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IN THE HONBLE HIGH COURT OF JUDICATURE AT ALLAHABAD. Civil Misc. Writ Petition No.

36818 of 2004 (Under Article 226 of constitution of India) (District Agra) 1. Institute of Rewriting Indian History Through its Founder President, P. N. Oak S/O Late Shri Nagesh Krishna Oak, R/O - Plot No. 10, Goodwill Society, Aundh, Pune 411007 2. P. N. Oak. S/O Late Shri Nagesh Krishna Oak, R/O - Plot No. 10, Goodwill Society, Aundh, Pune - 4110071. Founder President, Institute of Rewriting Indian History, Aundh, Pune - 4110071 ------------------------Petitioner VERSUS 1. Union of India through Secretary, Human Resources and Development (HRD), Government of India, New Delhi. 2.Secretary, Tourism and Archeological Department, Govt. of India, New Delhi 3.Director General, Archaeological Survey of India, Government of India, Janapath, New Delhi.----------Respondents. --------------------That the controversy involved in the present writ petition filed on behalf of the petitioners institution, namely, Institute for Re-writing Indian (and World) History. It is submitted that on account of hiding the ground floor from the exposure to the public of all these monuments, there has been the complete neglect resulting in demolition of the of the existing structures of all the three monuments. It has come to notice of the general public through different media reports, that Taj Mahal and other monuments are dying and there has been the tilting of the minarets and its foundation may be sinking. The petitioner is further placing the photographs having the description written by Archeological Survey of India on the marble stone planted outside the Taj building, which has the vital contradictions, in itself indicating the construction of Taj Mahal built during reign of emperor Shah Jahan from 1628 to 1656 AD, while Anjuman Bano the niece of emperor Noor Jahan and the daughter of Mirza Gihas Beg admittedly died on 17th June 1631, The true copy of the Photographs and writing displayed on the marble plank out side the Taj building that the doors affixed towards Yamuna side were found for being carved out from the wooden material, which were found to be aged about more than 800 years at Brookline University, through carbon dating test-14 conducted in America and as such these doors have been mysteriously disappeared by the interested parties under the garb of maintenance of building under the provision of Wakf Act,1995. There are more than ten chambers of the ground floor, which have been sealed while twenty two chambers were hidden inside the red stone building, for which, there is description in Moinnudeen Book The Taj and its Environments. Sri P.N. Oak was born on 2nd March 1917 at Indore and he fought the battle of independence in association with Neta Ji Sri Subhash Chandra Bose and thereafter conducted the research on the ancient Vedic Cultural Heritage in India and also in different part of the World. He is now running at the age of above 87 years. I am unjust, but I can strive for justice, My lifes unkind, but I can vote for kindness. I, the un-loving, say life should be lovely, I, that am blind, cry against my blindness. That the dawn of independence has virtually came with confrontation of many problems for effective administration. The foremost and the prominent problem was rehabilitation of the refugees. There was no place for providing them the basic requirement of shelter and for that reason, the government provided the shelter home for them. The locality was not congenial for their adaptation. Thus the hostility amongst the people has started generating their side effects. The civilisation is the beginning of the governance to any nation. In absence of any co-ordination amongst the fellow citizens, the concept of social embodiment

was virtually evasive. Thus there was neither any co-operation nor co-ordination amongst the citizens. The sole motto was to accumulate the resources for advancement and to enforce their hypothetical illusive superiority amongst the other inhabitant. Thus there was a complete absence of religious and spiritual concept in the society. That no man can survive in isolation. There is a rule of give and take. The moment, one person is inclined to accept everything as a matter of his right, the person who is inclined to give him his extra potential, withdraw the basic offer. This become the end of social collaboration. No country is able to survive except by the will of the people. The bitterness amongst the people may ultimately lead to a crisis on psychological level. Thus the country required the coercive method for the enforcement of law and order situation. This was on account of partition of India. That the citizens, we the people contemplating of the infringement of the indefeasible rights cannot be told for tolerating infraction or invasion of their rights anymore, which is guaranteed enough to relegate at the dawn of human rights jurisprudence promulgated by judicial activism to fight their own battle in the forum available to them under social action litigation. The Honble Supreme Court has put an end to instrument of status upholding the traditions of Anglo Saxon jurisprudence and resisting radical innovation as honest in the use of judicial power to promote social justice. Nothing rankles more in human heart than in justice. Access to justice is basic human right on which is dependent other rights relating to equality. Justice has always been the first virtue of any civilised society. Life of law is a mean to serve the social purpose and felt necessity of people. Affirmative action promotes maximum well being for the society as a whole and strengthens forces of National integration. The purposeful role for more active creative in deciding it by the court of law is by not what has been but what may be. This is the role and purpose of law for the sovereign power of we the people as enumerated in our preamble constitution of India. Politicians act in nefarious designs with impunity. Political parties motivated with vested interests are dancing to usurp power through any means, fair or foul even at the cost of sacrificing the Nations existence to personal interest. Party systems have pushed to advance its own schemes upon the ruin of the rest. Our politicians are Mafia dons next to the invaders. Robbers have generally plundered the rich who are seldom subjected to legislation always plunder the common citizens and protect those Mafia dons under the phraseology of law making sovereign power having the connotation procedure establish under law to be cherished instead of due process. There is always an excuse for tyranny and mal-administration, which has degenerated the national character. The power given needs a safeguard from such arbitrary power and unfair exercise. In present set up freedom has become an abuse and liberty as license. Therefore the moral damage is more terrible. An oppressive system is more to be feared than a Tiger. Deep needs to express thought; Profoundly sickening to compel; Remain silent at expression; Limitation of freedom of thought; Is attack on social rights; As spiritual force is stronger; Than any material force; As thought leash to average conscience; By the necessities of fatal policy; The Honble Supreme Court acted as an instrument of status quo-upholding the traditions of Anglo-Saxon jurisprudence and resisting radical innovations in the use of the judicial power to promote social justice under the republican constitution till early 1970 with some Honble expectations, but in the light of a social economic philosophy alien to our freedom movement and aspiration of the liberated people, the Apex Court has started a giving importance to the rule of Law with tryst with destiny. The outstanding judicial activism in the quest for social justice came by the enormous contribution of Honble Supreme Court in the recent years. The use of new found judicial power in the service of WE THE PEOPLE OF INDIA who has often being represented in the judicial forum have always been at the receiving end of mal-administration and exploitation. These are the extract of code of ethics of law and judicial institution in Manu Smiriti:- 9th chapter of code of Manu- Importance of Justice

All the members of the court are considered as wounded, where justice is found wounded with inequity, and judges do not extract the dart of inequity from justice or remove its blot and destroy inequity, in other words where the innocent are not respected and the criminal are not punished. Ib 12 A virtuous and just person should never enter a court and when he does so, he should speak the truth; he who holds his tongue on

seeing injustice done, or speaks contrary to truth and justice, is the greatest sinner.Ib.13 Justice destroyed destroys its destroyer; and justice preserved, preserves its preserver. Hence, never destroy justice, lest being destroyed, it should destroy thee.Ib.14 In this world justice or righteousness alone is mans friend that goes with him after death. All other things or companions part on the destruction of the body and he is detached from all company. But the company of justice is never cut off. Ib.15 When injustice is done in the government court out of partiality, it is divided into four parts of which one is shared by the criminal or doer of injustice, the second by the witness, the third by the judges, and the fourth by the president king of an unjust court.Ib.17
That this writ petition is moved to re-establish the truth and cultural heritage of our Country. This writ petition is pertaining to the world marvel, one of the Seven Wonders of the World, namely, Taj Mahal, and other monuments authorship attributed to Hindu Rulers, much prior to the period of Mugal Invaders. The ancient monuments and structure are part of our tradition and culture and evidence of glorious-marvelous architectural achievement and further to that it is a part of our heritage. Fraud upon history should not be perpetuated as life is evaluated in the perspective of history. For the sake of history of heritage, these monuments should be identified, protected and preserved properly in the right perspective with right historical records of creation and construction of truth and realities, which includes rectifying and/ or correcting the wrong records, notions, motivated dis-information and mis- information. The following prayers are made in the present Writ Petition: Issue a Writ, order, direction in the nature of mandamus by appointing a facts finding committee for exposing the falsehood of the Arceaological department regarding the historical blunder committed by them in respect of their purported claim set-up in declaring Taj-Mahal, Red- fort Agra, Fatahpur Sikiri and other ancient Hindu buildings/ monuments as Mughal monuments and restrain them from displaying the authorship of these buildings as constructed by Sahajahan or by any Mughal Invaders as truth may be disclosed to the public/citizens and Students in Subject of History regarding their true authorship prior to Mughal period in furtherance of their fundamental rights conferred to the Citizens under Article 19 (1) (a), 25 and 26 read with49 and 51-A(f) (h) of Constitution of India and Freedom Of Information Act, 2002. Issue a writ, order, direction in the nature of mandamus declaring the provisions of The Ancient And Historical Monuments And Archaeological Sites And Remains (Declaration Of National Importance) Act, 1951 to the extend of declaring the ancient and historical monuments and other and Archaeological Sites namely Taj Mahal. Fatehpur-sikiri, Agra Red Ford, Ethmadualla and other Monuments as built by Mugal invaders on the basis of report submitted by Then Governor General, Lord Auckland, and young lieutenant Alexander Cunningham conceived indigenous scheme of Divide and Rule and thereby misusing the archaeological studies, as ultravires to Article 19 (1) (a), 25,26 49 And 51-A (f) (h) constitution of India and this Honble Court may further declare the provision of Ancient and Historical Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (Declaration of National Importance) Act, 1951 (71 of 1951), The Ancient Monuments And Archaeological Sites And Remains Act, 1958 of declaring these ancient building/ monuments preserved with such false identity with out any scientific inquiry/ investigation as purported Mughal monuments / graveyards as unconstitutional and void. Issue a writ, order, direction in the nature of mandamus on the basis of the Research Conducted by the petitioner No.-2 as published in the different books written by him as referred in earlier paragraphs namely 1. World Vedic Heritage, 2. The Tajmahal is a Temple Place, 3.Some Blunders of Indian Historical Research, 4. Flowers Howlers, 5. Learning Vedic Astrology, 6. Some Missing Chapters of World History, 7. Agra red Fort is a Hindu Building, 8.Great Britain was Hindu Land, 9. The Taj Mahal is Tejomahalaya a Shiva Temple, 10.Who Says Akbar was Great, 11. Vedic Guide to Health, Beauty, Longevity and Rejuvenation, 12. Islamic Havoc in Indian History Published by-HINDI SAHITYA SADAN 2, B. D. Chambers, 10/54 D. B. Gupta Road, Karol Bagh, New Delhi-110005, the truth may be exposed through Scientific inventions and temperaments to the Citizen/ Students of history by conducting the research/ excavations of the remains of Hindu monuments by the Central Government surroundings to all such Hindu Palace/ temple and other ancient archaeological building/ Monuments as the incidents like demolition of disputed structure at Ayodhya may not be repeated resulting in mass destruction of the public property shacking of public confidence under Rule Of Law in the society. Issue a writ, order, directions in the nature of mandamus directing the respondent authorities after due Scientific investigation and facts finding inquiry report, the respondents in particular the Archaeological Survey of India may Declare and Notify in terms of the true history, as the Taj Mahal was not built by Shahajahan and thereby directing the Archaeological Survey of India to remove the notices displayed by them in the Taj Mahal premises crediting Shahjahan as its creator and to further desist from writing /

publishing / proclaiming / propagating and teaching about Shahjahan being the author of Taj Mahal and stop and discontinue the free entry in Taj Mahal premises on Fridays in the week. Issue a writ, order, direction in the nature of mandamus directing the respondent authorities in particular Archaeological Survey of India 1)-to open the locks of upper and lower portions of the 4 storeyed building of Taj Mahal having numbers of rooms, 2)-to remove all bricked up walls build later blocking such rooms therein, 3)-to investigate scientifically and certify that which of those or both cenotaphs are fake,4)-to look for a sub terrace storey below the river bank ground level, 5)-to look into after removing the room-entrance directly beneath the basement cenotaph-chamber.6)- by removing the brick and lime barricade flocking the doorway, 7)-to look for important historical evidence such as idols and inscriptions hidden inside there by the Shahjahans orders as truth may not make us rich but the same will make us free from superstitions and false propaganda of some of fundamentalists. Constitution of India Maintainability Of Writ Petition- Article 12- Public Interest Litigation.

In Marbury v. Madison 1 Cranch 137 (1803)-In case of conflict between law made by parliament (Congress) and
the provision of Constitution, the duty of the Court is to enforce Constitution and ignore the law. From Ratlam Municipality v. Vardhi Chand A.I.R. 1980 S.C. 1622, the Supreme Court has held that the concept of Public Interest Litigation is to enforce the provisions of Constitution of India in respect of the mandate issued in Chapter III, which is more the less the duty caste upon the authorities for protection of Fundamental Right and to endeavor the D Directive Principle of State Policy. Article 19 Burden of Prove Nature and Extent of Right Distinguished form statute rights - Dhram Dutt v. Union of India (2004) Vol. 1 SCC 712 a restriction on the activities of the Association is not a restriction on the activity on the individual citizen forming membership of Association Indian Council of World Affairs Act, 2001 under challenged Right and Restriction to be dealt with Article 19 (2) to (6) Article 300A and 19 (1) (f) Tibia Collage case AIR 1962 SC 448 followed. Society is incapable of holding property. Peoples Union of Civil liberties vs. Union of India (2004) Vol. 2 SCC 476 freedom of Speech includes Right of Information as a fundamental right. Union of India vs. Naveen Jindal (2004) 2 SCC 510- flag code -Emblems and Names (pervasion of Improper use ) Act, 1950 and prevention of inserts to National Honour act, 1971 fling of nation is a symbols of free expression 19 (1)(A) thus a fundamental right American right to burn nation US flag is not approve in India. Right to fling nation is a fundamental duty but they are subject to restriction under chapter VI A Article 51 A. Article 141 Precedent- observation form a judgement have to be considered in the light of question refereed therein Mahatab Dawoed Shaikh vs. State of Maharastra (2004) 2 SCC 362

Article 13- Government Circular- not law within its meaning- State of Kerela vs. Chandra Mohanan (2004) 3
SCC 429 .

Prohibition on sale of eggs within Rishikesh municipality- Not Unreasonable Restriction and the same should be
viewed from Religious Background Major Source of Revenue to the Municipality under section 298 -Om Prakash vs. State of U. P. (2004) 3 SCC 402.

The Honble Supreme Court has recently laid down in case of State of Karnataka Vs. Praveen Bhai Thogadia
( Doctor) AIR 2004 SC 2081, while dealing with the ambit and scope of Article 25 and its Preamble Secularism that the core of religion based upon spiritual values, which the Vedas, Upnishads and Purans were said to reveal to mankind seem to be; Love others, serve others, help ever, hurt never and sarvae jana sukhino bhavantoo. One upmanship in the name of religion, whichever it be or at whomsoevers instance it may be, would render constitutional designs countermanded and chaos, claiming its heavy toll on society and humanity as a whole, may be the inevitable evil consequence, whereof. India is the worlds most heterogeneous society with a rich heritage and its Constitution is committed to high ideas of socialism, secularism and the integrity of the nation. As is well known, several races have converged in this subcontinent and they have carried with them their own cultures, languages, religions and customs affording positive recognition to the noble and ideal way of life unity in diversity. Though these diversities created problems in early days, they were mostly solved on the basis of human approaches and harmonious reconciliation of differences, usefully and peacefully. MAINTAINABILITY OF THE WRIT PETITION OR A PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION BY HONBLE COURT. Whether the ambit and scope of jurisdiction covered under Article 226 of the Constitution of India may not entail to this Honble court to decide this writ petition to expose False hood? Whether in absence of any proof through positive indications proving the construction of any building by MUGAL INVADERS, the entire world will befouled regarding their authorship on our ancient vedic culture Hindu monuments even after our independence and existence

of fundamental rights in Constitution Of India and guarantee therein to its citizen and our children? Whether we remain the silent spectator of the collapse of 4 minarets of our Taj Mahal due to the control of fundamentalist under the provision of Wakf Act, 1995 in order to conceal the Hindu Palace identity hidden inside two or three storey Red stone building? Whether concern individual Institute of Rewriting Indian History through its Founder President, P. N. Oak is an aggrieved person to prove his locus standi in the matter even in public interest litigation having the genuine cause envisaged to protect the innocent citizen from the false hood of aggressions imposed by invaders Mughal rulers still having the reprehensible impact upon the non violent patriotic citizens craving to protect our ancient cultural heritage Monuments.? Whether from false scaffolding their identity adversely affecting the existence of Citizens, which is endangering the very existence of Taj Mahal, Fateh pur Sikiri and Agra Red Ford and other Monuments, having falsehood in teaching of children, students of history the future citizens and having character assassinations of nation by falsehood and misrepresentation to the tourists and other foreign visitors on the dictate of Mughal minority under appeasement policy? Whether the credentials of the petitioner Institute of Rewriting Indian History Through its Founder President, P. N. Oak are not sufficient for upgrading the individualistic approach as that of widely shared approach of the majority of the members of the Public, Children and the tourists visiting our Monuments? Whether the submissions raised in respect the character assassination of the authority may not be treated as public interest litigation to protect the Rule of Law and thereby to preserve the constitution of India?

Whether Sri P.N. Oak was born on 2nd March 1917 at Indore and he fought the battle of independence in association with Neta Jee Sri Subhash Chandra Bose and thereafter conducted the research on the ancient Vedic Cultural Heritage in India and also in different part of the World.?

Whether Sri P.N. Oak is now running at the age of about 88 years having a society and a trust namely the Institute Of rewriting History duly exempted Under Section 80-G of the Income Tax Act on account of his research work based on vedic ancient culture and propagation thereof is the imposture and interloper impersonating falsely as public crusader of justice and thereby acting probono publico to assail the validly of The Ancient Monuments And Archaeological Sites And Remains Act, 1958 (as amended to Act No. 71 of 1951)? Whether the credentials of the petitioner are sufficient to approach as that of widely shared approach of the majority of the members of the Public, students, spiritual leaders, and other historians? Whether it was authorised to file litigation, If so by whom, Whether it has sufficient funds to indulge in such litigation and Basis for alleging harm to public interest- The information conveyed to the Honble court is sufficient to entertain the present writ petition on the basis of the secondary evidence of Badshahnama, Aurangzeb Letter of 1653, expert evidence through carbondating- 14 report and scaffolding of the original building through imposture Koranic script and closer of red stone building below marble stone temple /graveyards at Taj Mahal and the tunnels through the lower ground portion of Agra Red Fort connecting Fatehpur Sikri, Taj Mahal, Etmadullah and Sikandra and the symbols of the Hindu Religion present upon them? Whether the facts finding committee may be appointed for revealing the truth on the basis of the writing of Sir H. M. Elliot. K.C.B.- The Posthumous Papers titled as History of India by its own Historian comprising of Eight Volume published by Kitab Mahal 56-A Zero Road Allahabad at present 15 Thornhill Road Allahabad, which shall be reproduced? Whether there be the existence of symbol like Swastik, OM, Lotus, Snake, Peacock, and Trident in every carving out of the structure to the public at the multiple two fold graves of Sahalahan and Mumtaj? Whether the coconut with mango leaf put on the top of the pitcher is the symbol of worship of Hindu , Which has been concealed by scaffolding with these identities?.

What is hidden inside the dome structure, which is never allowed to be visited to its visitors?. Whether there be any octagonal building chosen by a Mughal Ruler, which is a symbol of recognition of eight directions/ dimension of the universe recognize by Hindu religion? Whether any one may imagine it as the truth that the Koranic scripts is carved out on the tiles , which has been pasted by removing the existing recital of Sanskrit Stanzas written by the creator of the said temple?. Whether the Union of India pose any justification for closing of the red stone building by placing the mud on the front side up to plinth of marble construction? Whether the Govt. of India may provide any justification for closer of the doors of the two story building made out of the red stone visual towards the back side of the Taj Monuments with the doors permanently sealed through its imposture stone planted from out side for hiding the truth regarding the actual authorship of this monuments of national importance?

That the framer of constitution has miserably forgotten the basic and elementary
principles of jurisprudence and legal theory; that "every night implies the forbearance on the part of others to perform his duty. Every right is correlated and coexistent with duty "The preamble of our constitution was not having the boosting prospects to its citizen of our constitution was not having the boosting prospects to its citizens for resolving India as "Sovereign democratic republic and for endeavour the unity of nation till 3rd January 1977. That these fundamental duties ten in numbers touch almost all important aspects of National life of an individual life of an individual as well as nation. These are true Magna Carta by adopting an adhering to which in our life. We can achieve the objective of an egalitarian society, free from corruption, oppression, favoritism, and nepotism. Each of these duties, when decoded and dilated, will go to encompass, the various facet of human activity and behaviour; a remedy to most evils plaguing our society -an educational institution; a public undertaking etc. The present day crisis is the result of the phenomenon where tried to achieve right while forgetting corresponding duties as reciprocal to fundamental rights. We may get rid of the despotic and corrupt tendencies of authority in politics and administration having pressure groups ever hungry and lustful for privilege and power. That by the constitution (first amendment) Act 1951, there have been further restrictions to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business for professional or technical qualification as well as carrying on any occupation, trade or business by the state and its instrumentality to the exclusion, complete or partial, of citizens. Thus the question arises as to whether there may not be a valid test of classification based on qualities or characteristics necessarily coupled with the object of legislation based on intelligible differential, which has certain nexus with the realities of the time to dealt with the law and order situation by providing necessary restriction over the unchecked liberty granted to the individual detrimental to its integrity and sovereignty for prohibition to avail the benefit of equality clause by taking the rescue for forbid classification. . There cannot be any enforceable fundamental right to an individual for indulging in anti national activities. Thus the verdict given by the Honble Supreme Court in Minerva Mills Limited Vs Union of India 1980 (3) SCC 625 is required to be reviewed for effective enforcement of the duties caste upon the citizen by passing through the test of "Form and Object" and "Pith and Substance" to mould and replace by the test of "Direct and Inevitable" effect.

