somewhat slower and noisier than the U-system. This problem is being solved by “Quick-start” VHS video recorders, which allow fast and silent changes in tape guidance functions. To avoid excessive wear, Mtape guidance system recorders are provided with an automatic switch-off feature, activated some minutes after the recorder is put on hold, which automatically unthreads the tape. An improvement of the basic VHS system is HQ(High Quality) VHS. In the VHS system different starting points were used than in Betamax, such as track size and relative speed. VHS has rather wide video tracks, but a slightly lower relative tape speed, and that also counts for the audio tracks. In the end the result is that there is not too much difference between the sound and image qualities of both the systems.

SOUND RECORDING Mono
In case of a mono video recorder, the audio signals which corresponds with the image is transferred to a separate, fixed audio head. As in an audio cassette deck, this head writes an audio track in longitudinal direction of the tape. This is called linear or longitudinal track recording. The video recorder has two erase heads. One is a wide erase head covering the whole tape width which automatically erases all existing images, synchronization and sound information when a new recording is made. The other erase head is smaller and positioned at the position of the audio track With this erase head, the sound track can be erased separately, without affecting the video information. In this way, separate audio can be added to a video

recording. This is called audio dubbing, and can be particularly useful when making your own camera recordings. The linear audio track does have some restrictions. Due to its low tape speed, it is not suitable for Hi-Fi recordings. Moreover, the audio tracks are so narrow (0.7 mm for VHS and 1.04 mm for Betamax) that not even stereo sound can be properly recorded. The frequency range is limited as is the dynamic range (which relates to the amount of decibels), and the signal-to-noise ratio is not very high( the signal-to-noise ratio relates to the amount of noise compared to the total signal. The higher this ratio, less the noise and better the signal will be). The sound quality of the mono track can be improved by a noise reduction system. There is a way to get superior hi-fi stereo sound quality on a video tape (used in hi-fi video recorders).

MICROPHONE
Microphone is a transducer, in which sound waves are translated into mechanical vibrations in a thin, flexible DIAPHRAGM these sound vibrations are then converted by various methods into an electrical signal which varies in amplitude, frequency and phase according to the sound waves. Characteristics of microphone:  Sensitivity  Signal to noise ratio  Frequency response  Distortion  Directivity  Output impedance

SENSITIVITY: It is defined as output in milli volts for the sound pressure of
1 Microbar.

SIGNAL TO NOISE RATIO: It is define to be ratio in dB of the output to
the output in the absence of sound.

FREQUENCY RESPONSE: It is define by the bandwidth of audio
frequencies in the output of microphone within 1dB of the output at 1000Hz.

DISTORTION: Two types of distortions in microphones
1. Non linear distortion. 2. Phase distortion.

DIRECTIVITY: The angle of the half power points in a polar diagram
represents Directivity of a microphone. Three types of directivity:1. 2. 3. 4.     Omnidirectional. Bidirectional. Cardioids or heart shaped

Varieties of microphone:
Capacitor microphone Ribbon microphone Electrets microphone Carbon microphone

 Crystal microphone  Laser microphone

LOUD SPEAKER
Loud speaker performs an opposite function to a microphone i.e. it converts electrical signal into sound wave. Two types of loud speaker:  Moving coil type.  Horn type.

MOVING COIL TYPE :(direct radiating loud speaker)
Principle:Interaction between the magnetic field and the current ,resulting in a force working on the movable coil. This force is proportional to the audio current and hence causes vibratory motion in the coil,which makes a diaphragm to vibrate and produce pressure variations in air, resulting in sound waves. Advantages1. Low cost . 2. Compact size.

Applications: Radio receiver,TV receiver and in cassette players. HORN TYPE : ( Indirect Radiating loud speaker) Principle: same as in moving coil type loud speaker…but instead of
radiating power directly in open space of listeners‟area, the power is first delivered to the air flared horn and from there to the air in the listener‟s area.

Advantages1. Better impedance matching. 2. High efficiency.

Applications: Used in PA system and music concerts.

EARTH STATION
INTRODUCTION
Communication using conventional technique like coaxial cable and microwave relay link involves a large number of repeaters and is a costly affair. A better option for transmission was introduced in 1945 by Arthur C Clark that worldwide coverage can be obtained by using 3 microwave repeaters placed in a geostationary. Orbit at the height of about 36000Km with the period of 24 hrs Satellites communication. A satellite communication system consists of a number of earth stations interconnected through a satellite serving as a microwave relay repeater. At transmitting earth station, incoming signal modulated an incoming carrier frequency. The modulated signal is uncovered using a local oscillator to a microwave radio frequency. RF signal is amplified in a HPA (High Power Amplifier) and transmitted to the satellite repeater through a transmitting antenna. The signal is received through a satellite antenna and after amplification is converted to the downlink frequency using a translation frequency provided by a local oscillator. After amplification to a high power stage, the signal is down linked through a transmit satellite antenna to the ground coverage area. At the receive earth station, signal received through the antenna, after amplification by a sensitive low noise amplifier (LNA) is down converted and de modulated to recover the base band signal.

