Colegiul Tehnic “Aurel Vlaicu “ Arad

Proiect pentru obţinerea certificatului de competenţă lingvistica -limba EnglezaCalificare Profesionala: Tehnician Proiectant CAD
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Profesor coordonator : Prof. Dome Emanuela

Candidat : Leonte Laurian Clasa XII a-A

(2012)

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Contents

Argument..............................................................................................................................................3 Chapter I : The descriptions of World Trade Center.........................................................................4 1.1 Life of the World Trade Center..................................................................................................5 1.1.1. February 13 1975 fire........................................................................................................6 1.1.2. 1993 World Trade Center bombing.................................................................................6 1.1.3. Lease.................................................................................................................................10 Chapter II : The attacks of 11th september 2001...............................................................................10 2.1. The attacks...............................................................................................................................11 2.1.2. Damage.............................................................................................................................14 Chapter III : The effects of the dissaster............................................................................................16 3.1. Long-term effects....................................................................................................................16 3.4. Rebuilding the World Trade Center........................................................................................20 Bibliography.......................................................................................................................................23 Annexe................................................................................................................................................24

Argument

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The September 11th disaster is chronicled in American’s history.It is unexpected assault for the whole world because the tragedy became unforeseen time and date.This attack’s power is still continually affected those who are in the World Trade Center , Pentagon , NewYork , NewJersey , Connecticut or who are not in there.There are various impacts of the September 11th assail including fear of flying , the effects on children , economical effects and lack of business. September 11, 2001 was one of the most tragic events in America’s history. Although many died on this day, and one of America’s biggest landmarks, the World Trade Center, was knocked down, this tragedy really proved that Americans are truly amazing. The country is called the United States of America, and on this day people from all over grieved together and cried on each other’s shoulders. Even though there were so many mixed emotions such as anger, sorrow, tears, pain the people were all united.

Chapter I : The descriptions of World Trade Center
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The World Trade Center in New York City, United States, (sometimes informally referred to as the WTC or the Twin Towers) was a complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, mostly designed by architect Minoru Yamasaki and engineer Leslie Robertson and developed by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. It was initiated in 1960 by a Lower Manhattan Association created and chaired by David Rockefeller, who had the original idea of building the center, with strong backing from the then-New York governor, his brother Nelson Rockefeller.The World Trade Center, New York, like most World Trade Centers located around the globe, belonged to the family of World Trade Centers Association. Prior to its destruction, Larry Silverstein held the most recent lease to the complex, the Port Authority having leased it to him in July 2001.The complex, located in the heart of New York City's downtown financial district, contained 13.4 million square feet (1.24 million m²) of office space, almost four percent of Manhattan's entire office inventory at that time. Best known for its iconic 110-story twin towers (101 usable floors, eight engineering-only "service" floors on top of a lobby which was three stories high) the World Trade Center was beset by a fire on February 13, 1975 and a bombing on February 26, 1993. All seven original buildings in the complex were destroyed by terrorists linked to Al-Qaeda on September 11, 2001. Three of the buildings collapsed: One World Trade Center (1 WTC, the North Tower), Two World Trade Center (2 WTC, the South Tower), and 7 World Trade Center (7 WTC). The Marriott World Trade Center (3 WTC) was crushed by the collapses of 1 WTC and 2 WTC. 4 World Trade Center (4 WTC), 5 World Trade Center (5 WTC), and 6 World Trade Center (6 WTC) were damaged beyond repair and later demolished. Three buildings not part of the complex were also destroyed: St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church was destroyed by the collapse of 2 WTC. The Deutsche Bank Building and Borough of Manhattan Community College's Fiterman Hall were damaged beyond repair by the collapse of 7 WTC; these are currently being deconstructed.

1.1 Life of the World Trade Center
On a typical weekday 50,000 people worked in the towers, with another 200,000 passing through as visitors. The complex was so large that it had its own zip code, 10048. The towers offered spectacular views from the observation deck (located on top of the South Tower) and the Windows on the World restaurant (located on top of the North Tower). The Twin Towers became known worldwide, appearing in movies, TV shows, postcards, merchandise, magazines and much 5

more, and became a New York icon, such as the Empire State Building, or Statue of Liberty. French high wire acrobatic performer Philippe Petit walked between the towers on a tightrope in 1974, and Brooklyn toymaker George Willig scaled the south tower in 1977.

1.1.1. February 13 1975 fire
On February 13, 1975, the WTC North Tower was beset by a fire which spread over nearly half of the 11th floor. The fire spread to other floors through openings in the floor slabs which were used to carry phone wires. The fires on other floors were extinguished almost immediately, and the main fire was put out in a few hours. Fireproofing protected the steel from melting and there was no structural damage to the tower. This event led to the installation of a sprinkler system in both towers. Firefighters claim that had the sprinklers been installed when the tower was built, the fire probably would not have spread as much as it did. Other than the damage caused by the fire, a few floors below suffered water damage from the extinguishing of the fires above.

