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**Improving Capacity in Cellular Systems
**

Cellular design techniques are needed to provide more channels per unit coverage area. 1. Cell splitting: allows an orderly growth of the system.

(increases the number of base stations in order to increase capacity)

2.

**Sectoring: uses directional antennas to further control the interference and frequency reuse of channels channels.
**

(rely on base station antenna placements)

3. Coverage zone approaches: distributes the coverage of a cell and extends the cell boundary to hard-to-reach places.

1

Cell Splitting

The process of subdividing a congested cell into smaller cells. (each with its own base station and a corresponding reduction in antenna height and transmitter power) g p ) • By defining and installing new cells which have a smaller radius than the original cells (microcells). p g preserves the geometry of the architecture and g y • Cell splitting p therefore simply scales the geometry of the architecture • The increased number of cells would increase the number of clusters which in turn would increase the number of channels reused, and capacity

Cell Splitting (2) (2

• if every cell were reduced in such a way that the radius of every cell was cut in half. In order to cover the entire y service area with smaller cells, approximately four times as many cells would be required. • Cell splitting not upsetting the channel allocation scheme required to maintain the minimum co-channel reuse ratio Q between co-channel cells. co channel cells

2

Cell Splitting (3) (3

• In Figure 3.8, the base stations are placed at corners of the cells, and the area served by base station A is assumed to be saturated with traffic ( , (i.e, the blocking of base station A exceeds acceptable rates). g p ) • Cell Splitting is applied, note that the original base station A has been surrounded by six new microcell base stations. (the smaller cells were added in such a way as to preserve the frequency reuse plan of the system). • Microcell G was placed half way between two larger stations utilizing the same channel set G (also, for other microcells in the figure).

Cells are split to add channels with no new spectrum usage

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**(How much the transmit power must be reduced for the new smaller cells?
**

the received power (Pr) at the new and old cell boundaries and setting them equal to each other. ( to ensure that the frequency reuse and S/I is the same)

where Pt1 an Pt2, are the transmit powers of the larger and smaller cell base stations, respectively, and n is the path loss exponent. If we take n = 4 and set the received powers equal to each other, then other

the transmit power must be reduced by 12 dB in order to fill in the original coverage area with microcells, while maintaining the S/I requirement.

**Practical considerations for cell splitting
**

• in practice, not all cells are split at the same time therefore, different cell sizes will exist simultaneously. p g • Two different transmitted power levels for small and large cells are used. Channels in the old cell must be broken down into two channel groups, one for smaller cell and other for larger cell. • The larger cell is usually dedicated to high speed traffic so that handoffs occur less frequently.

• Antenna downtilting, which focuses radiated energy from the base station towards the ground (rather than towards the horizon), is often used to limit the radio coverage of newly formed microcells.

4

Example 3.8

• Consider Figure 3.9. Assume each base station uses 60 channels, regardless of cell size. If each original cell has a radius of 1 km and each microcell has a radius of 0.5 km, find th fi d the number of channels contained i a 3 k b 3 b f h l t i d in km by km square centered around A, (a) without the use of microcells, (b) when the lettered microcells as shown in Fig 3.9 are used (c) ( ) if all the original base stations are replaced by microcells. ll th i i lb t ti l db i ll Assume cells on the edge of the square to be contained within the square.

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Solution to Example 3.8

(a) Without the use of microcells A cell radius of 1 km implies that the sides of the larger hexagons are also 1 km in length. To cover the 3 km by 3 km square centered around base station A, we need to cover 1.5 km (1.5 times the hexagon radius) towards the right, left, top, and bottom of base station A. s s s ow gu e .9. o gu e .9 This is shown in Figure 3.9. From Figure 3.9 we see that this area contains 5 base stations. Since each base station has 60 channels, The total number of channels without cell splitting is equal to 5 × 60 = 300 channels.

(b) With the use of the microcells as shown in Figure 3.9: In Figure 3.9, the base station A is surrounded by 6 microcells. Therefore, the total number of base stations in the square area under study is equal to 5 + 6 = 11. Since each base station has 60 channels, the total number of channels will be equal to 11 × 60= 660 channels. This is a 2.2 times increase in capacity when compared to case (a).

