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In computer science, a universal Turing machine (UTM) is a Turing machine that can simulate an arbitrary Turing machine on arbitrary input. The universal machine essentially achieves this by reading both the description of the machine to be simulated as well as the input thereof from its own tape. Alan Turing introduced this machine in 1936–1937. This model is considered by some (for example, Martin Davis (2000)) to be the origin of the stored program computer—used by John von Neumann (1946) for the "Electronic Computing Instrument" that now bears von Neumann's name: the von Neumann architecture. It is also known as universal computing machine, universal machine, machine U, U. In terms of computational complexity, a multi-tape universal Turing machine need only be slower by logarithmic factor compared to the machines it simulates.

Introduction

Every Turing machine computes a certain fixed partial computable function from the input strings over its alphabet. In that sense it behaves like a computer with a fixed program. However, we can encode the action table of any Turing machine in a string. Thus we can construct a Turing machine that expects on its tape a string describing an action table followed by a string describing the input tape, and computes the tape that the encoded Turing machine would have computed. Turing described such a construction in complete detail in his 1936 paper: "It is possible to invent a single machine which can be used to compute any computable sequence. If this machine U is supplied with a tape on the beginning of which is written the S.D ["standard description" of an action table] of some computing machine M, then U will compute the same sequence as M." [1]

Turing's theory of computable functions antedated but has not much influenced the extensive actual construction of digital computers. These two aspects of theory and practice have been developed almost entirely independently of each other. The main reason is undoubtedly that logicians are interested in questions radically different from those with which the applied mathematicians and electrical engineers are primarily concerned. It cannot, however, fail to strike one as rather strange that often the same concepts are expressed by very different terms in the two developments." (Wang 1954, 1957:63) Wang hoped that his paper would "connect the two approaches." Indeed, Minsky confirms this: "that the first formulation of Turing-machine theory in computer-like models appears in Wang (1957)" (Minsky 1967:200). Minsky goes on to demonstrate Turing equivalence of a counter machine. With respect to the reduction of computers to simple Turing equivalent models (and vice versa), Minsky's designation of Wang as having made "the first formulation" is open to debate. While both Minsky's paper of 1961 and Wang's paper of 1957 are cited by Shepherdson and Sturgis (1963), they also cite and summarize in some detail the work of European mathematicians Kaphenst (1959), Ershov (1959), and Péter (1958). The names of mathematicians Hermes (1954, 1955, 1961) and Kaphenst (1959) appear in the bibliographies of both Sheperdson-Sturgis (1963) and Elgot-Robinson (1961). Two other names of importance are Canadian researchers Melzak (1961) and Lambek (1961). For much more see Turing machine equivalents; references can be found at Register machine.

Mathematical theory

A universal Turing machine can calculate any recursive function, decide any recursive language, and accept any recursively enumerable language. According to the ChurchTuring thesis, the problems solvable by a universal Turing machine are exactly those problems solvable by an algorithm or an effective method of computation, for any reasonable definition of those terms. For these reasons, a universal Turing machine serves as a standard against which to compare computational systems, and a system that can simulate a universal Turing machine is called Turing complete. An abstract version of the universal Turing machine is the universal function, a computable function which can be used to calculate any other computable function. The utm theorem proves the existence of such a function.

Efficiency

Without loss of generality, the input of Turing machine can be assumed to be in the alphabet {0, 1}; any other finite alphabet can be encoded over {0, 1}. The behavior of a Turing machine M is determined by its transition function. This function can be easily

encoded as a string over the alphabet {0, 1} as well. The size of the alphabet of M, the number of tapes it has, and the size of the state space can be deduced from the transition function’s table. The distinguished states and symbols can be identified by their position, e.g. the first two states can by convention be the start and stop states. Consequently, every Turing machine can be encoded as a string over the alphabet {0, 1}. Additionally, we convene that every invalid encoding maps to a trivial Turing machine that immediately halts, and that every Turing machine can have an infinite number of encodings by padding the encoding with an arbitrary number of (say) 1's at the end, just like comments work in a programming language. It should be no surprise that we can achieve this encoding given the existence of a Gödel number and computational equivalence between Turing machines and μ-recursive functions. Similarly, our construction associates to every binary string α, a Turing machine Mα. Starting from the above encoding, in 1966 F. C. Hennie and R. E. Stearns showed that given a Turing machine Mα that halts on input x within N steps, then there exists a multitape universal Turing machine that halts on inputs α, x (given on different tapes) in CN log N, where C is a machine-specific constant that does not depend on the length of the input x, but does depend on M's alphabet size, number of tapes, and number of states. Effectively this is an O(N log N) simulation.[3]