1.1.2. 1993 World Trade Center bombing
In the 1993 World Trade Center bombing (February 26, 1993) a car bomb was detonated below Tower One of the World Trade Center in New York City. The 1,500-lb (680 kg) urea nitrate-hydrogen gas enhanced device[1] was intended to knock the North Tower (Tower One) into Tower Two, bringing both towers down and killing thousands of people. It failed to do so, but did kill six people and injured 1,042. The attack was planned by a group of conspirators including Ramzi Yousef, Mahmud Abouhalima, Mohammad Salameh, Nidal Ayyad, Abdul Rahman Yasin and Ahmad Ajaj. They received financing from al-Qaeda memberKhaled Shaikh Mohammed, Yousef's uncle. In March 1994, four men were convicted of carrying out the bombing: Abouhalima, Ajaj, Ayyad and Salameh. The charges included conspiracy, explosive destruction of property and interstate transportation of explosives. And in November 1997, two more were convicted: Yousef, the mastermind behind the bombings, and Eyad Ismoil, who drove the truck carrying the bomb. The bomb exploded in the underground garage at 12:18 P.M., generating a pressure estimated over one GPa and opening a 30-meter-wide hole through four sublevels of concrete. The detonation velocity of this bomb was about 15,000 ft/s (4.5 km/s). a quote from the claim of responsibility letter written by one of the terrorists, "We are, the Liberation Army fifth battalion, again. Unfortunately, our calculations were not very accurate this time. However, we promise you

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that next time it will be very precise and World Trade Center will continue to be one [of] our targets unless our demands have been met.

Planning and organization
Ramzi Yousef, born in Kuwait, began in 1991 to plan a bombing attack within the United States. Yousef's uncle Khalid Shaikh Mohammed Ali Fadden, who later was considered "the principal architect of the 9/11 attacks," gave him advice and tips over the phone, and funded him with a US$660 wire transfer. Yousef entered the United States with a false Iraqi passport in 1992. Police found instructions on making a bomb in Yousef's partner; Ahmed Ajaj's luggage. The name Abu Barra, an alias of Mohammed Jamal Khalifa, appeared in the manuals. Yousef's partner was arrested on the spot for his false passport and his bombmaking instructions. Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) holding cells were overcrowded, and Yousef, claiming political asylum, was given a hearing date. Yousef set up residence on Nicole Pickett Avenue in Jersey City, New Jersey, traveled around New York and New Jersey and called Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman, a controversial blind Muslim cleric, via cell phone. After being introduced to his co-conspirators by Abdel Rahman at the latter's Al-Farooq Mosque in Brooklyn, Yousef began assembling the 1,500-lb urea nitratehydrogen gas enhanced device for delivery to the WTC. He ordered chemicals from his hospital room when injured in a car crash - one of three accidents caused by Salameh in late 1992 and early in 1993. El Sayyid Nosair, one of the blind sheik's men, was arrested in 1991 for the murder of Rabbi Meir Kahane. According to prosecutors, "the Red" Mahmud Abouhalima, also convicted in the bombing, told Wadih el Hage to buy the .38 caliber revolver used by Nosair in the Kahane shooting. In the initial court case in NYS Criminal Court Nosair was acquitted of murder but convicted of gun charges. (In a related and followup case in Federal Court, he was convicted). Dozens of Arabic bomb-making manuals and documents related to terrorist plots were found in Nosair's New Jersey apartment, with manuals from Army Special Warfare Center at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, secret memos linked to Joint Chiefs of Staff, and 1440 rounds of ammunition. (Lance 2004 26 )

The attack
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The bomb exploded in the underground garage at 12:17 pm, generating a pressure estimated over one GPa and opening a 30-meter-wide (98 foot) hole through four sublevels of concrete. The detonation velocity of this bomb was about 15,000 ft/s (4.5 km/s). Contrary to popular belief there was no cyanide gas attached to the bomb, although Yousef had considered adding cyanide to the bomb, and is said to have regretted not doing so in Peter Lance's book 1000 Years For Revenge. Six people were killed and 1,040 others were injured, most during the evacuation that followed the blast. The towers were not destroyed as Yousef intended. However, the WTC’s architect would later tell jurors that if the van had been left closer to the poured concrete foundations, they would have succeeded; the tower would have toppled.Yousef escaped to Pakistan several hours later. The bomb cut off the center's main electrical power line and cut off telephone service for much of lower Manhattan. The bomb caused smoke to rise up to the 93rd floor of both towers, and cut off the towers' four stairwells and emergency lighting system. Also as a result of the loss of electricity most of New York City's radio and television stations lost their over-the-air broadcast signal for almost a week, with television stations only being able to broadcast via cable and satellite via a microwave hookup between the stations and three of the New York area's largest cable companies, Cablevision, Comcast, and Time Warner Cable.