EARTH STATION
Pat loss in a satellite system is much higher as compared to terrestrial radio relay systems and therefore, earth station should have high transmit and receive antenna. Gains, high power amplifier on transmit side and more sensitive low noise amplifier on the receive side.

A simplified block diagram is shown in fig. information signal, received through a terrestrial end link, are multiplexed and amplified in a base band amplifier. Base band amplifier. Base band signals modulate a carrier at an intermediate frequency. Modulated output is uncovered to a radio frequency. RF signal in amplified in a HPA.

EQUIPMENT USED IN EARTH STATION
The earth station is generally equipped with following equipments:1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
6.

High power amplifier. Low noise amplifier. Up and down converter Power system. Antenna. End links

BASIC TV SYSTEMS
The most commonly used color TV systems are: 1. NTSC 2. PAL 3. SECAM

 NTSC
The work of ntsc was built on the basis of earlier attempts. The ntsc laid foundations that made television a reality in the united states. At the dawn of color tv it seemed at first that it was not going to compatible with monochrome tv& would need special recievers.

a.

R, G, B signals are combined in the suitable proportion to obtain Y signals. signals.

b. Luminance signals & two color signals are combined to obtain two color c.
These are quadrature modulated & only sidebands are transmitted with sync signal

d. Color burst is transmitted on a black porch of the lines sync pulse.
Advantages:
a. Higher frame rate b. Atomic color edits c. Less inherent picture noise

Disadvantages:
a. Lower number of scan lines b. Smaller luminance signal bandwidth

c. lower gamma rate d. Undesirable automatic features

 PAL
This system is a refinement of NTSC system. It has adopted in our country. This system was developed in the federal republic of Germany & was introduced in year 1967. The three color signals i.e. R , G , B signals are combined to obtain Cr & Y signals.

Advantages:
Greater number of scan lines. Wider signal bandwidth. Stable hues. Higher gamma ratio.

Disadvantages:
More flicker. Lower signal to noise ratio Loss of color editing accuracy variable color saturation

 SECAM System
It is the abbreviation of French term “Sequential Colors AMemoroire”. This system is also refinement of NTSC system & entirely different from PAL system. Transmission of only one of two signals at a time. A difference weightage factor is used. The sub carrier is frequency modulated by color difference signals.

Advantages:
Stable hues & constant saturation. Higher number of Sean lines.

Disadvantages:
Greater flicker mixing of synchronous SECAM color signals is not possible. Patterning effects. Lower monochromic bandwidth Incompatibility between different versions of SECAM- SECAM being at least partially politically inspired has a wide range of variants, many of which are incompatible with each other. Eg. Between French SECAM with uses FM subcarrier and MESECAM which uses an AM subcarrier.

Concepts of satellite communication
1. GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE

A geostationary satellite is any satellite which is placed in a geostationary orbit. Here satellites maintain a constant position relative to the surface of the earth. Geostationary satellites do this by orbiting the earth approximately 22,300 miles above the equator. This orbital path is called the Clarke Belt. In contrast to geostationary satellites are commonly used for communications & weather observation. The typical life expectancy of a geostationary satellite is ten to fifteen years. Because satellites circle the earth at the equator, they are not able to provide coverage at the Northernmost & Southernmost latitudes. Geostationary orbits are often referred to as geosynchronous.

2.

MEDIUM EARTH ORBIT

Medium Earth Orbit (MEO) refers to a satellite which orbits the earth at an altitude below 22,300 miles & above the altitude of low earth orbit(LEO) satellites. Medium earth orbit terrestrial terminals can be of lower power & use smaller antennas than the terrestrial terminals of geostationary satellite systems. However they cannot be as low power or have as small antennas as Low Earth Orbit terrestrial terminals. Medium Earth systems better round trip time than geosynchronous orbit systems, but not as low as LOW EARTH ORBIT systems.

3.

LOW EARTH ORBIT

LEO refers to satellite which orbits the earth at altitudes between 200 miles & 930 miles. low Earth Orbit satellites must travel very quickly to resist the pull of gravity approximately 17,000 miles per hour because of this, low earth orbit satellites can orbit the planet in as little as 90 minutes .low earth orbit satellite systems require several to provide coverage of the entire planet .

Low earth orbit satellites typically operate in polar orbits. Low earth orbit satellites are used for applications where a short round trip time (Rtt) is very important , such as mobile satellite services Low earth orbit satellites have a typical service life expectancy of five to seven years.

4.