Smallest machines

When Alan Turing came up with the idea of a universal machine he had in mind the simplest computing model powerful enough to calculate all possible functions which can be calculated. Claude Shannon first explicitly posed the question of finding the smallest possible universal Turing machine in 1956. He showed that two symbols were sufficient so long as enough states were used (or vice-versa), and that it was always possible to exchange states by symbols. Marvin Minsky discovered a 7-state 4-symbol universal Turing machine in 1962 using 2tag systems. Other small universal Turing machines have since been found by Yurii Rogozhin and others by extending this approach of tag system simulation. If we denote by (m, n) the class of UTMs with m states and n symbols the following tuples have been found: (15, 2), (9, 3), (6, 4), (5, 5), (4, 6), (3, 9), and (2, 18).[4][5][6] Rogozhin's (4, 6) machine uses only 22 instructions, and no standard UTM of lesser descriptional complexity is known. However, generalizing the standard Turing machine model admits even smaller UTMs. One such generalization is to allow an infinitely repeated word on one or both sides of the Turing machine input, thus extending the definition of universality and known as "semiweak" or "weak" universality, respectively. Small weakly universal Turing machines that simulate the Rule 110 cellular automaton have been given for the (6, 2), (3, 3), and (2, 4) state-symbol pairs.[7] The proof of universality for Wolfram's 2-state 3-symbol Turing machine further extends the notion of weak universality by allowing certain non-periodic initial configurations. Other variants on the standard Turing machine model that yield small

UTMs include machines with multiple tapes or tapes of multiple dimension, and machines coupled with a finite automaton.

**Example of universal-machine coding
**

For those who would undertake the challenge of designing a UTM exactly as Turing specified see the article by Davies in Copeland (2004:103ff). Davies corrects the errors in the original and shows what a sample run would look like. He claims to have successfully run a (somewhat simplified) simulation. The following example is taken from Turing (1936). For more about this example see the page Turing machine examples. Turing used seven symbols { A, C, D, R, L, N, ; } to encode each 5-tuple; as described in the article Turing machine, his 5-tuples are only of types N1, N2, and N3. The number of each "m-configuration" (instruction, state) is represented by "D" followed by a unary string of A's, i.e. "q3" = DAAA. In a similar manner he encodes the symbols blank as "D", the symbol "0" is "DC", the symbol "1" as DCC, etc. The symbols "R", "L", and "N" remain as is. After encoding each 5-tuple is then "assembled" into a string in order as shown in the following table:

Current m- Tape Print- TapeFinal mCurrent m- Tape Print- TapeFinal mconfiguration symbol operation motion configuration configuration symbol operation motion configuration code code code code code 5-tuple assembled code q1 q2 q3 q4 blank blank blank blank P0 E P1 E R R R R q2 q3 q4 q1 DA DAA DAAA DAAAA D D D D DC D DCC D R R R R DAA DAAA DAAAA DA DADDCRDAA DAADDRDAAA DAAADDCCRDAAAA DAAAADDRDA

Finally, the codes for all four 5-tuples are strung together into a code started by ";" and separated by ";" i.e.: ;DADDCRDAA;DAADDRDAAA;DAAADDCCRDAAAA;DAAAADDRDA This code he placed on alternate squares—the "F-squares" -- leaving the "E-squares" (those liable to erasure) empty. The final assembly of the code on the tape for the U-machine consists of placing two special symbols ("e") one after the other, then the code separated out on alternate squares, and lastly the double-colon symbol "::" (blanks shown here with "." for clarity): ee.;.D.A.D.D.C.R.D.A.A.;.D.A.A.D.D.R.D.A.A.A.;.D.A.A.A.D.D.C.C.R.D.A.A.A. A.;.D.A.A.A.A.D.D.R.D.A.::......

The U-machine's action-table (state-transition table) is responsible for decoding the symbols. Turing's action table keeps track of its place with markers "u", "v", "x", "y", "z" by placing them in "E-squares" to the right of "the marked symbol" -- for example, to mark the current instruction z is placed to the right of ";" x is keeping the place with respect to the current "m-configuration" DAA. The U-machine's action table will shuttle these symbols around (erasing them and placing them in different locations) as the computation progresses: ee.; .D.A.D.D.C.R.D.A.A. ; zD.A.AxD.D.R.D.A.A.A.;.D.A.A.A.D.D.C.C.R.D.A.A.A.A.;.D.A.A.A.A.D.D.R.D. A.::...... Turing's action-table for his U-machine is very involved. A number of other commentators (notably Penrose 1989) provide examples of ways to encode instructions for the Universal machine. As does Penrose, most commentators use only binary symbols i.e. only symbols { 0, 1 }, or { blank, mark | }. Penrose goes further and writes out his entire U-machine code (Penrose 1989:71–73). He asserts that it truly is a U-machine code, an enormous number that spans almost 2 full pages of 1's and 0's. For readers interested in simpler encodings for the Post-Turing machine the discussion of Davis in Steen (Steen 1980:251ff) may be useful.

