THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES

AND THE

SIBYLLINE BOOKS.

%>

PRINCETON,

N.

J.

*^

Di<vision

Section

:

THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES
AND THE

SIBYLLINE BOOKS.

BY

J.

RENDEL

'HARRIS,

FELLOW OF CLARE COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE.

ElTTe de 'I(7ad/c t(^ vlcp aiirov Tt tovto 6
6 de etirev

raxv

eipes,

w

riKVOV,

"0 irapedcoKe Kvptos

6 deos (TOV ivavrlov fiov.

Gen.

XXVII. 20.

CAMBRIDGE
H. W.

WALL IS.
1885

THSOLOGIC

THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES

AND THE SIBYLLINE

BOOKS.

In the following pages there are collected a number of unnoticed coincidences between the language and thought of the Teaching of the Apostles and the so-called Sibylline Oracles, from a consideration of which it seems likely
hitherto

that important consequences will follow in the interpretation
of the books

which are subjected
of
all in

to

the comparison, in the
places
is

more accurate determination
production, and above

their

and times of

the view which

thus acquired of

the genesis of the

faith, practice

and discipline of the Christian

Church.
Bryennios'
little tract is

increasing in recognized importance,
It is no longer a question of

almost from day to day.
identification

mere

between a

lost

book and a found book by means

of the

number
;

of lines in a MS.
:

metric table of the middle ages
sunt versus

and the record of a stichonon numerandi sed 'ponderandi
for a counterpoise

and being weighed, they require

the largest stones which the Ecclesiastical Historian can find in

In fact the AiSa^V '^^^ Airoo-roXcov is the key-stone Church history, whether we include under that term the New Testament records or those of the first four centuries of the
his bag.
'

of

Faith

;

and,

if

we widen our conception

of

Church history
it is

so as

to include the Semitic origins of Christianity,

the bridge

that spans the gulf between the Church and the Synagogue

from which
say.

it

was

so early divided.

It is surprising that so small a

book should have

so

much

to

can understand that a book of primitive doctrine and discipline should have been a small one for as the writer
:

We

1—2

4

THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES

of the so-called Phocylidea (to which

we

shall presently allude)

points out,

ov

%ft)/36t
Srj

fjL6<yd\r)v

BiBa^W

aBLBaKTO<; aKOvrj.

ov yap

voeovcr

ol /jLTjEeiroT

ecrOXa fxaOovre^;^.

But we can hardly explain the wide diffusion of so small a book both geographically and chronologically unless it indeed were closely connected with the origins of Christianity and had met with an almost universal acceptance and its
;

importance
a long

is

not dimioished

when we

consider that

we

are

way yet from the

place

where we can assert that
its

the last word has been said either on the text or
pretation.

inter-

The

parallelisms

to

which I have drawn
larger

attention
:

are

probably a part

of a

future

phenomenon

if,

in the

providence of God,
primitive

we should
literature,

recover any further portions of

Christian

there

explanations of obscurities both in the
in the sub-Apostolic writings

would be a harvest of New Testament and
insoluble.

which are at present

In particular the Doctrina Petri which forms a companion volume to the recovered Teaching seems to have had analogous
relations with the Sibylline books, if

we may judge from

its

few remaining sentences, and may even have a nexus internal and external with the Teaching of the Apostles. But until we know more about the Teaching or Preaching
of Peter

we must

confine ourselves to the elucidation of the

Teaching of the Apostles by means of the study of those early documents which are accessible to us, such as the earlier parts of the Talmudic literature and those Greek books, the Sibyllines to wit, in which we find a collocation or a fusion of Hebrew, Greek and Christian ethics. With regard to the Talmud, I am
too ignorant to say

more than that

I believe there are passages

in the Teaching of the Apostles which only the Mishna can explain; what the Sibyllines have to say will appear in the

following remarks.

Now in
lines

dealing with quotations from or by the Pseudo-Sibylto

we have
1

remember that there

are peculiar difficulties in

Ps. Phocylides S9.

Perhaps referring to a written Teaching.

AND THE SIBYLLINE BOOKS.

5

the determination of the periods to which the separate books and
portions of books contained in the collection are to be assigned.

are generally admitted to be Christian in and sentiment and of various centuries, from the first onward but there are other parts which are as distinctly Jewish or heathen, and to some of these we are obliged to
origin
;

The majority of them

assign a date

much
the

earlier

than the Christian
of

era.

It

appears

therefore that

fashion

writing religious history and

teaching religious truth in hexameter verse under the assumed
authority of an inspired Sibyl, must have been

common

to all
;

classes of believers at certain times in the world's history

and
the

in the early Christian Church, in particular, few writers are so

authoritatively
Sibylline
verses.

appealed
This
is

to

as

those

who
of

concocted

especially

true

authors in the

second and third centuries, such as Justin, Theophilus, Athenagoras and Clement of Alexandria, in discussions with Greek or

Jewish opponents.

Some idea of the extent of Pseudo-Sibylline literary activity may be gathered from the following table given in Alexandre's
Excursus ad Sihyllina^. According to this learned writer, we must divide the third and eighth books of the Sibyllines into four parts respectively and remove the portion of the second book which is known by the name of the iroLrj/na vovOerLKov of Phocylides (which the wTiter of the second book has worked up, perhaps with some additions, from an earlier source), and then

we may arrange the
order
:

existing Sibylline books in the following

Book iii. §§ 2 and 4 of Jewish origin, written Ptolemy Philometor, about 165 B.C.

in Egypt,

under

Book

iv.

the oldest of the Christian Sibyls, written in Asia,

in the first century,

The Prooemium

under Titus or Domitian. to the collection and the second section of

the eighth book were written by a Christian author in Egypt, under Trajan or Hadrian.

The

was written in Egypt

is also Christian, and Antoninus Pius. The third section of the third book and the fifth book are to

first

section of the eighth book
in the reign of

1

P. 439.

6

THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES

be referred to the same time and place, but Alexandre thinks

them more Jewish than Christian. The sixth and seventh books were written in Asia by a Christian hand about A.D. 234. The third and fourth parts of the eighth book are to be
referred to the middle of the third century.

The

first

origin, written in

two books and the third book, § 1, are of Christian Asia in the middle of the third century, but
xi.
xii.
xiii.

subsequently rehandled.

The other books,

xiv.,

were written in Egypt

about A.D. 267, by a Jew rather than a Christian, according to Alexandre's judgment.

The foregoing
which
critical

table gives also a notion of the

extent to

methods have been applied to the collection of
(it

Sibylline

books; and

need not be

said) the

conclusions

arrived at are not

perfectly coincident

with those found in

other writers on the subject.

We
but

shall presently return to the

questions of authorship and date, so far as they

come under

the scope of our enquiry
liminary to present

:

for us it

is

a necessary pre-

first the parallelisms between the Sibyllines and the Teaching of the Apostles, for these form an important The part of the evidence by which the dates are decided. coincidences to which our attention following are the chief

should be directed.
the Oracles.

The

references

are

respectively

to

the

Bryennios edition of the Teaching and to Friedlieb's edition of

In cases where a citation
is

is

made from PseudoJacob Bernays.

Phocylides the reference
a.

to the edition of

Teaching

i.

AiAaxh Kypioy Sta rwv S(oSeKa diroa-ToXwv
Ayo
eici'

Tot9 eOveaiv.

oAo'i

ktL

Orac. Sib.

vi.

9

Se/fet 8' dvOpcoTTOicnv oAoyc, Sei^et Se KeAeyGoYC

ovpaviov^' Trdvra^i Be
^.
e<NNAToy.

ao(j)OL<;

ixvOolctl AiA^^ei.
Trj<;

Teaching

i.

oAoi Ayo elai,

/juia

zoaflc

kuI fila

rov

Orac. Sib.

viii.

399
TTpoedrjK

avro<; oAoyc irpoeOijfca Ayo, zoohc 0ANAToy re,

KoX

*yvwiJb7]v

dyadrjv

^corjv

irpoekeaOai.

AND THE SIBYLLINE BOOKS.
Cf. Orac. Sib. viii.

7

487

evaefilr]^ re koX arpefCL7)<^ palvovre'^ arapirov';.
y.

Teaching

i.

npooroN, AfAnHceic ton GeoN rov 'jToi,r]aavra

ae' hevrepov, ton hAhcion coy cbc C€ayton.

Orac. Sib.

viii.

481

iv KpahiT) T6 Ta7r€Lvo(f>poi'€LV, iTLKpa rep/Jbara fiLcrelv

Kol iravTco^ aPAHan ton nAHCiON cocnep eAyTON"
KoX GeoN eK '^v^fj^; (JuAeeiN, avTu> Be Xarpeveiv.
Tovve/c

dp'

y/jiet^,

6(TLrj<i

'^ptarolo yeveOXrjf;

ovpavlr]^ Tre^fcGre?, eTriKXeo/jieada crvvaLfMoi,
fjivrjorrtv

6V<ppo(TVvr}<;

irrl

6p'qcrKeir)a-iv €^ovt€<;,

ev<7e^Lr]<;

re koI drpeKir)'; BAiNONTec ATApnoyc.

The
it likely

expression of the last line, (Baivovre^ arapirov<^, renders

that the first three lines have a reference to the Teaching concerning the Two Ways. To the foregoing we may add the following, which belongs really to the Phocylidea.

Orac. Sib.

ii.

60

= Ps.
ti'ma,

Pliocyl 8
pbereireLra he aelo yovrja'i.

npooTA GeoN
S.

Teaching

i.

iravrl

tm alrovvri ae

BlBov kol

fjbrj

diraiTeL'

irdcn yop Oeket hiBoaOai 6 irarrjp eK toon

iAi'con

XApiCMATOON.

Orac. Sib.

ii.

88

= Ps.
(Trjv

Phocyl. 29
%efc/)a Trevrjrevovcnv

ifKovTov e^f^v
con
toi

ope^oV

eAooKe Gedc,
will also

tovtwv

^(^prj^ovcn irapdcr^ov.

The sentiment
Petri, p. 57.
€.

be found in the Preaching of Peter
Cf. Hilgenfeld, Prcedicatio

with close parallelism to the AcSaxv-

Teaching

i.

lApooTATOO h

eAeHMOcyNH aov eh ra? yelpd^

aov,

fjii'^pif;

dv

yv(p<; tlvl 5ft)9.
ii.

Orac. Sib.

77,

cf.

Ps. Phocyl. 23
/jltjt

'n'T(0')(ol^

evdv BiSov

avpiov eXde/nev

etirr)^;'

lApcoci

0?

