# PAIRS OF ANGLES In geometry, certain pairs of angles can have special relationships.

Using our knowledge of acute, right, and obtuse angles, along with properties of parallel lines, we will begin to study the relations between pairs of angles. Complementary Angles Two angles are complementary angles if their degree measurements add up to 90°. That is, if we attach both angles and fit them side by side (by putting the vertices and one side on top of each other), they will form a right angle. We can also say that one of the angles is the complement of the other. Complement ary angles are angles whose sum is 90° Supplement ary Angles Another special pair of angles is called supplementary angles. One angle is said to be the supplement of the other if the sum of their degree measurements is 180°. In other words, if we put the angles side by side, the result would be a straight line.

Supplementary angles are angles whose sum is 180° Vertical Angles Vertical angles are the angles opposite of each other at the intersection of two lines. They are called vertical angles because they share a common vertex. Vertical angles always have equal measures.

∠JKL and ∠MKN are vertical angles. Another pair of vertical angles in the picture is ∠JKM and ∠LKN.

Alternate Interior Angles Alternate interior angles are formed when there exists a transversal. They are the angles on opposite sides of the transversal, but inside the two lines the transversal intersects. Alternate interior angles are congruent to each other if (and only if) the two lines intersected by the transversal are parallel. An easy way of identifying alternate interior angles is by drawing the letter "Z" (forwards and backwards) on the lines as shown below. In the figure on the left, ∠ADH and ∠GHD are alternate interior angles. Note that ∠CDH and ∠EHD are also alternate interior angles. The figure on the right has alternate interior angles that are congruent because there is a set of parallel lines. Alternate Exterior Angles Similar to alternate interior angles, alternate exterior angles are also congruent to each other if (and only if) the two lines intersected by the transversal are parallel. These angles are on opposite sides of the transversal, but outside the two lines the transversal intersects. In the figure on the left, ∠ADB and ∠GHF are alternate exterior angles. So are ∠CDB and ∠EHF. The figure on the left does not have alternate enterior angles that are congruent, but the figure on the right does. Corresponding Angles Corresponding angles are the pairs of angles on the same side of the transversal and on corresponding sides of the two other lines. These angles are equal in degree measure when the two lines intersected by the transversal are parallel. It may help to draw the letter "F" (forwards and backwards) in order to help identify corresponding angles. This method is illustrated below. Drawing the letter "F" backwards helps us see that ∠ADH and ∠EHF are corresponding angles. We have three other pairs of corresponding angles in this figure. Now that we have familiarized ourselves with pairs of angles, let's practice applying some of their properties in the following exercises.

Segment Bisector Definition of Segment Bisector  A Segment Bisector is a line or a ray or a segment that divides a line segment into two equal parts. More about Segment Bisector  A segment bisector always passes through the midpoint of a line segment.  If a segment bisector crosses the segment at 900, then it is called as perpendicular bisector of the segment. Example of Segment Bisector

In the given figure, the line segment DE is the bisector of the segment AC as it intersects the line segment AC at its midpoint B. Solved Example on Segment Bisector What is the length of AB, if line l is the segment bisector and AO = 6 units?

Solution: Step 1: Line l divides AB into two equal parts and O is the midpoint of AB. [As the segment bisector passes through the midpoint of the segment.] Step 2: AB = 2(AO) = 2(6) = 12 [Substitute AO = 6.] Step 3: So, the length of AB is 12 units. Angle Bisectors Definition of Angle Bisector  Angle Bisector is a ray that divides an angle into two equal parts. More about Angle Bisector  Angle bisector is also called the internal angle bisector.  Angle bisectors of a triangle intersect at a point called incenter of the triangle.  A line or a line segment can also be an angle bisector at times. For example, the angle bisectors of polygons are line segments. Examples of Angle Bisector

In the example shown, OA is the angle bisector. It divides 60° into two equal parts (i.e. two 30°'s).

Solved Example on Angle Bisector In the given figure, is the angle bisector of ∠AOB and m∠AOC = 3y - 4 and m∠COD = 28, then find the value of y. is the angle bisector of ∠COB. If

Solution: Step 1: m∠COD = 28, so m∠BOC = 56, because is an angle bisector of ∠COB. bisects ∠AOB.

Step 2: m∠BOC = 56 implies that m∠AOC = 56, because Step 3: So, 3y - 4 = 56 gives y = 20°. Related Terms for Angle Bisector