Turing machine

An artistic representation of a Turing machine (Rules table not represented) A Turing machine is a device that manipulates symbols on a strip of tape according to a table of rules. Despite its simplicity, a Turing machine can be adapted to simulate the logic of any computer algorithm, and is particularly useful in explaining the functions of a CPU inside a computer. The "Turing" machine was described by Alan Turing in 1936,[1] who called it an "a(utomatic)-machine". The Turing machine is not intended as a practical computing technology, but rather as a hypothetical device representing a computing machine. Turing machines help computer scientists understand the limits of mechanical computation.

Turing gave a succinct definition of the experiment in his 1948 essay, "Intelligent Machinery". Referring to his 1936 publication, Turing wrote that the Turing machine, here called a Logical Computing Machine, consisted of: ...an infinite memory capacity obtained in the form of an infinite tape marked out into squares, on each of which a symbol could be printed. At any moment there is one symbol in the machine; it is called the scanned symbol. The machine can alter the scanned symbol and its behavior is in part determined by that symbol, but the symbols on the tape elsewhere do not affect the behaviour of the machine. However, the tape can be moved back and forth through the machine, this being one of the elementary operations of the machine. Any symbol on the tape may therefore eventually have an innings.[2] (Turing 1948, p. 61) A Turing machine that is able to simulate any other Turing machine is called a universal Turing machine (UTM, or simply a universal machine). A more mathematically-oriented definition with a similar "universal" nature was introduced by Alonzo Church, whose work on lambda calculus intertwined with Turing's in a formal theory of computation known as the Church–Turing thesis. The thesis states that Turing machines indeed capture the informal notion of effective method in logic and mathematics, and provide a precise definition of an algorithm or 'mechanical procedure'.

Informal description

For visualizations of Turing machines, see Turing machine gallery. The Turing machine mathematically models a machine that mechanically operates on a tape. On this tape are symbols which the machine can read and write, one at a time, using a tape head. Operation is fully determined by a finite set of elementary instructions such as "in state 42, if the symbol seen is 0, write a 1; if the symbol seen is 1, shift to the right, and change into state 17; in state 17, if the symbol seen is 0, write a 1 and change to state 6;" etc. In the original article ("On computable numbers, with an application to the Entscheidungsproblem", see also references below), Turing imagines not a mechanism, but a person whom he calls the "computer", who executes these deterministic mechanical rules slavishly (or as Turing puts it, "in a desultory manner").

The head is always over a particular square of the tape; only a finite stretch of squares is given. The instruction to be performed (q4) is shown over the scanned square. (Drawing after Kleene (1952) p.375.)

Here, the internal state (q1) is shown inside the head, and the illustration describes the tape as being infinite and pre-filled with "0", the symbol serving as blank. The system's full state (its configuration) consists of the internal state, the contents of the shaded squares including the blank scanned by the head ("11B"), and the position of the head. (Drawing after Minsky (1967) p. 121). More precisely, a Turing machine consists of: 1. A tape which is divided into cells, one next to the other. Each cell contains a symbol from some finite alphabet. The alphabet contains a special blank symbol (here written as 'B') and one or more other symbols. The tape is assumed to be arbitrarily extendable to the left and to the right, i.e., the Turing machine is always supplied with as much tape as it needs for its computation. Cells that have not been written to before are assumed to be filled with the blank symbol. In some models the tape has a left end marked with a special symbol; the tape extends or is indefinitely extensible to the right. 2. A head that can read and write symbols on the tape and move the tape left and right one (and only one) cell at a time. In some models the head moves and the tape is stationary. 3. A finite table (occasionally called an action table or transition function) of instructions (usually quintuples [5-tuples] : qiaj→qi1aj1dk, but sometimes 4-tuples) that, given the state(qi) the machine is currently in and the symbol(aj) it is reading on the tape (symbol currently under the head) tells the machine to do the following in sequence (for the 5-tuple models): o Either erase or write a symbol (instead of aj, write aj1), and then o Move the head (which is described by dk and can have values: 'L' for one step left or 'R' for one step right or 'N' for staying in the same place), and then o Assume the same or a new state as prescribed (go to state qi1). In the 4-tuple models, erase or write a symbol (aj1) and move the head left or right (dk) are specified as separate instructions. Specifically, the table tells the machine to (ia) erase or write a symbol or (ib) move the head left or right, and then (ii) assume the same or a new state as prescribed, but not both actions (ia) and (ib) in the same instruction. In some models, if there is no entry in the table for the current combination of symbol and state then the machine will halt; other models require all entries to be filled. 4. A state register that stores the state of the Turing machine, one of finitely many. There is one special start state with which the state register is initialized. These states, writes Turing, replace the "state of mind" a person performing computations would ordinarily be in. Note that every part of the machine—its state and symbol-collections—and its actions— printing, erasing and tape motion—is finite, discrete and distinguishable; it is the potentially unlimited amount of tape that gives it an unbounded amount of storage space.

