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Prepared by: Ishak A Wahyudi
Electronic government or usually called e-government as per World Bank definition as we can see it in www.worldbank.or refers to the use of information and communications technologies to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of government. Another simple definition rephrase by Paulus Bambang WS for e-government is “Putting citizen, business, and government institution ON-line not IN-line or OFF-line” For the first definition, mention above we can see in the definition that there are interaction between government institution and its stakeholders via high technology communication media. In second definition, we can also know that there are certain hopes that government institution can shift the relationship from off-line (not face to face) or in-line (queuing) to on-line (directly)
In general, there are several benefits for the government institutions who use e-government in their communication, the benefits could be categorized into two types; tangible benefit and intangible benefits. 1. Reduce cost Using technology for improving process can cause some efficiency in their cost for example; government can shift their photocopying cost to using diskette or CD-ROM for distributing their data. 2. Reduce time to process Off course, also applying computer in the process can eliminate several waste time for typing and archiving. The intangible benefits for applying e-govt are: 1. Increase level of services 2. Encourage the development of knowledgeable resources 3. Increase nation competitiveness 4. Enable information exchange 5. Establishment of virtual community 6. Decrease corruption Actually the ultimate goal of the e-government is the Good Governance it self. There are three pillar to cope the ultimate goal such as; Transparency, Accountability; and Public Participation. We could see that e-government will use those as the way to reach the ultimate goal. First government institution would build transparency via interactions and communication, second government institution build accountability via publishing their output and product to the stakeholders, and last government institution could use public for deriving information that related to their operation.
Interaction in E-Government
As we mention before that the interaction or relationship in e-govt could be categorized in to three types such as: 1. G2G Interaction between government institution with other government institution 2. G2B Interaction between government institution with business institution 3. G2C Interaction between government institution with customer or citizen Those interactions reflected from the government institution stakeholders or customer, and talking about customer, we should consider the customer as: 1. Internal customer or their employees, ordinates and sub ordinates 2. External customer such as other government institution, businesses, and citizens
Phase in E-Government
There are several topic to be discussed in e-government such as; security, data base, net-work, but to focus the paper, I would like to concentrate only to the content of information would be published to the public When moving toward e-government, government institution will encounter with four phase. Those phases also reflected the need of both the institution and stakeholders, so the phase not solely should be stepped one by one but also could be jump from one-step to another. Those phases are: 1. Publishing when government institution release information to public, this phase also called one-way delivering system. 2. Interactivity when public can communicate directly with government institution, this phase also named two-way communication systems. 3. Completing transaction when government institution could serve public need for their services 4. Delivery when government institution can deliver their products or services to customer directly. Usually when delivering information to the public for applying egovernment, government institutions use internet as the media, but several requirements might occur for using the internet such as: 1. Information content; the content of information putting inside the web site should be simple and easy to understand because the government should reach very large audience that differs in all manners. Another thing that should be considered is the language; choice of the language would depend on what kind of market that would be reaching by the institution. 2. Information media; the type of media also affected the quality of information to deliver; the media should be simple and fast for reaching the public. In this type, also include the choice of hosting agents, software, and hardware. Depending on those phase in e-government dissemination there are several applicable operation for government institution. Phase publishing:
1. Web site 2. E-mail This is the first phase occurred when the institution release several information for public disclosure. Depending of the preparation, planning and design, the web site would go further to the next phase. Phase interactivity 1. Data base interchange 2. Web based data base 3. Form From the first time to this phase, the institution would prepare some data base application than use it as data interchangeable or communicable to the public, business or other government institutions. Phase completing transaction 1. Form of transaction 2. E-purchasing 3. E-library 4. Digital signature This is the phase that has been waited by the public, in this phase, public or customer can interact directly with the government institution by completing transaction form and sending it via web site or application program. With this phase several beaurocracy procedures can be eliminated that is mean efficiency in money, time and resources. Phase of delivery 1. E-learning 2. E-transfer 3. Download program or software This is the highest phase where the government institution can deliver its product or temporary acceptable product directly to its customer. Moving to the real world, I would summarize what Government Indonesian Institution has done in applying e-government.
