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Institution types and Credentials

1.1 Types of higher education institutions:
1. University 2. Institute 3. College

1.2 School leaving and higher education credentials:

Sudan School Certificate Technician's Diploma Diploma Bachelor's Degree Bachelor Honours Degree Postgraduate Diploma Master's Degree Doctor of Philosophy Higher Doctorate

2. Structure of Education System

2.1 Pre-higher education:
Duration of compulsory education: Age of entry: 6 Age of exit: 14 Structure of school system: Basic Type of school providing this education: Basic School Length of program in years: 8 Age level from: 6 to: 14 Certificate/diploma awarded: Basic Education Certificate Examination Secondary Type of school providing this education: General Secondary School Length of program in years: 3 Age level from: 14 to: 17 Certificate/diploma awarded: Sudan School Certificate Examination Vocational Type of school providing this education: Technical and Vocational School Length of program in years: 3 Age level from: 14 to: 17 Certificate/diploma awarded: Sudan School Certificate Examination.

2.2 School education:

Basic education lasts for eight years and is compulsory. It leads to the Basic Education Certificate Examination. General (academic) secondary education lasts for three years leading to the Sudan School Certificate Examination. In the first two years, students follow the same curriculum. In the final year,

they choose between arts and science streams. The technical secondary schools include Industrial, Commercial and Agricultural schools for boys and some Home Economics schools for girls. They offer three-year courses leading to the Sudan Secondary School Certificate. Vocational Training Centres offer two-year vocational courses. Admission is based on completion of basic education. Admission to higher education is based on the results of the Sudan School Certificate Examination.

2.3 Higher education:

Higher education is provided by universities, both public and private, and institutes and colleges of technical and professional education. All universities are autonomous and government financed. The National Council of Higher Education is the government body responsible for higher education. Since 1990, many government universities have been created, mostly in the provinces. A few private tertiary institutions have also opened.

2.4 Main laws/decrees governing higher education:

Decree: 1991 Higher Education Act Year: 1991 Concerns: Higher Education

2.5 Academic year:

Classes from: Jul to: Mar Long vacation from: 1 Apr to: 30 Jun

2.6 Languages of instruction: Arabic, English 2.7 Stages of studies:

Non-university level post-secondary studies (technical/vocational type): Non-university level: Specialized higher education institutions offer courses in music, hygiene, nursing, radiography and mechanical engineering. 2.7.1 University studies: University level first stage: Bachelor's Degree: The first year of university studies is devoted to basic studies and the major stage is reached with the award of the Bachelor's Degree in science, humanities and social sciences after another three years. A more specialized Bachelor's Degree with Honours requires a further year of study. Professional qualifications need five to six years' study. University level second stage: Master's Degree: This stage represents an in-depth knowledge at a certain degree of specialization and requires individual research; it is reached after two to three years' study. A Postgraduate Diploma is also

offered in certain disciplines, following one or two years' study after the Bachelor's Degree.
University level third stage: Doctor of Philosophy: The PhD may be reached after at least three years' study following the Master's Degree and requires individual research work and the presentation of a thesis. University level fourth stage: Higher Doctorate: It is awarded in humanities, law and science at the University of Khartoum only, in respect of published work contributing significantly to the advancement of knowledge. 2.7.2 Teacher education: Training of pre-primary and primary/basic school teachers

Basic education teachers are trained in colleges of basic education teachers that are affiliated to the Faculties of Education of the universities. Basic level teachers holding a Teacher's Certificate can return to BEd studies after a period of teaching in schools. Training of secondary school teachers Secondary-school teachers are trained at colleges for secondary school teachers or at the Faculties of Education of the universities. Graduates are awarded a BEd Degree. Since 1990, a postgraduate Diploma in Teaching English at Secondary Level (DIPTEASL) has been offered in Khartoum North.

2.7.3 Non-traditional studies:

Distance higher education: The University of Khartoum has a School of Extramural Studies and there is also a private Open University.

4. Admission to higher education

4.1 Admission to non university higher education studies
Name of secondary school credential required: Sudan School Certificate. Minimum score/requirement: 50%

4.2 Admission to university-level studies

Name of secondary school credential required: Sudan School Certificate Minimum score/requirement: 73% for the University of Khartoum; 88% for the medical faculty.

4.3 Foreign students admission

Admission requirements: Foreign students seeking admission as undergraduates to higher education institutions should have a minimum of 5 credits (45%) in the Sudan School Certificate or equivalent and must fulfil the admission requirements of the University of Khartoum. Only foreign students residing in the Sudan and foreign scholarship holders are accepted in Sudanese universities. Entry regulations: Students must obtain a visa. Language requirements: Good knowledge of either Arabic or English. Orientation programme arranged by universities.

4.5 Recognition of studies & qualifications:

Studies pursued in foreign countries (bodies dealing with recognition of foreign credentials): Committee for the Evaluation and Equivalency of Diplomas and Academic Degrees, Ministry of Education P.O. Box 2081 Khartoum Sudan Tel: +249(11) 772-515 +249(11) 779-312 Fax: +249(11) 779-312 Telex: 22115QRANT Deals with credential recognition for entry to: University and Profession

4.6 Multilateral agreements concerning recognition of foreign studies

Name of agreement: UNESCO Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Certificates, Diplomas, Degrees and Other Academic Qualifications in Higher Education in the African States

Year of signature: 1981 Name of agreement: UNESCO Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas and Degrees in Higher Education in the Arab States Year of signature: 1978

4.7 References to further information on foreign student admissions and recognition of studies
Title: Annual Admissions Guide Publisher: National Council of Higher Education

5. Student Life.
5.1 Student expenses and financial aid
Student costs: Foreign students tuition fees: Minimum: 1500 (US Dollar) Maximum: 3000 (US Dollar) Bodies providing information on student financial aid: Department of Foreign Relations and Training, Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research P.O. Box 2081 Khartoum Sudan Tel: +249(11) 772-515 Fax: +242(11) 779-312 Telex: 22115QRANT Deals with: Grants Category of students: Students knowing Arabic, aged 19 to 26 from various countries in Europe, Asia and Africa. Scholarship awarded according to cultural agreements.

6. Grading System
6.1. Usual grading system in secondary school
Full Description: Sudan School Certificate: A: 80-100%; B: 70-79%; C: 60-69%; D: 50-59%; F: 49-0 fail: Highest on scale: 100 Pass/fail level: 50 Lowest on scale: 0

6.2 Main grading system used by higher education institutions

Full Description: A+-F. The Bachelor of Arts is graded: 80-100: Division I; 60-79: Division II; 40-59: Division III Highest on scale: A+ Pass/fail level: C Lowest on scale: F