**Examples of Turing machines
**

To see examples of the following models, see Turing machine examples: 1. Turing's very first machine 2. Copy routine 3. 3-state busy beaver

Formal definition

Hopcroft and Ullman (1979, p. 148) formally define a (one-tape) Turing machine as a 7tuple where

• • • • • • •

Q is a finite, non-empty set of states Γ is a finite, non-empty set of the tape alphabet/symbols is the blank symbol (the only symbol allowed to occur on the tape infinitely often at any step during the computation) is the set of input symbols is the initial state is the set of final or accepting states. is a partial function called the transition function, where L is left shift, R is right shift. (A relatively uncommon variant allows "no shift", say N, as a third element of the latter set.)

Anything that operates according to these specifications is a Turing machine. The 7-tuple for the 3-state busy beaver looks like this (see more about this busy beaver at Turing machine examples): Q = { A, B, C, HALT } Γ = { 0, 1 } b = 0 = "blank" Σ={1} δ = see state-table below q0 = A = initial state F = the one element set of final states {HALT} Initially all tape cells are marked with 0. State table for 3 state, 2 symbol busy beaver Current state A Current state B Current state C

Write symbol Move tape Next state Write symbol Move tape Next state Write symbol Move tape Next state

Tape symbol 0

1

R

B

1

L

A

1

L

B

1

1

L

C

1

R

B

1

R

HALT

**Additional details required to visualize or implement Turing machines
**

In the words of van Emde Boas (1990), p. 6: "The set-theoretical object [his formal seventuple description similar to the above] provides only partial information on how the machine will behave and what its computations will look like." For instance,

• •

•

There will need to be some decision on what the symbols actually look like, and a failproof way of reading and writing symbols indefinitely. The shift left and shift right operations may shift the tape head across the tape, but when actually building a Turing machine it is more practical to make the tape slide back and forth under the head instead. The tape can be finite, and automatically extended with blanks as needed (which is closest to the mathematical definition), but it is more common to think of it as stretching infinitely at both ends and being pre-filled with blanks except on the explicitly given finite fragment the tape head is on. (This is, of course, not implementable in practice.) The tape cannot be fixed in length, since that would not correspond to the given definition and would seriously limit the range of computations the machine can perform to those of a linear bounded automaton.

Example: state table for the 3-state 2-symbol busy beaver reduced to 5-tuples Current Scanned Print Move Final (i.e. next) 5-tuples state symbol symbol tape state (A, 0, 1, R, A 0 1 R B B) (A, 1, 1, L, A 1 1 L C C) B 0 1 L A (B, 0, 1, L, A) B 1 1 R B (B, 1, 1, R, B) C 0 1 L B (C, 0, 1, L, B) (C, 1, 1, N, C 1 1 N H H) In the following table, Turing's original model allowed only the first three lines that he called N1, N2, N3 (cf Turing in Undecidable, p. 126). He allowed for erasure of the "scanned square" by naming a 0th symbol S0 = "erase" or "blank", etc. However, he did not allow for non-printing, so every instruction-line includes "print symbol Sk" or "erase" (cf footnote 12 in Post (1947), Undecidable p. 300). The abbreviations are Turing's (Undecidable p. 119). Subsequent to Turing's original paper in 1936–1937, machinemodels have allowed all nine possible types of five-tuples:

Current mFinal mTape PrintTape5configuration configuration symbol operation motion tuple (Turing state) (Turing state) (qi, Sj, N1 qi Sj Print(Sk) Left L qm Sk, L, qm) (qi, Sj, N2 qi Sj Print(Sk) Right R qm Sk, R, qm) (qi, Sj, N3 qi Sj Print(Sk) None N qm Sk, N, qm) (qi, Sj, 4 qi Sj None N Left L qm N, L, qm) (qi, Sj, 5 qi Sj None N Right R qm N, R, qm) (qi, Sj, 6 qi Sj None N None N qm N, N, qm) (qi, Sj, 7 qi Sj Erase Left L qm E, L, qm) (qi, Sj, 8 qi Sj Erase Right R qm E, R, qm) (qi, Sj, 9 qi Sj Erase None N qm E, N, qm)

5-tuple 4comments tuple "blank" = S0, 1=S1, etc. "blank" = S0, 1=S1, etc. "blank" = (qi, Sj, S0, 1=S1, Sk, qm) etc. (qi, Sj, L, qm) (qi, Sj, R, qm) Direct "jump" (qi, Sj, N, qm)

(qi, Sj, E, qm)

Any Turing table (list of instructions) can be constructed from the above nine 5-tuples. For technical reasons, the three non-printing or "N" instructions (4, 5, 6) can usually be dispensed with. For examples see Turing machine examples. Less frequently the use of 4-tuples are encountered: these represent a further atomization of the Turing instructions (cf Post (1947), Boolos & Jeffrey (1974, 1999), Davis-SigalWeyuker (1994)); also see more at Post–Turing machine.