Coordinating Team for “Telematika” in Indonesia
On April 7, 2000 Government of Indonesia create the Coordinating Team for Telematika in Indonesia by releasing Presidential Decree Number 50 Year of 2000 (http://www.ri.go.id/produk _uu/isi/keppres2000/no31sd502000/no50-2000.html). As per definition the word “telematika” stand for Telecommunication, Media and Information, which means that telematika will cover the way, the hardware and the content of information technology in Indonesian Government included The E-government as one of the section covered in Coordinating Team of Telematika scope of work. The team headed by Vice President will consist of some Ministries, State ministry, and Boards in Indonesia as their members (organization structure of the team attached). The job of the team are; to design Telematika Policy in Indonesia, place a step and priority for using telematika, monitor and
control telematika application and also coordinate all efforts regarding to application of information technology in Indonesia. Parallel to the creation of the team, Government of Indonesia also create The Presidential Instruction Number 6 Year 2001 dated April 24, 2001 (http://www.ri.go.id/produk_uu/isi/inpres2001/ip%206-2001.html) to all head of Department, State Department and Non-departmental Institution (Boards)
Development and Exploitation of Telematika in Indonesia
As the Presidential Instruction said, there are four elemental instructions such as: 1. Applying continuing development and exploitation of Telematika in the frame work as it attached in the instruction. 2. Giving facilitation to public to conduct in development of telematika. 3. All the activity of development and exploitation of telematika should be coordinated with Coordinating Team of Telematika in Indonesia. 4. The Instruction should be fulfilled and report al the step of activity to the President. On the attachment of The Instruction, there are five major concerns for developing and exploitation telematika in Indonesia: 1. The Preface, describing about the background why the instruction has been released. 2. Telematika to unity Nation and Citizen talking about the objective of telematika in Indonesia. 3. Telematika from public to public is talking about citizen interaction and government effort to facilitate citizen interaction. 4. National Information Infrastructure talking about Government to Private Sector interaction 5. Private Sector and Business Climate talking about some prerequirement for Government to Private Sector Interaction 6. Capacity and Technological Improvement is talking about Research and Development, Education, Cooperation and Motivating Factor for telematika. 7. Government on-line talking about specific consideration that is egovernment 8. Coordinating Team for Telematika in Indonesia talking about the team that will handle the coordination in telematika. Base on that Presidential Instruction, Coordinating Team for Telematika in Indonesia has established some action (detail action plans attached, see Action Plan.doc) divided into four major categories summarized below: I. Policy and Legal Framework 1. Policy a. Telecommunication year last in 2003 b. Information Technology year last in 2005 c. E-commerce year last in 2003 2. Legal frame-work a. Information Technology year last in 2002
b. E-commerce year last in 2003 3. Institutional Development year last in 2005 II. Human Capacity Building year last in 2005 III. Infrastructure year last in 2005 IV. Application 1. Application for the government year last in 2005 2. Applications for the Private Sectors year last in 2005 From that action plan, I see some interesting point especially in the section IV. 1 “Application for the Government” that relate to the development of egovernment. First, planning of e-government should begin in the year of 2001 where all the government institution should prepare all the information provided to the public. Second, easy access will be permitted for institutions to begin in the year of 2002 means that government institution only have one year to build and publish their information to the public. In the same year government institution should also develop e-procurement. Third, Interaction phase should begin in the year of 2003 both for public and also for other government institution. While focusing on the application for the government the action also made some action that focused to the private sector as a cushion to support for deploying information to the public such as electronic access, internet kiosk and other.
Result for E-government in Indonesia
The result of all the effort for developing e-government in Indonesia, I will focus to the information content that has been publish to the public via web site and related it to the time schedule in the action plan. Up to October 20, 2001 there are 293 web sites under government organization category (the nomenclature can be described as; www.name of institution.go.id, source: http://tukang.access.net.id ) from those data 69 units have been categorized as Central Government, 100 as Local Government and 29 as Central Government Sub Division. For this point we can see the development of the web site was not organized well event for Central Government, typically the web site begin from sub division and going up then create the bigger one (Ministry Level). No. 1 2 3 4 5 *There Category Central Government Central Government Sub Division Committee Local Government State Owned Enterprises Total Amount 72* 48 6 154 13 293
are some redundancy web sites for example 72 central government web sites as the result of cabinet reorganization. The actual central government units counted only 69 units.