8'

(na'yywv xeipX %/3?7?oz;Tt irapdayoV eAeHMOcyNHN nrapex^i, Beep olBe Bavel^ecv.

difficult

The passage quoted from the Teaching is one of the most in the whole tract, and numerous unsatisfactory

emendations have been proposed for the peculiar IBpcordTO) of

8

THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES

the MS. which
iSpfDcrarco of

we

retain in preference to the slightly modified

Bryennios.

peculiar form ISpcordci)

is,

[The suggestion that we have here a I believe, due to Dr Hort. Dr Hort
/Jirj

also proposes to prefix a negative

in order to maintain the
before.
It

continuity of the passage with

what has gone

may
the

be doubted whether this
passage intelligible.]

is

necessary in order to

make

The passage taken from the
eker]fjbocrvvr).

Sibyllist

shews a

curious

parallelism with the Teaching in the conjunction of

IBpc/x;

and
as
it

But

it is

unfortunate that the second line
primitive difficulty in the

is

stands unintelligible^ and the three unconnected datives get in

one another's way.

Some

passage
Phocyli-

must have

existed, since the parallel in the
for these

common

dean text writes

two

lines
')(^pf)l^ovT l

7r\r]pcocra<;

aeo

%et/)'

eXeov

'TTapda')(ov'

in

which the
if

first

word looks

like

a curious

misreading or
intelli-

correction of lhpw<;.

The

lines,

however, become quite

gible

we make a very
Soph. Ajax 10
ard^cov
l8pc7)Tt

slight modification

and read

iBpaxTO ard^cov %et/9a '^(^prj^ovTi Trapdcrxov.
Cf.

Kfipa
/cal

%epa.? ^l(J)okt6vov<;,

and when

made, the parallelism with the language of the Teaching shews that in the latter the main idea is the connexion between personal charity and one's
this correction is

earnings.
r.

Teaching
ov

ii.

<f>ovevaei<;y

ov

/jL01)(€vo-6l<;,

ov

7raLSo(j)dopij(Tec'^.

Ps. Phocyl. 3
^r)re ^aybOKkoirkeiv^ iXTfT
ixrjre

dpaeva

/cvTTpiv opiveiv'

B6\ov<; pdirreiv

fxr)B^

alfxarL X^lpa yuaiveiv.

Similar conjunctions are found in the Sibyllines, passi'm.
f.

Teaching

ii.

ov MAreyceic, ov ^ApMAKeyceic.

Fs. Phocyl. 149
(|)ApMAKA
1

MH Tev^eLV' MAfiKooN

ffi/SXcov direx^aOat.

Friedlieb translates courageously,

Von

der Erudte Ertrag mittheile

dem Aimen

freigebig.

AND THE SIBYLLINE BOOKS.
This passage
is

9

found in the part of the Phocylidea beyond

that appropriated by the Sibyllist.
77.

Teaching

ii.

oy 4)0NeYceic xeKNON gn ct)0opA oyAc r^NNH-

GeN d7roKT6V6L<;.
Orac. Sib.
iii.

762
aKpirov apaevo<;
evvrjv'

fiocx^etav wecjivXa^o koI
rrjv S'

ISiav yevvav nraihwv rpecpe MHAe (J)ONeYCHC.
ii.

Orac. Sib.

280

oaaai
koX <^apfxaKLh6<i.

8'

eVl 'yaarepi ^6pTov<;

ifcrpcoo-KOV(Tiv,

oaoi roKerov^ piTTTOvaiV dOia/jLOV^ij

cfjapfiaKol

rj

Ps. PhocijL 184
firjhe

jvvrj

(|)06ipoi

Bpe(j)OC
pl-^rj,

e/ijSpuov evBoOi, 'yacrrpo'^,
real

MHAe TeKoycA kvctIv

yvyjrlv eXcopa.

The coincidence
very striking.
0.

of the last sentence with the

Teaching

is

Teaching
ii.

ii.

ovk

iiTi6v[Jbr)a€i<^

rd rod

TrXrjaLov.

Orac. Sib.

57

= Ps.

Phocyl. 6

dpicelaOai, Trapeovcn kol

dWorplcov

aTrex^aOat,.
it is

The

interest in the last quotation lies in the fact that
xiii.

5, where the injunction against covetousness follows upon that which regards marriagesanctity, the order of thought being the same as in the

in verbal agreement with Heb.

Teaching.
1.

Teaching
ii.

ii.

ovk eniopKHceic, ov s^eyAoMApTYpHceic.

Orac. Sib.
fjLTjBe

68

= Ps.
=

Phocyl. 16
dyvoci<;

eniopKHCHC,
ii.

/at^t'

jxrjT

elKalo<^.

Orac. Sib.

64

Ps. Phocyl. 12
(l)€vjeLv,

MApTYpiHN yeYAH
La.

rd SUaca jBpa^eveiv.
ovSe Ai'rAooccoc* irayl^

Teaching
r}

ii.

ovk

eajj Siyvooficov

ydp Oavdrov
Orac. Sib.

hiyXwaa-la' ovk earai 6 Xoyo'^ crov yeYAHC...ou/c
ovhe AprrAl ovhe kakoh'Ghc ouSe vireprj^avo<^.
37, 38,

earj 7rXeoveKTr}<;

iii.

40

dvOpcoTTcov vpeYAooN AirAooccooN Kal KAKOHBoaN,

XeKTpOKXoTTcov, elScoXoXarpoov, BoXca (j>pove6vTcoVj

avToi^ ApnAZONiec, dvaiSea

Ov/u.ai>

6)(GVTe<i.

1—5

10

THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES
Omc.
Sib.
ii.

58

=

Ps. Phocyl. 7
3'

yjrevSea

fjurj

^a^eiv ra

ir^rv/na irdvr

dyopeveiv.

perhaps the best place to draw attention to the beautiful emendation made by Bernays in the 13th line of the
This
is

Phocylidea,= Orac. Sib.

ii.

65,

where the MSS. and texts read,
3'

TrapOeviyv rijpelv, iriaTiv
If

eVt Trdai (^vXdcraeiv.

we put

irapSea-irjv for irapOevi'nv,

we not

only restore the

broken continuity of thought in the passage, and get rid of the
discordance between the sentiment involved in the

ordinary

reading and that of the l75th line of the Phocylidea,
[ir)

yu-etV?;?

d^ayLO<^

firj

ttw?

vcoi>vfjivo<;

bXrjai,

but we also throw some light on the ethical engagements of the
early
Christians.

For in the celebrated

letter

of Pliny

to

Trajan we find that the covenant entered into by the members of the new fraternity (which, by the by, is almost certain to be

based upon some written book of doctrine) was to the following
effect
:

sed ne farta, ne latrocinia, ne adulteria committerent, ne

fidem fallerent, ne depositum appellati abnegarent
clause
is

exactly versified in the Phocylidea, as
ii.

The emended

last
(cf.

also Sib.

closely corresponding to it in the Teaching,

and while I do not think there is anything it seems likely to have formed a part of some early oral or written AiBaaKaXLa.
278)
;

L^.

Teaching

ii.

ov

^rj'^y

jSovXrjv

Trovrjpdv

Kara rov

TtXtJO-LOV (TOV.

Ps. Phocyl. 4
ty.

/jii]T6

B6\ov<; paTrrecv.

Teaching

iii.

reicvov fiov, (f^evye diro iravrb^ irovTjpov

Kal dirb hantoc OMOi'oy AyroYOrac. Sib.
ii.

145

= Ps. Phocyl

76

cr(t)<j)pocrvvrjv
IXrj

daicelv, ala)(poov 8' epycov dire-)(^ea6ai,

MIMOy KAKOTHTA.
iii. jii)

lZ.

Teaching

ylvov

6py2\o<i'

oSrjyel

yap

r]

opfH

TT/OO?

TOV 4)dNGN.
ii.

Orac. Sib.
fir]

126

=

Ps. Phocyl. 57

'^aXivov 8' dypiov oppHN. iroXkaKL^ yap irXrj^a^, deKOt)v (\)6non e^eTeXeaae.
7rpo7r6Tr]<i

e? %6t/)a'

AND THE SIBYLLINE BOOKS.
I think

11

we may remark

in each of the

immediately pre-

ceding instances, that the Teaching has been directly versified

by the

Sibyllist or Ps. Phocylides.

(This conclusion will be of

For instance we see that the Teaching of the Apostles has a number of similar progressions from one sin to another, an idea which underlies the whole of the third chapter, and could hardly have been arrived at by the mere translation into prose of two lines of Phocylides. We may be sure, too, that prose ethics have preceded verse ethics, and that in the present case it is not sufficient to remark the use of the ethical portions of the Pentateuch in order to explain the coincidences of language between the Teaching and the
the highest importance.)
Phocylidea.
te.

Teaching
jiirjBe

iii.

jjur)

^ivov

oppKoc.

fjirjSe

zhAoothc

firjSe

epicTiKOC

eyMiKOc.
ii.

Orac. Sib.

135 =Ps. Phocijl 63
fjLavlrjv

GyMOC
opfH

v7r6p)(^6iJL€vo<;
8'

6\o6<j)pova

T6V')(ei.
firji;i<;.

iarlv ope^ci, VTrep/Salvovcra Se
8'

zhAoc yap iadXwv aya66<^, (fyavXcov
Orac. Sib.
ii.

dtSr]\o<;.

147

= Ps.
will

Phocyl. 78
8'

nreiOa) fiev <yap oveiap, epic

eptv dvTi<^VT6V6i.

I do not think

it

be maintained that this coincidence
6vfjb6<;,

in the description of opyrj,
is:

^rjXo^, epi^ is
fiov,
pbrj

a mere accident.
oiooNOCKonoc*

Teaching
oSrjyel

iii.

reKvov

yivov
fMTjSe

eiruhr]

eh

rrjv

elBcoXoXaTpeiav'

enAOiAoc

firjBe

maGhmatikoc.
Orac. Sib.
iii.

225
,

OV MANTGIC, OV (fiapjiaKOV^^

OV

pbrjV

eiTAOlAOYC,

ov

/jbvOcov fxcopwp

aTrdra^ iyya(TTpifiv6cov,

ovBe rd 'y^aXSaicov rd irpo/jLavrta AcrpoAorofciN

ovBe

fjiev

darpovojJLovcrL
t'

234

ToO TreTrXavrjaOai oAoyc

ap^^vGac...

Both
line

these passages follow Leviticus xx. 26, 31, but the last

seems to have a consciousness of the Two Ways.
^

Lege

0ap/xa/ceas.

12
tf.

THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES
Teaching
iv.

Kpiveh

hucalco^,

ov

\r}'>\rri

rrpoaanrov

iXiy^at eVt TrapaTrroo/xao-LV.

Teaching

v.
ii.

ifKova-lcov irapdKXrjroi, Treprjrcov avofioc

KpcraL

Orac. Sib.

61=Ps.
irevlrjv
iv.