The "state"

The word "state" used in context of Turing machines can be a source of confusion, as it can mean two things. Most commentators after Turing have used "state" to mean the name/designator of the current instruction to be performed—i.e. the contents of the state register. But Turing (1936) made a strong distinction between a record of what he called

the machine's "m-configuration", (its internal state) and the machine's (or person's) "state of progress" through the computation - the current state of the total system. What Turing called "the state formula" includes both the current instruction and all the symbols on the tape: Thus the state of progress of the computation at any stage is completely determined by the note of instructions and the symbols on the tape. That is, the state of the system may be described by a single expression (sequence of symbols) consisting of the symbols on the tape followed by Δ (which we suppose not to appear elsewhere) and then by the note of instructions. This expression is called the 'state formula'. —Undecidable, p.139–140, emphasis added Earlier in his paper Turing carried this even further: he gives an example where he places a symbol of the current "m-configuration"—the instruction's label—beneath the scanned square, together with all the symbols on the tape (Undecidable, p. 121); this he calls "the complete configuration" (Undecidable, p. 118). To print the "complete configuration" on one line he places the state-label/m-configuration to the left of the scanned symbol. A variant of this is seen in Kleene (1952) where Kleene shows how to write the Gödel number of a machine's "situation": he places the "m-configuration" symbol q4 over the scanned square in roughly the center of the 6 non-blank squares on the tape (see the Turing-tape figure in this article) and puts it to the right of the scanned square. But Kleene refers to "q4" itself as "the machine state" (Kleene, p. 374-375). Hopcroft and Ullman call this composite the "instantaneous description" and follow the Turing convention of putting the "current state" (instruction-label, m-configuration) to the left of the scanned symbol (p. 149). Example: total state of 3-state 2-symbol busy beaver after 3 "moves" (taken from example "run" in the figure below): 1A1 This means: after three moves the tape has ... 000110000 ... on it, the head is scanning the right-most 1, and the state is A. Blanks (in this case represented by "0"s) can be part of the total state as shown here: B01 ; the tape has a single 1 on it, but the head is scanning the 0 ("blank") to its left and the state is B. "State" in the context of Turing machines should be clarified as to which is being described: (i) the current instruction, or (ii) the list of symbols on the tape together with the current instruction, or (iii) the list of symbols on the tape together with the current instruction placed to the left of the scanned symbol or to the right of the scanned symbol. Turing's biographer Andrew Hodges (1983: 107) has noted and discussed this confusion.

**Turing machine "state" diagrams
**

The table for the 3-state busy beaver ("P" = print/write a "1")

Tape symbol

Current state A Write symbol P P Move tape R L Next state B C

Current state B Write symbol P P Move tape L R Next state A B

Current state C Write symbol P P Move tape L R Next state B HALT

0 1

The "3-state busy beaver" Turing machine in a finite state representation. Each circle represents a "state" of the TABLE—an "m-configuration" or "instruction". "Direction" of a state transition is shown by an arrow. The label (e.g.. 0/P,R) near the outgoing state (at the "tail" of the arrow) specifies the scanned symbol that causes a particular transition (e.g. 0) followed by a slash /, followed by the subsequent "behaviors" of the machine, e.g. "P Print" then move tape "R Right". No general accepted format exists. The convention shown is after McClusky (1965), Booth (1967), Hill and Peterson (1974). To the right: the above TABLE as expressed as a "state transition" diagram. Usually large TABLES are better left as tables (Booth, p. 74). They are more readily simulated by computer in tabular form (Booth, p. 74). However, certain concepts—e.g. machines with "reset" states and machines with repeating patterns (cf Hill and Peterson p. 244ff)—can be more readily seen when viewed as a drawing. Whether a drawing represents an improvement on its TABLE must be decided by the reader for the particular context. See Finite state machine for more.

The evolution of the busy-beaver's computation starts at the top and proceeds to the bottom. The reader should again be cautioned that such diagrams represent a snapshot of their TABLE frozen in time, not the course ("trajectory") of a computation through time and/or space. While every time the busy beaver machine "runs" it will always follow the same state-trajectory, this is not true for the "copy" machine that can be provided with variable input "parameters". The diagram "Progress of the computation" shows the 3-state busy beaver's "state" (instruction) progress through its computation from start to finish. On the far right is the Turing "complete configuration" (Kleene "situation", Hopcroft–Ullman "instantaneous description") at each step. If the machine were to be stopped and cleared to blank both the "state register" and entire tape, these "configurations" could be used to rekindle a computation anywhere in its progress (cf Turing (1936) Undecidable pp. 139–140).