From 69 units of Central Government, 12 institutions has not released a web site and from 57 unit 22 web site has been down for a while, means there are no connections to those government web sites. In summary there are
only 35 web sites that operate well (can be seen by public) or 50,72% from all the central government institution that can be accessed by the public. More details, from all the web sites that has been operate well the information that has been publish maximum only in the phase of interaction or almost all of the web sites only in the phase of publishing (see Web site.xls). It seems match if we relate to the schedule given by the Team, but the year of 2001 will pass in two months later and the question will occur whether the institution that has not build web site yet could fulfill the time schedule from the action plan.
Financial and Development Supervisory Board Action Plan and Result
The Board has been created in 1983 and modified in 2001(Organization structure of the Board attached). The Board is a non-departmental government institution in Republic of Indonesian Government. The job of the board according to Presidential Decree Number 103 year 2001 (http://www.ri.go.id/produk_uu/isi/keppres2001/kp103'01.htm) is as part of government job in financial and development supervisory according to the government regulation (Government Internal Auditor), it means that the ultimate objective of the Board is decreasing corruption and mismanagement in governmental institution. From 2001, the Board has a new unit called “Information System Center” that some of the center job act as the Coordinating Team for Telematika Job internally in the Board. The head of the Board have formalized the Job by releasing Head of the Board Decree Number Kep-04.01.00-504/K/2001 dated August 21, 2001 subject The Coordinating Team of Management Information System in BPKP. By this decree, the head of the information system act as a Daily Chairman for coordinating all information system technology in the board organization. Up to now, the board has a Local Area Network with 148 nodes spread to the unit in the organization to support daily operational activities of the board. We have also web site called www.bpkp.go.id in the phase of interaction. The unique type of organization in the board has created the unique type of Local Area Network Model for the organization. Here in this board we create distributed but interchangeability data connection for each deputy (sub ordinate of the head) and biro. Board has 25 regional offices in the capital city of province across the nation. Beginning in the year of 1997, the regional offices have been connected via e-mail for communicating and data transmitting for the operational report of the regional office. According the board master plan, in the year of 2004 the board should release interchangeability database for all the unit of the board.
As I describe above there are several problems and barriers occur while the problem of putting e-government in-place could be categorized into five types: 1. Man; including leadership, culture, and political will
The organization structure and the regulation in government institution are very different with the private sector. Employee has been recruited base on the organization needs, and usually the needs are for lower level employee. It means that almost all the employee begin from lower level employee (High position recruitment is rarely), for these reason here seniority become usual. Payment structure in government base on the regulation declare by government, the structure has been categorize from level to level with the generally the same amount for the same level. For these reason employee will compete to reach the highest level or position to get enough payment. Technology needs some person that have better education, and by the problem mention above, most of person who getting involve in taking care Information Technology are younger person who got higher degree of education but do not have position to justify the direction. Means that depend on person who (perhaps) has good leadership and political will the information technology would be able to develop in those organizations. Commitment; commitment should come from the top management of the organization, without the commitment there will be any operational deployment of information technology. Money; funding problem Currently Indonesia has fall into economic crisis and move to trust crisis. Economic crisis made government to focus all the money to elevate the crisis and to help people whose suffer from the crisis. Almost all the fund have been put to that major priority, so technology become second or even third priority. We can see from Government of Indonesian budget for the year of 2001 said that the propose budget for developing information technology has been put into Information System and Statistic sub-sector. The allocation for this sub-sector counted as much as Rp157.683.400.000,- for Routine Budget and Rp82.225.000.000,- for Development Budget. The percentage of the budget compare to the total Routine and Development Budget (Rp190.092.170.000.000,- and Rp43.987.382.900.000,-) are only 0,08% and 0,19%, and for total