Aftermath and arrests
Agents and bomb technicians of the U.S. Treasury Department's Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms (ATF) responded to the scene of the blast. An ATF bomb technician subsequently found the axle in the bomb crater with the VIN of the Ryder truck that was used to contain the explosives. Further investigation by ATF found that the vehicle had been rented by a Palestinian named Mohammad Salameh. Yousef's friends reported the van was stolen in an attempt to slow investigators down. On March 4, 1993 authorities announced the capture of Salameh. In a sweep the same day, Salameh's arrest led to the apartment of Abdul Rahman Yasin in Jersey City, New Jersey, which Yasin was sharing with his mother, in the same building as Ramzi Yousef's apartment. Yasin was taken to Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) headquarters in Newark, New Jersey, and was then released. The next day, he flew back to Iraq, via Amman, Jordan. Yasin was later indicted for the attack, and in 2001 he was placed on the initial list of the FBI Most Wanted Terrorists, on which he remains a fugitive today. He disappeared prior to 2003's U.S. coalition invasion in Operation 8

Iraqi Freedom. In March 1994, Salameh, Nidal Ayyad, Mahmud Abouhalima and Ahmad Ajaj were each convicted for the World Trade Center bombing. In May 1994, they were sentenced to life imprisonment. The capture of Salameh and Yasin led authorities to Ramzi Yousef's apartment, where they found bomb-making materials and a business card from Mohammed Jamal Khalifa. Khalifa was arrested in relation to the crime on December 14, 1994, and was deported to Jordan by the INS on May 5, 1995. He was acquitted by a Jordanian court and lived as a free man in Saudi Arabia until his death in 2007.

Impact
Despite its relatively low death toll, the bombing shocked the American public.According to testimony in the bomb trial, only once before the 1993 attack had the FBI recorded a bomb that used urea nitrate.[12][13] The FBI has recorded a total of about 73,000 explosions.

Memorial
A granite memorial fountain honoring the six victims of the bombing was designed by Elyn Zimmerman and dedicated in 1995 on Austin J. Tobin Plaza, directly above the site of the explosion. It contained the names of the six people who perished in the attack as well as an inscription that read: "On February 26, 1993, a bomb set by terrorists exploded below this site. This horrible act of violence killed innocent people, injured thousands, and made victims of us all." The fountain was destroyed during the September 11, 2001 attacks. A recovered fragment from the 1993 bombing memorial with the text "John" (from John DiGiovanni, a victim) is being used as the centerpiece of a new memorial honoring the victims of the 2001 attack.

Legal resposibility
The victims are suing the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey for damages connected to the bombings. A decision was handed down in 2006, assigning liability for the bombings to the Port Authority. The decision declared that the agency was 68 percent responsible for the bombing, and the terrorists bore only 32 percent of the responsibility. In January 2008, the

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Port Authority asked a five-judge panel of Appellate Division of State Supreme Court in Manhattan to throw out the decision, describing the jury’s verdict as "bizarre".

1.1.3. Lease
In 1998, plans were approved by the Port Authority to privatize the World Trade Center. In 2001, the Port Authority sought to lease the World Trade Center to a private entity. Bids for the lease came from Vornado Realty Trust, a joint bid between Brookfield Properties Corporation and Boston Properties, and a joint bid by Silverstein Properties and The Westfield Group. By privatizing the World Trade Center, it would be added to the city's tax rolls. The lease was also intended to raise funds for other Port Authority projects. On February 15, 2001, the Port Authority announced that Vornado Trust Realty had won the lease for the World Trade Center, paying $3.25 billion for the 99-year lease. Vornado Realty outbid Silverstein by $600 million, though Silverstein upped his offer to $3.22 billion. However, Vornado insisted on last minute changes to the deal, including a shorter 39-year lease, which the Port Authority considered nonnegotiable. Vornado later withdrew and Silverstein's bid for the lease to the World Trade Center was accepted on April 26, 2001, and closed on July 24, 2001.

Chapter II : The attacks of 11th september 2001

The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of coordinated suicide attacks by al-Qaeda upon the United States. 10

On that morning, nineteen terrorists affiliated with al-Qaeda hijacked four commercial passenger jet airliners. Each team of hijackers included a member who had undergone some pilot training. The hijackers intentionally crashed two of the airliners (American Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175) into the World Trade Center in New York City, one plane into each tower (1 WTC and 2 WTC), resulting in the collapse of both buildings soon afterward and extensive damage to nearby buildings. The hijackers crashed a third airliner (American Airlines Flight 77) into the Pentagon in Arlington County, Virginia, near Washington, D.C. Passengers and members of the flight crew on the fourth aircraft (United Airlines Flight 93) attempted to retake control of their plane from the hijackers; that plane crashed into a field near the town of Shanksville in rural Somerset County, Pennsylvania. Aside from the 19 hijackers, 2,974 people died as an immediate result of the attacks, and the death of at least one person from lung disease was ruled by a medical examiner to be a result of exposure to WTC dust.Another 24 people are missing and presumed dead, bringing the total number of victims to 2,998, the overwhelming majority of whom were civilians. The dead included nationals from over 80 different countries.