**Non-deterministic finite automaton
**

In the automata theory, a nondeterministic finite automaton (NFA) or nondeterministic finite state machine is a finite state machine where from each state and a given input symbol the automaton may jump into several possible next states. This distinguishes it from the deterministic finite automaton (DFA), where the next possible state is uniquely determined. Although the DFA and NFA have distinct definitions, a NFA can be translated to equivalent DFA using powerset construction, i.e., the constructed DFA and the NFA recognize the same formal language. Both types of automata recognize only regular languages. Nondeterministic finite automata were introduced in 1959 by Michael O. Rabin and Dana Scott,[1] who also showed their equivalence to deterministic finite automata.

Non-deterministic finite state machines are sometimes studied by the name subshifts of finite type. Non-deterministic finite state machines are generalized by probabilistic automata, which assign a probability to each state transition.

Informal introduction

An NFA, similar to a DFA, consumes a string of input symbols. For each input symbol it transitions to a new state until all input symbols have been consumed. Unlike a DFA, it is non-deterministic in that, for any input symbol, its next state may be any one of several possible states. Thus, in the formal definition, the next state is an element of the power set of states. This element, itself a set, represents some subset of all possible states to be considered at once. The notion of accepting an input is similar to that for the DFA. When the last input symbol is consumed, the NFA accepts if and only if there is some set of transitions that will take it to an accepting state. Equivalently, it rejects, if, no matter what transitions are applied, it would not end in an accepting state. An extension of the NFA is the NFA-ε (also known as NFA-λ or the NFA with epsilon moves), which allows a transformation to a new state without consuming any input symbols. Transformations to new states without consuming an input symbol are called εtransitions or λ-transitions. They are usually labeled with the Greek letter ε or λ. For example, if it is in state 1, with the next input symbol an a, it can move to state 2 without consuming any input symbols, and thus there is an ambiguity: is the system in state 1, or state 2, before consuming the letter a? Because of this ambiguity, it is more convenient to talk of the set of possible states the system may be in. Thus, before consuming letter a, the NFA-epsilon may be in any one of the states out of the set {1,2}. Equivalently, one may imagine that the NFA is in state 1 and 2 'at the same time': and this gives an informal hint of the powerset construction: the DFA equivalent to an NFA is defined as the one that is in the state q={1,2}.

Formal definition

An NFA is represented formally by a 5-tuple, (Q, Σ, Δ, q0, F), consisting of

• • • • •

a finite set of states Q a finite set of input symbols Σ a transition relation Δ : Q × Σ → P(Q). an initial (or start) state q0 ∈ Q a set of states F distinguished as accepting (or final) states F ⊆ Q.

Here, P(Q) denotes the power set of Q. Let w = a1a2 ... an be a word over the alphabet Σ. The automaton M accepts the word w if a sequence of states, r0,r1, ..., rn, exists in Q with the following conditions: 1. r0 = q0 2. ri+1 ∈ Δ(ri, ai+1), for i = 0, ..., n−1

3. rn ∈ F. In words, the first condition says that the machine starts in the start state q0. The second condition says that given each character of string w, the machine will transition from state to state according to the transition relation Δ. The last condition says that the machine accepts w if the last input of w causes the machine to halt in one of the accepting states. Otherwise, it is said that the automaton rejects the string. The set of strings M accepts is the language recognized by M and this language is denoted by L(M). For more comprehensive introduction of the formal definition see automata theory. NFA-ε The NFA-ε (also sometimes called NFA-λ or NFA with epsilon moves) replaces the transition function with one that allows the empty string ε as a possible input, so that one has instead Δ : Q × (Σ ∪{ε}) → P(Q). It can be shown that ordinary NFA and NFA-ε are equivalent, in that, given either one, one can construct the other, which recognizes the same language.

Example

The state diagram for M Let M be a NFA-ε, with a binary alphabet, that determines if the input contains an even number of 0s or an even number of 1s. Note that 0 occurrences is an even number of occurrences as well. In formal notation, let M = ({s0, s1, s2, s3, s4}, {0, 1}, Δ, s0, {s1, s3}) where the transition relation T can be defined by this state transition table:

S0 S1 S2 S3 S4

0 {} {S2} {S1} {S3} {S4}

1 ε {} {S1, S3} {S1} {} {S2} {} {S4} {} {S3} {}

M can be viewed as the union of two DFAs: one with states {S1, S2} and the other with states {S3, S4}. The language of M can be described by the regular language given by this regular expression (1*(01*01*)*) ∪ (0*(10*10*)*). We define M using ε-moves but M can be defined without using ε-moves.

Properties

The machine starts in the specified initial state and reads in a string of symbols from its alphabet. The automaton uses the state transition function Δ to determine the next state using the current state, and the symbol just read or the empty string. However, "the next state of an NFA depends not only on the current input event, but also on an arbitrary number of subsequent input events. Until these subsequent events occur it is not possible to determine which state the machine is in".[2] If, when the automaton has finished reading, it is in an accepting state, the NFA is said to accept the string, otherwise it is said to reject the string. The set of all strings accepted by an NFA is the language the NFA accepts. This language is a regular language. For every NFA a deterministic finite automaton (DFA) can be found that accepts the same language. Therefore it is possible to convert an existing NFA into a DFA for the purpose of implementing a (perhaps) simpler machine. This can be performed using the powerset construction, which may lead to an exponential rise in the number of necessary states. A formal proof of the powerset construction is given here.

