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**Shift Invariant Systems
**

∞

y(t) =

−∞

h(t − τ )x(τ )dτ h(t)

= x(t)

**Output is convolution of input x(t) and impulse response function h(t)
**

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.1/2

Fourier Transform

∞

Fourier transform X(f ) =

−∞

x(t)e−j2πf t dt. Period T and frequency f

ej2πf t = cos(2πf t) + j sin(2πf t) 1 1 dφ(t) f= = T 2π dt

**where φ(t) = 2πf t = ωt. Inverse Fourier transform
**

∞

x(t) =

−∞

X(f )ej2πf t df.

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.2/2

**Example -Rect and Sinc Functions
**

rect

T

**Deﬁne rect function „ t T « 8 < 1, = : 0, ˛t˛ ˛ ˛< ˛T ˛ ˛t˛>
**

1 2 1 2 ∞

**where T is the width of the pulse. Then X(f )
**

−∞

= = = sin(πf T ) πf T AT sinc(f T ) AT

Z

x(t)e−j2πf t dt

where the sinc function is deﬁned as sinc(x) = sin(πx) πx

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.3/2

Symmetry Properties

If x(t) is real, then X(f ) = Xr (f ) + jXi (f ) and

X(f ) = X ∗ (−f ) Xr (f ) = Xr (−f ) |X(f )| = |X(−f )| Xi (f ) = −Xi (−f )

φ(f ) = −φ(−f )

φ(f ) = arg X(f ) = tan−1

where |X(f )| =

**Xr (f )2 + Xi (f )2 is the magnitude
**

Xi (f ) Xr (f )

is the phase.

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.4/2

Complex Analytic Signals

For x(t) real deﬁne new frequency function Z(f ) 2X(f ) for f > 0 Z(f ) = X(0) for f = 0 0 for f < 0

One sided frequency function No loss of information about x(t)

Inverse transform of Z(f ) is z(t) and is called complex analytic signal

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.5/2

**Complex Analytic Signals-cont.
**

1 (z(t) + z ∗ (t)) x(t) = 2 = Re{z(t)}

Using X(f ) = X ∗ (−f ), z(t) and x(t) are related by

For example if x(t) = cos(2πf t), then z(t) = ej2πf t = cos(2πf t) + j sin(2πf t).

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.6/2

Eigenfunctions (Modes) of Linear Systems

**Letting x(t) = ej2πf t . Output y(t) is convolution
**

∞

y(t) =

−∞ ∞

**h(τ )ej2πf (t−τ ) dτ h(τ )e−j2πf τ dτ
**

−∞ j2πf t

= ej2πf t = H(f )e

where H(f ) is the Fourier transform of h(t).

Output is a scaled version of the input that maintains the same functional form

**ej2πf t is an eigenfunction or mode
**

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.7/2

Eigenfunctions -cont.

The function H(f ) is called the transfer function

For each frequency f0 , the value H(f0 ) is the eigenvalue of the system at f0 .

The output y(t) is then a superposition of the input with the each eigenfunction ej2πf t weighted by the corresponding eigenvalue H(f )

∞

y(t) =

−∞

X(f )H(f )ej2πf t df.

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.8/2

**Time and Frequency Representations
**

¨ ¡ © ¢

£

¥ ¦¤

§

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.9/2

Bandwidth &Timewidth

Bandwidth is a single number used to represent an entire function (often H(f ))

Multiple deﬁnitions

1 2

Half-power or -3 dB deﬁned by |H(f )|2 =

Full Width Half Maximum (FWHM) deﬁned as full width of funtion at half max

Root Mean Square (RMS) width

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.10/2

RMS Timewidth

∞

**Deﬁne centroid of a function mt =
**

−∞

1 Ah Z t h(t)dt

where Ah is the area of h(t).

**RMS timewidth σt is then
**

∞ 2 σt

=

−∞

1 Ah Z

(t − mt )2 h(t)dt

2 where σt is deﬁned as the time variance .

**Expanding the square and simplifying yields
**

∞ 2 σt

=

t2 h(t)dt − m2 . t

−∞

1 Ah

Z

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.11/2

RMS width - cont.

RMS works well for non-negative functions

When the concept of RMS width is valid, variance of the 2 2 output, σy , is the sum of the input variance σx and the 2 impulse response variance σh

2 2 2 σx + σ h = σ y .

This equation states that the RMS widths of any linear system with nonnegative input and impulse response add in quadrature.

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.12/2

Quadrature Rule Figure

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.13/2

Gaussian Pulses

x(t) = e

−t2 /2σ 2

Gaussian pulse .