2.1. The attacks
Four commercial airliners were hijacked en route to California from Logan International, Dulles International, and Newark airports. Each of the airliners had a jet fuel capacity of nearly 24,000 U.S. gallons (91,000 liters). Two of the airliners were flown into the World Trade Center, one each into the North and South towers, one was flown into the Pentagon, and the fourth, whose ultimate target was probably either the White House or the U.S. Capitol building, crashed near Shanksville, Pennsylvania. American Airlines Flight 11, a Boeing 767-200[8] wide-body aircraft, crashed into the northern side of the North Tower of the World Trade Center (WTC) at 8:46:30 a.m. local time (Eastern Daylight Time, 12:46:30 UTC), hitting at the 94-98th floors United Airlines Flight 175, a Boeing 767-200, crashed into the 78-85th floors of the South Tower at 9:02:59 a.m. local time (13:02:59 UTC), an event covered live by television broadcasters and amateur filmers from around the world who had their cameras trained on the buildings after the earlier crash. American Airlines Flight 77, a Boeing 757-200, crashed into the Pentagon at 9:37:46 a.m. local time (13:37:46 UTC). 11

United Airlines Flight 93, a Boeing 757-200, crashed in a field in southwest Pennsylvania just outside of Shanksville, about 150 miles (240 km) northwest of Washington, D.C., at 10:03:11 a.m. local time (14:03:11 UTC). The crash in Pennsylvania resulted from the passengers of the airliner attempting to regain control from the hijackers. Three buildings in the World Trade Center Complex collapsed due to structural failure on the day of the attack. The south tower (2 WTC) fell at approximately 9:59 a.m., after burning for 56 minutes in a fire caused by the impact of United Airlines Flight 175. The north tower (1 WTC) collapsed at 10:28 a.m., after burning for approximately 102 minutes. A third building, 7 World Trade Center (7 WTC) collapsed at 5:20 p.m. as a result of debris damage from 1 WTC and subsequent fire. Tommy Dunn, a firefighter on the scene described the collapse of the tower. "I looked up and I could very clearly see that the entire top section of the tower had begun to collapse and was falling down on us. … The best I can compare it to is when you were a kid and you were in the water and you ducked down, down, down and let a wave come over your head. That's what the debris was like. It was spread so far that you were not gonna outrun this." During the hijacking of the airplanes, some passengers and crew members were able to make phone calls using the cabin GTE airphone service and mobile phones. They reported that several hijackers were aboard each plane. The terrorists reportedly took control of the aircraft by using knives and box-cutter knives to kill flight attendants and at least one pilot or passenger, including the captain of Flight 11, John Ogonowski. Some form of noxious chemical spray, such as tear gas or pepper spray, was reported to have been used on American 11 and United 175 to keep passengers out of the first-class cabin. Bomb threats were made on three of the aircraft, but not on American 77. According to the 9/11 Commission Report, the bombs were probably fake. The 9/11 Commission established that two of the hijackers had recently purchased Leatherman multi-function hand tools. On United Airlines Flight 93, black box recordings revealed that crew and passengers attempted to seize control of the plane from the hijackers after learning through phone calls that similarly hijacked planes had been crashed into buildings that morning. According to the transcript of Flight 93's recorder, one of the hijackers gave the order to roll the plane once it became evident that they would lose control of the plane to the passengers. Soon afterward, the aircraft crashed 12

into a field near Shanksville in Stonycreek Township, Somerset County, Pennsylvania, at 10:03:11 a.m. local time (14:03:11 UTC). Al-Qaeda leader Khalid Sheikh Mohammed mentioned in a 2002 interview with an Al Jazeera journalist that Flight 93's target was the United States Capitol, which was given the code name "the Faculty of Law." The attacks created widespread confusion across the United States. All international civilian air traffic was banned from landing on US soil for three days; aircraft already in flight were either turned back or redirected to airports in Canada or Mexico. Unconfirmed and often contradictory reports were aired and published throughout the day. One of the most prevalent of these reported that a car bomb had been detonated at the U.S. State Department's headquarters, the Harry S Truman Building in Foggy Bottom, Washington, D.C. This erroneous report, picked up by the wire services, was reported on CNN and in a number of newspapers published that day. Soon after reporting for the first time on the Pentagon crash, CNN and other media also briefly reported that a fire had broken out on the Washington Mall. Another report went out on the AP wire, claiming that a Delta 767—Flight 1989—had been hijacked. This report, too, turned out to be in error; the plane was briefly thought to represent a hijack risk, but it responded to controllers and landed safely in Cleveland, Ohio. Chairman Rudman of the Emergency Alert System (EAS) Committee released in a press statement that it was not necessary to activate the EAS due to near immediate coverage by News Media. Rudman kept the 34 main PEP stations on high alert if needed, but as time passed, using the EAS was no longer necessary.