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(c) if all the base stations are replaced by microcells: From Figure 2.9, we see that there are a total of 5 + 12 = 17 base stations in the square region under study. Since each base station has 60 channels, the total number of channels will be equal to 17 x 60 =1020 channels. This is a 3.4 times increase in capacity when compared to case (a). y g Theoretically, if all cells were microcells having half the radius of the original cell, the capacity increase would approach 4.

Conclusion

Cell splitting achieves capacity improvement by essentially rescaling the system. By decreasing the cell radius R and keeping the co-channel reuse ratio D/R unchanged, cell splitting increases the number of channels per unit area.

7

EEG473 Mobile Communications lecture # (12)

The Cellular Concept – System Design Fundamentals

3.7.2 Sectoring

• Another way to increase capacity is to keep the cell radius unchanged and seek methods to decrease the D /R ratio. • Is the technique for decreasing co-channel interference and thus increasing capacity by replacing a single omni-directional antenna at the base station by several directional antennas, • each radiating within a specified sector and transmit with only a fraction of the available co-channel cells. • The factor of co-channel interference reduction depends on the amount of sectoring used.

8

• A cell is normally partitioned into three 1200 sectors or six 60° sectors as shown in Figure 3.10(a) and (b). • the channels used in a particular cell are broken down i t sectored groups and are used only within d into t d d d l ithi a particular sector • Assuming 7-cell reuse, for the case of 120° sectors, the number of interferers in the first tier is reduced from 6 t 2 Thi i b f to 2. This is because only 2 of th 6 col f the channel cells receive interference with a particular sectored channel group.

Sectoring improves S/I

9

• Figure 3.11, consider the interference experienced by a mobile located in the right-most sector in the center cell labeled “5”. • There are 3 co-channel cell sectors labeled “5” to the right of the center cell, and 3 to the left of the center cell. • Out of these 6 co-channel cells, only 2 cells have sectors with antenna patterns which radiate into the center cell, and hence a mobile in the center cell will experience interference on the forward link from only these two sectors. • The resulting S/I for this case can be found using equation

(3.8) to be 24.2 dB, which is a significant improvement over the omni-directional case in Section 3.5, where the worst case S/I was shown to be 17 dB.

Sectoring improves S/I

(3.8)

10

• The minimum required S/I of 18 dB can be easily achieved that with 120o sectoring, with 7-cell reuse or 12-cell reuse in the unsectored case ( for

the worst possible situation see Section 3.5.1).

• Thus, sectoring reduces interference which amounts to an increase in capacity by a factor of 12/7, or 1.714. • In practice, the reduction in interference offered by sectoring enable planners to reduce the cluster size N, and provides an additional degree of freedom in assigning channels.

**The penalty of sectoring 1. the number of handoffs increases.
**

(Fortunately, (F t t l many modern b d base stations support sectorization and allow t ti t t i ti d ll mobiles to be handed off from sector to sector within the same cell without intervention from the MSC, so the handoff problem is often not a major concern.)

**2. decrease in trunking efficiency,
**

(see next example)

11

Example 3.9

Consider a cellular system in which: • An average call lasts 2 minutes, the probability of blocking is to be no more than 1%. Assume that every subscriber makes 1 call per hour, on average. • If there are a total of 395 traffic channels for a 7-cell reuse system, there will be about 57 traffic channels per cell. p • Assume that blocked calls are cleared so the blocking is described by the Erlang B distribution. From the Erlang B distribution, it can be found that the unsectored system may handle 44.2 Erlangs or 1326 calls per hour. • Now employing 120° sectoring, there are only 19 channels per antenna sector (57/3 antennas). • For the same probability of blocking and average call length, it can be found from the Erlang B distribution that each sector can handle 11.2 Erlangs or 336 calls per hour.

• Since each cell consists of 3 sectors, this provides a cell capacity: 3 X 336 = 1008 calls per hour, which amounts to a 24% decrease compared to the unsectored case.

• Thus, sectoring decreases the trunking efficiency while improving the S/I for each user in the system.

12

• It can be found that using 60° sectors improves the S/I even more. In this case the number of first tier interferers is reduced from 6 to only 1. This results in S/I 29 dB for a 7-cell system and enables 4-cell reuse.