percentage is just count for only 0,10%. Organization; Since the presidential decree about the cabinet structure dated August 9, 2001 up to now, still there is no formal structure decree for State Ministry for Communication and Information (new State Ministry). It seems some weird phenomena, since the state ministry job is to coordinate the telematika in Indonesia and function as an organization that will subordinate the Coordinating Team for Telematika in Indonesia. Infrastructure; including law, regulation, technology and direction Information technology also needs some technological support such as telecommunication and other infrastructure. Base on the statistic only 7000 people in Indonesia who has telephone and only citizen in city who have access with the banking system. Law, regulation and direction are another problem. Up to now government still does not have fixed and established law, regulation and direction for applying information technology 7
6. Coordination Coordination among government institution is a crucial matter. It is such a bad thing if public could gather different data from two or more institution and becoming worst if people can derive data from institution that has not jurisdiction to publish that information. For example, it is such bad thing if the address of Government Embassy abroad put into Ministry Of Finance Web Site. 7. Standardized system Standardize system become necessary when comparing and sorting information. When surfing from one web site to another web site, we can get the same data with different structure or sort. The different become annoying because we can compare it or it takes a time to restructure the data to become comparable. For example, all the state names in US have been categorized in such manner, so every institution knows that the code for “CA” is stand for “California”. Further, every US citizen has one special identification number called “Social Security Number” (SSN); this number has been used for almost all transaction in United States and creates an individual transaction history called Credit History. It is differ to Indonesia where every state called by its long name and it would be difficult to put in sort. In addition, every state has its identity umber for its citizen. In summary, when we operate some data interchangeability the standardization become very important.
Some Solutions and Starting Points
The problem raised and stated, but how to cope and solve that kind of problem. Here are several steps of action. 1. Localize exploitation First steps is to localize, approach and solve the problem one by one 2. Integration Second steps is integration of all resources 3. Socialization and enforcement of the action plan The action plan will become just an action plan without any information distributed and enforcement of the action plan 4. Business process redesign Third steps is planning and redesigning the business process that would appropriate to the objective of organization 5. Business network redesign Forth steps are redesigning the network for the sake of organization objective. 6. Business scope redefinition The last step is, after some time past and feed back has been gathered we can start to redefine organization scope. Some starting point to be considered: 1. Start from simple services such as Letter Receiving and Delivery Program, Human Resources Program Application, Asset Management Program Application and managed it well. 2. Simplify Process and procedure through electronic process system.
3. Systematic change in management process through restructurization and reorganization. Application to solve problem 1. Real direction of e-govt from mandatory institution 2. Coordination among institution 3. Cyber law and regulation 4. Standardization 5. Socialization and training
Attachment 1 Organization Structure for Coordinating Team of Telematika in Indonesia
Head First Vice Second Vice and Daily Chairman Members : : : : First Vice President Of Republic of Indonesia Coordinating Minister for Economic Affairs State Minister for Empowerment of State Apparatus 1. Minister of Home Affairs 2. Minister of Defense 3. Minister of Justice and Human Rights 4. Minister of Finance 5. Minister of Industry and Trade 6. Minister of Transportation 7. Minister of Manpower and Transmigration 8. Minister of Health 9. Minister of National Education 10. State Minister for Research and Technology 11. State Minister for Culture and Tourism 12. State Minister for Revenues and State Companies 13. Minister of Housing and Regional Infrastructure 14. State Secretary 15. State Minister for Head of the National Development Planning Board/BAPPENAS Deputy for Staffing and Public Service in State Ministry of Empowerment of State Apparatus
FINANCIAL AND DEVELOPMENT SUPERVISORY BOARD ORGANIZATIONAL STRUCTURE
Deputy Supervision for Government Institution in Economic Sector
Deputy Supervision for Government Institution in Social and Politic Sector
Deputy Supervision for Public Accountability
Deputy Supervision for Country Decentralizatio n
Deputy Supervision for State Owned Enterprises
Deputy of Investigation
Research and Development Center
Fungsional Audit Job Center
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