Phocijl 9
firjSe

irdvra SiKata
jxr)

ve/jueiv,

Kplatv e? %apti/ eXKe
Kplve irpoawrrov.
rcov
')(^eip(juv

pl'^D's

ahiKW^,
e;^???,

firj

17}.

Teaching

iav

Sta

aov

Bcocret?

XvTpQXTiv ajJbapTLwv aov.
Orac. Sih.
ii.

81
civ

'pverat Ik Oavdrov e\eo<;, KpLcn<; oinror

e\drj\

Ps. Phocyl. 23
7r\r}p(t)aa<;

creo

%etp' eXeov 'x^prj^ovrt irapdcr^ov.

The

parallel

passages lead us to infer that the text of
if

the Teaching would be better punctuated

the

comma were

removed and placed
i6.

after aov.

Teaching

iv.

ov

Btardaei^;

fyvaeu^, 'yvcoar)

yap
ii.

tl^ iartv 6

hovvat ovhe Bc8ov<; 707rod jXiaOov KaX6<i dvTaTTohoj'q';.
tttcoxoI^ tvOv BlBov.

Orac. Sib.

78
91

= Ps.

Phocyl. 22

Orac. Sib.
/jL7]7roTe

ii.

avhpa

Trevrjra IBcov

aKc6'sjr7}<;

eireeaai.

Orac. Sib.

ii.

274
80

oiroaoi

S'

Ihicov diru jxo'x^dcov

B6vT€<i oveihi^ovaiv.

Orac. Sib.
o?
K.
8'

ii.

iX67}/jLoavv7]v irape')(eL,
iv.

Oeat olhe Savel^eiv^.

Teaching

av'yKOLvcovrja€L<i

Be

iravra

rcS

dBeXcfxp

aov Kol ovK
1

epet? cBia elvai.
blokoixibv
tIvl iroiels.
ot /ca/ccDs

The coincidence between 'knowis one's rewarder' and 'knowing that one lends to the Lord is striking. The following passage, from an early anonymous writer (or collecing

on

iav

iroLrj^

dy ad 6p,

^Xe-rre

who

Ovtu} Kal rds Xonrds ypa<pas
'

'

voovvres 8La<XTp4(pov<Tiv
dvOpditrov

ov

yap

irepl

toO

rov

wtojxoO toDto
tLvl iroteij,

etircv 6 'ZoXofj.wv

dWa ^Xiire

tion of writers), containing references

rodrecrTiv

on ry

6€(^ iroieh' el

ydp

irpb

to the Teaching,
rection
:

is

in the

same
dei

di-

rod dvaKpivecv rods aiToCvTas tovto
ttcDs 6

(prjai,
o-e

nvh

<t>a(nv

on

oi

dve^e-

Kvpios \iyet, iravn t<^
;

ahovvn

TaaTOV
fierb.

Tra/jexeiJ/ e\eT)ixo(Tvvr)v
el

dXX' epiorav

5iSov

dKpi^eia^

ev dXrjdeia ivdeTjS

ianv

6

rip.7u

wpocrepxo/J.evos.

A^yec ydp,

<pr](rtv,

Quest, in Antiochum, Migne, Patr. Gr. xxviii. 649.

:

AND THE SIBYLLINE BOOKS.
Orac. Sib.
ii.

13

90, Ps. Phocijl

30
Be rervKTaf

KOLvo<i ird^ 6 l3io^ /iiepoiTcov' avL<To<^
ecTTCo

Koivo'i a7r<x9 o

^/o? Kal ofiocfypova iravra.

it will be remembered that the Sibyllines are of communistic sentiments of the most pronounced kind, and of lamentations over human inequalities, which un-

And
full

here

doubtedly preserve early Essene and Christian teaching.
Ka.
crov.

Teaching

vi.

irepl he rfj^ /3pa,o-eo)<;, o

Suvaaai /Sdo-ra-

diro he rov elhcoXoOurov \lav irpoaeye.
ii.

Orac. Sib.

96
juurj

= Ps.

Pliocyl. [32]

alfxa he
a:/?.

(j^ayeetv,

elhcdXoOvrwv

S'

aTTe')(ea6aL.

Teaching
viii.

vi.

Xarpeia yap earc 6e(Zv veKpwv.
Kal iravrcov
u)v

Orac. Sib.

46

eaefidaOTj^

haLfiova<i dy^rv-yov^ veKpoov echcoXa Ka/JLovrcov.

Orac. Sib.

viii.

393
e?
/jivr/jjb7)V

ravra yap

/SaacXr/cov rjhe TVpdvvoyv

haLjJLoaL TTOtTjaovaL veKpol<; (W9 ovpavloLO-t.

With this striking instance we conclude the cases which we have noted of coincidence between the first part of the Teaching of the Apostles (the Doctrine of the Two Ways) and the Sibyllines (including Pseudo-Phocylides). The next step is to point out a few illustrations of the liturgical sections
of

the

Teaching,

and then

to

pass

on to the remarkable

parallelisms which occur in the Sibylline doctrine of the Second

Advent, as compared with the closing section of the Teaching of the Apostles and first of all with regard to the custom
;

of immersion in running water
Ky.

Teaching

vii.

BAnricATe

eU to

ovo/jua

rov

TTar/oo?

Kal rov Tlov Kal rod dyiov Uvev/xaro^ en
Orac. Sib.
iv.

y'Aati zconti.

165
T

iv TTorayLtot? AoycAcGe oAon Aemac AeNAOici,
'^etpa<;

eKTavv(7avTe<; €9 alOepa, tmv irdpo'^ epywv Gvyyv (£)ybr)v ahelaQe Kal evae^tat^ daefSeiav

TTLKpdv IdaaaOe.

:

14

THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES
the connected idea of baptism in the water of a fountain
is

And

preserved in the symbolical language,
Orac. Sih.
viii.

247
to the ministry of the twelve Apostles.

vSacTL (f)C0Ti^(ov k\7]tov<^ iv BcoSeKa nHfAlc,

where the reference

is

To the foregoing we may add
Orac. Sib.
viii.

315
Xva ryevvrjOevTe'^ avwOev
7]0e(Ti

A0ANATOY TTHrHC aTToXovadfievoL vhaTeacTi
Ta<^ irporepov Kaicla'^
fjL7]K6Tt,

SovXevcoaiv

dd€a-fjLOi<i

koct/jLov,

a passage which recalls also the language of the fourth gospel.
kS.

Teaching

vii.

idv Se

d/ui^orepa

jir)

e)(rj<^^

eKy^eov eJ?

rrjv KecpdXrjp

rpU

vScop ei? ovojxa Tiarpo^ Kal Tiov koI dylov

Uvev/xaTo^.
Orac. Sib.
vii.

87
Kkeicrei<^

ovSe 6vp7]v
rj^ei

ore rc^ aot iTrrjXvro^
awepvfcevai, Xi/x6v,

dWo^
pdva^,

Sv6/ji€V0<;,

7rep[r]<;

dWd

Xa/Scov K€(f)aXy]v toOS' dvepo<^,

vhan

ev^ai rpL^.

The passage quoted
more
of a
intelligible
;

is

somewhat obscure

:

if
it

we

could

understand eTrrjXvTo^ in the sense of a proselyte,

would be
visit

but

it

seems rather to refer to the

before he

needy stranger who has to receive some kind of baptism can sit at the table. But in any case we have
to trine aspersion
xi.

an allusion
K€.

and accompanying prayer.
7rpo(prjT7]<; opi'zooN

Teacliing
V.

ical

iru^

TpAuezAN kt€.

Orac. Sib.

266
d<yLaL<;

Kal y\(i)craaL<;

eniCTHCONTAi rpAnezAN.
festival to

The
to

reference

is

to

some

be celebrated in the
It

future days of Jerusalem's prosperity.

may

be interesting
opl^oyv

note here
is

that the

somewhat

similar

expression

/SdnTLd/ia
Kg-.

found several times in Hippolytus' Philosophumena.
xi.

Teaching

ov (f>dyeTaL dir* avrrj^; [irpo

r/;? ^i);^^?],

where the words

in

brackets are inserted

conjecturally,

in

AND THE SIBYLLINE BOOKS.

15

order to harmonize the sentence with what precedes (aXV Uv exv Tov<; rpoTTov^ Kuplou /cri), and to conform it to Josephus' description of an ^Essene meal (Bell. Jucl ii. viii.
5),

irpo-

KorevxeTaL he

6

lepev^

r^^

rpoc/);;?

Kal yevaaaeal riva irpo
:

T^? evx^^ dei/iiTov. Cf. also Pirqe aboth iii. 3 " Three that have eaten at one table, and have said over it words of Thorah, are as if they had eaten of the table of Maqom" (i.e. God).'

The following sentence from the Parallels of John Damascene and cited variously as ex patre (p. 453 Lequien), ex sancto sene (Cod. Rup.), and e libro sanctorum senium (Cod.
Reg. 923), contains the same sentiment
fiin]fi7]v
;

Tpdire^a

p,r]

exovaa

Oeov, (pdrvrj^i dXoycov ovBev hiev-qvoxev.
iv.

Orac. Sib.

25
8r)

ccraoc

arep^ovau deov ixkyav evXoyiovre^

irplv cj^ayeeiv inveeLv re.

to the

To the foregoing suggestions and illustrations with regard Baptism and Agape, we subjoin one on the necessity
Teaching
e'xei

of personal labour.
Kt.
61

xiii.

rexvirij';
rrjv

wv, ipya^eaOco
vficSv

koX

(j)ay€T(o'

Ae OYK

leXNHN /card

avveaiv

irpovorjcrare ttw?

Ps. Fhocijl 154
7ra9

yap
'^OL

aepyo<; uvrjp fcoet K\o7ri/iicov dirb x^^P'^v.
Tp6cj)eL

rex^V
61

dvhpa^, depyov

3'

cyjraro Xtyu-09.

Ae TIC OY A6AAHK6 TeXNHN, aKdlTTOLTO StKeWrj.

It is interesting to observe that Phocylides has settled the difficulty with regard to occupation in the same way that

presented

itself to

the Unjust Steward in
i^lace

the Gospel,

when

the prospect of losing his
aKdiTTeiv^).

was before him

(ovk laxvco

1

This alternative of

digging (for

is

extremely opiDosed to trade as a
of living,

the

man

without a

craft)

comes out

means
no
is

and regards

it

as only-

more

an interesting tract attached to the works of Athanasius,
clearly in

permissible in cases where a
craft

man

has

and the land around him
xxviii.
col.

called

Syntagma

Doctrince,

which has

not in cultivation,

preserved a great
of the AtSaxiy.

many

of the sayings

Migne, Patr. Gr.
/cat

840.

The

writer of the tract

6\m

fiT]

Trpayixareiov' iroWal x^^pai

:

16

THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES

We
K7].

come now

to the doctrine of the Last Things.
xvi.

Teaddng
ii.

iv

yap

rat?