• Of course, using 6 sectors per cell reduces the trunking efficiency and increases the number of necessary handoffs even more.

• If the unsectored system is compared to the 6 sector case, the d h degradation in trunking efficiency can be d i i ki ffi i b shown to be 44 %

(The proof of this is left as an exercise).

**2.7.3 A Novel Microcell Zone Concept
**

• Proposed by [Lee] as a solution to the problem of increased

**number of handoffs required when sectoring is employed as
**

illustrated in Figure 3.12. • In this scheme, each of the 3 (or more) zone sites (represented as Tx/Rx ( ) in Figure 3.13) are connected to a single base station and share the same radio equipment. • The zones are connected by coaxial cable, fiber optic cable (Radio over fiber), or microwave link to the base station. Multiple zones and a single base station make up a cell.

• As a mobile travels within the cell, it is served by the zone with the strongest signal. • This approach is superior to sectoring since antennas are placed at the outer edges of the cell, and any base station channel may be assigned to any zone by the base station

13

In-building deployment is the next great growth phase

The Zone Cell Concept

14

• As a mobile travels from one zone to another within the cell, it retains the same channel. The base station simply switches the channel to a different zone site. (Thus, unlike in

sectoring, a handoff is not required at the MSC when the mobile travels between zones within the cell.)

• The base station radiation is localized and interference is reduced.The channels are distributed in time and space by all three zones and are also reused in co-channel cells in the normal fashion. • This technique is particularly useful for urban traffic • Decreased co-channel interference improves the signal quality and also leads to an increase in capacity, without the degradation in trunking efficiency caused by sectoring.

• As mentioned earlier, an S/I of 18 dB is typically required for satisfactory system p performance in narrowband FM. For a system y with N = 7, a D/R of 4.6 was shown to achieve this. • With respect to the zone microcell system, since transmission at any instant is confined to a particular zone, this implies that a D /R of ti l thi i li th t Dz/Rz f 4.6 (where Dz is the minimum distance between active co-channel zones and Rz is the zone radius) can achieve the required link performance.

15

Zone Cell Concept

• In Figure 3.12, let each individual hexagon represents a zone, while each group of three hexagons represents a cell. • The zone radius R is approximately equal to one hexagon radius. Now, the capacity of the zone microcell system is directly related to the distance between co-channel cells, and not zones. This distance is represented as D in Figure 3.14. ep ese ted gu e 3. . • For a Dz/Rz value of 4.6, it can be seen from the geometry of Figure 3.14 that the value of co-channel reuse ratio, D/R, is equal to 3, where R is the radius of the cell and is equal to twice the length of the hexagon radius. (3 4) 3. • Using equation (3.4), D/R = 3 corresponds to a cluster size of N = 3 This reduction in the cluster size from N = 7 to N = 3 amounts to a 2.33 times increase in capacity for a system completely based on the zone microcell concept. • Hence for the same S/I requirement of 18 dB, this system provides a significant increase in capacity over conventional cellular planning.

16

• By examining Figure 3.13 and using equation (3.8) [Lee] the exact worst case S/I of the zone microcell system can be estimated to be 20 dB. • Thus, in the worst case, the system provides a margin of 2 dB over the required signal-to- interference ratio while increasing the capacity by 2.33 times over a conventional 7-cell system using omni-directional antennas. • No loss in trunking efficiency is experienced. Zone cell architectures are being adopted in many cellular and personal communication systems.

Summary of Chapter (3)

• • • • • • • • • the fundamental concepts of handoff, frequency reuse, trunking efficiency and GOS GOS, frequency planning. The capacity of a cellular system. The S/I limits. cell splitting, sectoring, zone microcell technique The radio propagation characteristics influence the effectiveness of all of these methods in an actual system. Radio propagation is the subject of the following two chapters.

17

• Slides from Vodafone seminar (taken from source with permission)

Radio Coverage

A visible pattern of sound waves

18

Radio Coverage

GSM Overview

Cell Geometry

Dead Spots

Problem of omni directional antennas

Radio Coverage

GSM Overview

**Cell Geometrical Shape
**

To solve the dead spot problem

R

R

R

Tradeoffs T d ff

• The number of cells required to cover a given area. • The cell transceiver power.

