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Types of Research
basic research qualitative research clinical trials vs. applied research vs. vs. quantitative research epidemiology

Types of Research

action research

vs. evaluation research literature review

service/program monitoring case study

Basic Research

Basic vs. Applied Research

pure or fundamental research undertaken to increase knowledge no direct benefit; undertaken to satisfy curiosity may provide basis of applied research

Applied Research

use of theories or basic research to solve an existing problem problem-oriented


Quantitative Analysis

Quantitative Research vs. Qualitative Research

The aim is to classify features, count them, and construct statistical models in an attempt to explain what is observed Data is in the form of numbers and statistics Seeks precise measurements of target concepts, e.g. surveys, questionnaires, etc.

Qualitative Analysis

Qualitative vs. Quantitative

Which research type uses a smaller sample size? Which research type is more timeconsuming? Which research type is more objective? Which research type will give you reasons for your samples behavior?

the aim is to get a complete and detailed description of the subject provides how and why things are Data is in the form of words, pictures or objects: interview transcripts, open ended survey responses, emails, notes, feedback forms, photos, videos, etc. Approaches include focus groups, in-depth interviews, content analysis, ethnography, evaluation


Sample study using both qualitative and quantitative methods

Problem: Why is 24/7 Convenience Store patronized by more men than women? QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS

Objective: To know womens perceptions of 24/7 Convenience Stores 24 women are interviewed face-to-face Objective: To understand how female customers of 24/7 Convenience Store differ from those that don't regularly visit it, and whether or not a renovation could entice each group to visit more frequently 250 women are interviewed through the telephone

Epidemiology vs. Clinical Trials


Epidemiological Studies

Clinical Trials

look at patterns of illness and disease in groups of people may use surveillance, descriptive studies, etc.

SAMPLE RESEARCH Epidemiological study of malaria in Palawan (Oberst et. al., 1998) studies a barangay in Palawan for 16 months prevalence of malaria was found to vary between 18.0% and 31.6% and increases during season of greatest rainfall higher prevalence of malaria is seen for residents of more forested areas and children below 10 years old

test new treatments and compares one treatment to another can help prevent illness by testing a vaccine or a new medicine, improve quality of life by testing a diet, etc.

SAMPLE RESEARCH clinical trials on sildenafil citrate Pfizer studied it for use in hypertension and angina pectoris findings show that it has little effect on angina but may cure erectile dysfunction


Evaluation Research

Action Research vs. Evaluation Research vs. Service/Program Monitoring

conducted to measure the effectiveness or performance of a program, concept or campaign in achieving its objectives the goal is to provide useful feedback to a variety of audiences SAMPLE RESEARCH

evaluation of ALE, outreach, retreat, etc.

Service or Program Monitoring and Evaluation

Action Research

the continuous assessment of project implementation and performance involves collecting and analysing a range of processes and outcome data to determine if the intended or expected results have been achieved SAMPLE RESEARCH

also known as participatory research or collaborative inquiry learning by doing

determining whether the services of a restaurant remains satisfactory

SAMPLE RESEARCH Effect of Technology on Enthusiasm for Learning Science (Hollis, n.d.)

middle school students studied over six weeks students and parents are surveyed; teachers observe students show heightened interest when technology is used in learning science


Action Research
identify the problem consider alternative sources of action select a course of action

Case Study and Literature Review

identify general findings

study consequences of action

(Susman, 1983)

Case Study

Case Study

intensive analysis of an individual unit, e.g. a person, group, project, situation, etc. (a case) conclusions are drawn only about the participant or group and only in that specific context researchers will not arrive at a generalization can be explanatory or descriptive

PETAs Kentucky Fried Cruelty, Inc. Campaign (Seijts and Sider, 2009) PETA contacts KFC for alleged animal cruelty (since KFC has not convened any investigative panel on the issue) KFC does not respond PETA investigates, goes undercover PETA campaigns against KFC via media


Literature Review

Literature Review
SAMPLE RESEARCH Myths of violence and the stigma of social illness (in Ashton, n.d.)

not a book review surveys scholarly articles, books and other sources relevant to a particular issue, area of research, or theory provides a description, summary, and critical evaluation of each work provides an explanation or similarities and differences among works also provides conclusions on which is most convincing and significant

Reviews three research papers on the stigmatization of the mentally ill Research show that people respond with fear of violence and social rejection Concludes that exposing these myths are myths increases acceptance of the mentally ill