€cr)(^dTaL<;

r//u.epat9

ttXt;-

OuvOrjo-ovTaL ol yeyAonpo^HTAi koX ol ^dopel<^.

Orac. Sib.
77

1G5

Be avvaipecTi^ €771)9 OTav

rivh dvrl
')(^9ovl

npO(t)HTa)iM

vpeyAaTraTat TTekdawaiv eirl
k6.
vl6<i

^r]fjLi^ovTe<;.

Teaching

xvi.

kuI rore (^avrjaerai

6

Koa/jLo-n \anoc

w?

Oeov Kol noiHcei CHMe?<\ Kal repara
dXrjOeLa^;,

kol rore

(f)avr](7eTai,

ra

(TijfjLela Trj<^

Orac. Sib.

ii. 167 ^eXcap 3' Kal

o]^€l

Kal ch'mata hoAAa noiHcei.

Orac. Sib.

iii.

52
?5fei

CK Be ^e^acTTTjvwv

BeXtap

iMeroiricrOev

Kal veKua<;

(TTrjcreL

kai

chmata noAAA noiHcei
Tr]s

eict

jWTj

aireipeiaai
fXT]

Kal

oi

oIkovvtcs eav
irpay-

^vxv^
'

<^ov Kal

tov TrXrjaiov

<tov

wj

TexvoLS

^xwatj'

avayKd^ovraL

aeavTOv

Ov

(f)ovev(reLS,

ov ixoix^iuaeis, ou

/xareveiv.

TTopvevaeis, ov Traido(pdopr]aeLs, ov (papfxa-

And

the writer expresses himself to
col.
'

Kevaeis, ov 5ixo(TTaTrjjeis KTe

'

cf.

At5.
fir]

i. ii.

the same effect in

841

:

irpb iraPTos

Col. 837.

(pvXaTTeadaL re
diyvcajULOv
/jlt]

ehat
/xr)

dk r^x^Vv eirLX^Lpetv
'iva fi7] iadlris
TU!!'

ev dypt^ ipyd^ov
'

diXoyov

/xr]

^evcTTrjv

aprou dpybv

/xaWou be

e/c

KaTaXaXov.
Cf.
At5.
ii.

xetptDi'

(Tov

^%e irpbs to dvairavetv
el

ovK

^crrj

diyvd'/xwv ov8^
\f/evbr)s.

a8e\(povs Kal ^evovs Kai,

SvvaTov, x^pas

8iyX(jt}craos...ovK l^aTai 6

Xoyos aov
fii)

Kal 6pcf>avov$ Kal ixerpiovs.

Col. 837.
this
KeveLv...fj.r)
fxriTe

fir]

(JLayevetv,

(pappLa-

I think

we may conclude from

direpxecrdai.

Trpbs

eiraoidbv

that the only interj^retation which the

(pvXaKTTjpLov eavTip wepLTidevaL /at/S^

Church put upon the language of the Teaching was that the alternative for
a
craft

TrepiKadaipeiv.

Cf. Al8.

ii. iii.

was

agriculture.

Nor

is it to

Col. 840.

yivov TaTreivbs Kal

rjffvxi'OS,

be neglected that in the preceding we
find the expression
e'xe
e/c

Tpefxcav 5ta iravTbs to,

Xoyia tov Kvplov.

rtDi/

xetpcDi/

aov

Cf. AtS.

iii.

yiuov...i^avxi-os

Kaldyadbs

of the person

who

is

in a position

Kal Tp^ixwv Tovs Xoyovs 8id Travrbs ovs
rJKOvaas.

to help others just as in the AiSax^?

we
is

have edv ^XV^ ^'^ "^^^ x^'-P^^ '^oi;. As remarked above, this tract
certainly modelled

Col.

844.

€1

8e

tls

dvTcXeyet

to'is

irpoecprjp.^vois

de^ iaTiv avTiXeycov.

Cf.

on the Teaching:

Al8. vi.

the

following

coincidences

may
crov

be

Col.
Kal
jXTj

841.

SiKaiojs
''''

<Tvvdyu)v

Kapwovs

noted
Col. 836.
TTT/o-ets

ix^^

dSiKias irpwTov fxkv rds

Kvpiof TOV Oeov

dya-

dwapxd'i Tots iepevcn Trpocnpepe.
Cf. Ato.
c. xiii.

e^ 6\t]s KapSias cov Kal e^ 6Xi]S

AND THE SIBYLLINE BOOKS.
dv6poi)7TOL<i,

17
ev avro)

aX)C

ov')(l

Te\e(T(f>6pa ecrcrer

aXXa nAANA ktL
Belial or Beliar, as
for Antichrist,
is

well known,

is

the

common name
second advent,

who

is

to precede
belief).

Messiah

(at his

according to
is

Christian

Alexandre observes that he
of the Augusti.
to

however
in of

come from Rome, the city that we are here which case Simon Magus presents early Church history \
said to

Ewald

thinks

understand Samaria,

himself, the ignis fatuus

X.

Teaching

xvi.

t6t6

hIgi

h

kticic

tSv avOpcoiTwv

eic

THN nypOOCIN THC AOKIMACIAC.
Orac. Sib.
iii.

86
/cat

kai
et?

kticin

avrrjv

eic

eN xooNeycei
viii.

/caOapov SiaXe^eL.

Orac. Sib.

412
airavra koI eh KaOapov ScaXi^o).

')(coveva(o 'yap

Orac. Sib.

ii.

217
€v
')(aivev(T€L
ical

aXV
et?

a/ia iravra

et?

icaOapov htaXe^ei.

In these quotations the Sibyllists of the second and third
books seem to have imitated the earlier Sibyllist of the eighth, who himself presents a text very like a versification of the
Teaching.
Friedlieb, however, believes the portion of the third

book from which the quotation is made, vv. 46 96, to be (Die Verse 46 prse-Christian 96 gehoren einem Verfasser
!

^

A

very interesting discussion as to

of appearing is Galilee, or
ly Scythopolis, because
it

more
is

exaet-

tlie

place where Antichrist will appear

written,

is

found in the Questiones ad Antio-

chum, bound up with the Works of Athanasius (Migne, Patr. Gr. xxviii.).
In this
is

treatise,

which has many sugis

gestive analogies with the Teaching,
it

'Dan is a lion's whelp, he shall leap from Bashau.' Here we have another early belief, namely that the Antichrist comes of the tribe of Dan, because this tribe is not mentioned in
the
sealing

argued that Antichrist

dis-

of
(cf.

the 144,000
that, although

in
1).

the
It

tinguished from Christ at his second

Apocalypse
is

Irenasus, v. xxx.

Advent, by the fact that he appears in

one special place, whereas the Son of Man appears as the lightning from East
to

West.

It

is

agreed that he will
the v^Kvas CTrjcei
;

most of these beliefs are early, the Teaching does not contain them, and confines itself to a much more simple stateworth notice
ment.

raise the dead

(cf.

of the third Sibylline)

and his place

1—9

18

THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES
haben kann.

an, der nicht viel friiher als 31 v. Chr. gelebt
p. xxxvii.)

Xa.

Teaching

xvi.

ol Be vTrofieLvavTe^; ev

rfj irla-Tei avroliv

GU)6rjaovTai viz avrov rod KaTade/jLaTO<;.

Orac. Sib.

ii.

253
Brj 7rdvT€<;

Kal t6t6

Bl

aWofievov

Trora/JLOLO

Kal ^\oyd<; dapecTTov Buekevaovd', ol Be BiKaioi
ird,vre<^

aeod^aovTao.

Here
the
world,

it

will

be observed that the Sibyliist regards

all

human

race as

involved in the fiery destruction of the

but the righteous as able to find deliverance.
difficult
is

This

may
in

perhaps confirm us in the belief that the
to be translated
shall
:

passage

the Teaching

"

But they that have

been stedfast in their faith
curse itself,"
i. e.

be saved from under the

the

common

curse of the destruction of the old

order by

fire

of which

the writer of the Teaching has been
in

speaking in the early part of the sentence:

which case

we escape the
Christ.

idea that to KardOeixa

is

here a veiled allusion to

\^.

Teaching

xvi.

koX

rore

(^avrjcreTaL

ta

cHMeiA

r^?

d\r}deia<;, irpcoroVy crrjiJLelov eKTrerdaecof; ev

ovpavw, elra

(rrj/jL6L0V

(pmvrj^ <rd\7rL'yyo<;, Kal to TpiTON dvd(TTacrL<; veKpwv.

Orac. Sib.

ii.

187
^6o-/5tT7;<?

Kal t66^ 6

je dir

ovpavov

dp/jua TLralvcov

ovpdvLov, yalr}

8*

eVtySa? rore chm<\ta jpiccA

Koajjbw oXft) Bel^et.

The
(coming

belief in the appearance of Elias before the
first

to restore all things)

is

common both

to

Advent Jews

What is curious in the foregoing is that the triple signs of the Teaching are exactly imitated in the
and Christians.
Sibyllines though it is not easy to tell from the context what were the special signs that the writer had in mind.
;

xvi. ri^ec 6 Kvpio^ Kal irdvre^ ol aycot rore o-^^erat 6 Kocfio^ rov Kvpiov ep^ofjuevov eirdvay rmv ve^eXwv rov ovpavov.

\j.

Teaching

fi€T

avrov.

:

AND THE SIBYLLINE BOOKS.
Orac. Sib.
^fet
8'
ii.

19

242
7rp6<i

ev ve(f>6\rj

t

cl^Oltov dcj^Ocro^ avTo^
djyeXTTJpac.

iv ho^rj

^piaro^ avv

d/biv/jioo-LV

These passages shew conchisively, as it seems to me, that must have been amongst some of the Sibyllists a very close acquaintance with the Teaching of the Apostles. A few of the coincidences noted may be imaginary, and no doubt there are others not here noted which present various
there

but the majority of the quoted cases Let us analyse them and see in what parts of the Sibylline books they are most frequent. If we arrange the books in the chronological order suggested
traces of parallelism
;

cannot be accidental.

by Alexandre we have the following
Number
Book Book Book
iii. iii.

result

of

Period assigned by Alexandre.

allusions.
§ 2 § 4

(97—294)

1 1

165

B.C.

(489— fin.]

165 B.C.
Titus

iv.

2

Prooem.

Trajan
.

Book viii § 1 (1—216) Book viii § 2 (217—429) Book iii. § 3 (295—488) Book V. Book vi. Book vii. Book viii. § 3 (430—480) Book viii. § 4 (481— fin.) Book i. Book ii. Book iii. 1 (1—96) Book xi. Book xii. Book xiii. Book xiv.
.
{

4
1

1
1

Trajan Antoninus Pius Antoninus Pius Antoninus Pius
234 A.D.

1

234 A.D. 250?
A.D.

1

250? A.D.

250 30
3

A.D.