19

Radio Coverage

GSM Overview

Transceiver Antenna

Sectorial Antenna

Omni-Directional Antenna

Radio Coverage

GSM Overview

Sectorial Antenna

Sectorial Antenna

The cells will take the form of overlapping circles. Due to the obstacles in the coverage area the actual shape of the cells would be Random.

20

Radio Coverage

GSM Overview

Cell Classification

Macrocell

Fast moving subscribers

Normal Cell

Overlaid & Underlaid Cells

Normal Cell

Picocell

In building coverage

Microcell

Slow moving subscribers

Radio Coverage

A3 B3 A2 A1 A3 A2 A1 A3 A2 A1 C3 C2 C1 A3 A2 A1 C3 B1 A3 C2 C1 A1 C3 C2 C1 C1 A2 B1 B3 B2 C1 B3 B2 C1 A1 C3 C2 A1 C3 C2 A1 C3 C2 B1 A3 A2 B1 A3 A2 B1 A3 A2 B1 B3 B2 C1 B3 B2 C1 B3 B2 C1 B3 B2 C3 C2 A1 C3 C2 A1 C3 C2 B1 A3 A2 B1 A3 A2 B1 B3 B2 C1 B3 B2 C1 B3 B2 C3 C2 A1 C3 C2 B1 A3 A2 B1 B3 B2 B2 GSM Overview

3/9 Cluster

3/9 cluster in which the available frequencies are divided into 9 groups and distributed between 3 sites

21

Radio Coverage

GSM Overview A3 A2 A1 C3 C2 C1 A3 A2 A1 C3 C2 C1 A3 A2 A1 C3 C2 C1 D1 B1 D3 D2 C1 B3 B2 A1 C3 C2 D1 D1 A3 A2 B1 D3 D2 C1 B1 D3 D2 C1 B3 B2 A1 C3 C2 D1 B3 B2 A1 C3 C2 D1 A3 A2 B1 D3 D2 C1 D1 A3 A2 B1 D3 D2 C1 B3 B2 A1 C3 C2 D1 B1 D3 D2 C1 B3 B2 A1 C3 C2 D1 A3 A2 B1 D3 D2 B3 B2 A1 C3 C2 D1 A3 A2 B1 D3 D2 C1 B3 B2 A3 A2 B1 D3 D2 C1 B3 B2 A1 C3 C2 D1 B3 B2 A1 C3 C2 D1 A3 A2 B1 D3 D2 A3 A2 B1 D3 D2 C1 B3 B2 B3 B2 A1 C3 C2 D1 A3 A2 B1 D3 D2 B3 B2

4/12 cluster in which the available frequencies are divided into 12 groups and distributed between 4 sites

4 / 12 Cluster

Radio Coverage

A3 A2 A1 B3 B2 B1 C3 C2 C1 A3 A2 A1 B3 B2 B1 C3 C2 C1 G1 D1 G3 D3 D2 E1 G1 E3 D1 G3 G2 D3 D2 F1 E1 F3 E3 E2

**7 / 21 cluster in which the available frequencies are divided into 21 groups and distributed between 7 sites
**

A3 F2 A1 B3 B2 B1 C3 E2 C1 F3 F2 F1 B3 G2 B1 C3 C2 C1 G1 B2 D1 G3 G2 A1 D3 D2 F1 A3 A2 E1 F3 F2 C2 G1 E3 E2 C1 D1 G3 G2 B1 C3 C2 G1 D3 D2 F1 B3 B2 D1 G3 G2 A2 E1 F3 F2 A1 D3 D2 F1 A3 A2 E1 F3 E3 E2 E3 E2

GSM Overview

F2

7 / 21 Cluster

22

Radio Coverage

GSM Overview

**Which Cluster Size to use?
**

Carrier to interference ratio It’s the difference in power level between the carrier in a given cell and the same carrier received from the nearest cell that reuses the same frequency.

Number of frequencies per site 3/9 4/12 7/21 High Medium Low

Traffic Channels High Medium Low

C/I Ratio Low Medium High

**Chapter 3 (problems) 3nd Edition
**

• • • • • • • 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.8 3.9 (XXX) 3.10 3.15

23

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