You are on page 1of 8

NFPA 54 - Annex F - Flow of Gas through Fixed Orifices

This annex is not a part of the requirements of this code but is included for informational purposes
only.
F.1 Use of Orifice Tables
F.1.1 To Check Burner Input Not Using a Meter. Gauge the size of the burner orifice and determine
flow rate at sea level from Table F.1, Utility Gases (cubic feet per hour), or from Table F.2, LP-Gases
(Btu per hour). When the specific gravity of the utility gas is other than 0.60, select the multiplier from
Table F.3 for the specific gravity of the utility gas served, and apply to the flow rate as determined
from Table F.1 When the altitude is above 2,000 ft (600 m), first select equivalent orifice size at sea
level using Table F.4, then determine flow rate from Table F.1 or Table F.2 as directed. Having
determined flow rate (as adjusted for specific gravity and/or altitude where necessary), check the
burner input at sea level with the manufacturers rated input.
F.1.2 To Select Correct Orifice Size for Rated Burner Input. The selection of a fixed orifice size for
any rated burner input is affected by many variables, including orifice coefficient, and it is
recommended that the appliance manufacturer be consulted for that purpose. When the correct orifice
size cannot be readily determined, the orifice flow rates, as stated in the tables in this annex, can be
used to select a fixed orifice size with a flow rate to approximately equal the required rated burner
input.
For gases of the specific gravity and pressure conditions stipulated at elevations under 2000 ft (610 m),
Table F.1 (in cubic feet per hour) or Table F.2 (in Btu per hour) can be used directly.
Where the specific gravity of the gas is other than 0.60, select the multiplier from Table F.3 for the
utility gas served and divide the rated burner input by the selected factor to determine equivalent input
at a specific gravity of 0.60; then select orifice size as directed above.
Where the appliance is located at an altitude of 2000 ft (610 m) or above, first use the manufacturers
rated input at sea level to select orifice size as directed, then use Table F.4 to select the equivalent
orifice size for use at the higher altitude.

Go to

Table F

Table F

Table F

Table F

NFPA 54 - Table F.1 Utility Gases (cubic feet per hour at sea level)
(Natural Gas)
Orifice
or
Drill Size
80
79
78
77
76
75
74
73
72
71
70
69
68
67
66
65
64
63
62
61
60
59
58
57
56
55
54
53
52
51
50
49
48
47
46
45
44
43
42
41
40
39
38
37
36
35

3
0.48
0.55
0.70
0.88
1.05
1.16
1.33
1.51
1.64
1.82
2.06
2.25
2.52
2.69
2.86
3.14
3.41
3.63
3.78
4.02
4.21
4.41
4.66
4.84
5.68
7.11
7.95
9.30
10.61
11.82
12.89
14.07
15.15
16.22
17.19
17.73
19.45
20.73
23.10
24.06
25.03
26.11
27.08
28.36
29.76
32.36

3.5
0.52
0.59
0.65
0.95
1.13
1.25
1.44
1.63
1.77
1.97
2.22
2.43
2.72
2.91
3.09
3.39
3.68
3.92
4.08
4.34
4.55
4.76
5.03
5.23
6.13
7.68
8.59
10.04
11.46
12.77
13.92
15.20
16.36
17.52
18.57
19.15
21.01
22.39
24.95
25.98
27.03
28.20
29.25
30.63
32.14
34.95

4
0.55
0.64
0.78
0.99
1.21
1.34
1.55
1.76
1.90
2.06
2.39
2.61
2.93
3.12
3.32
3.72
4.14
4.19
4.39
4.66
4.89
5.11
5.39
5.63
6.58
8.22
9.23
10.80
12.31
13.69
14.94
16.28
17.62
18.80
19.98
20.52
22.57
24.18
26.50
28.15
29.23
30.20
31.38
32.99
34.59
36.86

Pressure at Orifice ( in. w.c.)