250 A.D. (except Ps. Phocyl.) 250 A.D.
267 A.D. 267 A.D.

267

A.D.

267 A.D.

It will

siderable difficulties

be observed in the foregoing that there are conconnected with the determination of the
coincidences.

quoter and quoted in the successive
these difficulties diminished
critics.
if

Nor

are

we adopt the

conclusions of other

at

For instance the following are the conclusions arrived by Ewald {Entstehung, Inhalt und Werth der Sibyllmischen

:

20

THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES
There are eight separate compo-

Bilcher, Gottingen, 1858).
sitions in the collection
:

viz.

AND THE SIBYLLINE BOOKS.

21

they express Essene characteristics which this book has absorbed The Baptism, &c. to which in common with the Teaching.
allusion
is

rites of the

made would thus be the initiatory most enlightened of the Jewish sects.
difficulty

(or

repeated)

No

other

presents

itself

in

the

existence

of

quotations from the Teaching, except in so far as relates to

the Second Book from which more than 60 per cent, of our
illustrations are derived.

Jf these quotations were only found

in the text of the Second Book and not in the poem of Phocylides, a large part of wdiich has been inserted in the text, There is nothiug strange in the versification all would be clear. of the sentiments of the Teaching by a writer of the second Pseudo-Phocylides has however been comor third century.

monly reckoned
be
strange

as

as early as the second

an Alexandrian Jew of a period perhaps and it would century before Christ
:

indeed

if

an ethical poem written at

such

a

time should present very close imitations of the Teaching. No such supposition, however, is necessary and we are
;

surprised that

the belief in the antiquity

of the

so-called

Pseudo-Phocylides should ever have been so wddely diffused.

For instance

w^e find Ew^ald placing it at

a date equal to and

perhaps earlier than the earliest portions of the Third Book
of the Oracles \

Not

that

this

early

date

is

by any means universally

agreed upon.

One

of the things that has further surprised
is

me

in the writing of the present tract

the fact that

my

friend

Paul Sabatier, who has written such an excellent pamphlet upon the Jewish colouring of the Teaching of the Apostles, assigned the poem of Pseudo-Phocylides to the middle of the first century and indicated its relation to the Teaching
but seems to have missed the coincidences which are here For instance he remarks on p. 51 of his pointed out.
1

P. 41.

" Vorziiglich liaben sich

noch die etwa 230 Zeilen gnomischer Dichtung unter Phokylides' Namen erhalten, welche im Grunde einen ahnlichen Zweck verfolgen und die in
griechischer Sprachfarbe

leicht

mit unserm Gedichte haben, dass man vermuthen komite, sie seien von demselben Dichter, wenn nicht andre
sie

Griinde zeigten dass

doch vielmehr

von einem

andern und von einem

und

dichter-

etwas altern Dichter abstammten."

ischer Kunst eine so grosse Ahnlichkeit

22
pamphlet,
explicite
"

THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES
L'auteur de la Didache eut dte, sans doute, plus
avait voulu
il

s'il

parler

des Montanistes.
tres
le

Les concelles

clusions auxquelles

arrive

sont

voisines

de

du

Pseudo-Phocylide, qui ecrivit vers

milieu du premier siecle

un manuel de morale juive simpliflee pour les pawns." And again on p. 78, "Nous voyons dans I'autenr de notre document un
des repr^sentants de cette ecole assez nombreuse au premier
siecle qui voulait faire

du Judaism e
ecrivit,

et plus tard

du

cliristianisme
qui, vers

une
le

religion deiste pour tous les peuples.
siecle,

Un homme

milieu du

sous

le

nom

usurpe du celebre

moraliste grec Phocylide,

un

petit cours de

morale naturelle

juive, simplifie a I'usage des nons-Juifs, sarretait
tions analogues.

d des

solu-

Get honnete faussaire n'essaye nullement de
il

convertir son lecteur au judaisme,

cberche seulement a lui
mariage."
I regard these

inculquer les preceptes noachiques et quelques regies juives,

bien adoucies sur les viandes et sur

le

sentences as containing some of the most important things yet
said

with regard to the Teaching;

and

it

will probably

be

before long an accepted conclusion that
authorities

M. Sabatier and the

wdiom he has followed, have assigned the date of Phocylides more nearly than has been usually given, if it is not also agreed that Phocylides is an actual simplification of

an

earlier ethical treatise.

It is largely
this

upon the investigations

of Jacob Bernays that

view of the early date of the Phocylidea has been estabNow Bernays goes to work to determine the inferior lished.

and superior

limits

of time

within which the

irolrjfxa

vov-

OeriKov from which the Sibyllist borrowed must be confined,

and he concludes that the circulation of the LXX. translation
of

the
all

Scriptures
traces

is

a

superior

limit,

while

the

absence

Testament and of Christianity furnishes us with an inferior limit somewhere in the time of Nero. (Verbietet also zunachst das Fehlen jeder neutestamentlichen Spur liber 150 n. Chr. hinabzusteigen, so zwingt dann ferner das deutliche Absehen auf Besserung der Heiden hiater 70 n. Chr. zurlick. Mithin bilden die zwei Jahrhunderte von der Begierung des Philometor bis auf die des Nero der Bereich welcher fUr die Abfassung des Gedichts mit Wahrscheinlichkeit
of

of

the

New

:

AND THE SIBYLLINE BOOKS.
sich abstecken
liisst'.)

23

Beyond

this point

Bernays does not go

except to

make a

guess

that the writer of the

either a contemporary or a successor of the Alexandrian Aristobulus.

poem was Jew

The

fact is that

Bernays was carried too

far in his opposition

to Scaiiger's theory that the

a Christian

origin.

no trace of the

New

likely to have had maintained that there was not only Testament but also that one would look in

poem was more

He

vain for any traces of the early Christian AcSaaKaXla.

(In

dem ganzen Gedicht

findet

sich

keine einzige, die Prllfung
ist

aushaltende Beziehung auf das

Neue Testament; nirgends
;

eigenthiimlich christliche Redeweise zu entdecken

vergebens

wird

man nach

christlichen Einfliissen auf die Moral forsclien

Spuren iiyend eines sie in den Zeiten vor Fixirung der christlichen Urkunden weit mehr noch als die Moral von Freund und Feind gepredigt oder angegriffen wurdenl) The examination of our quotations will, I believe, enable us to meet this statement with a strong negative. Not
der concreten christologischen Lehrstucke wie

und ebenso

vergehlich ist das Suchen nach

only does

it

appear that the Teaching of the Apostles has been
a
little

directly versified, but

further investigation will

shew

that the Sibyllist

knew

that the book he was appropriating was

a versification of the Teaching.

For he concludes

his extract

with the words
ovTO<; d<yoov,

ravr icmv ae0\ia, ravra

jSpafiela,

TOYTO ny'AH zoohc Kal ei'coAoc a0anaci'ac.

And these remind one at a glance of the Doctrine of the Two Ways. (Compare the ending of the Fourth Chapter of the
Teaching.) Not only does he quote Phocylides where Phocylides quotes the Teaching but he quotes or has analogies with the Teaching in places where no parallel is found in Phocylides,
just as Phocylides has one or two passages which remind one of the Teaching in the part of the book which the Sibyllist did

not appropriate, and even seems to refer to it in a passage quoted at the beginning of the present paper. Both writers,
therefore, should be held to be subsequent to the i^thaxri:
1

and

Das

PhocijUdisclic Gedicht, p. 14.

-

1.

c.

p. 14.

:

:

24
it is

THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES

no longer necessary, with Bernays, to omit certain lines from the Phocylidean text on account of an assumed Christian flavour: such a line as (32) which Bernays rejects,
alyLta

Se

fjurj

cfyayeeiv elScoXoOvrcov

aireyeaOai,

may
what

very well be a part of the original Phocylidea.
will

And now

be the effect of these remarks upon our verdict with
?

regard to the date of the iS^ihaxv

When we

regard the traces

of its use in the various early Sibyl! ists, allow time for its

and its subsequent translation into poetical language, and again for the diffusion of the versified form so that it might come into the hands of a Sibylline writer of (let us say) the middle of the third century, I think we must admit that the hypothesis that the AtSa^r; is a document of the second century is no longer tenable and must be abandoned. But then the question arises as to whether the writer who thus presents his ethics under the attractive pseudonym of Phocylides^ has fairly handled the book of doctrine which
diffusion

we have assumed him

to versify

?

Why

has he omitted

all

references to the Gospels which are found in the Teaching,

and

why

is his morality so often inferior, as in such a case as line 31 where it is hard to believe that the writer has reached the point where he is prepared to turn the cheek to the smiter ?

TO
It
is

^L<po<^

dfjL(f>t^a\ov

[ir]

7rpb<^

(ftopov

aXX' e? afxvvav.

only in a modern sense, since the lambs have been more or

less

turned into wolves, that we can regard this sentiment as
are assuming the antiquity of
faith

^

We

TovTovs €^ oipxv^

l^^XP'-

T^^ovs

d'yairCj

:

the

pseudonym on the
it

of the

which

is

like

the following

Mss. which add

to their margin.

in

Ps.

Phoc. 218
aTepye
(}iiKov% dxpi-S

There

is

not sufi&cient evidence for the

use of this

name by

the author, and

it

daudrov, iriaris yap

may

only have been attached from the
character
of

dfj-elvoiv.

aphoristic

the writing

The 87th

line

of Ps.

PhocyHdes

and the incorporation of the sentiments and maxims of the real Phocylides into the text
:

(which Bernays
fxrjbe

rejects),
irplv
dfj.(pu}

e.g.

in the frag-

OLKrfv

diKaarjs

fxvdov

ments

of Phocylides as edited

by Bergk,
is

dKovarjS,

we

find
Ooiivevoi

also edited

among

the fragments of

ovdeva

rrpbs vttokpkjlv

ovs 5'

Phocylides,

AND THE SIBYLLINE
Christian.
It

BOOKS.
perfect

25
accuracy the

expresses, however, with
{Bell.

Essene morality.

Jud.

ii. viii. 4.)

Nor

are there wanting

other traces of Essenism.

Josephus
Ave find

tells

us of the Essenes,
to.

Tot? erepcodev rjKovaLv alperto-raU dvaireTrraTaL
6fjL0L0)<;

irap avrol<^

(oairep thia Kri,
it

and

what looks
earcoaav

like
8'

a versio/jloti/jlol

fication of
iTrrjXvhe^;

in

Ps.