That the chapter of fundamental duties in part (IV A under article 51 A has been
introduced by our constitution (Forty second amendment) Act, 1976(w.e.f 3.1.1977). The insertion of new Article 31 C i.e. saving of laws giving effect to certain directive principles, notwithstanding anything contained in the article 13, no law giving effect the policy of state towards securing the principles laid down in part IV shall be deemed to be void on the ground that it is in consistent with or takes away or abridge any of the right conferred under the Article 14 &19 of the constitution. The Supreme Court of Mineva Mills Ltd. Vs Union of India 1980 (3) S.C.C page 625 has laid down the same as unconstitutional holding "that it virtually tears away the hearts of basic fundamental freedom without which a free democracy is impossible. This is a charter of class legislation. The Article 31-D pertaining to " saving of the law in respect of anti-national Activities" has already been omitted by the constitution (Forty third amendment) Act 1977 w.e.f 13.4.1978. The other Article 39(f) providing "Protection to children" by giving

them opportunities and facilities in healthy manner and in conditions of freedom & dignity and that childhood and youth are protected against moral and material abandonment" has been inserted w.e.f. 3.1.1977. Equal justice and free legal aid for securing justice to economically weaker classes and other disable down trodden citizens under Article 39 A is on account of 42nd constitutional amendment. The participation of workers in the management of industries and protection and improvement of Environment and safeguarding of the forest in wild life under Article 43 A and 48 A respectively have also been inserted by virtue of 42nd constitutional amendment, Act, 1977. We could not achieve to cherish the goal enshrined under Article 44 providing uniform civil court for the citizens, Thus till the situation has not become alarming and the Govt. was not compelled to impose the emergency, the farmer of the constitution have neither given any heed for the insertion of the chapter of fundamental duties and directive policies for the uplift of the poor worker, children and other disabled person. It is certainly a matter of grade disappointment that till date these fundamental duties and directive principles of state policy have still not been enforce as that of the fundamental rights of the citizens, The country may be ruled down by functioning anarchy and oligarchy, but the prosperity, integrity and solidarity of the nation is impossible without the enforcement of the duties assigned to its citizens. That the Constitution (Forty Fourth amendment) Act, 1978 has provided another directive principle under Article 38(1) & (2) that the state shall strive to promote the welfare of the people by securing and protecting a social order and to strive to minimize inequalities in income and endeavour to eliminate inequalities in status facilities and opportunities not only amongst individuals, but also amongst groups engaged in different vocations. Honble Supreme court has taken into account two spheres of dimensions to the right of personal liberty against the sovereign power exercising its functioning with the police power and restrictions imposing procedural safeguard in order to provide the public safety having invasion of individual privacy as susceptible to abuse. The custodian violence and torture by the police adopting third degree of interrogation and other agencies have been deemed to be violative of article 21 and article 22 of the constitution of India. It has been held that the importance of affirmed rights to deter breaches by the violence, torture and even death in police lock up strikes a blow of rule of law. The police who is supposed to provide the protection of citizens is committing such crime under the shield of uniform and authority in the four walls of a police station of lock ups in which victim is being totally helpless. Torture of human being by another human beings is essentially an instrument to impose the will of the "strong over the weak" by sufferings. These are a calculated assault on human dignity and whenever human dignity is wounded, civilisation takes a step backward. Universal declaration of human rights in 1948 in reference to article 5 stipulates "no one shall be subjected to be tortured or to be cruel inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment". The constitutional guarantee provided in article 20 (3) provides that of a person excused of an offence cannot be compelled to be a witness against himself. Article 22 (2) provides that the person arrested or detained in the custody shall be produced before the nearest magistrate within a period of 24-hour of such arrest excluding the time necessary for journey. The accused shall be informed of the ground of such arrest and shall not been denied that right to concern and defend himself by legal practitioner of his choice. The personal liberties is protected under article 21 except according to the procedure established by law. Thus personal liberty is a sacred and cherished right under the constitution (UBI JUS IBI REMIDIUM). That there are virtually no individual fundamental rights except the right conferred under article 19 of the constitution of India, rest are the fundamental duties of the state, which are likely to be enforced for the protection of its citizen. By the gradual advancement of the judicial activism, the basic fundamental duties embodied in our constitution, have now been regarded as enforceable rights of the citizen without taking into consideration as to whether the person, who is coming forward for seeking the enforcement of such duties by the state, may actually deserve for such enforcement under an equitable discretionary jurisdiction of the constitutional courts in India. This is a basic flow in the process of judicial verdict. There is the need that the impact and implementation of the law, which is primarily concerned with a social science, may be able to achieve its objective the concept and the guarantees enshrined under article 14 having two connotation, i.e.. Equality before the law and the equal protection of the law are not the same phraseology, although they appears to serve a common objective to eradicate the social evils of inequalities and discrimination.

That Article 14 has a pervasive potency and a versatile quality, equilitarian in its soul, but allergic to discriminatory dictates. It is well known that equality is anti-thesis to arbitrariness. Since the license may not be given to a blind man to drive a car, how worthwhile it may be to give the similar license to a criminal to do every sort of atrocities being committed by indulging into the crime of the innocent people. There are inherent restrictions applicable for the enforcement of the individual personal right under article 19, which empowers the state to enforce reasonable restriction on the exercise of the right of the people in the interest of sovereignty, integrity of India security of the state, friendly relations with foreign state, public order, decency or morality etc. including the incitement to an offence pertaining to the reasonable restrictions regarding freedom of speech and expression, to assemble ,to form associations and freedom to reside and move freely throughout the territory of India. It has been observed by the Honble Courts that where the power is conferred to achieve a purpose it has been repeatedly reiterated that the power must be exercised reasonably and in good faith to effectuate the purpose. And in this context in good faith means for legitimate reasons. Where power is exercised for extraneous or irrelevant considerations or reasons, it is unquestionably a colourable exercise of power or fraud on power and the exercise of power is vitiated. The Honble Supreme Court has also held that Pithily put, bad faith which invalidates the exercise of power- sometimes called colourable exercise or fraud on power and oftentimes overlaps motives, passions and satisfactionsis the attainment of ends beyond the sanctioned purposes of power by simulation or pretension of gaining a legitimate goal. If the use of the power is for the fulfilment of a legitimate object the actuation or catalysation by malice is not legicidal. The action is bad where the true object is to reach an end different from the one for which the power is entrusted, goaded by extraneous considerations, good or bad, but irrelevant to the entrustment. When the custodian of power is influenced in its exercise by considerations out side those for promotion of which the power is vested the court calls it a colourable exercise and is undeceived by illusion. Transparency of action and accountability are perhaps two possible safeguards which the court enforcing the protection of fundamental rights must insist upon. Thus police in India requiring to perform a difficult and delegate task in view of the deteriorating law and order situation, communal riots, politics turns to student unrest, terrorist activities, dealing with hard core criminals, drug peddlers, smugglers having strong root in society, will feel difficulties in the detection of the crime committed by the hardened criminals. Thus a balanced justice approach is needed to meet the ends of justice. The cure cannot however, be worst them the diseased itself. The state must therefore ensured that the various agencies deployed by it of highly sophisticated technology is increasingly susceptible to abuse. The existence of public emergency are in the interest of public safety relating to sovereignty, security, public order and integrity of India and also for preventing incitement to the commission of an offence may justify the right to hold a telephonic conversation and thus telephone tapping would tantamount to interference and certainly be claimed against the right to privacy unless it is permitted under the procedure established by law. That Professor Laski says ". The centre of legal solidarity lies not in legislation, nor in jurists science, nor in jurists decision, but in society itself. The first requirement of judiciary that it should correspond with actual feeling and demand of the life. Unfortunately we are still upholding the traditions of Anglo Saxon jurisprudence and resisting radical innovation in the use of judicial power to promote social justice under our constitution. Justice which has always been the first virtue of any civilised society is still required to be traced down the beating the sticks over the impressions left behind by passing through a snake of alien power ruling over the nation. Such traditions having the glimpse of slavery was least concerned with the relief to the litigants but continued to perform the deception by making the litigant as specimen in the process of advancement of the judicial system. There are conflicting decisions which were subsequently overruled but by that time the cause of the litigant was decided on the wrong precedents. The judicial review is the heart and soul of the constitutional scheme. The judiciary is constituted the ultimate interpreter of the Constitution and is assigned the delicate task of determining the extent and scope of the powers conferred on each branch of the Government, ensuring that action of any branch does not transgress as limits.

Virus of the provisions

Whether the Provisions of Legislation are beyond legislative competence? Whether the Provisions of Legislation are Contrary to the object? Whether the Provisions of Legislation are Unconstitutional having no scientific authoritative dictate of Sovereignty during pre-independence Indian condition in order to private rift between Hindu and Muslim thus unconstitutional? Whether the Provisions of Legislation are in conflict with the right conferred under 19 (1) (A),Article 19(1)C, 25, 26, 49, 51-A (f) &(h) of the Constitution of India? Whether the Provisions of Legislation are Unreasonable restriction for having scientific investigation and there by providing impediment for the progress and leading to the stagnation of the Nation?. Whether the Provisions of Legislation are Contrary to the object sought to be achieved for extraneous political consideration?. How does an Act may affects other provisions of Law resulting in denial of freedom of expressions and put a restriction on free movement If foreigners are allowed to visit graveyard only, How does the Indian Government is justified towards their expenditure which they have incurred in vesting Taj Mahal?. Whether the Government can be the guilty and punished for committing the fraud, then who is liable for punishment?. Evidence in support of temple. Badshah Nama.

Auranggeb letter written on 16th Aug. 1652.

Carbon dating of the doors establishing the age of dead wood 800 years old. Farman issued by Shahjahan to Maharaja Jai Singh. Order of Maharaja Jai Singh to Bikanes archieve for supply of white-black marble and the cutter, Which were used for scaffolding the 34 verse of Sanskrit scripts .

Two Cenotaphs/ Two Graves each of Anjuman Muntaj Zilani (died on 17th June 1631 at Burhampur and buried in Jaina Garden) on Sahajahan (died in Sons Captivity inside Agra Red Fort in1666 and buried by Aurangzeb ) planted side by side placed on third and fourth floors in side the 5th Storey Taj Mahal Building .

Sign of Swastik, Lotus, Coconut, Mango leaves, Pitches, Om in Dhature flower, trident, snake, 108 octagonal design of the marble. How does and under what analogy one man can have two graves whether Arjumand Bano Mumtaj and Shahjahan bodies were cut down in two pieces and put inside the two graves?

What is the evidence in support that these cenataphs are actually the graves of Anju
man Muntaj Zilani (died on 17th June 1631 at Burhampur and buried in Jaina Garden) on Sahajhan (died in Sons Captivity inside Agra Red Fort in1656)?

Why not the grave of other Mughal emperors were not planted if the Taj Mahal was a graveyard as has been done with Fatehpur Sikri?
Why the mud has been filled up towards front side of Taj Mahal Building while the backside is left untouched as Yamuna river could not be diversified to some other channel?

Every Muslim building poses its gate towards West Side than why Taj Mahal front gate is located towards southeast direction? Why Goshala, castles, fountain, and other symbolic symbols of stable are located in side the building of Taj Mahal ? Whether the replica on two side are not meant for reflection of the sound of drum and other musical instruments coming from the stone planted inside the eight chambers located overhead for royal family members, queens, princes and other royal guests which are now blocked?.

Why the doors of the chambers have been closed if they were constructed by Shah Jahan himself?. Why the people are not allowed to peep inside the red stone building as to whether it is for some security reason or for retaining the falsehood preserved for appeasement?.
The object of education Subject of History. Whether for advancement of the ancestral cultural heritage. 2. For knowing the traditions. 3. For knowing our ancestors. 4. To knowing the past, its import and the expectation for the future. 5. History is 3 fold presents / 3 dimensional picture. (i) having the present with past memory. (ii) having the present with present existence in compared to past. (iii) our present in anticipation of future development. Archaeological Remains and Monuments Archaeology is the study of things left in the past, whether on the ground or buried under it. The things include buildings, statues, pictures, scriptures, ornaments, decorative pieces of pottery, etc. The remains of stupas and temples help the study of art and architecture and the culture and religious life of the people. The Ajanta paintings tell us about the costumes, jewellery, hair-styles, things found inside the houses, the architecture, etc. the digging of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro changed our old idea of Indian History. The excavation (digging) at Nalanda showed the glory of our past system of education. The digging out of the temples of Deogarh, in Jhansi gave evidence of the splendour of the Gupta emperors. What is History? History is the story of the people of the past. To be history in the true sense, it must be a record of their life and culture. History is no longer limited to the story of kings and the way they ruled, the wars they fought and the expansion or contraction of their empire. Along with these, history now helps us to know the condition and pattern of the lives of the common people how they met the basic needs of their life, what difficulties and challenges come before them, what way they solved them, what they thought, felt and believed, what new ideas awakened them, as expressed in their literature, architecture and art, what way they contributed to the progress of our civilization, etc. Why do we study the past? It is a natural urge and curiosity in man. Think of the great men and women you adore and admire. You surely love to know or read about their lives their childhood, their growing up, the hardships and challenges that came in their way, their devotion to a cause, their suffering and sacrifices, their iron will, untiring work and great ideals before them and their great achievements and successes. We love to know the past. You love to know the past of your favourite sportsman, favourite singer, favourite film star, your ideal man or woman. So is the case with your country that you love so much. You love to know its dazzling glories and great creations, the heights it reached in the realm of thought and realizations, its dark days under foreign dominations, its devotions to great causes, its sacrifices and sufferings, its galaxy of great men and women and its unique way of bringing different people closer and establishing unity in diversity. Would you not like to know all these and more about your beloved motherland? The past is an inspiration for us: Indias ancient history is very rich and glorious. Once India was considered the most prosperous and civilized country of the world. We had a very rich and vast literature, the Rigveda is considered to be the oldest book in the world. We had institutions of higher

learning. It attached scholar form foreign lands. We had reached great heights in astronomy, mathematics, medicine, and surgery. We had a long tradition of fine textiles. In the past, India could develop a sense of cultural and emotional unity. We believed then that there is only one God and the same God can be worshiped in many names, forms, and manners. Ashoka, Kanishka, Harsha and even the Mughal emperor Akbar were very tolerant and secular. The great awakening and realisation came with Jainism and Buddhism, and the influence of the later spread far and wide beyond our boundaries. A. L. Basham, a great historian, praised our country in these words, India was a cheerful land whose people reached a higher level of orderliness and gentleness than any other nation. In no other country the relations of man and man and of man and the state were so far and humane. So our past is a source of inspiration for us. The past is a lesson for the present: Wise men take lessons from their past problems and mistakes. So our country can take care that past mistakes are not repeated. Our past warns us of the danger of getting entangled in our internal quarrels and neglecting the defence of our frontiers. It opens our eyes to how caste system divides our society in many parts and sows seeds of separation and ill feeling. It reminds us that complicated social and religious customs may lead to the break up of our society. If in the past, India could become the world leader, there is no reason that it should not be able to play a constructive role in the present day world. Sources of Indian History Our history is of several thousand years. We learn about our past from the various sources left behind by our ancestors and not destroyed by time. History has to be based on facts and evidence of various kinds. The evidences can be searched from literary sources, inscriptions, coins, accounts of foreign people or visitors and archaeological remains and monuments. Literary Sources Among the religious literature, the Vedas, the Upanishads and the two epics, Ramavana and Mahabharata tell us mostly of the history and culture from the Vedic age to the Gupta period. Buddhist literature and Jain literature also give us glimpses of the times. Puranas give us some ideas of the political history of those times. Dramas, poems and books written on law, administration, economics and grammar provide us very interesting information about the life, habits, customs, punishments and the normal problems of the people. Accounts of Foreign People Herodotus (5th century B. C.) gave a detailed description of the political conditions of NorthWest India, through he never visited India. Aursian (4th century B. C.) gave details of the invasion of Alexander. No Indian gave any account of this great happening. Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador in Chandragupta Mauryas court (4th century B. C.) described in detailed the economic, political and social life of the people. Among the several Chinese travellers, the accounts of Fa-hiem (beginning of the 5th century AD) who came to the court of Chandragupta II and Hieum-Tsang (7th century AD) who was patronized by Harsha gave valuable accounts of the life of the people and the administration of rulers. Inscriptions Inscriptions are written records engraved on rocks, stone, pillars and walls of temples. Most of the early inscriptions are in Brahmi or Kharosti script. They provide enough material about the economic, religious and social life of the people besides administrative statements of kings. The inscriptions of Ashoka are the best examples of administrative and religious types. 54 Muslims ostracised for supporting Vande Mataram FIFTY-FOUR pro-BJP Muslims were excommunicated and their marriages nullified by a local Mufti after they reportedly expressed the view that singing of national song Vande Mataram was not un-Islamic, a fatwa which has sent ripples in the community in Agra. While issuing the fatwa, Mufti Abdul Quddus Rumi declared that singing of the national song would lead them (Muslims) to hell. It was wrong for Muslims to sing Vande Mataram, the Mufti said, adding, those advocating the song were deviating from the religion. The fatwa also nullifies the wedding of those ex-communicated. Muslims who statement in favour of the national song should offer prayers to renew their faith in Islam and remarry according to Islamic rites, he said.

That around 1963-64 one of P. N. Oak articles published in some Gujarati papers claimed that all of Ahmedabads 1000 mosques were 1000 captured temples and the mains Bhadrakali temple was being misused by Muslims as their Jama Masjid. Since Muslims are tutored to find every excuse to pick up a quarrel with the Hindus. This was quite a novel, unheard of and unabashed plea Thanks to Allah, perhaps no building by laws of any country demand that every building must be shorter than the local mosque. Yet the Muslims everywhere are a law unto themselves. Their nurture trains them to be on a perpetual prowl and keep up a continuous growl to terrify everybody and force every nonMuslim to declare himself a Muslim that is how Islam was spread. On further effort they ascertained the writers name as P. N. Oak and found out my address. The owner of the firm then wrote a pathetic letter describing his anguish and shock at the Muslim demand and requesting me to help him tide over the predicament by my historical acumen. The Ahmedabad Muslim got the shock of their life. Never in history had they ever got such a stunning retort and rebuff. A practical instance is provided by the description in Muslim chronicles of a magnificent Krishna temple in Mathura which Mohammad Ghazni says could not have been completed even in 200 years, and another in Vidisha (modern Bhilsa) which could take 300 years to build. Any identifiable details in earlier records of what is at present known as Taj Mahal, luckily, Babur, the founder of the Moghul dynasty in India, who was the great great grandfather of emperor Shahjahan, has left us a disarming and unmistakable description of the Taj Mahal, if only we have the inclimation and insight to grasp it. On page 192, Vol. II, of his Memories emperor Babur tells us Pp. 192 and 251, Memoirs of Zahir-Ed-Din Mohamad Babur, Emperor of Hindustan, Vol. II, written by himself in the Chaagatai Turki. Translated by John Layden and Willian Erskine; annotated and revised by Sir Lucas King, in two volumes. Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, 1921. On Thursday (May 10, 1526) afternoon I entered Agra and took up my residence at Sultan Ibrahims palace. Later on page 251 Babur adds : A few days after the Id we had a great feast (July 11, 1526) in the grand hall, which is adorned with the peristyle of stone pillars, under the dome in the centre of Sultan Ibrahims palace. It may be recalled that Babur captured Delhi and Agra by defeating Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat. As such he came to occupy the Hindu palace which Ibrahim Lodi, himself an allien conqueror, was occupying. Babur, therefore, calls the palace at Agra which he occupied as Ibrahims palace. In describing it Babur says that the palace is adorned the peristyle of pillars. Ornamental towers at the corners of the Taj Mahal plinth. Great hall which is obviously the magnificent room which now houses the cenotaphs of Mumtaz and Shahjahan. Further tells that in the centre it had a dome. Thus it is clear that Babur lived in the palace currently known as the Taj Mahal from May 10, 1526, until his death on December 26, 1530, intermittently. That means that we have a clear record of the existence of the Taj Mahal at least 100 years before the death of Mumtaz (the so-called Lady of the Taj) around 1630. Vincent Smith tells us that Baburs turbulent life came to a peaceful end in his garden palace at Agra. This again is emphatic proof that Babur died in the Taj Mahal. Taj Mahal is the only palace in Agra which had a spectacular garden. The Badshahnama refers to the garden as sabz zamini meaning verdant, spacious, lofty, lush garden precincts. In the large octagonal hall (of the Mystic House) was set the jewelled throne, and above and below it were spread out hangings embroider with gold, and wonderful strings of pearls. The octagonal hall of the Mystic House is obviously the central octagonal hall of the Taj Mahal in which a hundred years later Sahajahan raised the tomb of Mumtaz, and in 1666 Aurangzeb buried his father emperor Shahjahan. The Taj Mahal is called the Mystic House because it originated as a Shiva temple replete with Vedic motifs. The same building was also called the Great House because it was a magnificent royal residence. There are two sepulchral mounds in the central chamber of the Taj which look like Muslim tombs, and could very well be those of Mumtaz Mahal, one of thee thousands of consorts of Shahjahan, and of Shahjahan himself. It is well known that many such mounds are fake. Such mounds have sometimes been found on the terraces of historic buildings where no dead person could be buried by one chance. Another reservation is that no specific burial date of

Mumtaz being on record it is highly doubtful whether she was at all buried in the Taj. Period is mentioned a between six months to nine years of her death. Such vagueness, even after a special palatial mausoleum is stated to have been constructed for her body, is highly suspicious. Manuchi, an officer in the service of the East India Company during Aurangzebs time, has recorded that Akbars tomb is empty. Who knows then whether Mumtazs supposed tomb is not empty too. In spite of such weighty reservations we are ready to presume that the two tombs could be those of Mumtaz and Shahjahan.
The judiciary in India also possesses inherent power, especially under section 151 CPC, to recall its judgement or order if it is obtained by fraud on Court. In the case of fraud on a party to the suit or proceedings, the court may direct the affected party to file a separate suit for setting aside the Decree obtained by fraud. Inherent power are powers which are resident in all courts, especially of superior jurisdiction. These powers spring not from legislation but from the nature and the constitution of the Tribunals or Courts themselves so as to enable them to maintain their dignity, secure obedience to its process and rules, protect its officers from indignity and wrong and to punish unseemly behaviour. This power is necessary for the orderly administration of the courts business. Since fraud affects the solemnity, regularity and orderliness of the proceedings of the court and also amounts to an abuse of the process of court, the courts have been held to have inherent power to set aside an order obtained by fraud practiced upon that court. Similarly, where a party misleads the court or the court itself commits a mistake, which prejudices a party, the court has the inherent power to recall its order. The court has also the inherent power to set aside a sale brought about by fraud practiced upon the court or to set aside the order recording compromise obtained by fraud. Charges of fraud and collusion like those contained in the plaint in this case must, no doubt, be proved by those who make them proved by established facts or inferences legitimately drawn from those facts taken together as a whole. Suspicions and surmises and conjecture are not permissible substitutes for those facts or those inferences. By no means requires that every puzzling artifice or contrivance resorted to by one accused of fraud must necessarily be completely unraveled and cleared up and made plain before a verdict can be properly found against him. If this were not so, many a clever and dexterous knave would escape. The legal maxims:- Fraus et jus nunquam cohabitant ( Fraud and justice never dwell together) & Fraus et dolus nemini patrocinari debent ( Fraud and deceit defend or excuse no man). These maxims have been reiterated in the decisions of Apex court. It has been observed that it is in the inherent powers of superior courts to quash such proceedings, which have been secured by playing the fraud or misrepresentation. Fraud avoids all judicial acts, ecclesiastical or temporal observed Chief Justice Edward Coke of England about three centuries ago. It is the settled proposition of law that a judgement or decree obtained by playing fraud on the court is a nullity and non est in the eyes of law. Such a judgement/ decree by the first court or by the highest court has to be treated as a nullity by every court, whether superior, or inferior. It can be challenged in any court even in collateral proceedings have been reiterated. Since fraud affects the solemnity, regularity and orderliness of the proceedings of the court and also amounts to an abuse of the process of court, the Courts have been held to be inherent power to set aside an order obtained by fraud practiced upon that court. Similarly, where the court is misled by a party or the court itself commits a mistake which prejudices a party, the court has the inherent power to recall its order. Therefore, no doubt that the remedy to move for recalling the order on the basis of the newly discovered facts amounting to fraud of high degree, cannot be foreclosed in such a situation. No court or tribunal can be regarded as powerless to recall its own order if it is through fraud or misrepresentation of such a dimension as would affect the very basis of the claim. The Honble supreme court has held in respect of the guarantees of the fundamental rights to education to its citizen in Miss Mohini Jain Vs state of Karnataka 1992 (3). S.C.C. Page 666, while dealing with this aspect of constitutional bench in Unikrishanan J.P and others Vs state of Andhra Pradesh (A.I.R 1993 S. C. Page 2178) has observed "Learning is excellence of wealth that none can destroy, to man nought ,else affords reality of joy". Quoting an old Sanskrit adage. "Liberation from ignorance which shrouds the mind, the liberation from the superstition which paralysis efforts, liberation from prejudices which blind the vision of the truth. "victories are gained, peace is preserved , progress is achieved, civilisation is build-up and history is made, not on the battlefield where ghastly murders are committed in the name of patriotic , not in the council chambers were insipid speeches are spun out in the name of debate, not even in factories were are manufactured novel, institutions which are the seat-beds of culture, where children in whose hands quiver the destinies of the future, are trained. From their ranks will come out when they grow up, statesman and soldiers, patriot and philosopher who will determine the progress of the land.