σ is the RMS width of this pulse.

Transform pairs for circular and radian frequency √ −t2 /2σ 2 −2π 2 σ 2 f 2 ←→ 2πσe e √ −σ 2 ω 2 /2 ←→ 2πσe

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.14/2

Reciprocal Scaling of Gaussian Pulses

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.15/2

Random Signals

Two fundmental sources of randomness 1) Random nature of information to be sent 2) Random ﬂuctuation of optical ﬁelds, voltages (noise)

Wide variety of statistical properties of optical sources

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.16/2

**Random Optical Signals
**

U (r, t) = p I(r, t)ej[ω0 t+φ(r,t)]

Deﬁne a complex optical ﬁeld U (r, t)

The quantity I(r, t) is the intensity (W/m2 ).

Optical sensors only respond to slowly-varying changes with respect to carrier frequency ω0 . p The baseband optical ﬁeld I(r, t)ejφ(r,t) is the narrowband low-pass equivalent of the real ﬁeld.

The baseband signal It contains random components from data that we wish to transmit as well as noise ﬂuctuations.

Both the amplitude and the phase affected by the noise.

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.17/2

Demodulated Electrical Signal

Demodulated electrical signal at the output of the optical sensor s(t) = RPo = R |U (r, t)|2 dA A

where A is the area of the sensor, Po is the total optical power

R is a scaling factor called the responsivity of the sensor.

Demodulation introduces - shot noise

The responsivity is average of the conversion process.

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.18/2

Electrical and Optical Power

**Electrical signal s(t) is proportional to the optical power Po . The electrical power P is proportional to s2 (t) and thus
**

2 P ∝ C Po .

where C depends on modulation.

Must be careful in specifying signal and noise power.

Default units will be electrical, many references use optical units.

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.19/2

Coherence Function

r(τ ) = U (t)U ∗ (t + τ ) .

First-order coherence function of the ﬁeld r(τ ) at r

**If the optical ﬁeld is ergodic, then
**

T

1 r(τ ) = 2T

−T

U (t)U ∗ (t + τ )dt.

T (T

1/fc where fc = ωc /(2π) (T 10−14 sec), and 1/fmax ) where fmax is the max of s(t).

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.20/2

Autocorrelation Function

**Autocorrelation function of the ﬁeld R(τ ) is spatial integration over sensor area R(τ ) =
**

A

U (r, t)U ∗ (r, t + τ ) dA.

From the deﬁnition of r(τ ) r(0) = I R(0) = Po

Coherence (autocorrelation) function is conjugate symmetric.

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.21/2

Intensity Coherence and Electrical Autocorrelation

The intensity coherence function or the second-order coherence is deﬁned as rI (τ ) = I(t)I(t + τ )

**Associated optical power autocorrelation or electrical autocorrelation function is I(t)I(t + τ ) dA
**

A

Re = R 2

= R2 Po (t)Po (t + τ ) = s(t)s(t + τ )

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.22/2

Power Spectral Density

The power spectral density is the Fourier transform of the autocorrelation function S2 (f )

(1)

where S2 (f ) denotes a two-sided power spectral density. The units of S are Watts per Hertz.

The one-sided power spectral density S(f ) is related to the two-sided density by S(f ) = 2S2 (f ) where S(f ) is deﬁned only for f > 0.

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.23/2

Power Spectral Density-cont.

The relationship between the optical power and the one-sided power spectral density is given by

∞

Po = S(f )df

0

If the power spectrum S(f ) is normalized by the total power Po , then it can be interpreted as a probability density function of the random frequency components in the signal.

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.24/2

Power Response of Linear Systems

When a random signal with a one-sided power spectral density Si is input to a system with a transfer function H(f ), the output power spectral density is related to the input by the following expression So (f ) = Si (f )|H(f )|2 .

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.25/2

Coherence Time, Bandwidth and Wavelength Width

Coherence time τc is the width of coherence r(τ ) (autocorrelation R(τ )) function

Bandwidth ∆f is width of S(f )

1 τc

∆f ∼ = Exact if use ω, gaussian functions, and RMS widths

Conversion between frequency and wavelength functions is accomplished using the differential relationship Sλ (λ)dλ = S(f )df.

Taking the derivative of each side and neglecting the sign (because we are only interested in the widths) yields ∆f = ∆λ . Noting that f λ = c0 , we can write f λ ∆f = c0 ∆λ . λ2

ECE2443b Lightwave Communictions Lecture 2 – p.26/2

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