Properties of NFA-ε

For all one writes if and only if q can be reached from p by going along if and only if there exists where

zero or more ε arrows. In other words, such that

For any , the set of states that can be reached from p is called the epsilon-closure or ε-closure of p, and is written as

For any subset

, define the ε-closure of P as

The ε-transitions are transitive, in that it may be shown that, for all , if . Similarly, if and then and , then

and

Let x be a string over the alphabet Σ∪{ε}. An NFA-ε M accepts the string x if there exist both a representation of x of the form x1x2 ... xn, where xi ∈ (Σ ∪{ε}), and a sequence of states p0,p1, ..., pn, where pi ∈ Q, meeting the following conditions: 1. p0 E({q0}) 2. pi E(T(pi−1, xi)) for i = 1, ..., n 3. pn ∈ F.

Implementation

There are many ways to implement a NFA:

•

•

•

Convert to the equivalent DFA. In some cases this may cause exponential blowup in the size of the automaton and thus auxiliary space proportional to the number of states in the NFA (as storage of the state value requires at most one bit for every state in the NFA)[3] Keep a set data structure of all states which the machine might currently be in. On the consumption of the last input symbol, if one of these states is a final state, the machine accepts the string. In the worst case, this may require auxiliary space proportional to the number of states in the NFA; if the set structure uses one bit per NFA state, then this solution is exactly equivalent to the above. Create multiple copies. For each n way decision, the NFA creates up to n − 1 copies of the machine. Each will enter a separate state. If, upon consuming the last input symbol, at least one copy of the NFA is in the accepting state, the NFA will accept. (This, too, requires linear storage with respect to the number of NFA states, as there can be one machine for every NFA state.)

•

Explicitly propagate tokens through the transition structure of the NFA and match whenever a token reaches the final state. This is sometimes useful when the NFA should encode additional context about the events that triggered the transition. (For an implementation that uses this technique to keep track of object references have a look at Tracematches.[4])

**Deterministic finite automaton
**

An example of a Deterministic Finite Automaton that accepts only binary numbers that are multiples of 3. The state S0 is both the start state and an accept state. In the automata theory, a branch of theoretical computer science, a deterministic finite automaton (DFA)—also known as deterministic finite state machine—is a finite state machine that accepts/rejects finite strings of symbols and only produces a unique computation (or run) of the automaton for each input string.[1] 'Deterministic' refers to the uniqueness of the computation. In search of simplest models to capture the real world machines, McCulloch and Pitts were among the first researchers to introduce a concept similar to finite automaton in 1943[2][3]. The figure at right illustrates a deterministic finite automaton. In the automaton, there are three states: S0, S1, and S2(denoted graphically by circles). The automaton takes finite sequence of 0s and 1s as input. For each state, there is a transition arrow leading out to a next state for both 0 and 1. Upon reading a symbol, a DFA jumps deterministically from a state to another by following the transition arrow. For example, if the automaton is currently in state S0 and current input symbol is 1 then it deterministically jumps to state S1. A DFA has a start state (denoted graphically by an arrow coming in from nowhere) where computations begin, and a set of accept states (denoted graphically by a double circle) which help define when a computation is successful. A DFA is defined as an abstract mathematical concept, but due to the deterministic nature of a DFA, it is implementable in hardware and software for solving various specific problems. For example, a software state machine that decides whether or not online userinput such as phone numbers and email addresses are valid can be modeled as a DFA.[4] Another example in hardware is the digital logic circuitry that controls whether an automatic door is open or closed, using input from motion sensors or pressure pads to decide whether or not to perform a state transition (see: finite state machine). DFAs recognize exactly the set of regular languages which are, among other things, useful for doing lexical analysis and pattern matching. [5] A DFA can be used in either an accepting mode to verify that an input string is indeed part of the language it represents, or a generating mode to create a list of all the strings in the language.

Formal definition

A deterministic finite automaton M is a 5-tuple, (Q, Σ, δ, q0, F), consisting of

• • • • •

a finite set of states (Q) a finite set of input symbols called the alphabet (Σ) a transition function (δ : Q × Σ → Q) a start state (q0 ∈ Q) a set of accept states (F ⊆ Q)

Let w = a1a2 ... an be a string over the alphabet Σ. The automaton M accepts the string w if a sequence of states, r0,r1, ..., rn, exists in Q with the following conditions: 1. r0 = q0 2. ri+1 = δ(ri, ai+1), for i = 0, ..., n−1 3. rn ∈ F. In words, the first condition says that the machine starts in the start state q0. The second condition says that given each character of string w, the machine will transition from state to state according to the transition function δ. The last condition says that the machine accepts w if the last input of w causes the machine to halt in one of the accepting states. Otherwise, it is said that the automaton rejects the string. The set of strings M accepts is the language recognized by M and this language is denoted by L(M). A deterministic finite automaton without accept states and without a starting state is known as a transition system or semiautomaton. For more comprehensive introduction of the formal definition see automata theory.