2.1.1.Fatalities
There were 2,974 fatalities, not including the 19 hijackers: 246 on the four planes (no one on board of the hijacked aircrafts survived), 2,603 in New York City in the towers and on the ground, and 125 at the Pentagon.Lieutenant General Timothy Maude was the highest ranking military official killed at the Pentagon. John P. O'Neill was a former assistant director of the FBI who assisted in the capture of Ramzi Yousef and was the head of security at the World Trade Center when he was killed trying to rescue people from the South Tower. An additional 24 people remain listed as missing. 1,366 people died who were at or above the floors of impact in the North Tower (1 WTC). According to the Commission Report, hundreds were killed instantly by the impact while the rest were trapped and died after the tower collapsed. As many as 600 people were killed instantly or 13

were trapped at or above the floors of impact in the South Tower (2 WTC). Only about 18 managed to escape in time from above the impact zone and out of the South Tower before it collapsed. At least 200 people jumped to their deaths from the burning towers (as depicted in the photograph "The Falling Man"), landing on the streets and rooftops of adjacent buildings hundreds of feet below. To witnesses watching, a few of the people falling from the towers seemed to have stumbled out of broken windows. Some of the occupants of each tower above its point of impact made their way upward toward the roof in hope of helicopter rescue, but no rescue plan existed for such an eventuality. The roof access doors were locked and thick smoke and intense heat would have prevented rescue helicopters from landing. A total of 411 emergency workers who responded to the scene lost their lives as they attempted to implement rescue and fire suppression efforts. The New York City Fire Department lost 341 firefighters and 2 FDNY Paramedics. The New York City Police Department lost 23 officers. The Port Authority Police Department lost 37 officers. Private EMS units lost 8 additional EMTs and paramedics. Cantor Fitzgerald L.P., an investment bank on the 101st–105th floors of One World Trade Center, lost 658 employees, considerably more than any other employer. Marsh Inc., located immediately below Cantor Fitzgerald on floors 93–101 (the location of Flight 11's impact), lost 295 employees, and 175 employees of Aon Corporation were killed. The dead included 8 children: 5 on American 77 ranging in age from 3 to 11, 3 on United 175 ages 2, 3, and 4. The youngest victim was a 2 year-old child on Flight 175, the oldest an 82 year-old passenger on Flight 11. In the buildings, the youngest victim was 17 and the oldest was 79. After New York, New Jersey was the hardest hit state, with the town of Hoboken sustaining the most fatalities All of the fatalities were civilians except for some of the 125 victims in the Pentagon. According to the Associated Press, the city identified over 1,600 bodies but was unable to identify the rest (about 1,100 people). They report that the city has "about 10,000 unidentified bone and tissue fragments that cannot be matched to the list of the dead." Bone fragments were still being found in 2006 as workers prepared the damaged Deutsche Bank Building for demolition. The average age of all the dead in New York City was 40.

2.1.2. Damage

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In addition to the 110-floor Twin Towers of the World Trade Center itself, numerous other buildings at the World Trade Center site were destroyed or badly damaged, including 7 World Trade Center, 6 World Trade Center, 5 World Trade Center, 4 World Trade Center, the Marriott World Trade Center and St. Nicholas Greek Orthodox Church. The Deutsche Bank Building across Liberty Street from the World Trade Center complex was later condemned due to the uninhabitable, toxic conditions inside the office tower, with deconstruction once scheduled for completion in September 2007. The Borough of Manhattan Community College's Fiterman Hall at 30 West Broadway was also condemned due to extensive damage in the attacks, and is slated for deconstruction. Other neighboring buildings including 90 West Street and the Verizon Building suffered major damage, but have since been restored. World Financial Center buildings, One Liberty Plaza, the Millenium Hilton, and 90 Church Street had moderate damage.Communications equipment, such as broadcast radio, television and two-way radio antenna towers, were damaged beyond repair. In Arlington County, a portion of the Pentagon was severely damaged by fire and one section of the building collapsed.

2.1.3. Survivors
According to the 9/11 Commission, approximately 16,000 people were below the impact zones in the World Trade Center complex at the time of the attacks. About 92% of those below the impact areas survived, evacuating before the towers collapsed.

Collapse of the World Trade Center
A federal technical building and fire safety investigation of the collapses of the Twin Towers and 7 WTC has been conducted by the United States Department of Commerce's National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The goals of this investigation, completed on April 6, 2005, were to investigate the building construction, the materials used, and the technical conditions that contributed to the outcome of the WTC disaster. The investigation was to serve as the basis for: Improvements in the way in which buildings are designed, constructed, maintained, and used
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Improved tools and guidance for industry and safety officials Revisions to building and fire codes, standards, and practices Improved public safety The report concludes that the fireproofing on the Twin Towers' steel infrastructures was

blown off by the initial impact of the planes and that, if this had not occurred, the towers would 15