5
6
7
0.63
0.69
0.73
0.72
0.80
0.84
0.88
0.97
1.04
1.11
1.23
1.31
1.37
1.52
1.61
1.52
1.64
1.79
1.74
1.91
2.05
1.99
2.17
2.32
2.15
2.40
2.52
2.33
2.54
2.73
2.70
2.97
3.16
2.96
3.23
3.47
3.26
3.58
3.88
3.52
3.87
4.13
3.75
4.11
4.39
4.28
4.62
4.84
4.48
4.91
5.23
4.75
5.19
5.55
4.96
5.42
5.81
5.27
5.77
6.15
5.52
5.95
6.47
5.78
6.35
6.78
6.10
6.68
7.13
6.36
6.96
7.44
7.35
8.03
8.73
9.30
10.18
10.85
10.45
11.39
12.25
12.20
13.32
14.29
13.86
15.26
16.34
15.47
16.97
18.16
16.86
18.48
19.77
18.37
20.20
21.60
19.88
21.81
23.31
21.27
23.21
24.93
22.57
24.72
26.43
23.10
25.36
27.18
25.57
27.93
29.87
27.29
29.87
32.02
29.50
32.50
35.24
31.69
34.81
37.17
33.09
36.20
38.79
34.05
37.38
39.97
35.46
38.89
41.58
37.07
40.83
43.62
39.11
42.76
45.77
41.68
45.66
48.78

8
0.79
0.90
1.10
1.38
1.72
1.91
2.18
2.48
2.69
2.91
3.38
3.68
4.14
4.41
4.68
5.16
5.59
5.92
6.20
6.57
6.91
7.25
7.62
7.94
9.32
11.59
13.08
15.27
17.44
19.40
21.12
23.06
24.90
26.62
28.23
29.03
31.89
34.19
37.63
39.70
41.42
42.68
44.40
46.59
48.88
52.10

9
0.83
0.97
1.17
1.47
1.83
2.04
2.32
2.64
2.86
3.11
3.59
3.94
4.41
4.69
4.98
5.50
5.95
6.30
6.59
7.00
7.35
7.71
8.11
8.46
9.92
12.34
13.93
16.25
18.57
20.64
22.48
24.56
26.51
28.34
30.05
30.90
33.96
36.41
40.07
42.27
44.10
45.44
47.27
49.60
52.04
55.46

10
0.88
1.01
1.24
1.55
1.92
2.14
2.44
2.78
3.00
3.26
3.78
4.14
4.64
4.94
5.24
5.78
6.26
6.63
6.94
7.37
7.74
8.11
8.53
8.90
10.44
12.98
14.65
17.09
19.53
21.71
23.65
25.83
27.89
29.81
31.61
32.51
35.72
38.30
42.14
44.46
46.38
47.80
49.73
52.17
54.74
58.34

NFPA 54 - Table F.1 Utility Gases (cubic feet per hour at sea level)
(Natural Gas)
Orifice
or
Drill Size
34
33
32
31
30
29
28
27
26
25
24
23
22
21
20
19
18
17
16
15
14
13
12
11
10
9
8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1

3
32.45
33.41
35.46
37.82
43.40
48.45
51.78
54.47
56.73
58.87
60.81
62.10
64.89
66.51
68.22
72.20
75.53
78.54
82.19
85.20
87.10
89.92
93.90
95.94
98.30
100.99
103.89
105.93
109.15
111.08
114.75
119.25
128.48
136.35

3.5
35.05
36.08
38.30
40.85
46.87
52.33
55.92
58.83
61.27
63.58
65.67
67.07
70.08
71.83
73.68
77.98
81.57
84.82
88.77
92.02
94.40
97.11
101.41
103.62
106.16
109.07
112.20
114.40
117.88
119.97
123.93
128.79
138.76
147.26

4
37.50
38.79
40.94
43.83
50.39
56.19
59.50
63.17
65.86
68.22
70.58
72.20
75.21
77.14
79.08
83.69
87.56
91.10
95.40
98.84
100.78
104.32
108.52
111.31
114.21
117.11
120.65
123.01
126.78
128.93
133.22
137.52
148.61
158.25

Pressure at Orifice ( in. w.c.)