Example

The following example is of a DFA M, with a binary alphabet, which requires that the input contains an even number of 0s.

**The state diagram for M M = (Q, Σ, δ, q0, F) where
**

• • •

Q = {S1, S2}, Σ = {0, 1}, q0 = S1,

• •

F = {S1}, and δ is defined by the following state transition table: 0 1 S1 S2 S1 S2 S1 S2

The state S1 represents that there has been an even number of 0s in the input so far, while S2 signifies an odd number. A 1 in the input does not change the state of the automaton. When the input ends, the state will show whether the input contained an even number of 0s or not. If the input did contain an even number of 0s, M will finish in state S1, an accepting state, so the input string will be accepted. The language recognized by M is the regular language given by the regular expression 1*( 0 (1*) 0 (1*) )*, where "*" is the Kleene star, e.g., 1* denotes any non-negative number (possibly zero) of symbols "1".

Closure properties

If DFAs recognize the languages that are obtained by applying an operation on the DFA recognizable languages then DFAs are said to be closed under the operation. The DFAs are closed under the following operations.

• • • • •

Union Intersection Concatenation Negation Kleene closure

Since DFAs are equivalent to nondeterministic finite automaton(NFA), the above closures are proved using closure properties of NFA.

**Accept and Generate modes
**

A DFA representing a regular language can be used either in an accepting mode to validate that an input string is part of the language, or in a generating mode to generate a list of all the strings in the language. In the accept mode an input string is provided which the automaton can read in left to right, one symbol at a time. The computation begins at the start state and proceeds by reading the first symbol from the input string and following the state transition corresponding to that symbol. The system continues reading symbols and following transitions until there are no more symbols in the input, which marks the end of the computation. If after all input symbols have been processed the system is in an accept state then we know that the input

string was indeed part of the language, and it is said to be accepted, otherwise it is not part of the language and it is not accepted. The generating mode is similar except that rather than validating an input string its goal is to produce a list of all the strings in the language. Instead of following a single transition out of each state, it follows all of them. In practice this can be accomplished by massive parallelism (having the program branch into two or more processes each time it is faced with a decision) or through recursion..

**DFA as a transition monoid
**

Alternatively a run can be seen as a sequence of compositions of transition function with itself. Given an input symbol , one may write the transition function as

, using the simple trick of currying, that is, writing δ(q,a) = δa(q) for all . This way, the transition function can be seen in simpler terms: it's just something that "acts" on a state in Q, yielding another state. One may then consider the result of function composition repeatedly applied to the various functions δa, δb, and so on. Using this notion we define . Given a pair of letters ,

one may define a new function , by insisting that , where denotes function composition. Clearly, this process can be recursively continued. So, we have following recursive definition where ε is empty string and where and .

is defined for all words . Repeated function composition forms a monoid. For the transition functions, this monoid is known as the transition monoid, or sometimes the transformation semigroup. The construction can also be reversed: given a , one can reconstruct a δ, and so the two descriptions are equivalent.

**Advantages and disadvantages
**

DFAs were invented to model real world finite state machines as compare to the concept of Turing machine, which was too general to study properties of real world machines. DFAs are one of the most practical models of computation, since there is a trivial linear time, constant-space, online algorithm to simulate a DFA on a stream of input. Also, there are efficient algorithms to find a DFA recognizing:

•

the complement of the language recognized by a given DFA.

•

the union/intersection of the languages recognized by two given DFAs.

Because DFAs can be reduced to a canonical form (minimal DFAs), there are also efficient algorithms to determine:

• • • •

whether a DFA accepts any strings whether a DFA accepts all strings whether two DFAs recognize the same language the DFA with a minimum number of states for a particular regular language

DFAs are equivalent in computing power to nondeterministic finite automata (NFAs). This is because, firstly any DFA is also an NFA, so an NFA can do what a DFA can do. Also, given an NFA, using the powerset construction one can build a DFA that recognizes the same language as the NFA, although the DFA could have exponentially larger number of states than the NFA. On the other hand, finite state automata are of strictly limited power in the languages they can recognize; many simple languages, including any problem that requires more than constant space to solve, cannot be recognized by a DFA. The classical example of a simply described language that no DFA can recognize is bracket language, i.e., language that consists of properly paired brackets such as word "(()())". No DFA can recognize the bracket language because there is no limit to recursion, i.e., one can always embed another pair of brackets inside. It would require an infinite amount of states to recognize. Another simpler example is the language consisting of strings of the form anbn—some finite number of a's, followed by an equal number of b's.

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