In Keshavanand Bharti Vs state of Kerala A.I.R 1973 S. C. Page 1431 Justice Matthew held "The fundamental rights have no fixed content, most of them are empty vessels into which each generation must pour its content in the light of its experience. It is relevant in this context to remember that in building of just

social order, it is sometimes imperative that the fundamental rights should be somewhat related to directive principles. The following rights are held to be covered world under article 21. The right to live with human dignity free from exploitation (A.I.R 1980 S. C 849) and The right of livelihood (A.I.R 1986 S. C. 180) respectively were also considered to be within ambit of article 21. Every endeavour has been provided till now to make this article reverberate with life and articulate with meaning. It has been held that authority not performing their statutory duties to enforce laws for the protection of environment inre- J.T 1996 (2) S. C 196 and J.T 1996 (7) S. C. 775 are jeopardising the right of life of the citizen. However the authorities have still to provide protection by providing a fool proof. Safety to the passengers travelling inside the fast moving train to avoid disastrous accident endangering a cynical disrespect towards the glorious contents of life in positive language and the honourable court may interpret life of law to serve the social purpose and felt necessity as sentinels on quinine as guardian of human rights to the victim of fatal accidents, socio-economic crisis and criminal actions to their dependants which is in the prevailing situation installing a sense of fear at least by providing minimum of financial security. Right to freedom of speech and expression includes a right to express ones convictions and opinions freely by words of mouth, writing, printing, picture or in any manner under article 19 (1) (a) of the constitution dealing with the provisions of section 5 (2) of the telegraph act. Unless public emergency has occurred are the interest of public safety demands, the authority have no jurisdiction to exercise the power under the said section. The power vested under section 5 (2) shall not be issued except by home secretarys and there shall be a review committee consisting of cabinet secretary, law secretary and secretary telecommunications appointed by the governor. It is not disputed that no rules have been framed for the conduct of telegraph is under sections 7 (2) be of the act for providing precaution and preventing the improper interception or disclosure of messages for combating terrorism act within the bounds of the law and not to become the law themselves. In order to bring transparency and accountability, it is desirable that the officer arresting a person should prepare a memo of his arrest at the time of arrest in the presence of at least one witness may be the member of the family or the respectable person of the locality. The date and time of the arrest shall be recorded in the memo which must also be counter signed by the arrested person.

That

the Honble Supreme Court has provided a dimension to the different articles in order to provide a guidelines for effective administration of justice. It has been held that no religion prescribes that the prayer are required to be perform through voice amplifier or beating of the drum and use of microphone for the purposes of attending the religious ceremonies has been prohibited in Church of God (Full Gospel) in India Vs. K. K. R Majestic 2000 S.C.C (7) 282. Thus despite the mandate by issuing the writ of mandamus by the Honble Supreme Court to the administration at large in the public interest litigations through judicial activism, nothing has been taken as granted to the public even after declaring the same as the law of the nation. Thus the judicial procedure, which is based on a tedious process, is required to be provided by foolproof system for the benefit of the public. The comedy of error does not lie in our celebrated principles but since there is a complete erosion of the fear from the mind of the citizen indulge in violating the law and there is no machinery to make a control upon the simple invasion of such right, the public is bound to adhere what is given to it by the grace of the public servant. That even article 226, viewed on under prospective may be mean to ventilation of collective or common grievances as distinguished from assertion of individual rights, although the traditional view, backed by precedents has opted for the narrower alternative public interest is promoted by a spacious consideration of laws standing our socio-economic circumstances and conceptual latitudenariarism permits taking liberties with individualization of the right to involve the higher courts where the remedy is shared by a considerable number particularly when they are weaker less litigation consistent with the fair process is the aim of aim of adjective law.

That the Freedom of expression may be necessarily including right of information. There is no expression with
out having an idea on the subject, regarding which the expression of an individual may be given effect to change the existing values an ideology which are based on the notable extracts of certain facts .An enlightening informed citizen would undoubtedly enhance democratic values (Peoples Union for Civil liberty (P U C L) Vs. Union of India) (2003) 4 SCC para 94.

That The freedom of speech and expression is basic to indivisible from a democratic polity .It includes right to
impart and receive information. Restriction to the said right could be only as provided in article 19(2). Right of a voter to know the bio-data of the candidate is the foundation of the democracy. The old dictum let the people have the truth and the freedom to discuss it and all will go well with the Government should prevail. The true test for deciding the validity of the Act is whether it takes away or abridges fundamental right of the citizens. If there is direct abridgement of the fundamental right of freedom of speech and expression, the law would be invalid. If the provisions of the law violate the constitutional provisions, they have to be struck down and that is what is required to be done in the present case .It is made clear that no provision is nullified on the ground that the Court does not approve the underlying policy of the enactment. (Paras 69 to 71 and 66). (Peoples Union for Civil liberties (P U C L) Vs. Union of India, (2003) 4 SCC 399:AIR 2003 SC 2363.

That To control the ill effects of money power and muscle power the commissions recommend that even the
election system should be overhauled and drastically changed lest democracy would become a teasing illusion to common citizens of this country. Not only a half hearted attempt in the direction of the reform of the election system is to be taken as has been done by the present legislation by amending some provisions of the act here and there, but a much improved election system is required to be evolved to make the election process both

transparent and accountable as that influence of tainted money and physical force of criminals do not make democracy a farce the citizens fundamental Right to Information should be recognized and fully effectuated (Para 127) (Peoples Union for Civil liberties (P U C L) Vs. Union of India,(2003) 4 SCC 399:AIR 2003 SC 2363.

That It has Been held that

The newspapers serve as a medium of exercise of freedom of speech. The right of its shareholder to have a free press is a fundamental right. Advertisements in newspapers play an important role in the matter of revenue of the newspaper and have a direct nexus with its circulation. For the purpose of meeting the costs of the newsprint as also for meeting other financial liabilities which would include the liability to pay wages, allowances and gratuity etc. To the working journalist as also liability to pay a reasonable profit to the share holders vis-a-vis making the newspapers available to the readers at a price at which they can afford to purchase it , the petitioners have no other option but to collect more funds by publishing commercial and other advertisements in the newspaper.(Paras 33,36,34and 38) .Hindustan Times Vs State of U. P.(2003) 1 SCC 591,AIR 2003 SC 250,(2003) 1 LLJ 206: (2002) 258 ITR 469. That it is said the doubts would be called reasonable if they are free from a zest for abstract speculation. Education is an investment made by the nation in its children for harvesting a future crop of responsible adults productive of a well functioning society, however children are vulnerable. They need to be valued, nurtured, caressed and protected. Imparting of education is state function thus since the human mind is not a tape recorder , it would make a perfect reproduction later in the society .It is said that every state action must be informed by reason .Thus the freedom of expression which includes right to know may be allowed to be enjoyed by the citizen to the fullest possible extent without putting shackles of avoidable cob web of rules and regulations putting restriction on such freedom . Justice has no favorite, except the truth. A reason varies in its conclusion according to the idiosyncrasy of the individual and the times and the circumstances in which he thinks.

That In Bijoe Emmanuel Vs. state of Kerala

(1986) 3 SCC 615 , the question raised in the aforesaid case as to whether three children who were faithful to Jehovahs witnesses may refuse to sing any national anthem or salute the national flag of our country despite being the student in the school where during morning assembly the national anthem is sung by other children the circular issued by the director of public instruction Kerela provide obligation of school children to National Anthem .Thus these children were expelled. The Honble Supreme court while setting aside the aforesaid order of expulsion of the children from the school was pleased to examine as to whether the children faithful to Jehovahs witnesses, a worldwide sect of Christianity may be compelled against tenets of their religious faith duly recognized and well established all over the world which was upheld by the highest court in United States of America, Australia and Canada and find recognition in Encyclopedia Britannica.

That Article 25 of the constitution if India secures to every person, subject of course to public order, health and
morality and other provisions of Part III, including Article 17 freedom to entertain and exhibit outward acts as well as propagate and disseminate such religious belief according to his judgement and conscience for edification of others. The right of the State to impose such restrictions as are desired or found necessary on grounds of public order, health and morality is inbuilt in Arts. 25 and 26 itself. Article 25(2)(b) ensures the right of the State to make a law providing for social welfare and reforms besides throwing open of Hindu religious institutions of a public character to classes and Ss. of Hindus and any such rights of State or of the communities or classes of the society were also considered to need due regulation in the process of harmonizing the various rights. The vision of the founding fathers of the Constitution to liberate the society from blind and ritualistic adherence to mere traditional superstitious beliefs sans reason or rational basis has found expression in the form of Art. 17. The protection under Arts. 25 and 26 extends a guarantee for rituals and observances, ceremonies and modes of worship which are integral parts of religion but as to what really constitutes an essential part of religion or religious practice has to be decided by the courts with reference to the doctrine of a particular religion or practices regarded as parts of religion (Para 180 N. Adithayan Vs. Travancore Devaswom Board ,(2002) 8 SCC 106:2002 3 KLT 615. That Article 25(2)(b) lays down that the State can make any law providing for social welfare and reform or the throwing open of Hindu religious institutions of a public character to all classes and sections of Hindus. Under this provision, the State can eradicate social practices and dogmas, which stand in the way of the progress of the country. The right to freedom of religion does not prevent the State from throwing open all Hindu religious institutions of a public character to all classes and sections of Hindus. Public institutions would include temples dedicated to the public as a whole and also those founded for the benefit of sections or denominations thereof . However this right is not absolute or unlimited in character. No member of the Hindu public can demand that a temple must be kept open for worship at all hours of day and night. Likewise, he cannot demand that he must be allowed to perform personally those religious services which the Acharyas alone can perform. The legislature cannot invade the traditional and conventional manner in which the actual worship of the deity is allowed to be performed. That the right protected by Article 25 (2)(b) of the Constitutions is a right to enter into temple for purposes of worship and it should be construed liberally in favour of the public. However it does not follow that right is absolute and unlimited in character. No member of the Hindu public couls claim as part of the rights protected by Article (2)(b) that a temple must be kept open for worship at all hours of the day and night or that he should personally perform those services which the Archakas alone could perform. It is the practice of religious

institutions to limit some of its services to persons who have been specially initiated, though at other times . The public in general is free to participate in the worship .The right recognised by Article 25(2)(b) must necessarily be subject to some limitations or regulations. The right of a denomination to wholly exclude members of the public from worshipping in the temple, though comprised in Article 26(b),must yield to the over riding right declared by Article 25(2)(b) in favour of the public to enter into a temple for worship. Where the right claimed is not one of general and total exclusion of the public from worship in the temple at all times but of exclusion from certain religious services, the question is not whether Article 25(2)(b) overrides that right so as to extinguish it but whether it is possible so to regulate the rights of the persons protected by Article 25(2) (b),as to give effect to both the rights. If the denominational rights are such that to give effect to them would substantially reduce the right conferred by Article 25(2)(b),then on the conclusion that Article 25(2)(b) prevails as against Articles 26(b),the denominational right must vanish. Where after giving effect to the rights of the denomination what is left to the public of the right of worship is something substantial and not merely the husk of it , there is no reason why court should not so construe Article25(2)(b) as to give effect to Article 26(b) and recognize the rights of the denomination in respect of matters which are strictly denominational , leaving the rights of the public in other respects unaffected. The exclusive right of the members of the community to worship for all the time will be hit by Article 25(2)(b) and cannot be recognized . On special occasions, it is only the members of the Gowda Saraswath Brahmin community that have the right to take part therein and on those occasions, all other persons would be excluded. That the message to charity and compassion is to be found in all religious without any exception. Only because charity and compassion are preached in every religion, the same by itself would not be a part of the religious practice within the meaning of Art.25. Thus the religion of Christianity encouraging the Christians to practice charities to attain spiritual salvation is of not much relevance for that purpose. (Paras 47 and 48 ).

That the Renouncement of the world and preaching for renouncement of the world have no correlation with
tenets of Art 25 (Paras 54 and 55).John Vallamattam Vs. Union of India .(2003) 6 SCC 611: AIR 2003 SC 2902 :(2003) 3 KLT 66.

That the contention with regard to the rights under Art.25 or Art.26 of the Constitution which are subject to
public order, morality and health are not required to be dealt with in detail mainly because as stated earlier no religion prescribes or preaches that prayers are required to be performed through voice amplifiers or by beating of drums. In any case, if there is such practice, it should not adversely affect the rights of others including that of being not disturbed in their activities. (Para 13). Church of God (Full Gospel) in India Vs K.K.R Majestic Colony Welfare Assn.(2000) 7 SCC 282:2000 SCC (Cri )1350 :AIR 2000 SC 2773 .

That the grievance that the judgement in Sarla Mudgal Vs. Union of India (1995) 3 SCC 635 amounts to
violation of the freedom of conscience and free profession, practice and propagation of religion is also farfetched and apparently artificially carved out by such persons who are alleged to have violated the law by attempting to clock themselves under the protective fundamental right guaranteed under Article 25 of the Constitution. No person, by the judgement impugned, has been denied the freedom of conscience and propagation of religion. The rule of monogamous marriage amongst Hindus was introduced with the enactment of the Hindu Marriage Act. The second marriage solemnized by a Hindu during the subsistence of a first marriage is an offence punishable under the penal law. Freedom guaranteed under Art. 25 of the Constitution is such freedom which does not encroach upon a similar freedom of other persons. Under the constitutional scheme every person has a fundamental right not merely to entertain the religious belief of his choice but also to exhibit this belief and ideas in a manner which does not infringe the religious right and personal freedom of others. ( Para 62). Lily Thomas Vs. Union of India, (2000) 6 SCC 224. :2000 SCC ( Cri) 1056: AIR 2000 SC 1650 : 2000 Cri LJ 2433.

That no religion prescribes or preaches that prayers are required to be performed though voice amplifier or by
beating of drums. In any case , if there is such practice , it should not adversely effect the rights of others including that of being not disturbed in their activities. ( Para 13) Church of God ( Full Gospel) in India Vs. K.K.R. Majestic Colony Welfare Assn. (2000) 7 SCC 282. That Undisputedly, no religion prescribes that prayers should be performed by disturbing the peace of others nor does it preach that they should be though voice amplifiers or beating of drums. In a civilized society in the name of religion, activities which disturb old or infirm persons, students or children having their sleep in the early hours or during daytime or other persons carrying on other activities cannot be permitted. Aged, sick people afflicted with psychic disturbances as well as children up to 6 years of age are considered to be very sensitive to noise. Their rights are also required to be honoured. (Para 2)

That

even under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986, rules for noise-pollution level are framed which prescribe permissible limits of noise in residential, commercial, industrial areas ,or silence zone . The question is, whether the appellant can be permitted to violate the said provisions and add to noise pollution. Even to claim such a right itself would be unjustifiable. In these days, the problem of noise pollution has become more serious with the increasing trend towards industrialization, urbanization, and modernization and is having many evil effects including danger to health. It may cause interruption of sleep, effect communication, loss of efficiency, hearing loss of deafness, high blood pressure, depression, irritability, fatigue, gastro-intestinal problems, allergy, distraction, mental stress and annoyance etc. This also affects animal alike. The extent of damage depends upon the duration and the intensity of noise. Sometimes it leads to serious law and order problem. Further, in an organized society, rights are related with duties towards others including neighbors.

(Para 3) Church of God ( Full Gospel) in India Vs. K.K.R. Majestic Colony Welfare Assn. (2000) 7 SCC 282.

That

the rival submissions of the following question arose for consideration of the present bench Islamic Academy of Education Vs. State of Karnataka (2003) 6 SCC 697.(1) whether educational institutions are entitled to fix their own fee structure ;(2) whether minority and non minority educational institutions stand on the same footing and have same rights ;(3) whether private unaided professional colleges are entitled to fill in their seats ,to the extent of 100%,and if not ,to what extent ;and (4) whether private unaided professional colleges are entitled to admit students by evolving their own method of admission. That Sri Aurobindo originated the philosophy of cosmic salvation through spiritual evolution which could universally be accepted by anyone. He propagated the theme of Integral Yoga. The disciples and devoted followers of Sri Aurobindo formed, the Aurobindo Society In Calcutta in 1960/It was initially registered under the Societies Registration Act,1860, but after the enforcement of W. B. Societies Registration Act,1961,it was deemed to be registered under the Act. After the death of Sri Aurobindo and the Mother, the Government on receiving complaints about mismanagement of the affairs of the Society, appointed a Committee under the Chairmanship of the Governor of Pondicherry with representatives of the Government of Tamil Nadu and the Ministry of Home Affairs in the Central Government to look into the matter. A team of competent auditors confirmed the allegations about the mismanagement of the affairs of the Society, misuse of funds of the Society and diversion of the funds meant for Auroville. The construction work in Auroville became stagnant and the internal disputes gave rise to the problem of law and order. The society lost complete control over the situation. The members of the Auroville approached the Government of India to give protection against oppression and victimization at the hands of the Society. Having regard to the report and recommendations of the committee an Act was passed which provided for taking over the management of Auroville for a limited period.

That One restriction is that freedom of religion is subject to public order, morality and other provisions of Part
III of the Constitution. In Ramji Lal Modi Vs. State of U.P., the Supreme Court held that the right to freedom of religion assured by Articles 25 and 26 is expressly made subject to public order, morality and health. It cannot be predicated that freedom of religion can have no bearing whatever on the maintenance of public order or that a law creating an offence relating to religion cannot under any circumstances be said to have been enacted in the interests of public order. Section 295-A of the Indian Panel Code does not penalise any and every act of insult to or attempt to insult the religion or religious beliefs of a class of citizens but it penalises only those acts of insult of the religion or the religious beliefs of class of citizens which are perpetrated with the deliberate and malicious intention of outraging the religious feeling of that class. Insults to religion offered unwittingly or carelessly or without any deliberate or malicious intention to outrage the religious feeling of that class do not come within this section. It only punishes the aggravated form of insult to religion when it is perpetrated with the deliberate and malicious intention of outraging the religious feelings of that class. The calculated tendency of this aggravated form of insult is clearly to disrupt the public order. Where the public functionaries were involved in such a malafide and colourable exercise of power that may abridge or abrogate the right of livelihood of a citizen duly guaranteed under Article 21 of the Constitution, the remedy will still be available under the public law notwithstanding that a suit could be filed for declaring the aforesaid transaction as void. This remarkable judgement is an exemplar of a verdict given in a socially sensitized manner containing a complex exception to show the people beacon light in favour of poor uneducated exploited mass who need a helping hand from the legal profession and also from the Honble Courts. This is an attempt to prevent contagious virus of corruption, which is opposed to democracy and social order. Unless this corruption is nipped in the bud that is likely to cause turbulence by a dreaded communicable disease, the same will crumble the socio political system under its own weight. That Partition of India was purely a political game fought with a mark of religious fundamentalism the speech of Quaid Azam Zinnah on 11-08-1947 who vehemently advocated the two nation theory was enunciated the Government of Pakistan policy has also realised the folly committed in accepting partition on communal lines in these words:If you change your past and work together in spirit that every one of you , no matter what community he belongs to, no matter what his colour , caste or creed , is first , second and last , a citizen of this state with equal rights, privileges and obligation there will be no end to the progress you will make. I cannot emphasis it too much ; we should begin to work in that spirit , and in course of time , all these angularities , of the majority and minority communities, the Hindu community and the Muslim community , because even as regards Muslims, you have Pathans, Punjabis, Shias , Sunnis, and so on and among the Hindus you have Brahmins , Vaishnavas, Khatris also Bengalis Madrasis and so on , will vanish. You may go to your temples, Mosques or any religion or caste or creed, that has nothing to do with the business of the state .We are starting with the fundamental principle that we all citizens and equal citizens of one State. It will be instructive to sun up this discourse with the observation of Honble Chief Justice Bhagwati in Sukh Das. It is common knowledge that 70 percent of the people living in rural areas are illiterate and even more than that percentage of the people are not aware of the rights conferred upon them by law. Even literate people do not know what are their rights and entitlements under the law. It is this absence of legal awareness which is responsible for the deception, exploitation and deprivation of rights and benefits from which the poor suffer in this land. Their legal needs always stand to become crisis-oriented because their ignorance prevents them from anticipating legal troubles and approaching a lawyer for consultation and advice in time and their poverty magnifies the impact of the legal trouble and difficulties when they come. More over, because of their ignorance and illiteracy, they cannot become self-reliant; they cannot even help themselves. The law ceases to be their protector because they do not know that they are entitled to the protection of the law and they can avail

of the legal service programme for putting an end to their exploitation and winning their rights. The result is that poverty becomes with them a condition of total helplessness. This miserable condition in which the poor find themselves can be added to situations (1986) 2 SCC 401). Ajay Hasia v. Khalid Mujib Sehravardi, (1981) 1 SCC 722: 1981 SCC (L&S) 258 The council for Public Interest Law set up by the Ford Foundation in USA devined public interest litigation, 1976 as follows: Public interest law is the name that has recently been given to efforts that provide legal representation to previously unrepresented groups and interest. Such efforts have been undertaken in the recognition that ordinary marketplace for legal services fails to provide such services to significant segments of the population and to significant interest. Such groups and interests include the proper environmentalists, consumers, racial and ethnic minorities and others. The court has to be satisfied about: (a) the credentials of the applicant; (b) the prima facie correctness or nature of information given by him; (c) the information being not vague and indefinite. Court has to strike balance between two conflicting interest: (I) nobody should be allowed to indulge in wild and reckless allegations besmirching the character of others; and (II) avoidance of public mischief and to avoid mischievous petitions seeking to assail, for oblique motives, justifiable executive actions. In such case, however, the court cannot effort to be liberal. It has to be extremely careful to see that under the guise of redressing a public grievance, it does not encroach upon the sphere reserved by the Constitution to the executive and the legislature. The court has to act ruthlessly while dealing with imposters and busybodies or meddlesome interlopers impersonating as public-spirited holy men. They masquerade as crusaders of justice. They ported to act in the name of probono publico, though they have no interest of the public or even of their own protect. It is of utmost importance that those who invoke the Supreme Court jurisdiction seeking a waiver of the locus standi rule must exercise restraint in moving the court by not plunging in areas wherein they are not well vessed. Such a litigant must not succumb to spasmodic sentiments and behave like a knight-errant roaming at well in pursuit of issues providing publicity. He must remember that as a person seeking to espouse a public cause he owes it to the public as well as to the court that he does not rush to court without undertaking a research even if he is qualified or competent to raise the issue. Besides, it must be remembered that a good cause can be lost if petitions are filed on half-baked information without proper research or by persons who are not qualified or competent to raise such issues as the rejection of such a petition may affect the third partys right. Lastly it must be borne in mid that no one has a right to the waiver of locus standi rule and the court should permit it only when it is satisfied that the carriage of proceeding is in the competent hands of a person who is genuinely concerned in public interest and is not moved by other extraneous consideration. Also, the court must be careful to ensure that the process of the court is not sought to be abused by a person who desires to persist with his point of view. The court must never forget that the jurisdiction extends no further than the legitimate limits of its constitutional powers and avoid trespassing into political territory which under the Constitution has been appropriated to the other organs of the State. When the court entertains public interest litigation it does not do so in a caviling spirit or in a confrontational mood or with a view to tilting at executive authority or seeking to usurp it, but its attempts is only to ensure observances of social and economic rescue programme, legislative as well as executive, framed for the benefit of the have nots and the handicapped and to protect them against violation of their basic human right. PIL may, therefore, be described as satisfying one or more of the following parameters. These as not exclusive but merely descriptive: Where the concern underlying a petition are not individualist but are shared widely by a large number of people (bonded labour, undertrial prisoners, prison inmates). Where the affected persons belong to the disadvantaged sections of society (women, children, bonded labour, unorganised labour etc.). Where judicial law making is necessary to avoid exploitation (inter-country adoption, the education of the children of the prostitutes). Where judicial intervention is necessary for the protection of the sanctity of democratic institutions (independence of the judiciary, existence of grievances redressal forums). Where administrative decision related to development are harmful to the environment and jeopardize peoples right to natural resources such as air or water. It is for this reason that in public interest litigation litigation undertaken for the purpose of redressing public injury, enforcing public duty, protecting social, collective, diffused rights and interests or vindicating public interest, any citizen who is acting bona fide and who has sufficient interest has to be accorded standing. But we must be careful to see that the member of the public, who approaches the court in cases of this kind, is acting bona fide and not for personal gain or private profit or political motivation or other oblique consideration. The court must not allow its process to be abused by politicians and others to delay legitimate administrative action or to gain a political objective. Andre Rabie has warned that political pressure groups who could not achieve their aims through the administrative process and we might add, through the political process, may try to use the courts to further their aims. These are some of the dangers in public interest litigation, which the court has to be careful to avoid. It is also necessary for the court to bear in mind that there is a vital distinction between locus standi and justiciability and it is not every default on the part of the State or