ROUND TRIP TIME

In a satellite network, round trip (RTT)is the time required for a single to travel from a terrestrial system up to the satellite and back ,or for a signal to travel from a satellite down to a terrestrial system and back up to the satellite again. Round trip time is limited by the speed of light .Round Trip TIME will be shortest for a low earth orbit (LEO) satellite and longest for a geostationary satellite. An LNB- Low noise Block (also called an LNC-Low Noise Converter), is used for communication (broadcast) satellite reception .the LNB is usually affixed either in or on the satellite dish.

5.

LNB

The purpose of the LNB is to utilize the super heterodyne effect ; and amplify and convert a wide block (band) of frequencies. This helps compensate the signal loss associated with typical coaxial cable at relativety high frequencies. The term „low noise „ relates to the quality of the 1 st stage input amplifier transistor ,measured in either called noise temperature units or noise factor units.Both noise factor and noise figure are easily converted into noise temperature units .a lower Noise temperature rating is always better (i.e. an LNB with a noise temperature of 100k is 2x as good as one rated 200k).

6.

Linear- LNB

LNB stands for low noise blocker and it is essentially an amplifier on the end of your small satellite tv dish or communications dish .the “linear” portion of

linear LNB stands for the charecterstics of the radio waves that are transmitted via the satellite in space to your dish (LNB).

7. Types OF Polariization
7.1. Circular polarization Circular polarization is a characterisitic of radio waves that are transiitted from a satellite in actual space ,in which the actual radio waves rotate in a spiral .the spiral of radio waves either rotates clockwise or counters clockwise .a great analogy of how circular radio waves approach your satellite dish (LNB)is by picturing an airplane propeller.the airplane propeller follows a specific path ,but as it approaches the radio wave is spinning vertically. 7.2.Linear polarization Linear polarization is the characteristic of radio wave in which the radio wave in which the radio wave rotates on a single horizontal plane.a great analogy is instead of an airplane propeller the radio wave approaches your satellite dish in the form of a helicopter .the radio waves spin horizontally . Besides the direction of the wave being either horizontal or vertical ,satellite receivers usually only are able to work with one type of polarization .however ,they are able to pick up both signals ,the difference is about 50% loss in signal strength(-3dB).

8. Fixed Satellite Service(FSS)

Fixed Satellite services (FSS)refers to a satellite services which uses fixed terrestrial terminals .In other words ,FSSis any satellite service where the ground station does not change locations frequently . Consumer satellite television is the most popular application of fixed Satellite service. The opposite of FSS is mobile satellite services (MSS).

9.

Mobile Satellite services

Mobile satellite service (MSS)IS A Satellite system which uses portable terrestrial terminals. MSS terminals may be mounted on a ship , an airplane ,or an automobile . MSS terminals may be carried by an individual .

The most promising application of Mobile satellite service is portable satellite telephones which will enable phone services anywhere on the globe.

10.

Uplink

Uplink is the signal path from an earth station to a satellite. Uplink Frequencies Satellite band C Band Ku band Ka band 11. Downlink Downlink is the signal path from a satellite towards the earth . Downlink frequencies Satellite band C Band Ku band Ka band Downlink frequency 3.7-4.2 ghz 11.2 -12.7 ghz 18.3-20.2 ghz Uplink frequencies 5.925 -6.425 14-14.5ghz 27.5-31 ghz

12.

Elevation

Elevation is the angular measurement of a satellite above the horizion .it is measured in degrees .A satellite which is higher in the sky will have a greater elevation than one which is close to the horizon . A satellite exactly level with the horizon would have an elevation of 0 degrees .a satellite with an elevation of 90 degrees would be directly overheaded . Knowing the elevation of a satellite from your location is critical to being able to successfully point a satellite antenna to it.

STUDIO CAMERA
It is fited on the tripod.it has a cable known as the triaxial cable ,both video and audio signal pass through this cable.15 V supply is required . Camera has three parts: 1. Lens 2. Transducer 3. Electronics LENS:- use to form optical image in shooting . TRANSDUCER:-is used to convert the video signal into the electrical signal. ELECTRONICS:-is used to convert the electrical signal into the complete composite video signal. MAIN CONTROLS ON CAMERA: Focus  Zoom  Iris General process of the shooting from studio camera: Filter  AWB  Focus and zoom  Electronic shutter speed  VTR The studio camera is the backbone of the television industry. It is mounted on a dolly pedestal so the camera operator may wheel it to different locations with relatives ease during shot changes. Television techniques monitor and adjust the video levels of the studio camera with the camera control unit.

