DIVISION BASED ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIPID

LIPID SIMPLE LIPID Triglycerol STRUCTURE   INFORMATION Consist of trihydric alcohol glycerol esterifeid The structure is described by “stereospecific numbering” sn system as recomended by an IUPAC-IUB commision Reaction between two primary hydroxyl groups are esterified with different fatty acids yields asymmetric and thus can display “optical activity”. Contain two moles and one mole of fatty acid per mole of glycerol Exist in various isomeric forms Components of oil and fat Second messangers in many cellular proccess Formed as intermediets or end-products of the enzymatic hydrolisis of triacylglicerols Major end product of the intestinal digestion of dietary fats in animal via the enzyme pancreatic lipase These and other positional isomers are powerful surfactants.

Diacylglycerol

   

2-monoacyl-sn-glycerol

  

DIVISION BASED ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIPID
Sterol and Sterol Ester

Plant Sterol

 

From a group of triterpenes with a tetracyclic cyclopenta [a] phenanthrene structure and aside chain at carbon 17 These more common plant sterols have a double bond in position 5, and a definitive feature – a one- or two-carbon substituent with variable stereochemistry in the side chain at C24, which is preserved during subsequent metabolism.

Sterol in Yeast and Fungi

  

Yeasts and fungi, together with microalgae and protozoa, can contain an enormous range of different sterols. Ergosterol ((22E)-ergosta-5,7,22-trien3β-ol) is the main sterol in fungi and yeasts. Ergosterol are synthesised in yeast by the enzymes (ARE 1 and ARE 2) related to ACAT-1 and ACAT-2 (function in animal)

DIVISION BASED ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIPID
Bacterial Sterol   Hopanoids take the place of sterols in many species of bacteria Some bacteria take up cholesterol and other sterols from host animals for use as membrane constituens

Sterol Esters

 

 

Sterol esters are present in plant tissues, but as minor components relative to the free sterols other than in waxes. Usually the sterol components of sterol esters are similar to the free sterols, although there may be relatively less of stigmasterol. Presumed to serve as inert storage forms of sterol They have been found in the form of soluble lipoprotein complexes Leaf and other tissue in plants contain a range of sterol glycosides and acyl sterol glycosides, and typical examples (glucosides of β-sitosterol) The carbohydrate moiety can sometimes be quite complex with up to five hexose units linked in a linear fashion.

Sterol Glycosides

DIVISION BASED ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIPID
Wax   Tocopherols    Substance similar in composition and physicel properties to bees wax Use in many comercial product Only synthesised by plants and other oxygenic, photosynthetic organisems Essential components of the diet animals Collectively they are turned “vitamin E”

Free (unsaturified) fatty Acid

  

Free or unesterified fatty acids are ubiquitous if minor components of all living tissues. In animals, much of the dietary lipid is hydrolysed to free acids before it is absorbed and utilized for lipid synthesis. Monomeric is very low solubilities in aqueous media

GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPID Phosphatidic Acid

  

Phosphatidic acid or 1,2-diacyl-snglycero-3-phosphate is not an abundant lipid constituent of any living organism to my knowledge, but it is extremely important as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of triacylglycerols and phospholipids. Act as intermediate in the bisynthesis of triacylglycerol and phospholipid Signaling molecule Often over-estimated in tissues

DIVISION BASED ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIPID
Lysophosphatidic  Lysophosphatidic acid or 1-acyl-snglycerol-3-phosphate differs from phosphatidic acid in having only one mole of fatty acid per mole of lipid. The most important source is the activity of a specific lysophospholipase D known as ‘autotaxin’ on lysophosphatidylcholine (200 μM in plasma) to yield lysophosphatidic acid in an albumin-bound form. Differs from phosphatidic acid is one mole of fatty acid per mole of lipid The simplest possible glycerophospholipid. Found in plants, bacteria and animal tissues In photocyntetic membrane of leaf of higher plants It found unique in that high proportion of trans-3-hexadecenoic acid. Found in sn2 state