Phocylides^

39

iv TroXtr/rat?,
it

we may take

to be which

and the Essene sentiment as I think is found in 1 Tim. vi. 10 is in exact
?;

correspondence with Ps. Phocylides 40
KaKOTTjTo^i d7rda7]<;.
It

^L\o')(^p7]pLO(Tvvr) fJL^rrjp

seems to me, therefore, that we must either assume that

the Phocylidist of the First Century has produced a morality
bo

pai'ens," or

be described in M. Sabatier's way, as "simplifiee pour les we must fall back upon the existence of an earlier

and more rudimentary Teaching, ethically more continuous with the Jewish Schools and perhaps somewhat earlier than the Christian era. There is no reason in the nature of things against the existence of a Jewish or Essene At8a%?7 when we consider how actively proselytism was being carried on about the time of the Christian Era and reflect that our own Apostolic Teaching must have been called into existence by somewhat similar circumstances. I see that M. Massebieau
des

has

made a
X.
2,

similar
p.

suggestion

(Revue de VHistoire
ces

Religions

158),

"Dans

prescriptions
j'ai

qui
cru

sanctionnent un certain nombre de coutumes juives

pouvoir distinguer

aux proselytes juifs avant d'etre utilise pour les catechumenes Chretiens." I think we may be confirmed in this view by a
les

traces d'un enseignement destine

study of the ethics of the works of Philo.

For example,
treatise

it is

interesting to observe that Philo in his

De

Specialibus Legihus includes under the discussion

of the

Murder the case of those who use poisons and of persons who destroy unborn children or expose those that have been born. (Ed. Mangey ii. 314 elal

Law

against

and magic

arts,

1

It

makes

little

difference whether

to explain the

the origin of such hospitalities be found
in the Pentateuch
:

writers in emphasizing the
vitical precepts.

agreement of the separate same Le-

for

we have

still

:

26

THE TEACHING OF THE APOSTLES
'yvwfjbai^i

^e erepoc irovrjporaToi, %e/9crt Kal

ivayet';, oi jiayoL

Kai

(papfMUKevTaL
Tciov

id.

ii.

318

el

yap rod

/lyBeTrco

Tat9 wpi(jp.evai<;

Katpcov ireplohoi'^ d'TT0Kvr]6evT0<; irpovoTjriov, oj? firj ef eVi/SouX^? Tt heivov iraOoi, irm ou%t fjuaXkov rod -rekeLoyovrjOevro^ ;)

mentioned he refers to carnivorous birds and beasts that may prey upon exposed infants just as does the
In the case
last

Phocylidist.

Or

let

us compare the rules given for the distribution of the
in Philo's treatise de Proemiis
in

firstfruits

Sacerdotum with the
first-

similar passage
fruits as

the

Teaching.

Philo describes the

being the priest's dues in dough and wine and

oil

and

every other form of property.
Toi/'i

(Mangey
lepecov

ii.

233 KeXevei yap
c})vpa/jiaro<;

aLTOTTOtovvTa<^
d(j)aip€LV

aTTo

TravTo^i
f^'?

arearo^ re Kac
')/prjaLV

apTOV

dirap^W

Aevrepov Be

irpoaTOLTTeL Kal diro rij^ dXkr]^ d7rdar]<=; KTrjcreco^; dirdp'^eo-dat,

Kad^ eicdaTTjv [lev \7]vov olvov, KaO^ eKdcrrrjv Se dXcova crlrov re
Kal KptOrjV, ofioLco^ Se
<f)6pov<^
e|-

eXaiwu eXatov

oj?

yovi' i^yefioat

diTo iravTO'i /xepou? KTr]a€co<; hihoaOat KeXevei.)

The

parallelism

is

describes the Mosaic rights of the priesthood
of the Teaching.
Is

between the way in which Philo and the language there anything at all unlikely that the
close

firstfruits from a current book of discipline for the Jewish proselytes of the day, who could not bo supposed to extract for themselves from

Teaching has incorporated the sentences as to

the Scriptures the precepts which were especially binding upon

them
there

?

it will be said that if this supposition be correct, no need to dispute Bernays' date for the Phocylidea, to which we can give any date we please by pushing back the assumed book of discipline to a sufficiently early period. The
is

Perhaps

answer to this is that Ps. Phocylides can only by extremely rough criticism be divested of sentiments which are either
Christian or differ very slightly therefrom

tenor of the writing
first

is

exactly

century.

Take

for

and that the whole what can be illustrated by the example the following parallels with
;

the language of one of the earliest Christian books, the epistle of James, and one can feel the period to which the book
belonofs

AND THE SIBYLLINE
Ps. Phoc.
19.
ixiorOov iioxOi^aavTL

BOOKS.

27
fir)

hlhov

OXi/Se TrivTjra.

144.
IIG.

6^ oXlyou aiTivOPipo^

dde(T(j)aro<i
rj

aWerau
rt
/Lied'

vXrj.

ovSeh

ycvaxTKei, rl fMeravpcov

wpav.

The question which arises as to the portions of our present Teaching to which a somevyhat earlier date should be assigned is more difficult and must be left to better heads than mine. It is probable that some one will see his way to make the necessary

On the other hand it is scarcely to be doubted that exceptions will be taken by some to the conclusions drawn in the foregoing pages and it may be denied that Ps. Phocylides has versified either our AiSa^^ or an earlier form. Let the matter be referred to those who are in seats of judgment. In any case I do not think it will be longer contended that the
analysis.

two writings in question which shew such similarity of thought, are to be referred, one to the second century before Christ, and the other to the second century of the Christian era.

APPENDIX.
I.

On

the Tract

De

Virginitate ascribed

to

Athanasius.

Mr De Romestin has given in his book on the Teaching, an extract from the above treatise, which he quotes from a review in the Church Quarterly for July 1884. The quotation shews that when the early prayer of the Church gave way to
more meal
was preserved for use at the daily which we may thus regard as But this is not all, Christian Agape. survivals of the early prayer is found contains other for the little tract in which the
theological forms,
it

of communities of

virgins,

traces

of the

Teaching, such as a positive reference to the

Doctrine of the

Two Ways,

a second prayer with
it

much

in

common with

the last prayer of the Thankmeal, and

concludes

with injunctions to vigilance, and the trimming of the lamp of the spiritual life and service, just as the Teaching does.

The
sius
;

tract in question

may

be some time later than Athana-

the quotations in

it will

be valuable as coming from

all
;

parts of the Teaching.

the references being to
GrcEca.
Col.

The passages referred to are subjoined Volume xxviii. of Migne's Patrologia

265.

Kol orav

Kadecrdfj<^ iirl ti)v rpajre^ijv

koX

ep')(r)

KKaaai rev uproi', aippaylcraaa avrov rplrov^ ro arj/jielov rod aravpov ovtco<; ev'^^apiarovaa Xiye. evy^apLarovfJiev aoi, TlaTep virep t?;? ayia<^ dvao-rdaeco^; aov' hid yap ^Irjaov rov r/fjicov, iraiho^ aov iyvcoptaa'; rjfitv avT7]v. kol Ka6(h<^ 6 dpro<i ovro^
Bi,ecrKop7ri(7/jLevo<;

virfjp'^ev
eV,

6

inavw

TavT7]<;

Trj<^
rj

rpaire^Tj^i

Kal

avva^Oeh eyevero
^vva/JLL'i

ol/to)?

e'TrL(7vva')(6riT(o

'FjKKXyala diro

T(ov Trepdrwv r^? 7779

eU

rrjv /Sao-ikeiav aov,

on aov ianv
dfjbrjv.

rj

Kal

r]

Bo^a

et?

tou? alwva<; tcov alcovcov,

Kal

TavT7}v jxev rrjv €VXV^ eV
6(f)6i\€t<;

rw

kXolp rov dprov Kal Oekeiv iaOleiv,

\iy€LV.
^

Query rph.

I)

APPENDIX.
Col. 2G8.

29
ryjv

Kal fxera
ovt(o<;.

rr/v

So^oXoy'av nraXiv

ev^W

'TrXripcot^/u^wv

aov \eyovaa

6

Beo?, 6 iravTOKpcircop, kol Kupto?

Ilr]aov<;
j,

Xp/crrn? to ovo/jba ro virep irav opo/xa, €V')(apicrTovp.ev

Kal alvovfiev ae
Tcvv
ore,

on

KaT7j^icoaa<; vfitv /leraXa^eLV

twv ayaOouV
Scoprjarj.

ari)v,

Twv
Li>a

(lapKiicrLv rpo^oiv.

heofieOa Kal TvapaKaXovpev
rpo(j)d<^
rjijilv

Kvpte,
jjfiLv

Kal

tc;?

inovpavlov^

Kal

So?

rp€fj.ecv
ixrj

Kal ^o^elaOai to (f)pcKTov Kal evTifiov ovofia

aov, Kai

irapaicoveiv

twv evToXwv
iv

aov.

rov

v6/jlov

aov^ Kal

to,

ScKaLoo/juara
7]fj,a)v

aov iyKaTaOou

Tah

Kaphiat<^ rjfxwv.

aylaaov he
T^yaTrrj/jie-

TO TTvevfia Kal Trjv

'y\rv')(r)v

Kal to awixa, Bed tov
rjficov

vov UaiSo^i aov 'Irjaov XpiaTOv tov Kvptov
Col. 273.

ktL

Ti Xeyei<;,
rj

dvOpwire

;

'ISoi)

hvo ohol TrapeTeOrjKav
edv
6e\7]<^ iropevov.
rr;

evwTTiov aov,
Col. 279.
firj

^myj Kal 6 6dvaT0<^' oirov

rrdar)

wpa

fit)

Xei^aTco eXauov

\ajJLirdht aov,

iroTe e\6r) 6 vv/icpiO'^ Kal evpy avTrjv ajSeaOelaav.

It

is

easy to see the influence of the Teaching in these

passages,

when we

are sure, as from the

first

quotation, that the

writer had that book in his head or hand.
II.

Some

traces of the Teaching in early apocryphal writings.

Precisely in the
early Jewish

same way
in

as w^e find the sentiments of the

parties

their

apocryphal writings, and the

survival of primitive Christian

monastic organisations,
early teachers.

w^e

may

manners and communism in notice some traces of early
its

Christian ways in the legendary accounts of the lives of

Nowhere

else shall

we

find, for instance,

such

and the independence of the may often be directly illustrated from these apocryphal itineraries. For example, in the so-called Acts of John, which we possess in two forms, attributed to his disciples Prochorus and Leucius respecapostolic
life.

clear statements of the simplicity

And

the Teaching of the Apostles

tively,

we almost always

find that the Apostle

goes through

the process of initiation with his converts in the following order;

he teaches them, he baptizes them, he eats wdth them, and
frequently accepts their hospitality for a day or two.
case have I noted

In no
will

more than a three
1

days' stay, which
<yov.

it

be

Perhaps

for to ovofxa

30

APPENDIX.
is

remembered
to

just over the superior limit set

by the AiBaxv
edition,

keep the Apostle from turning into a false prophet. The following passages, with references to Zahn's
be found acceptable.

may

p. 32.

fzera ovv ro ScSa')(^9rjvac vtto ^Icoavvov rov Atoa-Kopi-

S7]v...€7r€ar6V AtO(7Kop[8r](i

dvOpcoTre rov Oeov,
Alo(tkopl87](;

eh roi)? 7r6Ba<; ^Icodvvov Xeycov avrS, jBdimaov kol €/jL€...Kal Xa^cov rjixd^ ttoXlv aTryyayev iv rw oIkcd avrov koX irape6r)icev rjpZv

Tpdire^av koL ev')(apL(JTriaavTO<^ ro) 6eu> jxerekd^oixev Tpo^r]<^ Koi
ifji6Lva/JLev Trap*

avrS

rrjv icTTrepav.

p. 35.

fcal

ehiha^ev avTOv<^ rd irepX rov irarpo^ koi rod vlov
/cal

Kol rod dycov irvev/jLaro^
rpdire^av.
p.

iffd7rTLaev...Kal irapeOrjKev

7//jilv

112.