a public authority that is justiciable. The court must take care to see that it does not overstep the limits of its judicial function and trespass into areas, which are reserved to the executive and the legislature by the Constitution. It is a fascinating exercise for the court to deal with public interest litigation because it is a new jurisprudence, which the court is evolving, a jurisprudence that demands judicial statesmanship and high creative ability. The frontiers of public law are expanding far and wide and new concepts and doctrines, which will change the complexion of the law and which were so far as embedded in the womb of the future, are beginning to be born. Before we part with this general discussion in regard to locus standi, there is one point we would like to emphasis and it is, that cases may arise where there is undoubtedly public injury by the act or omission of the State or a public authority but such act or omission also causes a specific legal injury to an individual or to a specific class or group of individuals. In such cases, a member of the public having sufficient interest can certainly maintain an action challenging the legality of such act or omission, but if the person or specific class or group of persons who are primarily injured as a result of such act or omission, do not wish to claim any relief and accept such act or omission willingly and without protect, the member of the public who complains of a secondary public injury cannot maintain the action, for the effect of entertaining the action at the instance of such member of the public would be to foist a relief on the person or specific class or group of persons primarily injured, which they do not want. It is only when courts are apprised of gross violation fundamental rights by a group or a class action or when basic human rights are invaded or when there are complaints of such acts as shock the judicial conscience that the courts, especially this Court, should leave aside procedural shackles and hear such petitions and extend its jurisdiction under all available provisions for remedying the hardships and miseries of the needy, the underdog and the neglected. I will be second to none in extending help when such help is required. But this does not mean that the doors of this Court are always open for anyone to walk in. it is necessary to have some selfimposed restraint on public interest litigants. It is thus clear that only a person acting bona fide and having sufficient interest in the proceeding of PIL will alone have a locus standi and can approach the court to wipe out the tears of the poor and needy, suffering from violation of their fundamental rights, but not a person for personal gain or private profit motive or any oblique consideration. Similarly, a vexation petition under the colour of PIL brought before the court for vindicating any personal grievance, deserves rejection at the threshold. [T]he busybodies meddlesome interlopers, wayfarers, or officious interveners having absolutely no public interest except for personal gain or private profit either for themselves or as proxy of others or for any other extraneous motivation or for glare of publicity break the queue muffling their faces by wearing the mask of public interest litigation, and get into the courts by filing vexations and frivolous petitions and thus criminally waste the valuable time of the courts and as a result of which the queue standing outside the doors of the court never moves which piquant situation creates a frustration in the minds of the genuine litigation and resultantly they lose faith in the administration of our judicial system. Normally before such a project is undertaken, a detailed consideration of the need, viability, financing and cost-effectiveness of the proposed project and offers received takes place at various levels in the Government. It there is a good reason why the project should not be undertaken, then the time to object is at the time when the same is under consideration and before a final decision is taken to undertake the project. If breach of law in the execution of the project is apprehended, then it is at the stage when the viability of the project is being considered that the objection before the appropriate authorities including the court must be raised. We would expect that if such objection or material is placed before the Government, the same would be considered before a final decision is taken. It is common experience that considerable time is spent by the authorities concerned before a final decision is taken regarding the execution of a public project. This is the appropriate time when all aspects and all objections should be considered. It is only when valid objections are not taken into account or ignored that the court may intervene. Even so, the court should be moved at the earlier possible opportunity. Belated petitions should not be entertained. The same considerations must weigh with the court when interim orders are passed in such petitions. The party at whose instance interim orders are obtained has to be made accountable for the consequences of the interim order. The interim order could delay the project, jettison finely worked financial arrangements and escalate costs. Hence the petitioner asking for interim orders in appropriate cases should be asked to provide security for any increase in cost as a result of such delay or any damages suffered by the opposite party in consequence of an interim order. Otherwise public detriment may outweigh public benefit in granting such interim orders. Stay order or injunction order, if issued, must be molded to provide for restitution. In our constitution scheme it is not possible to vest the Chief Justice of India with any control over the puisne Judges with regard to conduct, either personal or judicial. In case of breach of any rule of the Code of Conduct, the Chief Justice can choose not to post cases before a particular Judge against whom there are acceptable allegations. It is possible to criticises that decision on the ground that no enquiry was held and the Judge concerned has no opportunity to offer his explanation particularly when the Chief Justice is not vested with any power to decide about the conduct of a Judge. There is no adequate method or machinery to enforce the Code of Conduct. On account of this lacuna in-house procedure has been adopted for inquiry to be made by the peers of Judges for report to the Honble the Chief Justice of India in case of a complaint against the Chief Justice or Judges of the High Court in order to find out the truth of the imputation made in the complaint and that inhouse inquiry is for the purpose of his own information and satisfaction. A report made on such inquiry if given publicity will only lead to more harm than good to the institution as Judges would prefer to face inquiry leading to impeachment. It is not appropriate for the petitioner to approach the Supreme Court for the relief or direction

for release of the report, for what the Chief Justice is India has done is only to get information from peer Judges of those who are accused and the report made to the Chief Justice of India is wholly confidential. The said report is only for the purpose of satisfaction of the Chief Justice of India that such a report has been made. It is purely preliminary in nature, ad hoc and not final. If the Chief Justice of India is satisfied that no further action is called for in the matter the proceeding is closed. If any further action is to be taken as indicated in the inhouse procedure itself, the Chief Justice of India may take such further steps as he deems fit. Therefore, in the hierarchy of the courts, the Supreme Court does not have any disciplinary control over the High Court Judges, much less the Chief Justice of India has any disciplinary control over any of Judges. That position in law is very clear. Thus, the only source or authority by which the Chief Justice of India can exercise this power of inquiry is moral or ethical and not in exercise of powers under any law. Exercise of such power of the Chief Justice of India based on moral authority cannot be made the subject matter of a writ petition to disclose a report made to him. (Paras 2 and 3) The constitution referred to by the petitioner is stated to have been constituted as a part of in-house procedure. The inquiry ordered and the report made to the Chief Justice of India being confidential and discreet is only for the purpose of his information and not for the purpose of disclosure to any other person. It is no doubt true that in a democratic framework free flow of information to the citizens is necessary for proper functioning particularly in matters, which form part of a public record. But right to information is not absolute. The claim for a direction to any professional and independent investigating agency to conduct an inquiry into the said alleged incident cannot be accepted because appropriate course for the petitioner would be to approach the authorities concerned as enumerated in Art. 217 of the Constitution. (Paras 3, 4 and 6)

If the petitioner can substantiate that any criminal offence has been committed by any of the Judges mentioned
in the course of the petition, appropriate complaint can be lodged before a competent authority for taking action by complying with requirements of law. There is hardly any need for the Supreme Court to give any such direction in the matter. Therefore, this petition is not being entertained. (Para 7). Indira Jaisingh v. Registrar General, Supreme Court of India, (2003) 5 SCC 494: (2003) 3 KLT 198. Tata Cellular v. Union of India (1994) 6 SCC 651, Monarch Infrastructure (P) Ltd. v. Commr., Ulhasmagar Municipal Corpn. (2000) 5 SCC 287, W. B. S E B v. Patel Engg. Co. Ltd. (2001) 2 SCC 451 and LIC of India v. Consumer Education and Research Centre (1995) 5 SCC 482: AIR 1995 SC 1881. The legal right of an individual may be founded upon a control or a statute or an instrument having the force of law. For a public law remedy enforceable under Article 226 of the Constitution, the actions of the authority need to fall in the realm of public law be it a legislative act of the State, an exercise act of the State or an instrumentality or a person or authority imbued with public law element. The question is required to be determined in each case having the aforementioned principle in mind. However, it may not be possible to generalize the nature of the action, which would come either under public law remedy or private law field nor is it desirable to give exhaustive list of such actions. There is thus no doubt that the High Courts in India exercising their jurisdiction under Article 226 have the power to issue a writ of mandamus or a writ in the nature of mandamus or to pass orders and give necessary directions where the Government or a public authority has failed to exercise or has wrongly exercised the direction conferred upon it by a statute or a rule or a policy decision of the Government or has exercised such discretion mala fide or on irrelevant considerations or by ignoring the relevant considerations and materials or in such a manner as to frustrate the object of conferring such discretion or the policy for implementing which such discretion has been conferred. In all such cases and in any other fit and proper case a High Court can, in the exercise of its jurisdiction under Article 226, issue a writ of mandamus or a writ in the nature of mandamus or pass orders and give directions to compel the performance in a proper and lawful manner of the discretion conferred upon the Government or a public authority, and in a proper case, in order to prevent injustice resulting to the parties concerned, the court may itself pass an order or give directions which the Government or the public authority should have passed or given had it properly and lawfully exercised its discretion. Mandamus which is a discretionary remedy under Article 226 of the Constitution is requested to be issued, inter alia, to compel performance of public duties, which may be administrative, ministerial or statutory in nature. Statutory duty may either directory or mandatory. Statutory duties, if they are intended to be mandatory in character, are indicated by the use of the words, shall, or must. But this is not conclusive as shall or must have, sometimes, been interpreted as may. What is determinative of the nature of duty, whether it is obligatory, mandatory or directory, is the scheme of the statute in which the duty has been set out. Even if the duty is not set out clearly and specifically in the statute, it may be implied as correlative to a right. In the performance of this duty, if the authority in whom the discretion is vested under the statue, does not act independently and passed on order under the instructions and orders of another authority, the Court would intervene in the matter, quash the order and issue a mandamus to the authority to exercise its own discretion. Obligatory duties must be distinguished from discretionary powers. With the latter mandamus has nothing to do: it will not, for example, issue to compel a minister to promote legislation. Statutory duties are by no means always imposed by mandatory language with words such as shall or must. Sometimes they will be the implied counterparts of rights, as where a person may appeal to a tribunal has a correlative duty to hear and determine the appeal. Sometimes also language which is apparently merely permissive is construed as imposing a duty, as where may is interpreted to mean shall. Even though no compulsory words are used, the scheme of the Art may imply a duty. Having developed from a piece of purely administrative machinery, mandamus was never subject to the misguided notion which at one time afflicted its less fortunate relative certiorari, that it could apply only to judicial functions. Administrative or ministerial duties of every description could be enforced by mandamus.

It was, indeed, sometimes said that this remedy did not apply to judicial functions, meaning that where a public authority was given power to determine some matter, mandamus would not lie to compel it to reach particular decision. The law as to this is explained below under Duty to exercise jurisdiction. The fact that the statutory duty is directory as opposed to mandatory, so that default will not invalidate some other action or decision, is no reason for not enforcing it by mandamus.

However, this concept of democracy as rights-based with limited governmental power, and in particular of the
role of the courts in a democracy, carries high risks for the judges and for the public. Courts may interfere inadvisably in public administration. The case of Bromley London Borough Council v. Greater London Council (1983) 1 AC 768: (1982) 1 ALL ER 129: (1982) 2WLR 62 (HL) is a classic example. The house of Lords quashed the G L C cheap fares policy as being based on a misreading of the statutory provisions, but were accused of themselves misunderstanding transport policy in so doing. The courts are not experts in policy and public administration hence Jowells point that the court should not step beyond their institutional capacity (Jowell, 2000). Acceptance of this approach is reflected in the judgements of Laws, L. J. in International Transport Roth GmbH v. Secy. In Maneka Gandhi v. Union of India (1978) 1 SCC 248. Dealing with the scope and purport of Article 19 (1) the Bench held: (SCC pp. 306-07, para 29) [E]ven if a right is not specifically named in Article 19 (1), it may still be a fundamental right covered by some clause of that article, if it is an integral part of a named fundamental right or partakes of the same basic nature and character as that fundamental right. It is not enough that a right claimed by the petitioner flows or emanates from a named fundamental right or that its existence is necessary in order to make the exercise of the named fundamental right meaningful and effective. Every activity which facilitates the exercise of a named fundamental right is not necessary comprehended in that fundamental right nor can it be regarding as such merely because it may be possible otherwise to effectively exercise that fundamental right. What is necessary to be seen is, and that is the test which must be applied, whether the right claimed by the petitioner is an integral part of a named fundamental right or partakes of the same basic nature and character as the named fundamental right so that the exercise of such is in reality and substance nothing but an instance of the exercise of the named fundamental right. If this be the correct test, the right to go abroad cannot in all circumstance be regarded as included in freedom of speech and expression.

Article 19 Burden of Prove Nature and Extent of Right Distinguished form statute rights Dhram
Dutt v. Union of India (2004) Vol. 1 SCC 712 a restriction on the activities of the Association is not a restriction on the activity on the individual citizen forming membership of Association Indian Council of World Affairs Act, 2001 under challenged Right and Restriction to be dealt with Article 19 (2) to (6) Article 300A and 19 (1) (f) Tibia Collage case AIR 1962 SC 448 followed. Society is incapable of holding property. That Article 14 has a pervasive potency and a versatile quality, equilitarian in its soul, but allergic to discriminatory dictates. It is well known that equality is anti-thesis to arbitrariness. Since the license may not be given to a blind man to drive a car, how worthwhile it may be to give the similar license to a criminal to do every sort of atrocities being committed by indulging into the crime of the innocent people. There are inherent restrictions applicable for the enforcement of the individual personal right under article 19, which empowers the state to enforce reasonable restriction on the exercise of the right of the people in the interest of sovereignty, integrity of India security of the state, friendly relations with foreign state, public order, decency or morality etc. including the incitement to an offence pertaining to the reasonable restrictions regarding freedom of speech and expression, to assemble ,to form associations and freedom to reside and move freely throughout the territory of India. That by the constitution (first amendment) Act 1951, there have been further restrictions to practice any profession, or to carry on any occupation, trade or business for professional or technical qualification as well as carrying on any occupation, trade or business by the state and its instrumentality to the exclusion, complete or partial, of citizens. Thus the question arises as to whether there may not be a valid test of classification based on qualities or characteristics necessarily coupled with the object of legislation based on intelligible differential, which has certain nexus with the realities of the time to dealt with the law and order situation by providing necessary restriction over the unchecked liberty granted to the individual detrimental to its integrity and sovereignty for prohibition to avail the benefit of equality clause by taking the rescue for forbid classification. . There cannot be any enforceable fundamental right to an individual for indulging in anti national activities. Thus the verdict given by the Honble Supreme Court in Minerva Mills Limited Vs Union of India 1980 (3) SCC 625 is required to be reviewed for effective enforcement of the duties caste upon the citizen by passing through the test of "Form and Object" and "Pith and Substance" to mould and replace by the test of "Direct and Inevitable" effect. Arts. 21 and 19 Communal Riots Best Bakery Case Macabre killings arising out of communal frenzy Failure of State machinery to protect citizens life, liberties and property, and investigation in a manner helpful accused persons Duty of courts arising therefrom to maintain confidence of the public in the judicial system Courts to ensure that accused persons are punished and the might and authority of the State are not used to shield itself or its men Deficiencies in investigation or prosecution to be dealt with an iron hand, appropriately within framework of law Judicial criminal administration to be kept clean and beyond the reach of whimsical political wills or agendas and properly insulated from discriminatory standards of the type prohibited by the Constitution Role of State Government in not getting the offenders to book deprecated in the strongest terms Described as modern-day Neros

who looked elsewhere whilst innocent children and helpless women were burning As wanton boys whos flies law and justice had become, which they killed for their sport And as fences that swallowed their crops. Zahira Habibulla H. Sheikh vs. State of Gujarat.(2004)4 SCC 158. That this writ petition is moved in the Public Interest, for a National Cause, to establish the truth there is no private interest or any other oblique motive, or any other personal gain. The petitioner institution, known as Institute for Re-writing Indian History, Thane, having registration no. F-1128 (T) is a public trust. The founder president of the trust is Shri P.N. Oak S/o Late Shri Nagesh Krishna Oak, R/o- Plot no. 10, Goodwill Society, Aundh, Pune.411007, who has written number of books namely 1. World Vedic Heritage, 2. The Tajmahal is a Temple Place, 3.Some Blunders of Indian Historical Research, 4. Flowers Howlers, 5. Learning Vedic Astrology, 6. Some Missing Chapters of World History, 7. Agra red Fort is a Hindu Building, 8.Great Britain was Hindu Land, 9. The Taj Mahal is Tejomahalaya a Shiva Temple, 10.Who Says Akbar was Great, 11. Vedic Guide to Health, Beauty, Longevity and Rejuvenation, 12. Islamic Havoc in Indian History. That the founder-President of Petitioners Institution namely Shri P. N. Oak is a National born Citizen of India. He resides permanently at the address given in case title. The petitioner is a renowned author of 13 renowned books including the books, titled as, The Taj Mahal is a Temple Place. This petition is related to Taj Mahal, Fatehpur- Sikiri, Red-fort at Agra, Etamaudaula, Jama- Masjid at Agra and other so called other monuments. All his books are the result of his long-standing research and unique rediscovery in the respective fields. The titles of his books speak well about the contents of the subject. His Critical analysis, dispassionate, scientific approach and reappraisal of facts and figures by using recognised tools used in the field gave him distinction through out the world. That in 1968 A. D Sri P.N. Oak written his first book titled as Taj Mahal is TEJO-MAHALAYA : A SHIVA TEMPLE. In 1974 A. D. It is submitted that in the Carbon dating test 14 conducted of the doors timber placed on the Northern side of Taj Mahal building now removed from its location Towards Yamuna River at Dashara Ghat and Basai Ghat from where the public could have a glance towards Shiva Temple constructed at the top of Raja Mansingh Palace Which was in Occupation of his grand Son Raja Jai Singh, when it was forcibly taken by Emperor Sahajahan for burial of Arjumand Bano( Mumtaj )W/o Emperor Shahajahan Died in between and buried at Burhanpur and her body Exhumed after about 6 months. That this book is being well accepted in India and abroad. The popular nostalgia for legendary love has helped fan then flame of Shahjahans mythical attachment to Mumtaz into a raging fire, enveloping the Taj in the dazzle of leaping flames and blinding smoke of imaginary accounts, discouraging the cool, dispassionate research about its origin It has raised no controversy. Since the reasons given therein supported with documented record have proved conclusively the findings and conclusions of the author. Thus the objective of the research conducted by the petitioner No.2 is not to cultivate any animosity or any thing to invade the feeling of any citizen, except the exposure of the truth to the citizen, historians and to the young generation, as they may not be mislead by falsehood, in order to swept away by the impulse of terrorist oriented approach of the fundamentalist under our secular democratic structural approach in the preamble of our constitution. PARAMETERS FOR THE SATISFACTION REGARDING That the great Kshatriya community pride to defend their faith and the culture of our country against foreign invasions in converting the monuments by the foreign invaders requires a sacrificial magnanimity and moral purity in the exposure of the truth to the public and thereby to safeguard their right of freedom of information couched under Article 19(1) (a) is the theme behind the writing this Article and the present Petition .The serene beauty, majesty and grandeur of the Taj Mahal, one of the seventh wonders of the world and other monuments is still not so well known to the world regarding the true story of its origin. The magnificent palace, which was built earlier got converted into the Tomb .The changeover has proved a shroud deluding from lay visitors to the researchers and the great historian Sri P.N. Oak, a co-worker of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. The popular nostalgia of legendary love to get the conversion of every Hindu Palace/Temple due to mythical attachment from fanatic raging fire converting dazzle of leaping flames and blinding smoke should be discouraged into a cool research regarding the origin. This is required to check a different form of terrorism prevalent amongst the crusader of the death to the innocent victim on the psychological level. Let us examine the scared truth about the origin of the monuments.

That the said book, which is the research paper of the author on the subject that the so-called Taj Mahal is not a monument built by an Invader Emperor Shahajahan in memory of his late wife but a Hindu Shiva Temple which was converted into a lovememorial by a Invader Emperor. The true copy of the book was first published in 1968, 2nd edition on 1969, 3rd edition in 1974 namely THE TAJ MAHAL IS TEJO-MAHALAYA: A SHIVA TEMPLE. And large 4th edition published in 1993 shall be produced is being directed by this Honble Court. That the aforesaid book containing 35 pages booklet lists serially numbered 118 points of evidence with may be treated as the submission made before this Honble Court for making following demands (I) The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) be ordered to remove forthwith its notices at the entrance to the Taj Mahal in Agra attributing its creation to Shahjahan, since those notice in English, Hindi and Urdu are false and baseless and quota no authority.(II) Misuse of the left flank building as a mosque be banned since the entire premises constitute a pre-Shahjahan Tejo Mahalaya Shiv Temple complex. (III) Free entry on Fridays be ordered to be discontinued since there being no genuine mosque in the premises why should the Government lose a days revenue! (IV) If Free entry on Fridays is not discontinued then Mondays should also be free-entry days because that is a day of special Shiv worship. (V) The Tej Mahal, its two flanking buildings and a well being all seven-storied they enclose over a thousand rooms which should all be thrown open to visitors since they are charged an entrance free. (VI) The A.S.I. be ordered to remove its locks from those storied and also pull down the crude un plastered walling-up by Shahjahan of staircases, ventilators and doorways leading to those sealed rooms. (VII) The A.S.I. be directed to search for hidden historical evidence such as inscriptions, divine idols etc. in those sealed rooms and thick walls tampered with by Shahjahan. (VIII) The water in the seven-storied wall be pumped out to look for jettisoned valuable and inscription etc. at its bottom when Shahjahans Mogul troops swooped to confiscate that temple palace complex and the bullion, gems, gold-pitcher, the gem-studded gold-railing and the Peacock Throne inside, owned by Raja Jaisingh of Jaipur. (IX) Beating of Nagaras (drums) at auspicious dawn and dusk hours be resumed as of yore in the two Nagarkhanas in the premises. (X) Since the Taj has two cenotaphs each in the name of Shahjahan and Mumtaz in two stories at least one each of those two pairs of cenotaphs must be fake since Mughals dont cut their dead into two pieces to be buried under two cenotaphs it is believed. Even the basement cenotaphs could be genuine because they are two storied higher than the Yamuna river bed ground level. Therefore the ASI be directed to investigate which of those cenotaphs if any are genuine or whether both are fakes or whether there are any more fake cenotaphs upto the ground level ? (XI) The Koranic graft patched along the entrance arches be ordered to be removed since those are illegal forged imposition to be Islamic lettering desecrating the ancient sacred Shiv shrine. (XII) Extensive repairs to the hundreds of sealed or locked rooms in the stories beneath and above the marble floor be ordered to be undertaken immediately to prevent collapse of the Tajmahal from internal weakness. (XIII) The A.S.I. should be directed to investigate as to who stenciled the Arabic letter Allah and some Englishmens names on the mental pinnacle shift rooted in the dome, since no such names exits on the full scale replica of the pinnacle shaft inlaid in the red stone courtyard on the eastern flank of the Tajmahal. (XIV) The Mughal attendants squatting by the side of the cenotaphs should be decommissioned and disbanded because the cenotaphs are fakes covering the ancient Shivlings. (XV) Since the towering sevenstoried Tajmahal edifice must have been raised over an underground basement the ASI should be directed to investigate whether there is any such hidden, buried basement as was the ancient Vedic practice. That in 1155- 1158 A.D. It is said that Raja Paramdardi Dav, a Jaat Ruler on his behalf and on behalf of the Minister Salakahan who constructed Tejoji Mahal which came in occupation Of Raja Man Singh and remain in possession of Raja Jai Singh when It was taken for conversion to Taj Mahal, for the purposes of shifting the remains of Arjumand Bano( Mumtaj )W/o Emperor Shahajahan Died In between 1629-1632 and buried at Burhanpur and her body Exhumed after about 6 months (as disclosed in Shahajan Badshahnama written by Mulla Abdul Hameed Lahori). That, it is said that in 1629-1632 A.D. Arjumand Banu ( Mumtaj )W/o Emperor Shahajahan Died in between and was buried at Burhanpur and her body may be Exhumed after about 6 months. It is submitted that 1641-1668 A.D. is probable period of the shroud deluding changeover of Hindu Palace/Temple as Mughal Monument/ Graveyard. It is submitted that in 1652 A.D. Aurangzeb Letter showing his somsidern about need of elaborate repairs of Taj Mahal.. If Taj Mahal was constructed in 1641 to 1668, why Aurangzeb sought for elaborate repair. It was nothing, except for changing the authorship of building as Mughal monument. In 1658 A.D. Emperor Shahjahan died. Their after his graveyard was also placed in Taj Mahal near the graveyard of Arjumand Banu ( Mumtaj )W/o Emperor Shahajahan. It appear that Koranic in graving dragged for