5
6
7
42.44
46.52
49.75
43.83
48.03
51.46
46.52
50.82
54.26
49.64
54.36
58.01
57.05
62.09
66.72
63.61
69.62
74.45
67.00
73.50
79.50
71.55
78.32
83.59
74.57
81.65
87.24
77.14
84.67
90.36
79.83
87.56
93.47
81.65
89.39
94.55
85.10
93.25
99.60
87.35
95.63
102.29
89.49
97.99
104.75
94.76
103.89
110.67
97.50
108.52
116.03
103.14
112.81
120.33
107.98
118.18
126.78
111.74
122.48
131.07
114.21
124.44
133.22
118.18
128.93
138.60
123.56
135.37
143.97
126.02
137.52
147.20
129.25
141.82
151.50
132.58
145.05
154.71
136.44
149.33
160.08
139.23
152.56
163.31
142.88
156.83
167.51
145.79
160.08
170.82
150.41
164.36
176.18
156.26
170.78
182.64
168.64
184.79
197.66
179.33
194.63
209.48

8
53.12
54.96
57.95
61.96
71.22
79.52
84.92
89.27
93.17
96.50
99.83
100.98
106.39
109.24
111.87
118.55
123.92
128.52
135.39
139.98
142.28
148.02
153.75
157.20
161.81
165.23
170.96
174.38
178.88
182.48
188.16
195.08
211.05
223.65

9
56.55
58.62
61.70
65.97
75.86
84.66
90.39
95.04
99.19
102.74
106.28
107.49
113.24
116.29
119.10
125.82
131.93
136.82
144.15
149.03
151.47
157.58
163.69
167.36
172.26
175.91
182.00
185.68
190.46
194.22
200.25
207.66
224.74
238.16

10
59.49
61.55
64.89
69.39
79.80
89.04
95.09
99.97
104.57
108.07
111.79
113.07
119.12
122.33
125.28
132.36
138.78
143.91
151.63
156.77
159.33
165.76
172.13
176.03
181.13
185.03
191.44
195.30
200.36
204.30
210.71
218.44
235.58
250.54

For SI units: 1 Btu/hr = 0.293 W; 1 cubic ft = 0.028 cubic m; 1 ft = 0.305 m; 1 in. w.c. = 249 pa.
Notes:
1. Specific Gravity = 0.60, Orifice Coefficient = 0.90
2. For utility gases of another specific gravity, select multiplier from Table F.3. For altitudes above 2,000 ft., first
select the equivalent orifice size at sea level from Table F.4.

NFPA 54 Table F.2 LP-Gases (Btu per hour at sea level)


Orifice
or
Drill Size Propane
Butane
0.008
519
589
0.009
656
744
0.010
812
921
0.011
981
1112
0.012
1169
1326
80
1480
1678
79
1708
1936
78
2080
2358
77
2629
2980
76
3249
3684
75
3581
4059
74
4119
4669
73
4678
5303
72
5081
5760
71
5495
6230
70
6375
7227
69
6934
7860
68
7813
8858
67
8320
9433
66
8848
10031
65
9955
11286
64
10535
11943
63
11125
12612
62
11735
13304
61
12367
14020
60
13008
14747
59
13660
15486
58
14333
16249
57
15026
17035
56
17572
19921
55
21939
24872
54
24630
27922
53
28769
32615
52
32805
37190
51
36531
41414
50
39842
45168
49
43361
43361
48
46983
46983
47
50088
50088
46
53296
53296
45
54641
54641
44
60229
60229
43
64369
64369
42
71095
71095
41
74924
74924
40
78029
78029
39
80513
80513

Return to Instructions

Top line of scroll down

NFPA 54 Table F.2 LP-Gases (Btu per hour at sea level)


Orifice
or
Drill Size Propane
Butane
38
83721
83721
37
87860
87860
36
92207
92207
35
98312
98312
34
100175
100175
33
103797
103797
32
109385
109385
31
117043
117043
30
134119
134119
29
150366
150366
28
160301
160301
27
168580
168580
26
175617
175617
25
181619
181619
24
187828
187828
23
192796
192796
22
200350
200350
21
205525
205525
20
210699
210699
19
223945
223945
18
233466
233466

Return to Instructions

Notes:
Propane Butane
1. Btu per Cubic Foot:
2516
3280
2. Specific Gravity:
1.5
2.01
3. Pressure at Orifice, inches w.c.:
11
11
4. Orifice Coefficient:
0.9
0.9
5. For altitudes above 2,000 ft (610 m), first select the equivalent orifice size at
sea level from Table F.4.