Kol

KaTr]')(7](Tev

avrov koX i/SaTntaev eh
e/jbelva/jLev Trap'

ovo/jua ira-

T/509

KOL vlov KoX dyiov TTvevpbaTO^ Kal

avro) Tr)v

T^fiepav eKelvrjv.
p.

127.

KOi iSlSa^ev avrov^ rd rrepl rrarpb^ vlov Kal dylov

irvevfiaro^i Kal

efBdmiaev avrov^ Kal rrdvra rov oIkov
rpeh.

avrrj<;

Kal

i/juelvafiev Trap' avrfj rjfjbepa^

And

so passim.

III.

On %apt9

as a

name of the Messiah.

In the tenth chapter of the Teaching, among the ejaculatory
utterances at the close of the final prayer of the Thankmeal,

we have

eXOerco %a/3t9 Kal irapeXOerco 6 koctixo^ ovro^. '^oavvd rS via) Aa^lB. .Mapavadd. In his tract upon the Teaching, M. Bonet-Maury made the following remark upon this passage, " Que la grace, cest d dii'e, le Christy paraisse;" upon which I remarked, as follows, in the American Journal of Philology
.

(Vol. VI.

I.

103), " the thought suggests itself to us,

may

not the
?"
;)^p?

word

%a/o^?

be an actual misreading of the abbreviated

It will be seen

from this that

I accepted

M. Bonet-Maury's
it is chiliastic.

view, that the reference to grace has nothing to do with the

benediction at the close of the meeting, but that
It

seems to

me

that this view

is

supported by the reference

APPENDIX.
'*

81

which immediately follows to the " Son of David and by the Maranatha. It may, however, be doubted whether there is any need to emend the text, as suggested by me for %«pt9 may
;

perhaps be an actual early
Christian

title of

the Messiah.
p.

Thus, in the

Acts of John already quoted, we have on

220 a scrap of a

hymn, containing
Bo^a aot
\6<ye.
list

Bo^a

croi

%a/>t9,

and on

p.

223 we have a

of titles of our Lord beginning

with (Travpd<; (readers of the Sibylline books will remember the
acrostic, 'It^ctou? X/^^ctto?

Seov T/o? Sravpo'^) and ending with

o crravpo^ 6

rod

(j)C0Tc^^

irore fiev Xoyo^; KoKelrat vir

i/jLov

Sl

vfidf;,

TTore Be voo^, irore Be '^picno^;, irore dvpa, irore 6B6<;,

TTore apro<i, TTore (T7r6po<i, irore avacrraat^;, irore ^l7]aov<;, irore
irarijp, irore irvevjjua, irore ^wq^ irore aXr^Oeia, irore ircarl^, irore

It has

been pointed out
xvi.

to

me

that the

98 b) on Jer.

13 ("I will not give you

Chanina
is

to be one of the

names

of

Talmud (Sanhedrin, ny^H ") makes the Messiah now this word
;

only a modification of fH

=

%o/^t9^

IV.

On

the

Maranatha Cry

in the early Christian Assemblies.

additional remarks may be made upon this beyond the explanations and references given elsewhere. subject First there seems to have been a correct tradition among early The following passages Christian writers as to its meaning. have come under my notice. Ps. Athanasius, Quest, in ep.

The following

Pauli (Migne, Patr. Gr.
Kvptov
rjjjiwv

xxviii. 760), rl

Xejec

e'i

ri<;

ov

(j^cXet

rov

'Irjaovv

X^pcarov

rjrw
rrj<;

avaOepba.

yiapav dOd.
koI toov irLarSv
Jerome de Norn. and Lex. Gr.

Tovrearf
1

'^wpicrare

avrov diro

'FiKfc\rjaia<;

Cf. Philo,

Quod deus immutabilis,
dibprj/xa
cro(f)ias'

in the

Church

(cf.

2.

TovTov yiverai fxadr^Tph Kol StdSoxos
TTJs

Heh. Anna, gratia
Norn.
^

ejus,

"Avva

Tov 6eoO

ip-

kwa

x^P'^ avrrji}

may

be the

/i7jv€V€Tai

yap

xcipis aiiTrjs.

It is

con-

reason for the division ws dvud which

ceivable that this interpretation

was certainly common

at

which an early date

we

find in

Greek mss. and in early

printed Greek Testaments.

32

APPENDIX.
fir]

Kol earw Keywpiaixkvo^^ airo rod \aov 6
KvpLO^ TjXOe' TovTo yap
:

Tria-reixoV

'O

<yap

ip/Jbrjvevet

to M.apav dOa.

John Damascene (Migne xcv. 706) iireihri iravTcov rwv KaKwv 6 tOc^o? aiTLo<; yv kol tovtwv he rov rvcfyov rj e^wOev (ro(f>la iiroUi koX tovto to Ke(fyaXatov rjv twv KaKwv, KaracrreXkwv avrrjv ovhe 'EXXaSi Ke^pV^cii'
(fxovfj

dWd

rf}

'^^patSi,
koX jiera

SeLKVv<i ore ov fiovov KaTaLa')(yv6TaL rrjv IBccoTeLav
7ro\\rj<;
Trj<;

dXXd

6epiJb(rr]T0<; daTrd^erai,.

T[

Be

ianv

to M.apavaOd;

OTL 6 KVpto<; rjXOev.

More
early
as

interesting

correct) that this cry

the remark (if it should turn out to be was known to the mob in Alexandria as the year 38. We are informed by Philo in his
is

treatise against Flaccus (ed.

Mangey

ii.

522) that the rabble
at a half-witted

in Alexandria

amused themselves by mocking

creature, of the

name

of Carabas,

whom

they adorned with a
cries of
/3orj

paper crown and rush sceptre and saluted with
elr
eic

Mdpiv.

7repL(TTa)T0<i ev

KUKXrp ttXtjOov; e^rj^ei

rt? aTOiro^,

^dpiv
Trapd

diroKaXoTjvTwv' ovtw'^ he (fyacn tov Kvpiov ovopbd^eaOai

'EvpoL<i'

ySetaav ynp

'

AypLTrirav

koI yevei ^vpov /ctL

We

observe in this account that Philo does not profess any

acquaintance with Aramaic but takes his interpretation from

and the question arises as to how the mob knew more Aramaic than Philo. Further the assumption made by Philo that in thus mocking the madman as a Syrian king, the people were intent on insulting King Agrippa, is probably or at
the crowd
:

least partly gratuitous

;

for

the details of the sport of the boys
facts recorded in the Gospels.

shew
Is
it

traces of

an imitation of

unreasonable to suppose that

we have here

the earliest

trace of the circulation of oral accounts describing the fate of

the founder of Christianity and the manner of worship of his
followers^
1

?

Of course

if

the popular Syrian

would
come.

read NJl NJN*1D

=

our Lord,

word which the Alexandrians shouted is Mapdv, there is no room for a conjecture that we should divide the words Mapav ado. differently. Such a suggestion is made by Dr Hal^vy on the
faith of a

See Neubauer in the recently

issued Oxford Studia Bihlica, p. 73.

Also remark that our interpretation of
the story
is

(to

faction) substantially the
of Prof.

form i<JK"1D = KiJ/)tos

-hfj-dv

in

Mayor in

no small satissame as that the recent number of

my

a Nabathean inscription, so that he

ihe Journal of Philology, NoL-^lv. no. 21,

APPENDIX.
V.

33
of the Teaching.

On

the Christ-monger

In

the

fragrments

of

Athanasius we find the followinsin

comment on the passage

Matt.

vii.

with regard to the
:

discrimination of false prophets from the true

iroXkw fjbaXkov airo twv epycov
')(^piaTefjL7r6pov^.

6<p€i\€t<;

hoKLfia^etv

tov<;

The sentence is headed irepl ylr€v8o7rpo(f)7)Tcov and may be found in Migne, Patr. Gr. xxvi. 1253 and xxvii. 1381 and I think when we contrast the language with the AiSaxv c. xi.
;

aTTo

ovv

Toov

TpoTTWV

'yv(t)cr6r](7eTaL

6

'yfr€v8o7rpo(j)7]Tr)<;

koI

6

86SoKLfia(TfjLevo<;, and remark the existence of the curious word ^/^tareyLtTropo?, we must admit that we have here a trace of the Teaching. The remark is not without importance it shews that Athanasius
7rpo(pr}T7)<;,

and again

7ra9

Be

7rpo(f)riTr}<i

:

referred the injunctions against idleness

and on the necessity of
service.

a

craft,

not to the mere private Christian on his wanderinsfs,

but to the prophet travelling on spiritual

VI.

On

the Signs

of the Truth.
i.

The

true signs, according to the Teaching, are
ii.

eKireracn^

in heaven,

the sound of the trumpet,

iii.

the resurrection
first

of the dead.

The only

difficulty lies in

the

of these:

it

has been variously interpreted, but generally so as to

mean an

That the early Christians and understood by it the appearing of the cross in the heavens, will be clear from the following considerations e/cTreracrt? is the proper term for the crucifixion, or rather for the attitude of the crucified. In the epistle of Barnabas c. x. the writer makes, out of Moses praying in the battle with Amalek, a type of Christ crucified, e^ereive
opening or unfurling in heaven.
attached a different meaning to
it,
:

ra?

'X€Lpa<i

koX outco? ttoXlv evlica 6 ^IcrparfK' elra, oirorav rraXiv

KaOelXe,

ttoXiv

eOavarovvro
el
pbrj

'

Trpo^

rl

;

iva

yvooacv

on

ov

Svvavrat acoOfjvac
TrpocfirjTr)

iir

avrat eXTrlawaL'

koI iv

erepco

XeyeC "OXrjv

rrjv rjiiepav i^eTriraa-a

Ta<i %et/3a9 p^ov

TTpo^

Xaov

(iTreiOovvTa Kal dviikeyoura 68a) BiKala p,ov.

And

34
the very same language
viii.