camouflaging Hindu building with Mughal Lattering as a hoary tradition, which is evidence Adhai-Din-Ka-opda at Ajmer which was a part of vigragharaj Vishandeos palace an also at Qutuvminar with a legerdemain of Islamic carvings on it. That in 1843 A.D., the Governor General Lord Auckland with his lieutenant Cunningham tempered entire historical data of the archeological department by conversing the authorship of these Hindu palaces to Mughal monument for adopting the policy of Divide and Rule. A deep Conspiracy Committed By Lieutenant Alexander Cunningham in 1842-1847. That in 1951 A D., the provision of The Ancient And Historical Monuments And Archaeological Sites And Remains (Declaration Of National Importance) Act, 1951are further intensified the falsehood of these Buildings by shifting the authorship of these monuments. Thus this Writ Petition is filed seeking declaration to the extend of declaring the ancient and historical monuments and other and Archaeological Sites namely Taj Mahal. Fatehpur-sikiri, Agra Red Fort, Ethmadualla and other Monuments as built by Mugal invaders allegedly on the basis of report submitted by Then Governor General, Lord Auckland, and young lieutenant Alexander Cunningham conceived indigenous scheme of Divide and Ruleand thereby misusing the archaeological studies, be declared as ultravires to Article 19 (1) (a), 25,26 49 And 51-A (f) (h) Constitution of India. That this Honble Court may further declare the provision of Ancient and Historical Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (Declaration of National Importance) Act, 1951 (71 of 1951), The Ancient Monuments And Archaeological Sites And Remains Act, 1958 of declaring these ancient building/ monuments preserved with such false Mughal identity with out any scientific inquiry/ investigation as purported Mughal monuments / Graveyards as unconstitutional and void. The relevant extract of the destruction of the Hindu Temple is reveled through Badshah-nama, which is written by Abdul Hamid Lahori as Under: That the entire world is being fool by the fundamentalist follower of the Mughal invaders by drawing the attention of the tourist to the self exposure of the truth through falsehood, which will be revealed to every conscience citizens by introspections of the preaching given to the visitors by the self proclaimed guide of these monuments. It is submitted that can there be two graves of Arjuman Bano, Mumtaj Zilani and Shah Jahan on 3 4 floor of the building at two places at the same time. There is also an interesting phenomena, which is hidden regarding the existing monuments having the octagonal well for the supply of the water inside the Red Stone building having the different idols, deities and the symbol of worship of the Hindu religion , mysteriously covered with hypothetical justification , which are concealed for visiting by the tourist even at the cost of collapsing the monument of Taj Mahal . The similar structure providing the coverage to the big building towards its right and left side have been deflected to be to mosque and the replica on the other hand. That the external symbol of love. Close on the heels of the debate over the exact date of Taj Mahals construction, doubts have now been raised whether it was actually constructed by the Mughal emperor Shahjahan or not! It is latest twist to the legend of the Taj , by the President of the Institute of Re-writing Indian History of Pune claiming that the Taj Mahal was actually Tejo-Mahalaya, a Shiva temple that was taken from Jaipur Maharaja Jaisingh by Sahajahan for the burial of his beloved Mumtaj Mahal . That the petition points out that Shahjahans own court chronicle, the Badshahnama, admits (on page 403, vol.1) that a grand mansion of unique splendour, capped with a dome ( Imaarat-e-Alishan wa gumbaza) was taken from the Jaipur King and was then known as Raja Man Singhs Palace. That the Aurangzeb, therefore ordered immediate repairs to the building, while recommending to the emperor for more elaborate repairs later, which is a proof that during the Shahjahans reign itself the Taj complex was so old as to need immediate repairs, said the petition while quoting the points from the book of P.N. Oak, Founder Director of the Institute of Re-writing Indian History. That apart from this it is submitted that the petitioner no.2, Sri P.N. Oak has categorically asserted through his writing in the different research work conducted by making the publication of the different books published from time to time. That prior to the prorogation of the Islam is religion and the Christianity, there was the vedic culture prevelant through out the world. There was the destruction of Hindu temples and reconverting of the same to the Mughal monuments, the valuable construction raised in the pre-vedic era was abrogated and subjugated to the naught and the different Sanskrit terms have been mispronounce carving out to the different languages of Persian, English, German, and even the French language. Thus the conclusion in escapable that as the peacock throne having many valuable gems, which was captured upon the

accession of emperor Shah Jahan, was taken Diamonds, Rich Pearls and emeralds having the valuation of Rs. 20 Million was taken away by these invaders. That according to British Historian Keene Agra Red Fort has been in existence from the pre Christian era. It has been revealed by historical evidence of the writing of the different foreign historians published posthumously in India. That the ancient Hindu King Great King Ashoka ( Third century B.C.) and Great King Kanishka (first century B.C.) had lived in that fort. Thus the claim setup by the mediable Mughal falterers, that Akbar built the Agra Red Fort is based on falsehood. The lower portion of the building comprising of three caves leading to the different monuments hidden inside the Agra Red Fort having the connectivity there of to these national monuments, who claims to be the protector of these ancient monuments of Archeological importance after enactment of the Waqf Act 1995. The petitioner also filing the writing displayed inside Taj Mahal building having the purported Taj Mosque having the admission of gold plated Kalash measured 30 feet 6 inches replaced by Captain Joseph Tailor in 1810, while the second replacement of very gold Kalash in 1876 and the third replacement in 1940. That the petitioner is making the exposure of the falsehood on the basis of the photographs taken the closer lances showing the writing of Koranic script upon the tiles by making the grooves in the marble and having the imposture there upon after removal of the original Sanskrit description comprising of 34 stanzas, which has been found written upon the Bateshwar inscription and having the description there of in the research work of conducted by Shri P.N. Oak through his writing namely The Taj is a Temple Place on Page No. 198 having recital of 24,25 and 34 Stanzas relevant for establishment. That Taj Mahal was built as temple of Lord Shiva, while Etmauddola was having the ideal of Lord Vishnu, which were constructed by the King Parmarde Dev or on his behalf by his Minister Salakshan in 1212 , Vikram era Ashwani Subday 5th day of Purnima (the bright luner fort night). That On the other hand, it is resplendent immortal tear drop of deception by converting the glorified palace comprising of four storey building having a Shiva Temple on the top of Tejo-Mahalya (a palace of Lord Shiva commonly known as Tejo Ji by Jat predominating inhibition of Taj Ganj area at Agra) on the cheek of time (probably during Aurangzeb period which became the downfall of the Mughal period). The Archeological Department alleges the construction of the building from 1628 A. D. onward upto 1656 A. D. as displayed on the marble stone planted outsides the gate of Taj Mahal. That the other aspect of the truth is hidden behind the four storey building of the Palace covered with the mud comprising of the four garden towards the front side while towards the back side adjoining to Yamuna river the lower portions of the building could not be covered with the mud which demonstrate that the policy of Hide and Seek has been adopted to provide a coverage of the period of actual construction of the building of Taj Mahal from the entire world. Inside the palace there is the stone carving of the religious deity and an octagonal well for supply of the water in the under ground rooms numbering from 44 rooms at the bottom while 17 rooms situated under the ChameliFarsh on the riverside. That the petitioner has also filed the inscription having Koranic script leveled upon it for indicating the same to be the Mughal monuments. The Petitioner has also filed the hidden portion of Anoop Mahal having so many construction leading to the underground building of Fatehpur Sikri , which is not shown to the public by filling the water on the entrance Gate by the fundamentalists under the coverage of Waqf Board, which is now converting every symbol of Hindu origin by having a plaster upon the aforesaid historical evidences. The Petitioner is also filing the Snake like appearance having the appearance of Shesh Nag, which is said to have the entire Gate of the earth upon its hoods according to the Hindu Vedic scripture. Had there been the construction of these monuments by the Mughal Emperor, they would have never created such type of the Hindu Religions identity inside these monuments!? That the stairways now closed and shut down cleverly with the stone slabs by the custodian of the building namely the walk Board after promulgation of walk Act 1995, further provides the coverage to the deceptiveness of falsehood. It is curious to note that the arches on the riverside have been closed up with rough brick-masonry which has been eased exteriorly- towards the Yamuna river with red stone slabs bearing carved designs. This masonry which is still going on inspite of the restriction imposed under the Ancient Monument and Archeological sites and Remains Act, 1958 and the Ancient and Historical Monument and Archeological sites and Remains (Declaration of National Importance) Act 1951. That the basement, which is comprising of the Red Stone has been converted by deleting the sign of Hindu construction of the building. Shah Jahan died in Agra Fort in

captivity in the early hours of the night of Monday, the 26th Rajab A. H. 1076/1666 A. D. Jahanara, daughter of Mumtaj Mahal was also living with Shah Jahan after the death of Arjumand Bano Begum. On his death R an Andaaz Khan, the commander of Fort, Khurajah Phul came into Ghusal-Khanah where Sayyed Mohammad Kannauji and Qaji Kurban, chief Qaji of Agra were called upon. At Muthamman Burj where Emperor Shah Jahan had died. His body was transported by boat through Darwaja Nashab of the Muthamman Burj and the outer Sher Haji Gate, which are now closed for the public. That, the claim set-up by the Archeological Department that Taj Mahal was started during the regime in1628 and completed in 1656, when Shah Jahan was alive is a falsehood. The Tombstone are not monolithic, but are composed of exquisitely dressed with marble slabs of different sizes. The symbolic Motifs like Swastika, Cakra, Satkona (hexagon), panchkona (pantagon), Sankh (wnch-shell) in the reverse order moving anticlock wise are found in every Mugal monuments situated at Delhi, Agra, Fatehpur Sikri, Humayuns Tomb, Akbari-Mahal, Jahangiri Mahal and at the Moti Majid of Agra Fort and Janis Masjid of Fatehpur Sikri and at Akbari-Tomb (Sikandra, Agra) are the symbol of Hindu worship. The octagonal basement is the reciprocator of ten directions which is known only under Hindu Traditions includes Earth and the sky apart from eight directions while the other religions namely Christianity and Mugal consider only four directions. The animate motifs like peacocks, fishes are worshipped by the Hindu the geometrical element like triangle, square, rectangle found at Taj Mahal and also at Fatehpur Sikri and Moti Masjid of Agra are the symbols of Hindu Traditional used during the Hindu festival at the entrance of the Home side. Satkona and other weapons namely Ankush (elephant goad), trishul (trident), Bana (arrow), parasu (mini-axe) are seen in the large number of their variations which may be seen ad masons marks at Taj Mahal and Fatehpur Sikri. That on the other hand ,the only imposter made by the invaders during Mugal period are the fixation of the Koranic Script out side these monuments after reshuffling of the main temple and the Sanskrit writing on the temple, the description of which is found in BATESWAR INSCRIPTION now preserved in side the Lucknow Museum revealing the date of construction of Hindu temple by Raja Paramdardi Dev, a Jat Ruler in 1155-1158, while the palace remain in existence even prior to such period, may be seen by the close scrutiny of the tiles planted on the main and side gates of the temple. That the common symbols found at Fatehpur Sikri, constructional technique of all these building in one category which are commonly represented as Hindu religious symbols building. The letter of the Director General of Archeological Survey of India, New Delhi Bearing D. O. letter number 54/16/73-M dated 22nd /24th May 1973 to Dr. R. Nath, Professor of History Department and Historical research Documentation Programme, Jaipur acknowledge the truth. It is alarming that although the voice of the great historical was raised before the pavement stones of the main plinth of tomb of Humayun was replaced by orthodox Mughals, the preservation of the masons mark by the circle superintending archeologists of the different regions would not be maintained despite assurance given by then Director General M. L. Desh Pande in reply to the letter written by Prof. R. Nath on 15th May 1973,. That it has been revealed to the general public on the basis of the investigation conducted by the Senior Editor of Amar Ujala, Sri Bhanu Pratap Singh, S/O Jagdish Prasad Verma, R/O MIG 1A-107, Shastri Puram, Sikandara, Bodala Road, Agra, that there has been the significant number of the facts and also on the basis of the evidence collected that there are two floor red stone building below the white marble construction of Taj Mahal. On the ground floor, there were toilets for the use of residents of the Royal palace while the living apartment are situated on the first floor. There are octagonal buildings submerged inside the great historical monument which has been purported to be the graveyard inside the middle of the white stone building while towards the left side there is the mosque and on the right side the replica of the same as alleged by the fundamentalists, individualists, supported by the protective appeasement policy by enactment by the Wakf Act, 1995. That it has been further revealed that the doors affixed towards Yamuna side were found for being carved out from the wooden material, which were found to be aged about more than 800 years at Brookline University, through carbon dating test conducted in America and as such these doors have been mysteriously disappeared by the interested parties under the garb of maintenance of building under the provision of Waqf Act,1995. There are more than ten chambers of the ground floor, which have been sealed while twenty two chambers were hidden inside the red stone building, for which, there is description in Moinuddin Book The Taj and its Environments. That similarly there are number of the remains of the deities/temples like structures lying there in Fatehpur Sikri, which signifies the construction of the temple from more than two thousand years before. The discovery of Yakchh Idol fragmented deity

comprising of significant sculptures work and a Shiva- Linga of 3.5 feet height and a deity of the Vishnu have been recovered from the adjoining areas of Fatehpur Sikri. There has been the demand of the people to declare Fatehpur Sikri as an Ancestor Heritage City, which remained in existence even prior to the period of before arrival of Christianity, when Lord Mahaviras Jain religion was in existence. The first Jain pilgrimage of Rishi Bhagdev statue was recovered having the description of Om, Samvat 1079 Jaishth Sudi 11 Ravi Swaty Nakshatray , The transcription of Sri Vimlacharya samtane suplok cha dhanpatti tambhya karya titti has been discovered written upon the same. This signifies that in 1022 AD Din (Day) Swaty Nakshatray- Sri Sambhaw Nath IIIrd Jain pilgrimage statue was constructed by the son of Sri Vimlacharya namely Pawan Srawak Devraj and his wife Dhanpatti. These idols are hidden inside the earth in Sikri village, while on the top hillside of Fatehpur Sikri, there are the existence of the temple of Lord Shiva, Lord Vishnu and Maa Durga which are still hidden inside the earth. This is still a secret, that who have committed this scaffolding in order to provide the extinction of Vedic literature from the access of the people. Let us examine the alleged expenditure set to have been incurred in construction of Taj Mahal. It is alleged that the measurement of the size of Red Stone paved platform in front of main gateway of Taj Mahal is 211.6 feet into 86.3 feet. The height of the main gateway is 100 feet. The diagonal of the optagonal hall of the main gateway is 41.6 feet while the size of each wing on the internal side of the main gateway is 360 feet by 29.3 feet. While the size of the mosque-zamat Khana or Mahman Khana are 186 x 51.9 inch length of the mosque is 186 feet. The height of each minaret from the level of the garden to the apex of the Kalash is 162.6 feet while according to the record of Survey of India the southeast minaret and north-east minaret are 132.21 and 131.30 feet respectively. 243.6 is the total height of the main mausoleum the total height of domb from the base of the drum to the apex of the final is 145.8-1/4 inches. The distance from terrace on the internal side of the gateway to the central marble tank is 412.6 feet. These are the list of the various measurements of the Taj recorded by Moinuddin. That the cost of a gate of onyx with mosaics and the gems has been recorded as rupees 21,482 approximately while the network enclosure of silver and gold for the cell was approximately counted as rupees 45,687. According to Moinuddin the weight of the Kalash of the main dome is 33 Mounds and its cost is Rs. 13,688/- only. The cost of the tower of Minar Mahal (Burj Minar Mahal Shah-Nashin Aiwan-Haye Khanah) is counted as Rupees 4,77,449 approximately. The whole marble complex resting on the Chameli Farsh (comprised of plinth, four minarets and the main tomb) was built at the cost of rupees 1,05,23,063 which is more than one-fourth of the total cost incurred by Shah Jahan. It is for the people to muster sufficient courage and be in a position to exercise a little scholarly discretion regarding the truth of these dates which will conform that there was no construction of the original structure but the scaffolding of the existing structure by imposture of Koranic Script and the replacement of Sanskrit verses signifying the construction the Hindu Shiva Temple already in existence prior to Mughal invasion The peacock throne. That the institute of Islamic history culture and civilization Islamabad, Pakistan has published a book on Thatta Architecture in 1982. This book disclose the monument built by Mughal through bricks in their regions. It is important to notice that there is brick built structure set have been raised during Shah Jahan period at Thatta. There is no other name of any other Mughal ruler for construction of the mosque of Tughril Begh showing the new technique to dome construction dated 1059 A. D. / 1649 A. D. by Shah Jahan. The tomb of Esa Khan II Tarkhan having the domed tomb with pillared galleries dated 1054 A. H. /1644 A. D. On these construction everywhere you may find the octagonal brick built tomb with Hindu Symbol decorating the ceiling with Vedic scripture and paintings but these monuments have least preserved by Archeological Department at Pakistan. That the tomb is enclosure of Bqqi Begh Uzbek showing the chronical dome on octagonal drum is said to have been constructed on 1050 A. H. / 1604 A. D. The elevations of the grave stones of Diwan Shurfa Khan showing the engraving decorated in typical Tarkhan Style on the side of Cenotaph is dated 1038 A. H. / 1638 A. D. which is said to have been construction during Shah Jahan reign at Thatta. The Amir Mohammad Khan mosque at Thatta is a high soldiered single domed square brick built structure depicting glazed tiles of Mughal Shah Jahan period is dated 1039A. H. / 1629A. D.. The Janis Mosque of Thatta is said to have been built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan which has triple entrance of newly laid garden infront of mosque with water fountains playing in the middle of water channels and cypress trees surrounding to the corridors is dated 1054 A. H. / 1647 A. D. during Shah Jahan period. The ceiling of the main entrance of Janis Mosque showing the wooden dross glazed pannels enamelled tiling of the wall, squint and interlaced arch at the underside of the half domb with a ceiling with sunflower at the apex giving the effort of starry sky are certainly the Hindu Religious

symbols of architect which have been converted as the Mughal monuments by Archeological Department of Islamabad. Thatta came under the Mughals after Mirza Zani Begh captured the city and there after his son Mirza Begh later renamed as Jagirdar of Thatta came to the power during Shah Jahan period. That It is said that Governor brick building known as Miran Shah tomb and mosque is situated north-east of Sekhjia Tomb at Shahi Bazaar Thatta. The inscriptions fixed over the Mihrab were built by Nawab Abdul Razzaq Muzaffar Khan. The mosque of Jami Masjid is built by Shah Jahan at Thatta in 1644 A. D. which was completed in 1647 A. D. But the floor was paved with the stone in 1657 A. D. It is said that the first repair of the mosque was carried out by Aurangzeb. Thus, it is manifestly clear that on one hand the mosque os Jami Masjid was constructed by Emperor Shah Jahan from 1644 A. D. upto 1657 A. D. was in progress by the different inscriptions while on the other hand it is said that Taj Mahal was constructed after the death of Mumtaz Zilani commencing from the period of 1628 A. D. / 1658 A. D. as Emperor Shah Jahan was arrested thereafter and remained confined till his death in 1666 A. D. The Archeological survey of India reports (brought out under Alexander Cunningham) are feeble, inane and all but useless The pioneer, In English daily newspaper of Lucknow it was observed that The Archeological survey of India reports (brought out under Alexander Cunningham) are feeble, inane and all but useless and the Government has reasons to be ashamed of the majority of the volume. It appears that Cunningham planted false Mughal cenotaphs inside Hindu building, inserted Koranic over writing on Hindu edifices and sponsored the fabrication of documents to be given to Mughal caretaker for conversion of the Hindu Building like Taj Mahal, Red fort, Fatehpur Sikri, Sikandara, Etmadudullah built by Hindu rulers to the Mughal monuments. Let us begin with the dubious instance of 230 ft. high tower called as Qutub Minar to which historian claims to have been built by Qutbbuddin Aibak from 1206-1210 A.D. The other historian claims that it was built by his son in law and successor Iltmash while other claim it to be built by Allauddin Khilji. The fourth view is of Ferozshah Tuglaq while the fifth view is that all these rulers jointly or severely built the tower. Everyone knows that there is no basis for the above assertion. But the truth is known to the public by mere seeing the sight of Qutub Minar that the same is having so many deity and temple adjoining to this monument. These historians may be impeached for gross dereliction of their duty and for committing cheating upon the conscience of the public. The truth is not amenable to all individual as no one could dare to become vigilant enough and to collect true version about the mediaeval township of Hindu rulers.We therefore caution the world of history not to place any faith in Anglo-Mughal translations of Mughal lettering or documents made hitherto. The ancient Indian history is remarkable from the time of the epic of Ramayana and Mahabharata. There are the evidence that their exists the Hindu palaces having the creation of it by the marble and other precious stone. In the ancient time there was sculpture based on our ethical and religious concepts. The cultural heritage was in existence in the form of iron pillars, the mandate of the ruler on copper scripts and the creation of the artistic image indicating civilization on the different religious temple of the contemporary period. These were the valuable antiques which were ruthlessly destructed by the foreign invaders. The portraits of the ruler and their identification could be seen on the rocks and coins of the relevant period which are hidden inside the earth due to the barbaric destruction of our Hindu heritage. The prominent place of thsee heritage found are at Mohinjaddeo , Harrapa (Sind) ,Takshila (Punjab), Kaushambi, Sarnath, Mathura(Uttar Pradesh), Patilaputra , Nalanda(Bihar), Rajgiri , Sanchi, Burhotra (Madhya Bharat),Agadi, Vanvasi, Talkand and Maski (south). There has been number of articles written by foreign visitors/delegates/diplomat and Ambassdors amongst whom Magastahenes from Domiscus (Syria) and Deoneses (Egypt) are prominent .The descirption of the great ruler Sri Chandragupta Maurya may be found in the writing of Magasthenes. The chinese writer Faiyan left the glimpse of Vikramaditya period thereafter Honchong came to India and remained here for about 15 years who has described the period of Harshavardhan religious and social coordination. Harshvardhan was the prominent ruler of our nation. At the last we may get some description from the article of Alavruni who came along with Mohammed Ghaznavi and examined the traditions of Hindu which are described in (Tahikate hind ) Thus the civilization at Sindh river at Harappa has got the enormous storing capability of the food articles which were distribute by the Hindu rulers during their Anustan in the different part of our country .The discovery of Godam meant for storage of the grains is still found in Harrapa civilization which has become a part of Pakistan after th division of our country. It is evident that the people of the contemporary period were having their expertise in molding the copper pots for storage of the valuable herbal extracts

meant for providing the cure from the ailments. All these cultural heritage of our Hindu civilization has not been preserved by our archeological department. The period of destruction after reaching to the optimum heights after the propagation of Jain religion and Buddhism, may be relate back from the period of Ajatshatru , Nand Samrajya when Sikander invaded our country in 267 B.C. at Peshawar. He fought a battle from King Puru near Jhelum river and due to natural calamity of unprecedented rains ,the elephant could not provide any impact upon aggressors who were fully equipped to fight the Guerilla battle. The defeat of King Abhishad in Kashmir was the beginning of external invasion by the foreign invaders. During the Maurya dynasty, the King Chandragupta Maurya who was getting instructions from great Chanakya had successfully defeated Celucus but subsequently he entered with a compromise with Chandragupta Maurya as a result of which Chandragupta got eastern part of Unan namely aria , archosia , gadrosia and paronishdi. Chandragupta Maurya subsequently married with the daughter of King of Unan. Thus our country under the domination of the dynasty of Chandragupta Maurya was extended up to Unan to Mysore in the south. Thus except Kashmir and Kalinga the boundary our country was extended upto Afghanistan and Baluchistan. But unfortunately the period of Chandragupta Maurya could not remain intact.There was the revolt at tatshila which was suppressed during the reign of Bindusar by great ruler of our nation namely Ashoka the great .King Ashoka fought a battle with Kalinga and in this manner the dimension of the area which was extended upto Baluchistan was further extended from makaram ,sindh, kutch, kyauli, swat ki vally but Kashmir Nepal and Assam remained in exclusion to the aforesaid domination. Subsequently Great King Ashoka became the disciple of Lord Buddha and he has started expansion to the percepts of the religion by having the affixation of the symbolic predomination adhered with the aforesaid religion. He constructed the Ashoka pillars from mono block of a rock .On the top of which there was the symbolic resemblance of four lion while in midst there was a chakra comprising of 24 arches and the Bull and the elephants scriptures were carved out in the middle of the single rock below which there was the lotus in the downward directions. The symbolic resemblance of the lotus became a tradition for construction of the temple. Thus we may find out that wherever the lotus is evident on any monument with the scripture like the vegetable leafs, grapes , peacock and other religious offering provided to the deity kept inside the temple. The foundation of Mughals religion were based on the concepts of destruction of the existing values prevalent amongst the Buddha and Hindu religion. Although prophet Mohammed was himself the follower of Hindu religion he was initially opposed to existence of other religious adomination. There was the preaching that whosoever he might be ,he does not follow the Islam then there may be the army of Mughal followers who may terrorize him for conversion to the Islam. In this process if there may be the use of terrorism by showing of it the follower of other religion may loose the confrontation in the expansion of Islamic Mughal fundamentalist then even the Kuran use to profess the aforesaid crusade. Thus after the existence of such a drastic army of the crusaders, there was no possibility that the other peace loving religion may still remain in existence. Unfortunately Hindu, Jain, Buddh religion followers were dependent upon the policy of non-violence, peace and tranquillity and under there religious philosophy the entire world is like a family of the different ideology. Thus the beginning of the Mughal invasion in our country starting from the time of Mohammed Bin Quasim in 712 A.D., there was the gruesome murder committed of King Daher and thereafter his two daughters after outraging their modesty were handed over by Mohammed Bin Quasim to his uncle namely Abdul Abbass of Oman. However the Mughal ruler after been instigated by the daughters of the King Daher got this Mohammed Bin Quasim death by putting him alive inside the leather of the cow for invading the chastity of two girls prior to their offering to Sultan. This was the beginning of destruction of our cultural heritage by these ruthless invaders. The description of it may be seen in a book written by R.C. Mazumdar namely the Arab mission of India. Sultan Mohammed Ghaznavi robbed Somenath temple ultimately after invading and defeating the different Rajput rulers for more than seventeen time from the year of 1000 to 1026 A.D. This man was the follower of Islam who destructed many temples during his aggression. Abdul Fateh Daud ,a Mughal ruler of Sultan was so terrified that he offered his apology to Mohammed Ghaznavi and at the same time Jaypal who committed the suicide instead of being surrendered before Mohammed Ghaznavi, his son Anand Pal was also defeated near Peshawar. In the sixth attack committed upon our nation by Mohammed Ghaznavi. Anand Pal thereafter associate dthe King of Ujjain, Gwalior, kalingar , Kannauj ,Delhi and Ajmer but due to the division in the army , Mohammed Ghaznaviu again defeated him and thereafter the he attacked on the Palace of Nagarkot

