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Abstract: RFID BASED SMART OFFICE is designed to collect and manage staff attendance records from RFID devices

installed in an environment. Based on the verification of staff identification at the entrances, the system could generate sophisticated staff attendance data for analysis purposes. It is also designed to automate their offices.Office automation is based on personalized profiles. Profiles can be edited on the run time without making any changes in the hardware. The database software is smart enough tomark the attendance if and only if the card holder spent a minimum time required for attendance in office. RFID increases productivity and convenience. RFID is used for hundreds, if not thousands, of applications such as preventing theft of automobiles, collecting tolls without stopping, managing traffic, gaining entrance to buildings, automating parking, controlling access of vehicles to gated communities, corporate campuses and airports, dispensing goods, providing ski lift access, tracking library books, buying hamburgers, and the growing opportunity to track a wealth of assets in supply chain management. The RFID (radio-frequency identification) system consists of an RFID tag, a reader, and auser-interface computer. Passive RFID tags are used for animal tagging, asset tracking,access control applications, etc. When the tag is energized by the RF field, it transmits back the contents of its memory by modulating the incoming RF field. The reader detects and demodulates the signal and identifies the tag. INTRODUCTION The two major problems faced by organizations are time consuming manual attendance and wastage of electrical power. Our project is going to solve these problems by using RFID technology. radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is an automatic identification method, relying on storing and remotely retrieving data using devices called RFID tags or transponders. So the RFID is a wireless identification. Normally the RFID system comprises of two main parts: 1. RFID Reader . 2.RFID Tag.

RFID Reader is an integrated or passive network which is used to interrogate information from RFID tag (contains antennas to enable them to receive and respond to radiofrequency queries from an RFID transceiver). The RFID Reader may consist of antenna, filters, modulator, demodulator, coupler and a micro processor. OBJECTIVE The aim of the project is to design a system that have a small coverage area and can be used for authentication or identification purposes.The inspiration for rfid came from a covert listening device designed in the twentieth century and not an identification tag.Technology used in RFID has been around since the early 1920s .

BACKGROUND RFID has established itself in a wide range of markets including livestock identification and automated vehicle identification (AVI) systems because of its ability to track moving objects RFID TAGS Tags also sometimes are called transponders. RFID tags can come in many forms and sizes. Some can be as small as a grain of rice. Data is stored in the IC and transmitted through the antenna to a reader. The two commonly used RFID Transponders are Active (that do contain an internal battery power source that powers the tags chip) and Passive (that do not have an internal power source, but are externally powered typical from the reader) RFID Transponders. RFID READER A reader is basically a radio frequency (RF) transmitter and receiver, controlled by a microprocessor or digital signal processor. The reader, using an attached antenna, captures data from tags, then passes the data to a computer for processing. The reader decodes the data encoded in the tag(s) integrated circuit (silicon chip) and the data is passed to the host computer for processing.

RFID IN HOSPITALS RFIDs in hospitals shape organizational relations in interesting and sometimes troubling ways, but they also introduce an important area of inquiry for social scientists. Information technologies must be studied both for their presence in particular contexts and for their linkages to larger shifts in the political economy. We devote this paper to the development of RFID technologies;second to ground the study of RFIDs within a conceptual framework of postindustrialization, technology studies, and surveillance studies; third, to present findings from research on the use of RFID in hospitals; and fourth,to suggest criteria for the effective implementation of such technologies.
RFID is an emerging technology that is rapidly becoming the standard for hospitals to track inventory, identify patients, and manage personnel. RFID systems are seen as valuable because of their ability to collect data in real-time. As a result, these systems may have a valence toward surveillance,such that the location of individuals is tracked and analyzed under the rubric of management paradigms like workflow management. Our findings indicate that hospital nurses feel overly scrutinized by these tracking technologies. Nurses also indicate that the systems are based upon rational management models that do not accurately match the messy realities of hospitals. In addition to being watched by administrators, some nurses experience an intensification of labor because the task of keeping RFID and similar systems operational often falls upon them and their already overburdened schedules. This article has offered a conceptual overview for a sociologically rich investigation into technologies in hospital settings. Attention should be given to the political and economic shifts of which hospital management regimes are a partnamely post-industrialization and audit cultures. Next, technologies must be understood within their social contexts and not as external forces applied discretely to social problems. Finally, by means of their data collection propensities, all information andcommunication technologies have the potential to be employed for surveillance purposes. Any time people aremonitored, tracked, or identified for control purposes, this constitutes surveillance and should be recognized as such [7].

are the most common, an RFID reader transmits an energy field that wakes up the tag and provides the power for the tag to respond to the reader. Data collected from tags is then passed through communication interfaces (cable or wireless) to host computer systems in the same manner that data scanned from bar code labels is captured and passed to computer systems for interpretation, storage, and action. FUTURE OF RFID RFID is said by many in the industry to be the frontrunner technology for automatic identification and data collection. The biggest, as of yet unproven, benefit would ultimately be in the consumer goods supply chain where an RFID tag attached to a consumer product could be tracked from manufacturing to the retail store right to the consumer's home. APPLICATIONS REPLACING BARCODES IDENTIFICATION OF PATIENTS AND HOSPITAL STAFF AUTOMATED FINGERPRINT IDENTIFICATION METHODOLOGY The design cycle consists of following steps . RFID READER Reader consisting of RFID module and microcontroller will be designed Once the employee carrying the tag is in the vicinity of the reader, Tag will be detected. The microcontroller will verify valid tag number by comparing it with predefined tag numbers already stored in the microcontroller ROM If the tag is valid it is stored on the microcontrollers RAM for further processing . TRANSMISSION

WORKING OF RFID

Information is sent to and read from RFID tags by a reader using radio waves. In passive systems, which

Transmission from RFID reader to the control circuitry and database server is wireless . DATABASE SERVER The mapped tag is received by the database server (PC) Application does some data analysis against that tag Data analysis includes marking of attendance and updating the record of that particular tag holder CONTROL CIRCUITRY At the same time mapped tag is also received by the control circuitry Control circuitry automates office equipments (light, fan etc.) against the valid tagnumber based on the defined profile of tag holder SCENARIO Reader will detect the RFID card and forward that ID to microcontroller Microcontroller will authenticate the ID and generate a specific number (3 byte code) against that ID This specific number is then forwarded to the ZigBee transceiver via serial link from where it is broadcast to receiving nodes One of the receiving node is the database server where attendance record is managed