  Phosphatidyglycerol    

DIVISION BASED ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIPID
Cardiolipin  Cardiolipin is the trivial but universally used name for a lipid that should be correctly termed 'diphosphatidylglycerol' or more precisely 1,3-bis(sn-3'-phosphatidyl)-snglycerol. It is a unique phospholipid with in essence a dimeric structure, having four acyl groups and potentially carrying two negative charges. Tetra molecular species, important in heart, mithocondria Bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate ('BMP') is now known to be a common if minor constituent of all animal tissues. It was first termed ‘lysobisphosphatidic acid’, although it is only superficially related to phosphatidic acid per se and can in fact be considered a structural isomer of phosphatidylglycerol. It is easyliy misidentifeid as phophatidic acid in many chromatographic system Phosphatidylcholine (once given the trivial name 'lecithin') is usually the most abundant phospholipid in animal and plants, often amounting to almost 50% of the total, and as such it is obviously the key building block of membrane bilayers. Very high proportion of outer leaflet of plasma membrane

 Lysobiphosphatidic  

 Phosphatidicoline 

DIVISION BASED ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIPID
Lysophosphatidycoline  Contains only one fatty acid moiety in each molecule, generally in position sn1, is sometimes present as a minor component of tissues. It is a powerful surfactant and is more soluble in water than most other lipids. Phosphatidylethanolamine (once given the trivial name 'cephalin') is usually the second most abundant phospholipid in animal and plant lipids and it is frequently the main lipid component of microbial membranes. Amount to 20% of lives phospholipid and as much as 45% of those of brain. Phosphatidylserine or 1,2-diacyl-snglycero-3-phospho-L-serine is distributed widely among animals, plants and microorganisms. Less than 10% t-phospholipid Greatest concentration in myelin, brain tissues Phosphatidylinositol is a common constituent of animal, plant and microbial lipids. In animal tissues especially, it may be accompanied by small amounts of phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (and other 'poly-phosphoinositides'). Containing the optically inactive form of

 

Phosphatidylethanolammine

 Phosphatidylserine 

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Phosphatidylinositol

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DIVISION BASED ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIPID
Phosphonolipids  inositol, myo-inositol Phosphonolipids consist of 2aminoethylphosphonic acid (ciliatine) residues, i.e. with a phosphorus-carbon bond, attached to a lipid backbone, which can be either a ceramide or diacylglycerol. First time, found in sea anemones. In addition to diacyl forms, the membrane phospholipids of many animal and microbial species contain high proportions of molecular species with ether and vinyl ether bonds in positionsn-1, and often the vinyl ether or plasmalogen form predominates. High proportion is in membrane phospholipid of many animals and microbial species PAF is synthesised by a variety of cells, but especially those involved in host defence, such as platelets, endothelial cells, neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. Have messanger function On hydrolysis with alkali, the ether bond of 1-alkyldiacyl-sn-glycerols is stable, and 1-alkylglycerols and free (unesterified) acids are the products.

 Ether Lipids 

Platelet-Activating Factor

 1-alkyl-2,3-diacyl-sn-glycerol 

DIVISION BASED ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIPID

GLYCOCEROLIPID

In plants, especially the photosynthetic tissues, a substantial proportion of the lipids consists of 1,2-diacyl-sn-glycerols joined by a glycosidic linkage at position sn-3 to a carbohydrate moiety.

SPHINGOMYELIN AND GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS Long Chain Bases

Long-chain bases (sphingoids or sphingoid bases) are the characteristic or defining structural unit of the sphingolipids. The bases are long-chain aliphatic amines, containing two or three hydroxyl groups, and often a distinctive trans-double bond in position 4. To be more precise, they are 2-amino1,3-dihydroxy-alkanes or alkenes with (2S,3R)-erythrostereochemistry, with various further structural modifications.

DIVISION BASED ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIPID
Ceramides    Most abundant in animal is sphingosine Ceramides consist of a long-chain or sphingoide base linked to a fatty acid via an amide bond. They are rarely found as such at greater than trace levels in tissues, less than 10% of the glucosylceramide content in plants for example, although they can exert important biological effects. Intermediate of biosynthesis complex sphingolipids Sphingomyelin (or ceramide phosphorylcholine) consists of a ceramide unit with a phosphorylcholine moiety attached to position 1. It is thus the sphingolipid analogue of phophatidycholine. Ubiquitous component of animal Ceramide phosphorylethanolamine, the sphingolipid analogue of phosphatidylethanolamine, is a component of the lipids of insects, some fresh water invertebrates and many species of bacteria (where it is often accompanied by ceramide phosphorylglycerol), but it is present at trace levels only in mammalian cells. A phospholipid analogue is found in certain organism