NFPA 54 Table F.3 Multipliers for Utility Gases of Another Specific Gravity
Specific
Gravity
Multiplier
0.45
1.155
0.50
1.095
0.55
1.045
0.60
1.000
0.65
0.961
0.70
0.926
0.75
0.894
0.80
0.866
0.85
0.840
0.90
0.817
0.950
0.795
1.000
0.775
1.050
0.756
1.100
0.739
1.150
0.722
1.200
0.707
1.250
0.693
1.300
0.679
1.350
0.667
1.400
0.655

Return to Instructions

NFPA 54 Table F.4 Equivalent Orifice Sizes at High Altitudes (includes 4% input reduction for each 1000 ft)

Orifice
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48

2000
2
3
4
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
13
15
16
16
17
18
19
20
22
23
23
25
25
26
27
28
29
29
30
32
33
35
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
42
44
45
46
47
48
49

3000
2
3
5
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
19
20
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
28
29
30
31
32
34
35
36
36
38
39
40
41
42
42
43
44
45
47
47
48
49

Orifice Size Required at Other Elevations


4000
5000
6000
7000
3
3
4
5
4
5
6
7
7
8
9
10
8
9
11
12
9
10
12
13
10
11
12
13
11
12
13
14
12
13
13
15
12
13
14
16
13
14
15
16
14
15
16
17
15
16
17
17
16
17
18
18
17
18
18
19
17
18
19
20
18
19
19
20
19
20
21
22
20
21
22
23
21
22
23
25
23
24
25
26
24
25
26
27
25
26
27
27
26
27
27
28
27
27
28
28
27
28
28
29
28
28
29
29
29
29
29
30
29
30
30
30
30
30
30
31
31
31
31
32
32
33
34
35
35
35
36
36
36
36
37
38
36
37
37
38
37
37
38
39
38
39
40
41
39
40
41
42
41
41
42
42
41
42
42
43
42
42
43
43
42
43
43
44
43
43
44
44
44
45
45
46
45
46
47
47
47
47
48
48
47
48
48
49
49
49
49
50
49
50
50
50

8000
7
9
12
13
14
14
15
16
17
17
18
18
19
20
20
22
23
24
26
27
28
28
29
29
29
30
30
30
31
32
36
37
38
39
40
41
42
43
43
44
44
45
47
48
49
49
50
51

9000
8
10
13
14
15
16
16
17
18
18
19
19
20
21
22
23
24
26
27
28
28
29
29
29
30
30
30
31
31
33
37
38
40
40
41
42
43
43
44
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
51

10,000
10
12
15
16
17
17
18
18
19
19
20
20
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
29
29
30
30
30
30
31
31
32
35
38
40
41
42
42
43
43
44
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
50
51
52

NFPA 54 Table F.4 Equivalent Orifice Sizes at High Altitudes (includes 4% input reduction for each 1000 ft)

Orifice
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80

2000
50
51
51
52
54
54
55
56
58
59
60
61
62
63
64
65
65
67
68
68
70
70
72
73
73
74
75
76
77
78
79
80

For SI units: 1 ft = 0.305 m

3000
50
51
52
53
54
55
55
56
59
60
61
61
62
63
64
65
66
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
76
77
78
80
0.013

Orifice Size Required at Other Elevations


4000
5000
6000
7000
8000
50
51
51
51
52
51
51
52
52
52
52
52
52
53
53
53
53
53
53
54
54
54
54
54
55
55
55
55
55
56
55
56
56
56
56
57
57
57
58
59
59
60
60
61
62
60
61
62
62
63
61
62
62
63
64
62
63
63
64
64
63
63
64
65
65
64
64
65
65
66
65
65
65
66
66
65
66
66
66
67
66
66
67
67
68
68
68
68
69
69
68
69
69
69
70
69
69
70
70
70
70
70
71
71
71
71
71
71
72
72
72
73
73
73
74
73
73
74
74
74
74
74
74
75
75
75
75
75
76
76
76
76
76
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
77
78
78
78
78
78
79
79
79
79
80
80
80
0.013
0.012
0.013
0.013
0.012
0.012
0.012

9000
52
53
53
54
55
56
56
59
63
63
64
65
66
66
67
67
68
69
70
71
72
73
74
74
75
76
77
77
78
80
0.012
0.012

10,000
52
53
54
54
55
56
57
60
63
64
65
65
66
67
68
68
69
70
70
71
72
73
74
75
76
76
77
77
78
80
0.01
0.011