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DIY in Context: From Bricolage to Jugaad

Victor Viña fadfest Open Design Shared Creativity Barcelona, July 3rd, 2012

DIY / Open Design · Everyday Solutions · Shared Knowledge · Grassroot Innovations · Collaborative Networks

Informal Economies · Rebusque. Colombia · Gambiarra. Brazil · Jugaad. India · Shanzai. China

DIY

[ Popular Mechanics, 1905 ]

[ Popular Mechanics, 1905 ]

[ Popular Mechanics, 1905 ]

[ Do it yourself magazine cover, 1957 ]

[ Leroy Merlin, . 2006 ]

Royal College of Art, London, 1999-2001

Interaction Design Institute Ivrea, 2001-2003

Ecole Cantonale de Art de Laussane, 2005

Glasgow School of Art, 2005-2007

Technical University, Eindhoven, 2010

Holon Institute of Technology, Tel Aviv, 2010

Elisava School of Design, Barcelona, 2005-2010

Institute for Advanced Architecture of Catalonia. Barcelona, 2007-2010

Universidad Javeriana de Bogotá, 2005

Universidad Nacional de Medellín, 2007

Escuela Técnica Everardo Dos Pasos, Saõ Paulo. 2009

Srishti School of Art, Design and Technology, Bangalore, 2009-2010

Peepal Groove School, Andrha Pradesh, 2009

Trias Culture, Dakar, 2011

Designers don't need the precision and accuracy that scientists usually do in order to explore the poetries of interaction. They work well with the making-thebest-of-what-we-have approach, using materials at hand, and are comfortable with the idea of hacking existing technology.

[ Usman Haque, Low Tech Sensors and Actuators, 2003 ]

[ Arduino Booklet. 2006 ]

· Maximize available resources. · Reappropiate existing technologies. · Integrate different parts and components. · Develop iterative, non-optimal, good enough solutions.

Informal Economies

In Medellin twenty thousand people work in informal activities considered as rebusque, mainly at the city center, but also in the periphery, in the slums and even in commercial malls. They apply creativity to keep themselves active, included and productive. Itʼs a service-based survival economy.

[ http://www.caracol.com.co ]

[ Pilar Echavarría, BogotáLab, 2005. http://tdd.elisava.net/coleccion/24 ]

[ Pilar Echavarría, BogotáLab, 2005. http://tdd.elisava.net/coleccion/24 ]

[ Pilar Echavarría, BogotáLab, 2005. http://tdd.elisava.net/coleccion/24 ]

[ Mobile sharing in Bogotá, http://www.flickr.com/photos/8755224@N07/4627736724 ]

[ Mercado ʻEl Huecoʼ, Medellín 2007 ]

[ Mercado ʻEl Huecoʼ, Medellín 2007 ]

[ Mercado ʻEl Huecoʼ, Medellín 2007 ]

Mercado ʻEl Huecoʼ, Medellín 2007

[ Mercado ʻEl Huecoʼ, Medellín 2007 ]

Everyday Solutions

[ S.P. Road, Bangalore 2009 ]

[ S.P. Road, Bangalore 2009 ]

[ S.P. Road, Bangalore 2009 ]

[ Electronics workshop. S.P. Road, Bangalore 2009 ]

India today is this unusual combination of a country with millions of people making $2 and $3 a day, but with a growing economy, an increasing amount of cheap connectivity and a rising number of skilled technologists looking to make their fortune by inventing low-cost solutions to every problem you can imagine.

[ Thomas Friedman, Do Believe the Hype, NY TIMES, 2010 ]

[ S.P. Road, Bangalore 2009 ]

[ Knife sharpener. K.R. Market. Bangalore. 2009 ]

[ 100 Feet Road, Bangalore 2009 ]

[ http://www.flickr.com/photos/meanestindian/4640126469/ ]

The Hindi term of Jugaad roughly translates as ʻovercoming harsh constraints by improvising an effective solution using limited resourcesʼ. It is the art of creative improvisation — within a framework of deep knowledge and experience. [... ] It is a tribute to native genius and lateral thinking.

[ Navi Radjou et al, The Conversation, 2010 ]

[ K.R. Market, Bangalore, 2010 ]

[ K.R. Market, Bangalore 2010 ]

· Maximize available resources. · Reutilize materials and components. · Employ durable and robust connections. · Outsource production locally when needed.

[ Gambiarra Sound System, 2009 http://www.flickr.com/photos/guiligas ]

Gambiarra is an improvised amendment to a dysfunctional artefact, normally by the means of its combination with another object. One of the most exemplary gambiarras is the use of wire wool in TV antennas to compensate deficient signal reception. [...] Gambiarras are born from deception and failure.

[ Gabriel Menotti Gonring, Gambiarra: The Prototyping Perspective. 2011 ]

[ Fred Paulino. www.gambiologia.net ]

[ Fred Paulino. www.gambiologia.net ]

[ Fred Paulino. Gambiociclo. www.gambiologia.net ]

Open Knowledge

[ Telecentro, Carandiru, Saõ Paulo, Metareciclagem 2010 ]

[ Telecentro, Carandiru, Saõ Paulo, Metareciclagem 2010 ]

Brazil is a ciberpunk nation, simultaneously hyperconnected and precarious. We spend more time online than any other country. We have developed great skills using online social platforms. We can find low-profile computers on supermarkets, cybercafés in every corner and cell phones at reasonable prices, all of which is transforming everyday life for a big part of the population.