Kingdom. These invasions started from the year of 1007 upto 1027 A.D. continued to remain near Sindhsagar Navnandh , Yagesghwar, Barran, Mahram, Mathura ,Kalinjar and ultimately at Katiabad due to dis integrity of the Hindu rulers. Ultimaley Mohhamed Ghaznavi died on 30th April 1030. The journey of Shahbuddin Mohammed Gauri started from 1176 to 1178 for the victory of Multan and Kutch. He conducted so many attacks with the help of King of Jammu upto 1186. He entered in Gujrat but Mool Raj the King of Anhilavada got him defeated. However in 1191 he conquered Malinga and Shar-Hind which included the territory of Delhi. Thus Delhi and Ajmer remained under his domination while he attacked at Kannuaj, Chandivada (near Etawah), Gwalior and Vijana. Gayasuddin Mohammed Gauri died in 1102. The reason for the defeat of Rajput rulers was on account of the fact, which is exhibited by the recital of Turk aggressors that there is the survival of the fittest. There was no morality in the Hindu army and as such they were defeated by the Mughal rulers. The main reason for the defeat were the caste system, and idol worshipness prevalent at the relevant time. The intellectuals were side tracked and the society was divided into many segmentation in which Kshatriya only were considered to be the fighting class amongst the Hindus. The citizens were having the orthodox feeling and they were very much living under the domination of superstitions. This was the reason that the Hindus were subjected to the cruelty by the foreign invaders. Kutubuddin Aibak appointed a Mughal governor upon Ajmer. He expanded the territory of Mohammed Guari to Meerut, Jhansi, Kol and Runthambor. He converted many temples into Mughal Mosques at Gwalior and Anhilvada. Bengal was invaded by Bakhtiyaruddin Khilji at the time of Kutubbuddin. The starting of Gayasuddin Tuglaq and after his death one Mohammed Tuqlaq who was called as a symbol of many contradictions at the same time he was intelligent and cruel while on the other hand he was a religious and lunatic but he was called as unfortunate idealistic who shifted his capital from Delhi to Devgiri at Daulatabad .The successor of Mahmmaed Tuglaq was Feroz Tuglaq who developed the government farm and made the invention for the rotation of the crops. He converted many Hindu monuments and all these monument description is described at Fatauath- e-ferozshahi .The cities were known as Feroza,Ferozabad,Hissar,Jaunpur and Fatehabad during his time period. He created a army of the slaves comprising of about one lakh eighty thousand people belonging to the inhabitant of the same place where he was the conqueror. After the end of Tuglaq dynasty the Taimur dynasty completely vanished the remains of Tuglaq rluers. However soon the Taimur dynasty appointed Khijr Khan as there represntative who created Syed regime.It has been said by the great German philosopher Gete that the success and the defeat are the part of the same coin as the joy and sorrow are reactionary and the unity is disintegrity are the reflections of the same quality. This was also the reason that after Mohhamed tuglaq there was the extinction of Mughal dynasty and there was the beginning of hindu rulers at Vijaynagar. Later Percy Brown, James Ferguson, Sir Kenneth Clarke, Sir Bannister Fletcher and Encyclopaedia Britannica orchestrated the same cunning tune of Cunnigham. That resulted in firmly establishing and perpetuating a colossal archaeological fraud which is being sedulously taught all over the world as profound academic truth and is echoed in newspaper articles and telecasts for over a century. Cunninghams suggestion was obviously highly appreciated. Because when he retired from the army as a Major General he was straightaway appointed the first archeological surveyor of India in 1861,as director from 1862 to 1865 and as Director General from 1871 to 1885. Thus the historical data based on archeological study conducted by Cunningham are scheming brain of notorious design regarding their vagueness and deceptive notions. The archeological survey of India was dramatically closed from 1861 to 1865 when the two assistant of Cunningham namely J D Beglar and Carlyle took over the charge and prepare the list of historical monuments with fabricated historical records. Consequently persons working around the world as the expert Mughal known as saracenic architecture in museum became the pseudo experts unwittingly perpetuating the fraud with the people. The historical cities were converted to Islam and the pre Mughal edifices built according to the Vedic architecture were vanished from existence. Hinduism could also be called primordial Vedic culture applicable to all humanity from the very first generation That Hinduism is only a modern regional synonym of Vedic culture, which gradually came into vogue from 312 A. D. onwards when first cruel European tyrants such as Emperor Constantine of Rome, King Clovis of France and Charimagne of central Europe began forcibly subjecting people to a concocted Christianity, and three centuries later a

crop of Islamic tyrants compelled people to declare themselves Mughal through terror, torture, tyranny, trickery, treachery, taxation and temptation. That thus it is clear that gradually when people to the west of the Sindhu (alias Indus river) got alienated by force from Vedic culture, they began referring to the residual culture of the people to the east of the Sindhu (alias Indu alias Indus) as Sindhus pronounced as Hindus, (since Semisphere is pronounced as Hemisphere) or Sindhus alias Hindus alias Indians, as adhering to a different ancient (worldwide) cultural free of any spiritual cumpulsions. That since the coercive hold of Islam covered and converted a large part of the world people, the people mow misunderstood Hinduism to be a religion parallel to Islam. But as explained above, Hinduism far from being any exclusive, coercive and illogical dictatorial, imperial doctrine as Islam Hinduism is a world culture encompassing all humanity from its very first generation almost 2000 million years ago as per the tally recorded in Vedic astronomical almanacs. That Its scriptures and other literature such as the Vedic, Upanishads, Purans, the Ramayan, the Mahabharat all enjoin dutiful, helpful conduct towards all living entities including animal and plant life so as to ensure the co-existence of all. Consequentlly all people calling themselves Mughals (from 622 A. D.) and Christians (from 312 A. D.) ought to realize that their ancestors practiced Vedic culture and spoke Sanskrit. It took about 700 years to convert the whole of Europe, country by country, starting from Rome. Among them the British Isles were forced to accept Christianity in 597 A. D. Consequently Britons ought to know that for millions of years prior to 597 A. D. their culture was vedic and language Sanskrit like that of the rest of the world. This booklet is meant to inform all those interested in the history of humanity in general and of Britons in particular of the immense multilateral proof that is still available of the Vedic, Sanskrit past of Britons. Similar booklets could be written about every country in the world, which fancies itself to be Mughal, Christian, or Buddhist That the petitioner no.2 has written many books of the historical importance, which have been refereed in the earlier paragraph in the writ petition. It is submitted that the Vedic culture based upon Hindu Sanskrit was even in existence prior to the beginning of the Christianity. It is submitted that one thing is crystal clear that during the Mughal period and the British Invaders, none of them were interested for exposing the falsehood imposed upon the united Indian Citizen regarding the true authorship of these monuments, which were actually constructed and some of them were worshiped for being the temple and other religious buildings like Taj Mahal even existing prior to the arrival of Mughal Conqueror of the great nation. That the Waqf Act 1995 has provided the further authority to the Mughal fundamentalist to scaffold the existing monument by abrogation and subjugation of the existing structure to their own pre-domination. Thus the facts finding committee is required to be appointed to find out the truth as history may not be tutored according to the dictate of the foreign ruler and the Hindu citizens who were living prior to the arrival of Christianity may get their deemed justice for which they were entitled to remain intact after the independence of our nation. That Justice is a virtue, which transcends all barriers in the way of administration of justice. This is the acknowledged position of law that no party can be forced to suffer for the inaction or omission on the part of law enforcement agencies and whosoever he may be strong. Every decision will be passed according to the procedure established by law. Thus the law has to bend before justice. No court can restore the broken heart of the justice and everyone should provide such protection, which is necessary for them like dutiful parents. The decision may not be repugnant to the normal concept and the basic unit of the society. It may not be allowed to be influenced by immorality. Thus the ultimate responsibility is by enunciating the foundation of a system, on which administration of justice may get the public confidence in our judicial system. That the proceedings are dependent upon the remedies available under the law. Every act of statutory body, which must have been exercised by keeping the purpose and objective meant for enshrine the statutory power with the authority, should have been exercised by keeping the object of such power which is meant by the statute and not with other extraneous consideration, otherwise the fraud will be perpetuated and the faith and belief shall not be subjected to any judicial scrutiny. Thus an accountability is must whenever as wrong is corrected. Some time in such matter of adjudicating without any valid cause, the court unwittingly becomes party to the miscarriage of justice. The judiciary is an ultimate interpreter of the constitution, which is assigned with a duty of the delicate task ensuring that the action of the authorities vested with the statutory power may not breach or transgress its limit. That the dawn of independence has virtually came with confrontation of many problems for effective administration. The foremost and the prominent problem was rehabilitation

of the refugees. There was no place for providing them the basic requirement of shelter and for that reason, the government provided the shelter home for them. The locality was not congenial for their adaptation. Thus the hostility amongst the people has started generating their side effects. The civilisation is the beginning of the governance to any nation. In absence of any co-ordination amongst the fellow citizens, the concept of social embodiment was virtually evasive. Thus there was neither any co-operation nor co-ordination amongst the citizens. The sole motto was to accumulate the resources for advancement and to enforce their hypothetical illusive superiority amongst the other inhabitant. Thus there was a complete absence of religious and spiritual concept in the society. That no man can survive in isolation. There is a rule of give and take. The moment, one person is inclined to accept everything as a matter of his right, the person who is inclined to give him his extra potential, withdraw the basic offer. This become the end of social collaboration. No country is able to survive except by the will of the people. The bitterness amongst the people may ultimately lead to a crisis on psychological level. Thus the country required the coercive method for the enforcement of law and order situation. This was on account of partition of India. That Partition of India was purely a political game fought with a mark of religious fundamentalism the speech of Quaid Azam Zinnah on 11-08-1947 who vehemently advocated the two nation theory was enunciated the Government of Pakistan policy has also realised the folly committed in accepting partition on communal lines in these words: If you change your past and work together in spirit that every one of you , no matter what community he belongs to, no matter what his colour , caste or creed , is first , second and last , a citizen of this state with equal rights, privileges and obligation there will be no end to the progress you will make. I cannot emphasis it too much ; we should begin to work in that spirit , and in course of time , all these angularities , of the majority and minority communities, the Hindu community and the Mughal community , because even as regards Mughals, you have Pathans, Punjabis, Shias , Sunnis, and so on and among the Hindus you have Brahmins , Vaishnavas, Khatris also Bengalis Madrasis and so on , will vanish. You may go to your temples, Mosques or any religion or caste or creed, that has nothing to do with the business of the state .We are starting with the fundamental principle that we all citizens and equal citizens of one State. There is a land in the present age, Where the people live in graves Liberty, freedom all unknown, Service and be slaves. The people are living in free past glory of their own, As an outright, beggars would had sung, Well once upon a time. I was a king When such of the attitude of the people How can they get the freedom, Least to talk of liberty. Yet a certain day may come When the people will hum In the orchard of freedom Taste the juice of liberty. (Not hearsay, not gossip, not publicity, but action.) Truth will not make us but it will certainly make us free. There is an iron cage, not having any ventilation and people are living in the state of suffocation, virtually on the verge of their death point. There is a complete apathy of the custodian of the power towards their welfare and in our country "We, the people " who are regarded to be the sovereign of the nation are living a life full of abrogation and subjugation. I seldom consider that whether it is worthwhile to shout a voice and thereby invite some lighter sleeper to suffer the agony of the death and this purpose achieved through my writing may serve some purpose. Since the daylight shallow the darkness, I have written articles to take the intellectual from apathetically approach towards rectification of prevailing maladies as to wake up. Public education is essential for functioning of the process of popular government and to assist the discovery of truth and strengthening the capacity of individual in participating in decision making process .The decision making process include the right to know also and pushing the protection of reservation beyond the primary level betrays the bigwigs desire to keep the crippled more crippled forever. Education of religion is the foundation for value based survival of human being in a civilized society. The force and section behind civilized society depend upon moral value and the morality cannot be cultivated

through the falsehood of ideological barrier. Thus the children may not be required to read such facts which are having the foundation of falsehood. Our educational institutions are the foundation of the characteristics on the basis of which the young generation will solve the problem of national solidatory and integration. The children are taught to adhere with the truth for their existence in future but the alarming situation linked with the history written by the alien rule has not only nurtured the myth amongst the independent citizens but many monuments have been falsely credited to the alien Mughal rulers who were driven across the Indian borders at sword point and continued to rule our nation mercilessly without given any importance to the existing palace and the temple built by the inhabitant ancestors of the rulers at the contemporary period. Education is an investment made by the nation in its children for harvesting a future crop of responsible adults productive of a well functioning society, however children are vulnerable. They need to be valued, nurtured, caressed, and protected. Imparting of education is state function thus since the human mind is not a tape recorder, it would make a perfect reproduction later in the society .It is said that every state action must be informed by reason. Thus the freedom of expression which includes right to know may be allowed to be enjoyed by the citizen to the fullest possible extent without putting shackles of avoidable cob web of rules and regulations putting restriction on such freedom. Justice has no favorite, except the truth. A reason varies in its conclusion according to the idiosyncrasy of the individual and the times and the circumstances in which he thinks. The terminology of history is derived from Greek word Historia meaning there by an enquiry. Since the enquiry is nothing but the same is attributed to the different branch of knowledge. Thus the inquisitiveness is always generated in educated mind. The history should not be guided solely on etymological terminology. The meaning of Itihas which is a Sanskrit word leads to three terminology .The first one namely iti means such and such (a happening or event) ,ha means indefinitely while aas means happened. Thus the history is chronological happening of the different event during the past period. Long slavery, paradoxically enough, makes the slave to look upon the very change that bind him as his life support. This story was told to the convict in ancient time and who was confined in the dingy cell for fifteen years. After fifteen year the detainee was set free and he gingerly step out of the prison gate. His eyes, which were used to the dim light wilted at the bright sunshine outside everything including traffic, the gazing eyes were the strange look to the detainee and as such he felt terrified. He took a long look at the outside world and thereafter he inhaled a deep breath and there after by a sudden dash he again reached to his dogs tether in the cell as his imprisonment has sapped his self-confidence. This is what has happened in India. The indo-saranice theory of architecture is the existence of Hindu patrons in all medieval monuments thus it is necessary that the credit must be given to such Hindu artists who designed the monuments. It may not be given to medieval cruelty and fanaticism adopted by chauvinistic Mughal invaders. The infidel designs on each and every Mughal mosque and tomb reveals the tolerance of Hindu citizens who were subjected to the cruelty and terrorism from the last one thousand years. This article does not reflect any animosity between the different section of the society but this is a description of sum of the thought provocating a revelation in relations to the blunder committed by the Historian on the foundation of sacrosanct concepts. This feeling utter destitution, dejection, desperation and the loss of all confidence is the result of our slavery by which the Indians have forgotten their own past history, lost freedom and obliviousness of the delights of an unfettered life thus it is necessary to keep the flame of the truth burning in the heart of every enlightened citizen as the majority of the public is unaware of the truth. The glory of our country may only be restored when our traditional heritage culture may revive every citizen from unadulterated history. The historical concepts which were distorted during the long period of slavery may become a task of utmost importance and urgency. An inadequate understanding on impressionable citizen has resulted the further accessibility in implanting the misleading concepts and there by breaking the heads and idols of the fellow citizen due to the segmentation of the society in many composition. A true history must atleast be written in the contemporary language and it should remain independent from interpolation otherwise the very existence of our cultural heritage may be evaporated from the sight of the future generation. The governor general Lord Auckland and young lieutenant Alexander Cunningham conceived indigenous scheme of misusing the archaeological studies. This young

Cunnigham, an army engineer had no training in the archaeological department, he wrote a lengthy letter dated September 15, 1842 suggesting archeological exploration in India. This letter is reproduced on page no 246 Volume 7 journal of Royal Asiatic Society, London, 1843 A.D. It discloses that the purpose of archeological exploration in India is neither the study nor preservation of historical monuments but to use archeology as the imperial tool to create mutual dissension and resentment between Buddhists, Jains and other Hindu with Mughals by falsely crediting all monuments to the authorship to alien Mughal invaders while few may be labeled as that of being constructed by Buddhist or Jain but not by Hindu. Our Duty To Safeguard The Children (Future Generation) From Deceptive Mode Of Imparting Education With Falsehood Regarding Mughal Authorship To Our Ancient Vedic Cultural Heritage Hidden Inside The Construction Of Taj Mahal, Fatehpur Sikri Kutub Minar And Other Hindu Monuments. The object of education Whether enlightenment. 2. Whether wisdom 3. Whether character assassination. 4. Whether upliftment of character. 5. Whether for national growth. 6. Whether for diversification from other evils. 7. Whether for lead discipline life. 8. Whether for developing the resistance against exhertion. 9. Whether for expenditure of money. 10. Whether for having the uniform. 11. Whether for development of tolerance. 12. Whether for killing the time. 13. Whether for reading of books. 14. Whether for develop friendly. 15. Whether for development mental agony. Subject of History. Whether for advancement of the ancestral cultural heritage. 2. For knowing the traditions. 3. For knowing our ancestors. 4. To knowing the past, its import and the expectation for the future. 5. History is 3 fold presents / 3 dimensional picture. (i) having the present with past memory. (ii) having the present with present existence in compared to past. (iii) our present in anticipation of future development. Archaeological Remains and Monuments Archaeology is the study of things left in the past, whether on the ground or buried under it. The things include buildings, statues, pictures, scriptures, ornaments, decorative pieces of pottery, etc. The remains of stupas and temples help the study of art and architecture and the culture and religious life of the people. The Ajanta paintings tell us about the costumes, jewellery, hair-styles, things found inside the houses, the architecture, etc. the digging of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro changed our old idea of Indian History. The excavation (digging) at Nalanda showed the glory of our past system of education. The digging out of the temples of Deogarh, in Jhansi gave evidence of the splendour of the Gupta emperors. What is History? History is the story of the people of the past. To be history in the true sense, it must be a record of their life and culture. History is no longer limited to the story of kings and the way they ruled, the wars they fought and the expansion or contraction of their empire. Along with these, history now helps us to know the condition and pattern of the lives of the common people how they met the basic needs of their life, what difficulties and challenges come before them, what way they solved them, what they thought, felt and believed, what new ideas awakened them, as expressed in their literature, architecture and art, what way they contributed to the progress of our civilization, etc. Why do we study the past? It is a natural urge and curiosity in man. Think of the great men and women you adore and admire. You surely love to know or read about their lives their childhood, their growing up, the hardships and challenges that came in their way, their devotion to a cause, their suffering and sacrifices, their iron will, untiring work and great ideals before them and their great achievements and successes. We love to know the past. You love to know the past of your favourite sportsman, favourite singer, favourite film star, your ideal man or woman. So is the case with your country that you love so much. You love to know its dazzling glories and great creations, the heights it reached in the realm of thought and realizations, its dark days under foreign dominations, its devotions to great causes, its sacrifices and sufferings, its galaxy of great men and women and its unique way of bringing different people closer and establishing unity in diversity. Would you not like to know all these and more about your beloved motherland? The past is an inspiration for us: Indias ancient history is very rich and glorious. Once India was considered the most prosperous and civilized country of the world. We had a very rich and vast literature, the Rigveda is considered to be the oldest book in the world. We had institutions of higher

learning. It attached scholar form foreign lands. We had reached great heights in astronomy, mathematics, medicine, and surgery. We had a long tradition of fine textiles. In the past, India could develop a sense of cultural and emotional unity. We believed then that there is only one God and the same God can be worshiped in many names, forms, and manners. Ashoka, Kanishka, Harsha and even the Mughal emperor Akbar were very tolerant and secular. The great awakening and realisation came with Jainism and Buddhism, and the influence of the later spread far and wide beyond our boundaries. A. L. Basham, a great historian, praised our country in these words, India was a cheerful land whose people reached a higher level of orderliness and gentleness than any other nation. In no other country the relations of man and man and of man and the state were so far and humane. So our past is a source of inspiration for us. The past is a lesson for the present: Wise men take lessons from their past problems and mistakes. So our country can take care that past mistakes are not repeated. Our past warns us of the danger of getting entangled in our internal quarrels and neglecting the defence of our frontiers. It opens our eyes to how caste system divides our society in many parts and sows seeds of separation and ill feeling. It reminds us that complicated social and religious customs may lead to the break up of our society. If in the past, India could become the world leader, there is no reason that it should not be able to play a constructive role in the present day world. Sources of Indian History Our history is of several thousand years. We learn about our past from the various sources left behind by our ancestors and not destroyed by time. History has to be based on facts and evidence of various kinds. The evidences can be searched from literary sources, inscriptions, coins, accounts of foreign people or visitors and archaeological remains and monuments. Literary Sources Among the religious literature, the Vedas, the Upanishads and the two epics, Ramavana and Mahabharata tell us mostly of the history and culture from the Vedic age to the Gupta period. Buddhist literature and Jain literature also give us glimpses of the times. Puranas give us some ideas of the political history of those times. Dramas, poems and books written on law, administration, economics and grammar provide us very interesting information about the life, habits, customs, punishments and the normal problems of the people. Accounts of Foreign People Herodotus (5th century B. C.) gave a detailed description of the political conditions of North-West India, through he never visited India. Aursian (4th century B. C.) gave details of the invasion of Alexander. No Indian gave any account of this great happening. Megasthenes, the Greek ambassador in Chandragupta Mauryas court (4th century B. C.) described in detailed the economic, political and social life of the people. Among the several Chinese travellers, the accounts of Fa-hiem (beginning of the 5th century AD) who came to the court of Chandragupta II and Hieum-Tsang (7th century AD) who was patronized by Harsha gave valuable accounts of the life of the people and the administration of rulers. Inscriptions Inscriptions are written records engraved on rocks, stone, pillars and walls of temples. Most of the early inscriptions are in Brahmi or Kharosti script. They provide enough material about the economic, religious and social life of the people besides administrative statements of kings. The inscriptions of Ashoka are the best examples of administrative and religious types.