 Sphingomyelin 

  

Ceramide phosphorylethanolamine

DIVISION BASED ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIPID
Neutral Glycosylceramides  The most widespread glycosphingolipids are the monoglycosylceramides (or cerebrosides), and they consist of a basic ceramide unit linked by a glycosidic bond at carbon 1 of the longchain base to glucose or galactose. First found in brain lipid. Non-acidic diand oligoglycosphingolipids, i.e. with two or more carbohydrate moieties attached to a ceramide unit, are vital components of cellular membranes of most eukaryotic organisms and some bacteria. Abundance relative to other lipid is usually low. Glycosphingolipid sulfates (sometimes termed "sulfatides" or "sulfoglycosphingolipids") are glycosphingolipids carrying a sulfate ester group attached to the carbohydrate moiety. First identified in brain tissues. The name ganglioside was first applied by the German scientist Ernst Klenk in 1942 to lipids newly isolated from ganglion cells of brain. Containing a sialic acid residue

Lactocylceramides

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 Sulfoglycoshingolipid 

Gangliosides

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DIVISION BASED ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIPID
Sphingosine-1-phosphate  Sphingosine-1-phosphate, a zwitterionic lysophospholipid, is an important cellular metabolite, derived from ceramide that is synthesized de novo or as part of the sphingomyelin cycle in animal cells. Zwiterionic lysophospho lipid An important cellular metabolit Found in insect, yeast and plants.

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FATTY ACID Saturated Fatty Acid

Straight- or normal-chain, saturated components (even-numbered) make up 10-40% of the total fatty acids in most natural lipids. The most abundant saturated fatty acids in animal and plant tissues are straight-chain compounds with 14, 16 and 18 carbon atoms, but all the possible odd- and even-numbered homologues with 2 to 36 carbon atoms have been found in nature in esterified form.

DIVISION BASED ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIPID
Monoenoic Fatty Acid  Straight- or normal-chain (evennumbered), monoenoic components, i.e. with one double bond, make up a high proportion of the total fatty acids in most natural lipids. Normally the double bond is of the cisor Z-configuration, although some fatty acids with trans- or E-double bonds are known. In animal and plants tissues straight chain, C16/C18 The lipids of all higher organisms contain appreciable quantities of polyunsaturated fatty acids ('PUFA') with methylene-interrupted double bonds, i.e. with two or more double bonds of the cis-configuration separated by a single methylene group. The term ‘homo-allylic’ is occasionally used to describe this molecular feature. Most abundant contain in organism In higher plants, DBE max is 3 Synthesisd not in animal tissues Branched-chain fatty acids are common constituents of the lipids of bacteria and animals, although they are rarely found in the integral lipids of higher plants. Normally, the fatty acyl chain is saturated and the branch is a methylgroup. However, unsaturated

 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid 

    

Branched-Chain Fatty Acid

DIVISION BASED ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIPID
branched-chain fatty acids are found in marine animals, and branches other than methyl may be present in microbial lipids. ELCOSANIDE  The term eicosanoid is used to embrace biologically active lipid mediators (C20 fatty acids and their metabolites), including prostaglandins, thromboxanes, leukotrienes and other oxygenated derivatives, which exert their effects at very low concentrations.

DIVISION BASED ON STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF LIPID
FUNCTION OF LIPID • • Fats are important fuel reserve molecules. Fats are energy rich so they provide concentrated energy, especially for muscle activity including the heart and respiratory system (breathing). Humans store fat reserves in adipose tissue. Adipose cells have a remarkable ability to swell and shrink depending on the amount of fat reserves they contain. Phospholipids are the primary structural molecules of cell membranes. Fats insulate from cold and provide padding for internal organs. Many hormones (regulatory chemicals) are steroids. Fats in the diet carry essential fat soluble vitamins: A, D, E and K Fats in the diet have satiety value – they stay in stomach longer so we feel fuller longer. Fats provide protective coatings on the body surfaces to help prevent dehydration. Second messengers in many cellular processes Modulating vital biochemical mechanisms.

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