[ Felipe Fonseca, Laboratórios do pós-digital. 2011. http://efeefe.no-ip.org ]

[ Felipe Fonseca. Telecentro, Saõ Paulo, Metareciclagem 2010 ]

[ Telecentro, Centro Marista de Inclusão Digital, Metareciclagem 2011 http://cmidsm.wordpress.com/ ]

[ Telecentro, Saõ Paulo, Metareciclagem 2010 ]

· Recycle products, methods and strategies. Everything can be recycled. · Share generated knowledge. Allow free distribution and modification. · Reappropiate, reinvent, occupy, reply. Keep reciclying forever.

[ Felipe Fonseca, Laboratórios do pós-digital. 2011. http://efeefe.no-ip.org ]

It is an irony of modern consumerism that junk products are packed in tough cartons. While the frail human body consumes and digests the junk, it is the environment that has to grapple and reckon with the tough, non-biodegradable waste.

[ Arvind Gupta, Little Toys, 2002 www.arvindguptatoys.com ]

Grassroot Innovations

[ Disposable clay chai cup, Mumbai. http://www.flickr.com/photos/taylorandayumi/4801645407 ]

http://www.flickr.com/photos/44317964@N02/4437575914

http://www.flickr.com/photos/44317964@N02/4437575914

When you combine a scarcity of resources with an abundance of knowledge, sustainable solutions are a common result. Those at the grassroots inherently look for ways to co-opt nature and conserve energy. […] Rural innovations tend toward sustainable solutions with frugality, durability and multi-functionality being part of the mix. Solutions developed by producers who are also users reflect the concerns of both the production and consumption environments.

[ Anil Gupta, Finding Innovation in Every Corner, Design Observer, 2010 ]

[ Mitti Cool refrigerator by Mansukhbhai Prajapati. Gujarat http://www.sristi.org/anilg/ ]

[ Mitti Cool cookware by Mansukhbhai Prajapati. Gujarat http://www.sristi.org/anilg/ ]

[ Gas-powered iron by K Linga Brahman, from Andra Pradesh. http://www.sristi.org/anilg/ ]

[ Pressure-cooker coffee maker from Bihur. Mohammed Rozadeen. http://www.sristi.org/anilg/ ]

· Save energy considering alternative solutions. · Combine durability with multifunctionality. · Promote environmental consciousness. · Consider life cycle of products. · Use biodegradable materials.

Collaborative Networks

[ SEG Plaza, Shenzhen, 2010 http://www.flickr.com/photos/bojo/4922548108/ ]

[ Electronics Market, 668 E Beijing Rd Shanghai, 2010 ]

[ Electronics Market, 668 E Beijing Rd Shanghai, 2010 ]

[ Electronics Market, 668 E Beijing Rd Shanghai, 2010 ]

[ iPhone vs Hiphone. http://www.flickr.com/photos/leahbuechley/4034786746 ]

[ Car Stereos Shanzai factory http://www.flickr.com/photos/ttstam/4178701318 ]

By working outside of the dominant infrastructure of mobile producers, shanzai makers went wild with producing mobile phones with new features that were relevant for low-end users. Shanzai mobiles have democratized technological access to a huge sector of the population. Shanzai is moving beyond the perception of being a copycat culture to a bottom-up innovation culture.

[ Tricia Wang, A recipe for disruptive innovation? 2011. http://www.triciawang.com/bytes-of-china/ ]

· Design nothing from scratch, build on what others have done. · Innovate at small scales for speed and cost savings. · Share as much as you can to add value to your process. · Sell it before you make it. · Act responsibly within the supply chain to preserve your reputation.

[ Shanzaii Rules. http://www.openfabrication.org/?page_id=185 ]

[ Moravia, Medellín, 2007 ]

[ Self-regulated Communication Network. Moravia, Medellín, 2007 ]

[ Self-regulated Communication Network. Moravia, Medellín, 2007 ]

[ Self-regulated Communication Network. Moravia, Medellín, 2007 ]

[ Public Phone. Jodhpur, 2010 ]

[ Public Phone. Allepey, 2010 ]

[ Door to door ironing service. Yelahanka New Town, 2009 ]

[ Fresh Lime Soda local production, Bangalore, 2009 ]

[ Dabbawallah, Mumbai, 2009 ]

[ Dabbawallah, Mumbai, 2009 ]

[ Dabbawallah, Mumbai, 2009 http://www.flickr.com/photos/matzucker/6542675033/ ]

[ Dabba delivery code, Mumbai, 2009 ]

[ Dabba delivery code, Mumbai, 2009 ]

[ Dabba delivery code, Mumbai, 2009 ]

· Inclusion, not exclusion. · Bottom-up participation, not top-down command and control. · Flexible thinking and action, not linear planning. · Thrift not waste.

[ Navi Radjou et al, The Conversation, 2010 ]

I want the concentration of wealth, not in the hands of a few, but in the hands of all. Today machinery merely helps a few to ride on the backs of millions. [...] For instance, I would make intelligent exceptions. Take the case of the Singerʼs sewing machine. It is one of the few useful things ever invented, and there is a romance about the device itself.

[ Gandhi, Hind Swaraj, 1913 ]

Thank you.
@vicvina