APPENDIX.
is

employed in the Sibylline books

302

in reference to the crucifixion,
icaX

eKTreraaeL Se %6/3a9

Koafxov airavra

fxerprjcreL*

eh

3e TO /Spdofjia %oX7}z/ koL iriveiv 6^o<; eScoKav.

Cf. also Sib. viii.

251

ou MwcttJ? irvTrcoo-e Trporelva^ w\eva<i dyvd<;,

and

Sib.

i.

372
orav iKTrerdo-y %6t)oa? kol iravra
fierprjcrr).

aXV
The

iKTriracrcf; in

heaven

is

then the sign of the Son of

Man

of Matt. xxiv. 30.

The

following additional references will

spoken

shew how common was the belief that the Cross is the sign of, and that the figure of the Crucified is the eWeratrt?.
Justin Dial. 90.
TTJv
6(1)7),

Mftji;cr?j9

BoKovaav Kardpav
Xe^yet?
;

Bt

yap Trpcoro^ i^ecfyavev avTOV ravrrjv wv iirolrjae o-ij/jLelcov' rlvcov rovTcoVy
iiroXefjuec

ore 6 X.ao9,

(prjfjbL,

roS 'A/juaXrjfc /cal 6

tov

ISlavrj vi6<;, 6

iTrovofjuaaOeU to3 'Irjcrov ovofiarL, r^J? /ua^i;? VPX^^>

auT09

M.(ov<Trj<i 7]V')^eT0 tq) d€(f

rd^

')(elpa<i

eKarepw^

iK7reTd(ra<;...

iv dp^f)
(rrjfielov

T^9

H'd')(7)(;

tov ovofJuaTO^ tov 'Irjaov
iiroiei.
Trj<;

6vto<;, avTO<i

to

tov aTavpov

Dial. 91.
MQ)u<7ea)9.

hid T€ TOV TVTTOV

iKTdo-6co<; T(2v ')(eLpwv

tov

Cf. Dial. 97.

Kol Bid 'Yicratov

6/jloIco';

eiprjTo irepl tovtov, 3t' ov
jjlov

TpoTTOv diroOvr^aKeiv efxeWev, ovTcof;' i^eireTaad
Dial. 111.
6 /xev

Ta^ '^ecpa'iKTe.

yap avTcov Ta9

"xelpa^ i/cTelpa<; iwl tov

povvov

fjb€'^pi<;

ecTTrepa^ efievev, viro/SaaTa^o/jbivcov toov '^ecpMVy
rj

o ovBevo^i

dXkov tvttov BeLKwacv
ov')(l

tov (TTavpov 6 Be KTe.

Dial. 112.

Be dvolaofiev iirl ttjv

eUova tov

o-Tavpo)-

6evT0<i ^Irjaov to crrjfielov, eirel Kal Mcovarj'; Bid ttj^

eKTdaew^

Twv

p^6t/oo5z/

ktL
TO Be dvOpooweiov
tj

1 Apol. 55.

(T')(rjiJba

ovBevl

dW(p

toov

dXoywv

^c6o)v Biacpepec,

tw opOov
rj

re elvau Kal eKTaatv x^cpwv

'i^eLV...Kal ovBev

aXko

BeiKvva-LV
v.

to

a')(^fj/jLa

tov aTavpov.

Irenseus Adv. Hcer.

17.

eirel

ydp Bid ^vXov dire^dXofiev

avTOVy Bid ^vXov irdXiv ^avepov tols Trdo-cv eyeveTO, eiriBeiicvvcov

TO

^r)KO(i

Kal u'^09 Kal /BdOof; Kal TrXdro^; ev eavToj Kal W9

ecfyr)

;

APPENDIX.
Tt?

85
^^etpcoz/, roi)?

Twv

irpo/Se/STj/coTcov,

Sea t^? Oeta^ iKTacreeoi; tcov

hvo \aov<; eh eva Oeov (Tvvdyoyv ktL
Tertullian adv. Marc.
iii.

18.

lam
quia

vero Moyses, quid utique

tunc tantum, cum
lesu
crucis

Jesus adversus Amalech prseliabatur, expansis
illic

TYianihus orabat residens,...nisi

ubi

nomen Domini
diabolum,
lesus victoriam

dimicabat,

dimicaturi

quandoque

adversus

quoque

erit habitus necessarius, per
?

quam

esset relaturus
Cf.

De
est.

Idololatria

xii.

Corpus solum, quod in

modum

crucis
I.

Ad

Fationes

xii.

Crucis qualitas, signum est de ligno

etiam de materia

colitis

penes vos

cum

effigie

;

quanquam

sicut

vestrum humana figura

est, ita et

nostrum

propria... quoniam

ipsi quoque corpori nostro tacita et secreta linea crucis situs est...

Si statueris hominem manibus expansis imaginem crucis fecer is.

Cyprian Testim.
Juda?i,

ii.
:

20.

Quod

cruci

ilium

fixuri

essent

apud Esaiam

Expandi manus meas
21.
etc.

tota die, etc.

Cyprian Testim.
est

ii.

Hoc

signo crucis et

Amalech

victus

ab Jesu per Moysen,

De

Exhort. Mart.

8.

Moyses ad superandum Amalech qui

figuram portabat diaboli in signo et sacramento crucis allevabat
supinas

manus

etc.

The author of the Opus Imperfectum in Matt, comments as " Quidam putant crucem Christi ostendendum esse in verius autem est ipsum Christum in corpore suo caelo; habentem testimonia passionis." Jerome comments much in " Signum hie aut crucis intelligemus ut the same strain
follows
: :

videant Judsei
triumphantis."

quem compunxerunt aut And Chrysostom, Homil.
:

vexillum victorias
LXXVII.
in

Matt.,
rco

Tore

(j^ai/rjaerac

to

ar}/jbe2ov

rod

viov

rov

avOpwirov ev

ovpavQj' TovreaTCv 6 (TTavp6<; rov rjXiov (fiathpoTepo^; wv.
Ps. Hippolytus, de

Consummatione Mundi^, gives the order
In
c.

1

This book, which seems to have

3 (col. 906, 7 of Migne) the writer
to

played an important part in mediaeval
theological discussions, is interesting
parallels

proposes
of the

bring

forward

faithful

witnesses with regard to the doctrine

in

its

with the Teaching.

end of the age;

/cat

fieTereira

36
of signs as in
arj/jLetop

APPENDIX.

Matthew (Migne, Patr.
cltto

Gr. x.

940),

to

yap

rod aravpov

dvaroXcov

eo)? Sva/jboov

avarekel virep
rrjv

rrjv \a/jL7rp6T7]Ta

rod tjXlov Kal

/jbr}vv(J€L

rov KpLTov

eXevatv
avrov...

Kol

TYjv i/jL(j)av€Lav,

Tov

oLTrohovvat, eKciarq)

Karard epya

Tore yap 6 crdXiTLy^

Tj'^^fjcrei

Kal i^VTrvrjaet

tov<; K6Koc/uL7]iJLivov<;

ktL

Numerous other

references might be given to Cyril of

Jerusalem, Augustine, Bede, Theophylact, &c.

Finally the senti-

ment has

crept into the Imitatio Christi (I suppose from the

Catholic service-book), so that
erit signum Crucis in cselo

we

read (Bk.

ii. c.

12), ''atque

hoc

quum Dominus ad judicandumveniet\"
reply,

Kal TU)v diroaToXuu tt]v didaxvv, fiaXXov 5^ irpo4>'rjT€iav,
Koufi^vrjs
riix^pav.

from which

I

have derived several
:

irQs

Travraxou rrs

oi-

of the passages referred to

aaXirl'^ovcn ttjs <xvvTe\da% ttiv

Among

these signs are the

"EocHESTEK, Aug.
*'...The explanation

8,

1885.

following: eyepd-qcovTai. xpevdotrpocpTJTai
...ol TTOL/jLeves

ws Xvkol yevrjaovTaL.

He

follows closely Hippolytus de Christo
et

Anticlmsto in the explanation thai
tri^pe

the Antichrist comes of the

of

Dan, and shews him to be a continual
misrepresentation of Christ
irXauos
(Col.
fj-OLOvadai
(6 Koa/mo-

you refer to was suggested to me first by Archdeacon Edwin Palmer, and referred to in a note which I wrote to the Guardian (printed, March 26th, 1884). The early expositions of Exod. xvii. 12, and Is. Ixv. 2 ( = Kom. X. 21), in Barnabas
12, Justin

w vios tov deov).
921).

Dial.
18,

90, Tertullian

adv.

Kara

irdvTa

yap
t(^ utcp

e^o-

Marc.
to

ill.

have no doubt occurred
others, e.g. Cyprian,
21, de exhort. 3Iartyrii,

^ovXerai 6 irXdvos

tou

you with many
2.

deov' Ki(j}v 6 XpLCTTos Kal X^uu 6 avrlXpi-CTTOS.

Testimon.

BacriXei/s

6

Xptcrros

twv

ov-

paviojv Kal eTnyeiup

Kal ^aaiXevs yevrj-

8 &c. " But the most important I have come
across is the Ethiopic liturgy translated

cerai. eirl yrjs 6 'AvTixptaTos.

''EdeixOv

6 lliUTTip cos dpvLov Kal avTos (pavrjaeraL
(OS

by Eudolfus

;

in

the opening
a sort of para'

dpvLOV,

XiJKOs

C)v

'hhoQev

Krk.

He

prayer of which

we read
fuit

is especially

favourable to the Jews.
ix^rd hk ToiTwv

phrase of the creed, in which
tuusmanifestatus
ut impleret voluntatem

et filius

(Col. 925).
(TTjfjieta

dwavTUv

a Spiritu Sancto,

iTTiTeXecrei

Kal da^fiara (f>o^epd

tuam

et

popu-

tiXX'

ovK dXtjOri

scription

dXX ev TrXdvy; a dewhich recalls again the
the foregoing ex-

lum
fixus

tibi

efl&ceret

expandendo manus
of 'cruciis

suas,' &c. is
est.'

an equivalent
This Uturgy

language of the Teaching.
1

given in

Since writing
it

planation
that

has been pointed out to me

Bunsen's Christianity and Mankind, Vol. ii. p. 108, London, 1854.
" I could easily add to these references

Dr John Wordsworth had already given the same in one of his Articles
in the Guardian.

but doubt not that you have

all

that I

An

enquiry elicited

have, though perhaps this liturgical

the following courteous and valuable
CAMBlilDGE:

one

may

be

new to you."
THE UNIVERSITY PRESS.

PRINTED BY

C.

J.

CLAY, M.A.

&

SON, AT

Gay lord

Bros.

Makers Syracuse, N.
PAT. JAN. 21, 1908

V
m^;

Date Due
'AG 01

fl

CT

I

6

I

M-'^

i'^-m:

'^^^m:P-ifi

mm$

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