Video Noise increases in proportion to the video gain previously described. Even the best cameras will deliver “noisy” pictures under low-light levels. A noisy picture has a great amount of snow, or white vibrating spots, in the picture. This occurs when the video signals produced by the pickup tube are not strong enough to override the electronic interference the system usually generates .At 12dB gain, the system is generating more electronic interference-

and more videos camera noise. Having covered the basic operation and electronic characteristics of a video camera, we now examine the types of video cameras you will work with at NBS detachments.

VIDEO TAPE
Tape Characteristics
There are three different characteristics which contribute to total tape quality: mechanical, magnetic and electro-acoustical characteristics. The Mechanical characteristics are related to the carrier, the thickness of the tape, the slack resistance and especially the tape guidance system behavior. The latter is a matter of cassette housing, the precision of which should meet the highest requirements, just like the tape itself. The tape guidance should always be tight but flexible, without friction, but also without getting tangled. The vulnerable edges of the thin tape should not wear, even at the microscopic level or after many hours of use. Damage at the edges will have a negative effect on the sound production right next to the edges. Some tapes have a thin layer o coating on the back, to reduce the friction to an absolute minimum.

Close-up of the Video Tape
As far as the magnetic characteristics are concerned, the tape should be resistant to demagnetize i.e. should have a high coercive force. The reminisce, which is the magnetism that remains on the tape after the magnetism generating field is taken away, is another essential characteristic. For audio tapes a high reminisce is a pre requisite in order to produce a wide dynamic range, but in case of videotapes high reminisce is not required, because of the high registration speed for five meters per second. The reminisce of an average normal videotape has more or less the same value as that of a conventional Ferro-oxide audio cassette. The electro-magnetic characteristics largely determine the quality of the tape. These Characteristics are:  Signal to noise ratio(S/N)  Color reproduction  Sound Quality The Quality of the color reproduction (chrominance:C) is expressed by the color signal to noise ratio(color S/N).The higher this value, the better the hues are reproduced and the deeper the colors are. Here too, dB is the standard, but the latest tapes also achieve higher values, up to +5 dB. The video and color S/N relate directly to how equally the particles are spread on the tape surface.

Hf or high frequency output level, also called Sensitivity, express the capability of the tape to register the high video frequencies. If this is not done properly, it reference standard. The HF level relates to the size of the particles.

Tape and Purpose
Different applications require tapes of different quality. It makes sense to use the right tape for the right purpose. There is no need to purchase a high quality tape, if the application does not require it. For almost all normal application the standard(or High Standard)tape will suffice.

VISION MIXER
A Vision Mixer (also called video switcher, video mixer or production switcher) is a device used to select between several different video sources and in some cases composite (mix) video sources together and add special effects. This is similar to what a mixing console does for audio.

Explanation
Typically a vision mixer would be found in a professional television production environment such as a television studio, cable broadcast facility, commercial production facility, remote truck/OB van or linear video editing bay. The term can also refer to the person operation the device. Vision mixer and video mixer are most exclusively European terms to describe both the equipment and operators. In the United States, the common name for a device of this kind is (video) production switcher and the common name for the operator of the device is known as technical device. Software vision mixers are also available.

Capabilities usage in TV Productions
Besides hard cuts (switching directly between two input signals), mixers can also generate a variety of transmissions, from simple dissolves to pattern wipes. Additionally, most vision mixers can perform keying operations and generate color signals(called mattes in this context).Most vision mixers are targeted at the professional market, with newer analog models having component video connection and digital ones using SDI. They are used in live and videotaped television productions and for linear video editing, even though the use of mixers in video editing has been largely supplanted by computer based nonlinear editing. Older professional mixer worked with composite video inputs. There is still a number of consumer video switchers with composite video, S-Videos or even FireWire available. These are often used for VJing, presentations, and small multi-camera productions.

Operation
The main concept of a professional vision mixer is the bus,basically a row of buttons with each button representing a video source.Pressing such a button will set the video out of the bus.Older video mixers had two equivalent busses(called the A and B bus,such a mixer is known as an A/B mixer).One of

these busses could be selected as the main out(or program)bus. Most Modern mixers, however, have one bus that is always the program bus,the second main bus being the preview bus. These mixers are called flip-flop mixers, since the selected source of the preview and the program buses can be exchanged. Both preview and program bus usually has their own video monitor. Another main feature of a vision mixer is the transition lever, also called a T-bar or Fader Bar. This lever, similar to an audio fader, creates a transition between two buses. Note that in a flip-flop mixer, the position of the main transition lever does not indicate which bus is active, since the program bus is always the active or hot bus. Instead of moving the lever by hand, a button (commonly labeled “mix” “auto” or “auto Trans”) can be used, which performs the transition over a user-defined period of time. The Third bus on a vision mixer is the key bus. A mixer can actually have more than one of these, but they usually share only one set of buttons. Here, a signal can be selected for keying into the program. The image that will be seen in the program is called the fill, while the mask used to create the key‟s translucence is called the source.

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