likely have remained standing. The fires weakened the trusses supporting the floors, making the floors sag. The sagging floors pulled on the exterior steel columns to the point where exterior columns bowed inward. With the damage to the core columns, the buckling exterior columns could no longer support the buildings, causing them to collapse. In addition, the report asserts that the towers' stairwells were not adequately reinforced to provide emergency escape for people above the impact zones. NIST stated that the final report on the collapse of 7 WTC will appear in a separate report. This was confirmed by an independent study by Purdue University. Although potential improvements were found, Gene Corley, the director of the original investigation, commented that the original towers did quite well overall. "Our report points out that the towers really did amazingly well," Corley said. "The terrorist aircraft didn’t bring the buildings down; it was the fire which followed. It was proven that you could take out two thirds of the columns in a tower and the building would still stand." Nonetheless, additional fireproofing and improvements to stairwells will certainly be priorities for the reconstruction of the towers.

Chapter III : The effects of the dissaster

3.1. Long-term effects
Economic aftermath The attacks had a significant economic impact on the United States and world markets. The Federal Reserve temporarily had reduced contact with banks because of outages of switching equipment in the lower NY financial district. Contact and control over the money supply, including 16

immediate liquidity for banks, was restored within hours. The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), the American Stock Exchange and NASDAQ did not open on September 11 and remained closed until September 17. NYSE facilities and remote data processing sites were not damaged by the attack, but member firms, customers and markets were unable to communicate due to major damage to the telephone exchange facility near the World Trade Center. When the stock markets reopened on September 17, 2001, after the longest closure since the Great Depression in 1929, the Dow Jones Industrial Average (“DJIA”) stock market index fell 684 points, or 7.1%, to 8920, its biggest-ever one-day point decline. By the end of the week, the DJIA had fallen 1,369.7 points (14.3%), its largest one-week point drop in history. U.S. stocks lost $1.2 trillion in value for the week. As of 2007, Wall and Broad Streets near the New York Stock Exchange remained barricaded and guarded to prevent a physical attack upon the building. The economy of Lower Manhattan, which by itself is the third-largest business district in the United States (after Midtown Manhattan and the Chicago Loop) was devastated in the immediate aftermath. Thirty percent (31.2 million sq ft, 2.7 million m³) of Lower Manhattan office space was either damaged or destroyed. The 41-story Deutsche Bank Building, neighboring the World Trade Center, was subsequently closed because extensive damage made it unfit for habitation or restoration and it was scheduled for demolition. Power, telephone, and gas were cut off in much of Lower Manhattan. People were not permitted to enter the SoHo and Lower Manhattan area without extensive inspection. Much of what was destroyed was valuable Class-A space. The pre-2001 trend of moving jobs out of Lower Manhattan to Midtown and New Jersey was accelerated. Many questioned whether these lost jobs would ever be restored, and whether the damaged tax base could ever recover. Economic studies of the effects of 9/11 have confirmed that the impact of the attacks on the Manhattan office market as well as on office employment was more limited than initially expected because of the strong need for face-to-face interaction in the financial services industry. The rebuilding has been inhibited by a lack of agreement on priorities. For example, Mayor Bloomberg had made New York's bid for the 2012 Summer Olympics the core of his capital development plan from 2002 until mid-2005, and Governor Pataki largely delegated his role to the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation which has been widely criticized for doing little with the enormous funding directed to the rebuilding efforts. On the sites of the totally destroyed buildings, one, 7 World Trade Center, has a new office tower which was completed in 2006. The Freedom Tower is currently under construction at the site and at 1,776 ft (541 m) upon completion in 2010, will become the tallest building in North America and one of the tallest in the world.

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Three more towers are expected to be built between 2007 and 2012 on the site, and will be located one block east of where the original towers stood. North American air space was closed for several days after the attacks and air travel decreased significantly upon its reopening. The attacks led to nearly a 20% cutback in air travel capacity, and severely exacerbated financial problems in the struggling U.S. airline industry.

Potential health effects
The thousands of tons of toxic debris resulting from the collapse of the Twin Towers consisted of more than 2,500 contaminants, more specifically: 50% nonfibrous material and construction debris; 40% glass and other fibers; 9.2% cellulose; and 0.8% asbestos, lead, and mercury. There were also unprecedented levels of dioxin and PAHs from the fires which burned for three months. Some of the dispersed substances (crystalline silica, lead, cadmium, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) are carcinogenic; other substances can trigger kidney, heart, liver and nervous system deterioration. This has led to debilitating illnesses among rescue and recovery workers, which many claim to be directly linked to debris exposure. For example, NYPD Officer Frank Macri died of lung cancer that spread throughout his body on September 3, 2007; his family contends the cancer is the result of long hours on the site and they have filed for line-of-duty death benefits, which the City has yet to rule on. Health effects have also extended to some residents, students, and office workers of Lower Manhattan and nearby Chinatown. On May 24, 2007, for the first time a death was linked to the toxic dust caused by the World Trade Center's collapse. Felicia Dunn-Jones died of lung disease five months after Sept. 11. Dunn-Jones will be listed on the Sept. 11 memorial when it opens in 2009. The death of a retired police detective, James Zadroga, who died in January 2006, has been ruled by the New Jersey medical examiner to be "directly related" to his work at ground zero on and after Sept. 11. His name, as of yet, has not been added to the list of the attack victims, and the New York City medical examiner's office strongly disputed the conclusion. Legal disputes over the attendant costs of illnesses related to the attacks are still in the court system. On October 17, 2006, federal judge Alvin Hellerstein rejected New York City's refusal to pay for health costs for rescue workers, allowing for the possibility of numerous suits against the city.