The Honble Supreme Court has recently laid down in case of State of Karnataka Vs. Praveen Bhai Thogadia ( Doctor) AIR 2004 SC 2081, that the welfare of the people is the ultimate role of all lose and state action, and above all the Constitution. They have one common object, that is to promote the well being and larger interest of the society as a whole. It is Inconceivable that there can be social well being without communal harmony, love for each other and hatred for none. It is further laid down , while dealing with the ambit and scope of Article 25 and its Preamble Secularism that the core of religion based upon spiritual values, which the Vedas, Upnishads and Purans were said to reveal to mankind seem to be; Love others, serve others, help ever, hurt never and sarvae jana sukhino bhavantoo. One upmanship in the name of religion, whichever it be or at whomsoevers instance it may be, would render constitutional designs countermanded and chaos, claiming its heavy toll on society and humanity as a whole, may be the inevitable evil consequence, whereof. India is the worlds most heterogeneous society with a rich heritage and its Constitution is committed to high ideas of socialism, secularism and the integrity of the nation. As is well known, several races have converged in this subcontinent and they have carried with them their own cultures, languages, religions and customs affording positive recognition to the noble and ideal way of life unity in diversity. Though these diversities created problems in early days, they were mostly solved on the basis of human approaches and harmonious reconciliation of differences, usefully and peacefully. That is how secularism has come to be treated as a part of fundamental law, and an unalienable segment to the basic structure of the countrys political system. Unfortunately, of late, vested interests fanning religious fundamentalism of all kinds, vying with each other, are attempting to subject the constitutional machineries of the state to great stress and strain with certain quaint ideas of religious priorities, to promote their own selfish ends, undeterred and unmindful of the disharmony it may ultimately bring about and even undermine national integration achieved with much difficulties and laudable determination of those strong-spirited savants of yesteryear. The Student/children, the future citizens under taking the education of Indian History on the misconception/ pattern of Anglo Saxon teaching meant for division of Indian society on the policy of Divide and Rule. There is a important question posed as to whether we have actually gain our independence or we have to under take another journey full of animosity, aggressism on account of terrorism and fanatic ideology a prevalent throughout the World of a particular religion. Thus on account of being sentinel /Guardian at large, this is the voice of the majority of Hindu Citizens to save our ancestral cultural heritage and there by to give protection to our future citizens. They have the threat of being subjected to atrocities if the drastic step to save the citizens from the oppression and exposure of falsehood may not be done at an earliest time. Thus every nationalist who has got a slightest patriotic cult in his inhibition has got a Fundamental Right and a Constitutional Duty to safe guard our cultural heritage against the falsehood. Imparting of education is a State function. The State, however, having regard to its financial and other constraints is not always in a position to perform its duties. The function of imparting education has been, to a large extent, taken over by the citizens themselves. Some do it as pure charity; some do it for protection. A society where there is no moral values, there would neither be social order nor secularism. Bereft of moral values secular society or democracy may not survive. Almighty alone is the dispenser of the absolute justice. Thus an independent and efficient judicial system, belong the repository of omnipotent power is always consider as one of the basic structure of our constitution. The pre constitutional days cannot be countenanced as a source of law to claim any rights when it is found to violate human rights, dignity social equality amongst citizen. Democracy cannot survive and the constitution cannot work unless Indian citizens are only learned and intelligent, they are also of moral character and imbibed the inherent virtue of human being such as truth, love, and compassion. Duty of every citizen of India is collective duty of the state every citizen of India is fundamentally obligated to develop a scientific temper and humanism .He is fundamentally duty bound top strive towards excellence in all sphere of individual and collective activity, so that the nation constantly arises to the higher level of endeavor and achievements. Everyone, whether individually or collectively is unquestionably under the supremacy of law however it is true that exaggerated devotion to the rule of benefit must not nurture fanciful doubts or lingering suspicion and there by destroy social defense as the curiosity cannot be the subject matter of fair criticism. Thus the conclusion derived that on one hand every citizen is having the freedom of speech and expression so far as they do not contravene the statutory limits and may prevail in the atmosphere with out any hindrance. Fundamental duties and the obligation of the citizen may yet provide a valuable guide and aid to interpretation of constitutional issues which not only required for resolving the issues but also to provide guidance to the society. Giving a man his due, one of the basics of justice finds reflected

in right to equality .Law frowns upon such conduct thus the court accords legitimacy to possession in due course of time. The concept of sovereignty was present from the ancient time but the sovereignty was conferred upon an individual who is suppress the wicked and is recognized as great resources in itself like the fire, air, sun, moon and religion. The religion in the ancient time was considered as spiritualism and it was not dependent upon any ritual ceremony but it was considered s the knowledge in the darkness of ignorance and injustice. The sovereignty was supposed to promote the cause of the religion, wealth and enjoyment of life and who is voluptuous, malicious, mean and low minded is ruined by the retributive justice thus the sovereignty was considered as a destroyer of the wicked like fire; a restrainer of the wicked by storm (Varun) and its controller. It was considered to be the dispenser of ease to the best pupil like the moon and a replenisher of wealth. These qualities were the quality of the sovereign power. The sovereignty and the people should form three Councils, Educational, Religious, and Administrative. One individual should not have the absolute power of government, the sovereignty being the general president of the councils .The qualifications of the president the presidents of separate councils are their interest in the welfare of the country, their excellence of learning and character, and their influence over the people. A country prospers as long as the people are righteous. Also their welfare requires the appointment of learned educational officers, appointment of learned men as the dignitaries of the spiritual council and of virtuous learned men as administrators. Obedience to law is required of all. Secularism is the basic structure of constitution and as such in absence of study of religion for generating brotherhood amongst the fellow citizens as to provide mutual coordination and the ideology of live and let live to other is the basic education which cannot be said as an attempt against the secular philosophy of the constitution .The constitution as it stands does not proceed on the melting pot theory while it represents a salad bowls where there is homogeneity without any obliteration of identity . The foundation of the religion is spiritualism, which is based on trust and confidence and an ability to strive for the good self of the other individual. The law must be enforceable to preserve the society with out any derivation and hindrance and thus it may not resultantly face the social catastrophe. The little Indian shall not be hijacked from the course of freedom by mob muscle method and thereby to subtle perversion of discretion by other large Indian dressed in little, brief authority. The people of our country has right to know every public Act and the principle of finality may not be insisted upon as the maxim interest reipublicae ut sit finis litiun. Wisdom and advisability of public policy may be demonstrated in order to given effect to the statutory provisions under our constitution thus an inquiry and investigation may be needed a complete with the opinion of the expertise to arrive a conclusion as to whether the plurability in a society is not splited the very object of the law through appeasement to the minority group of the citizen in order to provide a conducive political social and legal framework with out destroying the very fabric on the basis of which the pillar and the foundation were built in order to assimilate the minorities with the majority . The Honble court may never venture to disown its jurisdiction when the constitution is found to be at stake and the fundamental rights of the citizen are under fire of falsehood and thereby usurpation of the power by terrorizing for personal leisure and pleasure through self created dogmas and rituals of particular religion at the cost of other citizens. Thus the exposure of the falsehood may become the right of the affected party to vanish the assertion based on unpatriotic sentimental perversity. The wrong historical data leads to the horror as we have seen during the period of demolition of the Babri Masjid. There has been number of concomitant given by the respective community representing to the follower of two prominent religions but the loss which we have suffered in the shape of hatred between the two section of the society cannot be compensated without revealing the truth. Unfortunately, the term Hindu communalism is more exaggerated by the fanaticism under the garb of secularism while the Hindu community as a whole has always been receptive to all the religion. The question which is cropping its importance is much more in relations to the question pertaining to Mughal contributions to Indian life and culture. Such facts which have been geared to brainwash the subject of the pupil with that of perverted history under the long spell of foreign rule may be distorted according to the command of the ruler and as such till date the truth has not brought forward to the surface and is exclusively aliens to the appeasement policy generated in order to rule the parliamentary democratic set up in our country.

The mentality affects and paralyses the traditional heritage and provide a loss to the integrity of our country. Our ancient ancestors namely Rana Pratap and Chattrapati Shivaji Maharaj and Guru Govind Singh during the period of Mughal rulers have not conceded with the terror and torture they used in proselytization, it is very shameful for the independent citizens to live under the false perception of character assassination. Thus in all fairness we may accept that although the Britishers were more civilized but inspite of their great insight, there is the historical blunder committed by them while writing the Indian history in relations to the authorship of the monuments. Mughal rulers without exception were sadist yet they represent themselves as just, kind and patrons of learning. The construction is all Hindu while the destruction of these constructions has been done by these foreigners who were either Mughal or Britishers. These persons were stained with all wickedness and disgraceful conduct which is still apparent in the society and remained prevalent during a thousand year of rampant Mughal communalism then how we can expect that they have not demolished all the Hindu Temple and converted them with slight modification as their monuments the township of Ferozabad, Tuglaqabad, Ahmedabad and Hyderabad are falsely ascribed to that of Sultan though the same was belonging to our ancient Hindu Rulers. The country in which the milk was available to every citizen without investing any money to the extent of his requirement and consumption has now been adulterd after ruthless killings of our cattles by these invaders of the public confidence actually Hinduism is nothing but our nationalism and sooner it may be understood and practiced in such a manner, we may seek the protection of our integrity by saving the population of the innocent citizens. Hindu Religion was based on diversity of different caste, Creed, Sects and Multiplicity of Religion The correspondent of BBC, London Times, Derspegel , New York Times ,Washington Post ,Christian Science ,Monitor Times and life weeklys continue to misrepresent these Hindu Building as that of Mughal origin. The freedom of expression continues to ruthlessly suppress the truth about these historical buildings belonging to the preMughal origin. These Historian have meticulously calculatively kept their readership ignorant regarding the truth of preexisting palaces and temple prior to declare them the building as Mughal monuments. Now our government has provided the restriction for taking even the photograph of the prominent historical buildings in India under the guise of archeological department as to maintain the status quo regarding the falsehood created by the historian and to avoid the alleged animosity between the majority class of the Hindu with the minority Mughal. It has been revelaed by Encyclopaedias Islamia that the Arabia itself obliterated all its past history by destroying image before the foundation of Islam. The origin of Kaba which is the central shrine is in itself a Hindu temple surrounded by huge shrine consisting of 360 Hindu images belonging to Indian king Vikarmaditya who founded them in 58 B.C. Even the word Allah Is a Sanskrit. Word signifies Mother or goddess while mekha in Sanskrit signifies a sacrificial fire of Vedic worship prevalent during the pre Islamic days. The monuments have not only been destroyed in the peninsula of arvasthan belonging to King Vikramaditya, which was captured by the Arabian during the Islamic invasion. The intriguing aspect of regarding the existence of Shivalinga in Kaba shrine in Mecca is well known as sungay aswad that is black stone. The poetic composition of pre Islamic Arabian poets kept in famous library called as Makahtab-e-Sultania in Istambul in turkey contains the biographic details of these pre Islamic construction while the second part embodies the period beginning just after prohphet Mohammaed upto the end of Vanee- umaya dynasty resembling the Sanskrit name of Krishnayya voice. There has been a big signboard few mile away from Mecca banning the entry of any non Mughal in the area. This signboard signifies the period shrine was stormed and captured by the invader having their faith in Islam. The same position is visualized at Azmer sharif where there is still the covering over the Shivalinga for which the Islamic follower are strictly providing the vigilance as it may not be disclosed the existence of the Temple of Lord Shiva. Thus it be go on searching the different historical facts with the open eyes we will find that there are ample evidence to deflate the indo- saracenic architecture theory bubble. Iron Pillar near the Qutub Tower The iron pillar bearing a Hindu inscription has been standing un-rusted through rain and shine for milleniums beside the socalled Qutub Minar amidst the surrounding temples battered by Mughal hordes. Qutubuddin could never have brought piles of material and dug a sprawling foundation for the stone tower called (Qutub) inside the narrow confines of surrounding temples and other building work. Dislodged stones bearing Hindu images on one side and Arab lettering on the other found the so called Qutub Tower also prove

that Mughal conquerors staked false claim to Hindu monuments through sculptural forgeries. Qutub Minar This 238 ft. tall tower euphemistically called Qutub Minar was erected by King Vikramaditya for astronomical observation centuries before Islam was even founded.The adjoining township called Mehrauli is the corrupt form the Sanskrit term Mihira-Awali meaning the Mihira township. Mihira was Vikramadityas royal mathematician-cumastronomer-cum meteorologist. Even the Arabic term Kutub Minar signifies an astronomical tower. Qutub and Kutubuddin was a subsequent unwitting mix-up. Around the tower were 27 constellation temples which Kutubuddins inscription vaunts to have destroyed. The tower too has 27 flutings. Near the first storey ceiling are 27 holes one in each is likely. True to the significance of the term Kutub, this Towers entrance faces due north. Quwat-ul-Islam Mosque Turned into a mosque called Quwat-ul-Islam the rows of ornamental pillars of this monument by the side of the so called Qutub Tower are a clear proof of its having been a Hindu temple. No genuine mosque has ever such pillars lest reciters of Namaz standing and bending with half-closed eyes inadvertently break their heads against them. Nizam-ud-din Tomb The ornamental Hindu style pillars in the white marble structure turned into Nizamuddin Tomb. The arch on the right and parts of arches visible on either side of the dome are clear proof that this haphazard conglomerate of heterogeneous buildings was a part of an ancient Hindu township stormed by invading Mughal armies. Fakirs like Nizamuddin following in their wake used to take up residence in the ruins of battered buildings for preaching Islam to terrorize infidels. On their death they used to be buried in the ruins where they lived. That is why tombs like those of Nizamuddin and Bakhtiar Kaki in Delhi, Salim Chisti in Fatehpur Sikri and of Moinuddin Chisti in Ajmer present a mix-up of Hindu structure devoid of any coherent plan. Around the Nizamuddin tomb in Delhi are fanciful halls called Chausath Khamba, crumbling walls, bastions, towers, decadent graves, cellars ,plinths and cornices which are remnants of the stormed Hindu township still remembered by the term Keel-Ukhri(Kilokri). Keel used to be the central pillar erected when a Hindu township was planned. Since it got up-rooted in the Mughal assault that area came to be known as Kilokri. So called Humayuns Tomb Just about half a mile away from this building known as Humayun Tomb is the narrow staircase from which Humayun the second generation Mughal emperor fell, in Delhi. He was carried to his palace say contemporary chronicles. This was the palace he was carried to and it was there that he died a few days later. He was buried in the central chamber where he lay ill as has happened throughout Mughal history in India. This solves the tantalizing riddle why we have tombs but apparently no palaces of luxurysteeped pleasure-seeking alien potentates. This monument still forms part of Jaipur Estate in Delhi. It is surrounded by ruined walls, annexes, guesthouses, and guardrooms. An arcade of arches leads to it. Close-by is a huge annexes euphemistically called Arabki-Serai deriving its name from the times that invading Arab hordes encamped in it .The entire grounds are littered with graves of invading Mughal soldiers slain by Hindu defenders. Before being turned into a tomb Humayun as a usurper lived in this sprawling Hindu captured palace which was the focal point of the ruined township since known as Kilokri. The nearby ruins in which Fakir Nizamuddin lies buried were a part of this huge Hindu citadel. Roshanara Garden This is believed to be the tomb of Roshanara, the daughter of the last powerful Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. Note that it has neither domes nor minarets. Instead it has ornamental pillars, Hindu arches and cupolas. Very parsimonious and hardhearted as the Hindu-baiter Aurangzeb was he would hardly spend any money on a Hindu style resting-place for his daughters corpse. Obviously, therefore, this is a usurped Hindu garden palace commandeered to serve as a tomb as was usual in those times. Fatehpuri Mosque This so called Fatehpuri Mosque at one end of Delhis crowded Chandni Chowk highway was a pre-Mughal Rajput temple of the citys guardian and royal deity Lord Shankara alias Eklingaji. Its entrance arches have the Hindu stone flower emblems on either side of the apex. The word Fatehpuri means a conquered (Hindu) township. The marble slab on the red-stone entrance proclaiming it to be a mosque is evidently as interpolation. The monuments, arches and pillars and cupolas are entirely of Hindu Rajput style. The so called mosques rental revenue is all derived exclusively from Hindu shops swarming its

fringes. This proves that while the stalls remained with the Hindu their temples fell a victim to conquest and conversion. Mausoleum of Safdar Jung This so called Safdarjang tomb in Delhi was an ancient Rajput palace which devolved on the Mughal aristocracy through conquest .It has an ornamental Rajput style gateway and a protective wall with watch-towers and bastions which are superfluous for a genuine tomb. Safdarjang, an ex-chief Minister of the Nawab of Oudh had been disgraced and dismissed prior to his death. Who would foot the bill to build a palace for an unemployed deceased noblemans corpse? A little prodding with two sharp questions brings down the entire illusory structure of tall Mughal claims to Hindu building-work. We ask that if Safdarjungs corpse could afford such a stupendous palace he should have had at least ten palaces when living. But there is none. The other question is that if his heir and successor built this palace for the corpse of the deceased Safdarjang the former must himself have had tens of palaces in Delhi. But he too had none. Our answer to this riddle is that Safdarjang and in fact all alien Mughal rulers and noblemen were buried in their own palaces. Diwan-I-Khas, Red Fort ,Delhi Contrary to popular belief the Red Fort in Delhi is a very ancient structure. Prithviraj used to stay in this Lalkot (red palace). Saffron and ochre are colours sacred to the Hindus, but avoided by Mughals The main highway of Delhi known as Chandni Chowk connects the Red Fort with the royal and guardian deity temple now turned into Fatehpuri Mosque. Around this axis was built Old Delhi protected by a massive wall .According to Akbarnama and the Agni Purana, Delhi was built by the Hindu King Anagpal around 372 A.D. before founding of Islam. Agra the Taj Mahal This symphony in marble was a royal Hindu palace. Its very name Taj Mahal signifies nothing more or less. Its octagonal shape and the cupolas and four towers at the plinth corners are all Hindu features. Havell, the English architect has all along stressed that the Taj is an entirely Hindu structure in design and execution. The four towers used to sport multi-coloured lights. The Taj precincts are a huge building complex encompassing over three hundred rooms. The locality was known as Jaisinghpur. The Marble Screen at the Taj This ornate marble trelliswork entirely in the Hindu style now encloses tow tombs believed to be those of Mumtaz and Shahjahan .The network was stuffed with rare gems. Traditional accounts tell us that this enclosure had silver doors and gold railings to boot. Even Shahjahans and Mumtazs palaces never boasted of such fabulous fixtures when the pair was alive and kicking from the imperial throne. How come then that when Mumtaz died(1630 A.D.) all this wealth descended on earth all of a sudden. Far from that this expensive and resplendent enclosure was made to house the dazzling Hindu peacock throne that throne, wrongly credited to Shahjahan, came to his possession when he dispossessed the Taj Mahals last Rajput owner Jai Singh of this fabulous ancient Hindu palace. The Gateway of Taj The gateway leading to the Taj garden is like any other Hindu gateway tallying in every detail with those of other forts and palaces depicted. The tiny domes over these gateways in a row invariably make an odd figure like 5,7,9, or 11,since in Hindu tradition the odd figure is preferred to the even. For instance donors give away 101,501,1001 rupees but never an even figure . Delhi Gate, Agra Fort This gateway of the Red Fort Agra is entirely in the traditional Rajput style. Like many other Rajput forts this too had elephant images flanking it. Emperors Kanishka and Ashok made use of this fort in the pre-Christian era. All its interior apartments too are of the exclusive Rajput variety. The version which ascribes authorship of this fort to Akbar, is a piece of court flattery. All its gateways have Hindu names. In addition to elephant images this fort had images of Rajput horses. Anguri Bagh ,Agra fort The Anguri bagh pavilion inside Agra fort proves that the geometrical pattern garden has Rajput origins. Note the arches, the pillars, the brackets, the cupola at the right, the curved ceiling partly visible adjoining the cupola, which are all Rajput characteristics. Golden Pavilion, Agra fort The cupola in the top left hand corner, the curved roof and the spikes on it vividly depicts that this Golden Pavilion in Agras Red Fort was built by the Rajputs for the Rajputs. Diwan-I-Aam, Agra fort The so called Diwan-I-Aam or hall of public audience inside Agar fort has neither domes nor minarets. Its graceful arches and slender pillars is still the pattern for Hindu pandals

raised for auspicious ceremonies. Mughal tradition has always avoided such Hindu, infidel patterns. Theirs are grotesque, tortuous shapes. The Red Fort in Delhi too has an identical pavilion. Statue of Akbars Horse This replica believed to be of Akbars horse is in fact an earlier Rajput horse. Akbar, a Mughal ordered no statues. Rajputs were known to erect elephant and horse statues. Those slyly attributing the construction of Agra Fort to Akbar had willy nilly also to thrust upon him the erection of infidel statues. Statue of Amar Singhs Horse Outside Agra Fort This horse head belongs to pre Mughal times. It commemorates a brave steed. There were ever so many Amar Singh in Rajput history. The invented story that this replica is Mughal wrought and is of the horse on which Amar Singh galloped away in a huff from the Mughal court takes for granted that the lay visitor has hardly the time or the necessary grounding in history to debunk such canards. Tomb of Sadiq Khan This truncated corner tower cum-bastion of a demolished Rajput palace standing in splendid isolation was later used to shelter Sadiq Khans corpse. That should not, however blind visitors to the fact that this monument was part of a Rajput palace. Its niches, the arched entrances and the upper floor all show that it was meant to be a place for the living. Jahangiri Mahal, Agra fort The entrance to the so-called Jahangiri Mahal inside Agra fort is of the typical Rajput design and workmanship. Usurpation and centuries of occupation resulted in Moghul names being given to earlier captured Rajput buildings. Gullible Western Scholars lacking indigenous insight perpetuated the myth of Mughal authorship of buildings misled by their names and latest associations. They hardly cared whether a building was attributed to a Fakirchand or a Fakir Mohammad. Jama Masjid, Agra All so called mediaeval Jama Masjids in India were earlier main (Jama) temples of the town. This so-called Jama Masjid in the centre of Agra was a Rajput citadel with ladies apartments and an underground passage to the fort. It has a huge basement too. The inscription crediting its construction to Jahanara Begum is an interpolation. Jahanara an unmarried lady who spent her sorrowing life in the smothering confines of the Mughals purdah nursing her imprisoned and deposed father Shahjahan, had hardly any money left with her. Even for two square meals a day she was at the mercy of her wily and hardhearted brother Aurangzeb. Salim Chisti Tomb, Fatehpur Sikri This so-called Salim Chisti tomb in Fatehpur Sikri is clearly an ornate Rajput temple. Note the two round stone flower emblems on either side of the arch, and the curving brackets. In the right background is the typical Rajput gateway capped by cupolas. The lotus shaped fountain base in the foreground tank is also reminiscent of Rajput ownership. This ornamental Pillar supporting Akbars Throne in Diwan-I-Khas with a narrow circular perch on top approached by four stone-slab bridges in Fatehpur Sikri could as well have been a royal Rajput bathroom while concocted Akbar legends claim it to be a throne room. But throne rooms in Akbars time were not as tiny as a Pigeon house. Hiran Minar, Fatehpur Sikri This so called Hiran Minar infront of the Hathi Pol gate of Fatehpur Sikri is falsely calimed to mark the burial of a pet deer(Hiran) of Akbar .We ask whether the deer had whispered a dying wish in Akbars ear to be commemorated with a fat Hindu temple lamp post? The bristles were used to support oil lamps Such pillars are common infront of Hindu Temples and palaces. The spiralling staircase inside leading to the cupola on top remains one of the so called Kutub Minar in Delhi which have proved to be of Hindu origin.This tower was known as Hiranmaya since it sparkled like gold when it bristled with flames of hundreds of lamps hung on it. That Sanskrit word has been deftly twisted to be stuffed into the concocted Akbar legend. Buland Darwaza, Fatehpur Sikri This towering gateway in Fatehpur Sikri is currently known to us as Buland Darwaza.It is a typical Rajput Township. The stone flower emblems flanking the arch are an unmistakable sign of its Hindu origin. The three big cupolas and the 13 tiny ones in front in a row on the terrace front are of the exclusive Rajput design. The slender pillars spiked at the top were used for hoisting flags. Such pillars are a part of almost allmediaeval Rajput monuments. The stone flower emblems are invariably present on all Hindu homes and temples of the orthodox design, while they never exist on genuine mosques. Itmad-ud-Daulahs Tomb

This interior mural decoration in the so called Itmad-ud-Daulah tomb ,Agra is no different from that found the pre-Mughal Ambar palace in Jaipur,which proves that the building was an earlier Rajput palace. So-called Akbars Mausoleum at Sikandra Every arch, supporting brackets and capping cupola of this mansion consisting of pile upon pile of pavilions proves to the hilt that it was a Rajput palace. Euphemistically called Sikandra ever since Sikandar Lodi a Pathan ruler lived in it, this mansion six miles to the north of Agra is known to posterity as Akbars tomb. Akbar lay ill and died here. Gateway Sikandra This is the majestic gateway to Sikandra Palace. The mansion inside was turned into a tomb after Akbars death. It was built by the Rajputs centuries before Mughal invaders launched on a career of vandalism and usurpation. The four towers rising above the gateway are replicas of the Taj Mahal towers. The mosaic flooring of the mansion has the esoteric Hindu Shakti-Chakra (interlocked triangles) inlaid in it by the dozen. Mughal funeral rites admit of no such design. Salabat Khans Mausoleum,Agra This Salabat Khans mausoleum is a truncated Rajput pavilion allotted to Khan for his residence.On his death he was buried there. Ganesh Pol Ambar Palace,Jaipur It was built around 984 A.D.,it had obviously no Mughal influence. the gates of all extant mediaeval monuments in India are similar to the Ganesh Pol. Gates of Mosques and tombs in west Asian countries are also of identical design. This proves that far from Indian mediaeval monuments having being designed or ordered by Mughal potentates and craftsmen, it was West Asian monuments, which were designed and executed by Indian technicians as recorded by Mohammed Ghazni and Taimurlang. Incidentally it may also be pointed out that the recorded fact of Mohammed Ghazni having been buried in his own palace in Ghazni(1030 A.D.) also proves that all so called Mughal tombs whether in India or in West Asian countries are usurped palaces which they occupied during their life times. Shish Mahal Ambar This Shish Mahal inside the Ambar fortress in Jaipur was built (about 984 .A.D.) centuries before the founding of Mughal Kingdoms in India. Its ornate inlay work is no different from that in what are believed to be mediaeval Mughal mosques and tombs. It proves two things; firstly that the so-called tombs and mosques were of Rajput origin and secondly that they were intended for the living not for the dead. Palace Garden Ambar This pavilion and the garden in the Ambar Palace with its spiked and curved roof, the graceful Hindu arch and the geometrical design in the foreground is typical of all mediaeval buildings. Ambar which lies three miles away from modern Jaipur, was founded not later than 984 A.D. That was much before alien Mughals established their principalities in India.