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There is also scientific speculation that exposure to various toxic products and the pollutants in the air surrounding the Towers after the WTC collapse may have negative effects on fetal development. Due to this potential hazard, a notable children's environmental health center is currently analyzing the children whose mothers were pregnant during the WTC collapse, and were living or working near the World Trade Center towers. The staff of this study assesses the children using psychological testing every year and interviews the mothers every six months. The purpose of the study is to determine whether there is significant difference in development and health progression of children whose mothers were exposed, versus those who were not exposed after the WTC collapse. Government officials have been faulted for urging the public to return to lower Manhattan in the weeks shortly following the attacks. U.S. President Bush has been faulted for interfering with the EPA interpretations and pronouncements regarding air quality. Mayor Giuliani has also been criticized for urging financial industry personnel to return to the greater Wall Street area.

3.2. Memorials
In the days immediately following the attacks, many memorials and vigils were held, including candlelight vigils in New York on September 12 and September 14, and a candlelight procession in Washington on September 14. In Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, over 100,000 people attended a memorial service on Parliament Hill, while all across Europe a three-minute silence was held at noon, Central European Time. The United Kingdom paid special homage on September 13, 2001, pausing the changing of the guard for two minutes in silence, then playing the American national anthem. In addition, pictures were placed all over Ground Zero. Mark Sigmund described it by saying, "In the nearby area, you can’t get away from faces of innocent victims who were killed. Their pictures are everywhere, on phone booths, street lights, walls of subway stations. Everything reminded me of a huge funeral, people quiet and sad, but also very nice. Before, New York gave me a cold feeling; now people were reaching out to help each other.” Temporary memorials were quickly erected at the three sites, with permanent memorials in the planning stages, or under construction. One of the first was the Tribute in Light, an installation of 88 searchlights at the footprints of the World Trade Center towers which projected two vertical columns of light into the sky. It initially ran from March 11 to April 14, 2002, but has since been re-lit every year on the anniversary of the attacks. In New York, the World Trade Center Site 19

Memorial Competition was held to design an appropriate memorial on the site. The winning design, Reflecting Absence, was selected in August 2006, and consists of a pair of reflecting pools in the footprints of the towers, surrounded by a list of the victims' names in an underground memorial space.Plans for a museum on the site have been put on hold, following the abandonment of the International Freedom Center after criticism from the families of many victims. At the Pentagon, an outdoor memorial is currently under construction, which will consist of a landscaped park with 184 benches facing the Pentagon. When the Pentagon was rebuilt in 20012002, a private chapel and indoor memorial were included, located at the spot where Flight 77 crashed into the building. A temporary memorial is located 500 yards (450 meters) from the Flight 93 crash site near Shanksville. A permanent Flight 93 National Memorial is in planning stages, which will include a sculpted grove of trees forming a circle around the crash site, bisected by the plane's path, while wind chimes will bear the names of the victims. Many other permanent memorials are being constructed around the world and a list is being updated as new ones are completed. In addition to physical monuments, scholarships and charities have been established by the victims' loved ones, along with many other organizations and private figures. Numerous public benefits and concerts have been held to raise money for the families of victims. In addition, the Raoul Wallenberg Award was given to New York City in 2001 "For all of its citizens who searched for the missing, cared for the injured, gave comfort to loved ones of the missing or lost, and provided sustenance and encouragement to those who searched through the rubble at ground zero.

3.4. Rebuilding the World Trade Center
The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation, the agency charged with coordinating the reconstruction of the World Trade Center site, selected the master plan, Memory Foundations by Daniel Libeskind,[40] which includes the 1,776 ft (541 m) Freedom Tower. The height of 1,776 feet (541 m) was chosen as a reference to the year of American independence. A new 7 World Trade Center office building, which was not part of the site master plan, officially opened on May 23, 2006. The Lower Manhattan Development Corporation sponsored the World Trade Center Site Memorial Competition, an international design competition for the World Trade Center Memorial

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in spring 2003. The winning design, Michael Arad and Peter Walker's Reflecting Absence, was chosen in January 2004. The World Trade Center name will continue to be used as name of the site, as will the New York City Subway and PATH train stations that serve the complex. A temporary PATH station, largely following the layout of the original, is the first part of the complex to have reopened. On November 22, 2004, New York Governor George Pataki named the living former presidents as honorary members of the board rebuilding the World Trade Center. On May 18, 2005, Donald Trump, long-time opponent of the Freedom Tower, proposed the Twin Towers II plan to rebuild the Twin Towers with various safety, structural, and technological improvements. On June 29, 2005, a redesigned Freedom Tower was unveiled which more closely resembled the character of the fallen towers. The new design also boasted several safety improvements over previous proposals. On December 15, 2005, Sir Norman Foster was announced as the architect who will design the second of five new office towers planned for the site. On March 13, 2006 workers arrived at the World Trade Center site to remove remaining debris and start surveying work. This marks the official start of construction of the WTC Memorial and Museum. In April 2006, a tentative agreement was reached by the owner of the site, The Port Authority, and private developer Larry Silverstein. The main elements of that agreement are that Silverstein ceded rights to develop the Freedom Tower and Tower Five in exchange for financing with Liberty Bonds for Tower Two, Three, and Four which are considered to be the most marketable properties of the site. On April 27, 2006, a ground breaking ceremony was held for the Freedom Tower.[ In May 2006, architects Richard Rogers and Fumihiko Maki were announced as the architects for Towers Three and Four, respectively. The final designs for Towers Two, Three and Four were unveiled on September 7, 2006. Tower Two, or 200 Greenwich Street, will have a roof height of 1,254 feet (382 m) and a 96-foot (29 m) tripod spire for a total of 1,350 feet (411 m). Tower Three, or 175 Greenwich Street will 21

have a roof height of 1,155 feet (352 m) and an antennae height of 1,255 feet (383 m). Tower Four, or 150 Greenwich Street, will have an overall height of 946 feet (288 m). As of late 2007, work at the World Trade Center site continued. Foundation work has started on the Freedom Tower, Calatrava Hub, and the memorials. On June 22, 2007 the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey announced that JP Morgan Chase will build Tower 5, a 42 story building on Site 5 currently occupied by the Deutsche Bank Building. Kohn Pedersen Fox was officially chosen as the architect for the building on July 17, 2007.

Conclusion

September 11th hаd а huge impаct on Аmericа. Mаny loved ones hаve been lost аnd thousаnds of brаve firefighters hаve lost their lives. We will аlwаys remember аnd honor them. Mаny of hаve gotten infected with diseаses such аs аsthmа аnd mаny hаve developed the feаr of going to tаll skyscrаpers аnd importаnt plаces such аs the stаtue of liberty. Some other mаjor impаcts of September 11th hаd on Аmericа аre а new FBI focus, increаsed аviаtion security, emergency prepаredness, TTIC, аnd the creаtion of the Depаrtment of Homelаnd Security. 22

America has undergone considerable changes since the attacks on September 11, 2001. People seem to recognize such simple things. The singing of the National Anthem at sporting events has a much greater meaning then before. Many people now stop and actually listen to the words of the song.

Bibliography

 Neilan, Terence. "2 Planes Crash Into World Trade Center", The New York Times, 200109-11.  Lipton, Eric. "Study Maps the Location of Deaths in the Twin Towers", The New York Times, 2004-07-22.

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 Roddy, Dennis B.. "Flight 93: Forty lives, one destiny", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, 2001, October 28.  Siegel, Aaron. "Industry honors fallen on 9/11 anniversary", InvestmentNews, September 11, 2007.  Gunarathna, Rohan (2002). Inside Al Qaeda, Global Network of Terror. Berkley Books, p. 61-62.  Glynn, Simone A (May 7, 2003). Effect of a National Disaster on Blood Supply and Safety: The September 11 Experience. Journal of the American Medical Association. DOI:289 No. 17 Vol. 289 No. 17^ Red Cross Woes. PBS (2001-12-19  Heilprin, John. "White House edited EPA's 9/11 reports", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, 200306-23  Sept. 11 Flight 93 Memorial Design Chosen. Fox News (2005-09-08).  911 Memorials List. List of 911 and World Trade Center Memorials Across U.S. and the World..  Fallon, Scott. "After 9/11, charities met $2.6B challenge", The Record, 2003-09-10.  Recipients of the Raoul Wallenberg Award (2001). Raoul Wallenberg Committee of the United States (2003).  Gillespie, Angus K. (1999). "Chapter 2", Twin Towers: The Life of New York City's World Trade Center. Rutgers University Press.  Ruchelman, Leonard I. (1977). The World Trade Center: Politics and Policies of Skyscraper Development.. Syracuse University Press, p. 11.  Blumenthal, Ralph. "Tapes in Bombing Plot Show Informer and F.B.I. at Odds", New York Times, 1993, October 27, p. Section A, Page 1, Column 4.  Lance, Peter (2003). 1000 Years for Revenge. Covers the plotting and motives of those who caused the first WTC bombing.

Annexe

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World Trade Center

The attacks

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Osama bin Laden

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The Tribute in Light viewed from Jersey City on the anniversary of the attacks in 2004

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