Readers not acquainted with legal procedure might then ask as to whether there is any
documentary evidence available to prove that the fort was built by the Hindus in the pre-christian era. The answer to this is that the immense Hindu evidence that existed in the form of Hindu idols, inscriptions and documents in the archives of ancient Hindu kings was all looted and destroyed when Mohammad Ghazni first raided the red fort in the early part of the 11th century and again when the fort remained under continued Mughal occupation from 1526 to about 1760 A.D. If the owner of a building is forced out of his mansion and the aggressor remains in occupation for several centuries will the owner find his record intact on obtaining possession of his mansion after several centuries? There is thus a valid reason why Hindus are not in a position to produce any documentary evidence with regard to the Hindu origin of fort. Even then we maintain that if a systematic archaeological excavation is undertaken inside the fort and if its dingy cellars and basements are opened and scoured they may still reveal Sanskrit inscriptions and idols smashed and buried by Mughal occupiers. In fact whatever little and excavation has been made has resulted in the recovery of horse and elephant statues. Yet taking things as they stand any court of law will uphold the plea that Hindus have a valid reason for not being able to produce any documentary proof. The court will then ask the Anglo-Mughal school to produce its documents. That school too has not got even a shred of a document to prove that any one ot more Mughal rulers built or rebuilt the fort. A hazy mention to that effect in a court flatterers chronicler is no documentary proof. It is like you or we noting in our diaries that we built the Houses of Parliament in London.

There is no valid reason why Anglo-Mughal school should not be able to produce even a single document pertaining to the Mughal claims to the fort. Had the claims been true such documents should have been available in plenty because when the British deposed the Mogul emperor they preserved and carefully classified all the documents they seized form the mogul archives. Those records contain hardly anything but letters. When the Anglo-Mughal school is unable to produce even a single document in support of its claim any law court would draw an a priori adverse inference. Even then we claim no special advantage form this fundamental weakness in the case of the respondent Anglo-Mughal school. In ordinary life there are very many occasions when documents are not available on either side and yet there is overwhelming circumstantial evidence on the basis of which the court can come to a clear judgement over the rival claims. Its is such circumstantial evidence which we propose to lay before the bar and bench of learned public opinion: According to the British historian Keene, Agra fort has been in existence from the preChristian era. Ancient Hindu kings like Ashok (3rd Century B.C.) and Kanishka (1st Century B.C.) had lived in that fort. That same fort is again referred to by the Persian poet-historian Salman,in the 11th century A.D.. Early in that century when the Hindu king Jaipal ruled over Agra. The fort suffered its first Mughal raid under the invader Mahmud of Ghazni. Thereafter some chauvinistic Islamic accounts vaguely claim that the Mughal sultan Sikandar Lodi demolished the Hindu fort. That claim has been found to be baseless. A few years later another vague claim is made by some other mediaeval Mughal faltterers that sultan Salim Shah Sur either destroyed the Hindu fort or Sikandar Lodis fort and built his own fort at exactly the same place or some other place.Even the claim has been found to be fraudulent because no trace is found of the fort that Salim Shah Sur is said to have built. Mughal history is replete with such fraudulent claims, according to the late British historian Sir H.M.Elliot. The claim that Akbar built the fort is also found to be baseless because while he is said to have demolished the fort in 1565 A.D., a murderer Adham Khan being thrown from the terrace of a palace-apartment inside the fort in 1566 A.D. is emphatic proof that the claim made on behalf of Akbar is as fraudulent as those made on behalf of two other Mughal sultans earlier. In fact it is also pointed out that not a single building of Akbars time exists in the fort. Akbars son Jahangir is said to have perhaps built a palace inside the fort here or there demolishing his own fathers palace but even that conjecture is found to be based on mere fancy or on some idle engravings. Jahangirs son Shahjahan is said to have demolished 500 buildings inside the fort and erected 500 others. On the very face of it this claim is absurd. No one will merely for fun of it destroy 500 palatial mansions built by ones father or grandfather. Such demolition itself will occupy a lifetime. Moreover it must also be remembered that Shahjahan is credited with building the fabulous Taj Mahal in Agra, a whole new township of Delhi, also the Red fort in Delhi, The Jama Masjid in Delhi and perhaps many other buildings. Not only are there no court records of any building activity but even inscriptions do not substantiate any building claim. We wish to alert visitors not to be misled by the appearance of Arabic or Persian lettering on mediaeval buildings. All such lettering is mostly of Koranic extracts or the name of Allah. Those inscriptions are seldom temporal. In a few instances where there are temporal inscriptions they usually bear the name of the engraver or of the person buried and some irrelevant matter. For instance nowhere on the Taj Mahal has it been mentioned that the Taj Mahal was built by Shahjahan. We therefore wonder how the whole world had been duped for 300 long years into believing that the Taj Mahal was built by Shahjahan. Similar is the case with Red fort in Agra. No where is it said that Akbar or his son Jahangir or the latters son Shahjahan built anything there. In this connection we also want to alert visitors to mediaeval buildings and students and scholars of history not to believe in translations of Arabic and Persian inscriptions presented readymade to them through earlier books. We have found in very many instances that they have been distorted in translation. For instance on the Taj Mahal the inscriber has carved his name as Amanat Khan Shirazi (an insignificant slave of the emperor Shahjahan). Anglo-Mughal accounts have boosted this inscriber of letters as one of the great wonder architects of the world. Similarly on Fatehpur Sikri where a building is said to have been graced (by his presence) by Salim Chisti it is merrily ascribed to him. .We therefore advise all students of history never to take for granted the translation of Mughal inscriptions provided heretofore but get them translated de novo whenever one has to make use of them. The whole question of the translation and interpretation of

Mughal inscriptions not only in India but throughout the world must be reopened and gone through thoroughly, for much wishful thinking has gone into presenting them in translations to non-Mughals. In fact it would be very educative to have an encyclopaedia for all Mughal inscriptions and the misleading translations and interpretations they have been subjected to heretofore. As an instance of a great snare in the study of mediaeval history such exposure will be of immense educative value in warning future researchers and students of history. Once the hurdle of a false Mughal claim made on Akbars behalf is got over we find that the fort that we see today in Agra is the same which was owned by ancient Hindu kings like Ashok and Kanishka .After Akbar there is no serious claim made on behalf of any Mughal ruler as the author of the fort. That means that the fort that we see in Agra city today is the ancient Hindu ochre fort a colour so dear to Hindus. In fact ochre is the colour of Hindu flag- a colour for which and under which they have fought for their national and cultural existence and identity a colour which has inspired them to great deeds of valour, sacrifice, bravery, chivalry, gallantry and glory. Can that ochre colour be ever owned by Mughals? It goes against all history and tradition. Despite several centuries of Mughal occupation and canards of Mughal authorship all the forts Hindu associations are intact. This is something remarkable. The two thousand-year history of the fort that Keene traces turns out to be authentic. The slight hitch and doubt that he encounters gets explained away by his own very intelligent footnote that the incident of a murderer having been flung from the terrace of the palace inside the fort could not be possible if the fort had been destroyed a year earlier. The lack of any coherence in the dates of starting the forts construction and its completion is proof of the fact that the world has been buffed about the Mughal origin of the fort. Mughal accounts are unable to explain the name of any apartment, as to who built it, when was it built ,what for it was built, what its cost was and why it has an Hindu aura about it ? This is because the fort did not originally belong to the invaders from Arabia ,Iran ,Turkey, Afghanistan, Khazasstan and Uzbekstan. They were mere intruders , conquerors, usurpers. All this discussion should convince the reader that the Red Fort in Agra is of hoary Hindu antiquity and is at least 2200 years old. The meticulous inquiry into the matter through the coherent and authentic account .The exposure of the falsehood is always reconcilable with the historical event and thus the burden of proof is always lying upon the individual denying the existing facts. The onus will be shifted upon the authority when inconsistent anomalous and contradictory versions about the origin of Taj Mahal may be scientifically tested upon the yardstick of the truth. Let us begin with Badshahnama, a Shahjahans chronicle which discloses that the cost of scaffolding exceeded that of the entire work done regarding Mausoleun. Mr Narul Hasan Siddiqui book that a Hindu Palace was commandeered to bury Mumtaz in which Shahjahans fifth generation ancestor Barbar lived in Tejo Mahalaya. All these facts are to be examined through the scientific methods in order to expose the false propaganda that the Mogul invaders have not given any contribution for building the monuments. We may further examine that the mythical indo Saracen architecture medieval mosques and tombs in India were built or conquered and misused by the invaders the number of such monuments may include Mohammed Ghaus s tomb in Gwalior, Salim Chisti mausoleun in Ftahepur Sikri, Nizzamuddin Kabar in Delhi ,Moinuddin Chistis Makbara in Ajmer ,Red fort Shicundera Etamatudaula at Agra, Jama Masjid ,Red fort Delhi, Kutub Minar in Delhi and Sufdarjung. The disputed site of Lord Krishna temple Mathura and Vishwanath Temple at Varanasi may also be examined not only to resolve the controversy but also to curve out the animosity among the citizen in India on the ground of the religion. The extract of Badshahnama may be examined after getting them translated form Persian passage in the English rendering. On page number 403 of Badshahnama it is admitted in verse 26 to 33 that Huzurat Mumtazul Zamani whose sacred dead body was buried in Burhanpur in a garden was brought from 600 miles after six months and transported to Agra(Akbarabad). In the south of the great city there was a palace of Raja Maan Singh which was owned by Raja Jay Singh known as Tejo Mahalaya(The temple of Lord Shiva /Tejo ji) And this place was selected burial of the Queen for which the great ancestral heritage ,religious sanctity was associated with Raja Jai Singh who was compensated by offering the government land. Thus a palace was converted in a dome, handy readymade Mausoleun. The authority of Badshahnama is the first proof regarding the existence of the temple at the time when Huzurat Mumtazul Zamani was buried. The similar treatment were given to the different Hindu palaces and temples by converting

them at as Mausoleun of Akbar at Secundara and Humayun in Delhi and the Vishnu temple to Qutub Minar by overbearing Mughal fanatic potentate specially when these monuments were constructed by Hindu Rulers. One great tragedy of Indian history has been that while Indians remained subdued and gagged under alien domination for over a millenium foreigners who wielded all power in India played great havoc with Indian history merrily destroying or distorting it at will either out of sheer cunning and cussedness or through their colossal ignorance and wanton barbarism. In that process all mediaeval buildings which came under long Mughal occupation came to be misused as tombs or mosques. And in course of time, thanks to alien chauvinism, court flattery and fanatic cunning ,all ancient Hindu townships and building got ascribed to Mughal authorship. Thus with astounding historical naivete Ahmedabad was, by its sheer name, assumed to have been founded by Ahmedshah, Tughlaqabad by Tughlaq Shah and Ferozabad by Ferozshah . If one is to be guided by such puerile logic and shallow historical scholarship then one will have to conclude that the city of Allahabad in the state of Uttar Pradesh must have been founded by the Mughal God Allah himself. This is with regard to mediaeval townships. But even for mediaeval buildings the same nonchalant, nondescript method is followed. Thus it is blatantly stated that if a building is known as Salimgarh it must have been built by or for Sheikh Salim Chisti (emperor Akbars fancied spiritual preceptor ) or Prince Salim (Akbars heir apparent)or some other Salim. Likewise if a building is called Jahangiri Mahal it is, by that very token insisted that it must have been built by Prince Salim after ascending the throne as Jahangir. Such superficial derivations and conclusions about authorship make nonsense of all historical research methodology. During nearly 1100 years of alien rule in India most of her history has been distorted or destroyed. All massive, majestic and alluring historic Hindu constructions in India, from Kashmir to Cape Comorin ,have got ascribed to alien Mughal invaders such as Turks, Afghans, Iranians ,Arabs, Abyssinians and Moguls out of sheer usurpation or conquest. Such misappropriated constructions include forts, palaces, mansions, seras, roads, bridges, wells, canals and even road- side mile-pillars. Misuse of a colossal number of Hindu temples, palaces and mansions as tombs and mosque for several centuries has misled many generations of the publics, tourists, students and scholars of history all over the world into believing that those buildings were originally commissioned by the Mughals. The intelligentsia of Hindusthan has been somewhat slow in assimilating that finding is a measure of the havoc that history causes in the minds of a subject people by making it impervious even to logic and legal proof. While warrior -patriots like Rana Pratap and the great Chhatrapati Shivaji spill their purple blood to emancipate the land and its people should it not be the patriotic duty of historians to spill at least some blue-black ink for an academic re-conquest of occupied buildings falsely ascribed to alien conquerors? The so called Imambadas in Lucknow for instance are ancient Hindu places which are being merrily ascribed to this or that alien Mughal nawab who subjugated that part of Hindusthan. There was E.B. Havell, a great architect and one endowed with deep insight. Havell has debunked the claim that the Taj Mahal is the product of any non-Hindu architectural style. In discussing the architecture of the Taj Mahal and the claim of some historians that an Italian named Veroneo may have been its designer, Mr. Kanwar Lal quotes Mr. Havell thus: So if Veroneo was so deeply versed in Indian craft tradition that he could design a lotus dome after the rules laid down in the Shilpa Shastras ,the dome itself ,built by Asiatic craftsmen would not have been his. The dome of Taj at Agra and the dome of Ibrahims tomb(in Bizapur) both are constructed on the same principles. They are nearly of the same dimensions, and a fact unnoticed by Fergussion and his followers , the contours of both correspond exactly, except that the lotus crown of the Taj at Agra tapers more finely and the lotus petals at the springing of the dome are inlaid instead of being sculptured. The Taj Mahal is, infact, exactly such a building as one would expect to be created in India by a group of master builders inheriting the traditions of Buddhist and Hindu buildings. The plan which consists of a central dome chamber surrounded by four small domed chambers, follows the plan of an Indian pancharatna ,or five jewelled temple. Its prototype as have shown elsewhere is found in the Buddhist temple of Chandi Sewa in Java and in the sculptured stupa shrines of Ajanta. Neither Shahjahan nor his court builders, much less an obscure Italian adventurer can claim the whole merit of its achievements.

How very clear is Mr. Havell in his assertion that the Taj Mahal is built in the ancient Indian, Hindu style and none of Shahjahans contemporaries could design or conceive of it. We regret that Mr. Havell was unaware of the admission in Shahjahans own official chronicle, The Badshahnama, that the Taj Mahal is an ancient Hindu mansion. Had that confession come to light in his time he would have rejoiced to find his architectural conclusion fully corroborated by history, and he would then have been acknowledged as an authority on Indian architecture far superior to Percy Brown or Fergussion. Like all other so called Mughal tombs i.e. Hindu buildings used by them first as residences and later as burial places the Taj Mahal too is not a single tomb but an ancient Hindu mansion reduced to an Islamic burial ground. Besides Mumtaz, Shahjahan himself lies buried by her side. But that is not all. There are two other graves in the same precincts. Mr Kanwar lal (P. 69 The Taj by Kanwar Lal ,ibid.) observes . At the other end of the Jilokhana, towards the east there are again two buildings These are the tombs of Satunnisa (Khanam) who was a favourite attendant of Mumtaz Mahal and who was entrusted with the task of looking after the temporary tomb of Mumtaz Mahal at Burhanpur. Similar is the tomb of Sarhandi Begum, another of Shahjahans queens. The two structures are built exactly the alike. The Satunnisa Khanams tomb consists of a high octagonal plinth, round a central octagonal mortuary chamber. That Taj is based on good authority, but the special assignment to her of this particular tomb has no better foundation than popular belief. That shows that like every other detail about the Taj Mahal legend even the Satunissa Khanam tomb is a concoction. All such tomb like mounds were erected in usurped Hindu mansions so that Hindus may not reclaim and re use those buildings. The Mughals knew of the Hindu weakness of not disturbing or reclaiming sepulchral sites. So, erecting false oblong grave like mounds was like posting a strong military contingent or planting a scarecrow, which cost practically nothing. It was a simple device a strategic totem to claim Hindu buildings for Islam and it worked admirably. It is sometimes innocently asked by history teachers that if the Taj Mahal had existed centuries before Shahjahan, how is it there are no earlier references to it. There are three answer to the question. Firstly, the Taj Mahal being then the palace and not the monument open for public inspection as it now is, used to be closely guarded. It was accessible only to the elite and then only on invitation or conquest. As such one cannot except the same prolific references to it as a tourist attraction that one comes across in these days of publicity and modern communications. The second answer is that ancient and mediaeval India teemed with mansions, palaces and temples of bewildering and bewitching variety, so much so that being all very spectacular, one could not be distinguished from another by mere description. Despite such very good reasons for not expecting any identifiable details in earlier records of what is at present known as Taj Mahal, luckily, Babur, the founder of the Mughal dynasty in India, who was the great grandfather of emperor Shahjahan, has left us a disarming and unmistakable description of the Taj Mahal, if only we have the inclination and insight to grasp it. So our third answer to the question why no mention is found in earlier chronicles of the Taj Mahal and other buildings is that though many a time there is a clear mention of such buildings, our senses benumbed by traditional tutoring fail to grasp their significance. Such is the case with the Taj Mahal. The rampant corruption was prevalent during the Mogul time and there were large percentage of unauthorized profits of innumerable middle men thus there was no money to raise a cenotaph in the ground floor in octagonal chamber by covering them with costly mosaic stones to match with the palace flooring and barricading the hundred of rooms, ventilators staircases, doorways, balconies and corridor. There exist a sevenstorey marble Tejo Mahalaya Hindu temple palace complex. The seven storey massive girth in its lofty gateways and arches necessitates the removal of stone pitching and as such Badshahnama discloses the expenditure incurred in scaffolding of these Hindu complexes and in engraving the Koran on the walls of edifice. The great French merchant visitor Tavernier testimony too fully corroborates the aforesaid conclusion. Let us examine his testimony introduce in Maharashtreeya Jnyankosh. Jean Baptiste Tavernier, a French jeweler, toured India for trade between 1641 and 1668 A.D. His travel account is mainly devoted to commerce. He used to sojourn at Surat and Agra (while in India). He visited all parts of India, including Bengal , Gujrat ,Punjab, Madras , Karnatak, etc. He owned a vehicle .He had to spend Rs. 600 for the cart and pair of bullocks. The bullocks used to cover 40 miles a day for two months at a stretch. Four days were enough for the journey from Surat to Agra or Golcunda and the expense used to be between Rs. 40 and Rs.50. The roads were as good as Roman highways. European travelers felt inconvenienced in Hindu territories for want of meat, which was freely available in Mughal dominions. A good postal system was in vogue. Both the town folk

and the government used to provide protection against highway robberyis the kind of information Travernier has recorded (in his book titled Travels in India). Not being learned, he has not recorded much except where wealth and commerce was concerned. The other important piece of evidence arises from some chance digging conducted in the Garden in front of the marble edifice early in the year 1973 A.D.It so happened that the fountains developed some defect .It was therefore thought advisable to inspect the main pipe that lay imbedded underneath. When the ground was dug to that level some hollows were noticed going down to another five feet. Therefore the ground was dug to that depth. And to the utter surprise of all there lay at that depth another set of fountains hitherto unknown. What appeared more significant was that those fountains are aligned to the Taj Mahal, decisively indicating that the present building existed even before Shahjahan. Those hidden fountains could have been installed neither by Shahjahan not his successors, the British. Therefore they were of the pre-Shahjahan era . Since they were aligned to the Taj Mahal building it followed ipso facto that the building too pre-dated Shahjahan. This piece of evidence too therefore clinches the issue in favour of our conclusion that Shahjahan only commandeered an ancient Hindu temple palace for Mumtazs burial. The archaeology officer who supervised that digging was Mr. R.S. Verma, a conservation assistant. This same official made another chance discovery. Once while strolling staffin-hand on the terrace near the so-called mosque and the circular well on the western flank of the marble edifice. Mr. Verma detected a hollow sound coming from below the floor where his staff hit the terrace. He had a slab covering that spot removed and to his surprise that was an ancient opening, apparently sealed by Shahjahan, to a flight of about 50 steps reaching down into a dark corridor. The broad wall under the terrace was apparently hollow. From this it is clear that the corresponding spot on the eastern terrace also hides a similar staircase and corridor, at its bottom. And God only knows how many more such walls, apartments and stories lie sealed, hidden and unknown to the world. Thus also incidentally points to the sorry state of research with respect to the Taj Mahal. Nobody seems to have done neither any archaeological investigation in the grounds of the Taj Mahal nor conducted a diligent academic study of the whole issue. Apparently extraneous political and communal considerations have inhibited historians and archeologists from conducting any meaningful research into the origin of Taj Mahal. Such Academic cowardice is highly reprehensible. Naturally when chance alien visitors like Peter Mundy visit such sites undergoing extensive superficial changes his observing that the building is begun.( and ) is prosecuted with extraordinary diligence is not wrong .He couldnt visualise that some generations after him posterity would be bluffed into believing that the Taj Mahal complex was raised by Shahjahan himself . Travernier and Peter Mundy could not possibly visualize such a falsification of history and could not be more explicit. We ourselves visiting some building as chance visitors wouldnt be more explicit. For instance if we were to visit Bombay or London at a time when somebody has acquired somebody elses mansion and has enclosed it in massive scaffolding to renovate it for his own purpose we wont dare or care to ask him how he acquired the building ,for how much, from whom ,what changes he proposed to make ,and spend how much over it .We would simply refer to it as his building. Such inquiries are all the more impossible when a wide hiatus of language, race, culture authority and wealth separates the two. Peter Mundy also fortunately records the object of the leveling up of the hillocks. The hillocks were removed , he says, because they might not hinder the prospect of the mausoleum .The very fact that within a couple of years of Mumtazs death the hillocks were leveled to afford a glimpse of the mausoleum clearly indicates that the Taj building complex already existed .All that was necessary was to level some of the hillocks and make the building visible from a distance. In fact the very object of the ancient Hindu builders of the Taj raising those hillocks seems from Mundys noting, to prevent the tempting Taj to be the target of a malicious enemys attack. Since Shahjahan was converting it into a tomb open to all and sundry, he no longer had the need to keep it out of the gaze of enmical people. Waldemar Hansen notes on pages 181-182 of his book (titled The Peacock Throne ,published by Holt ,Rhinehart and Winston ) that Even as early as 1632 on the first anniversary of Mumtaz Mahals death ,the courtyard of the mausoleum in progress had been adorned with superb tents, with the entire court assembled to pay homageprinces of the royal blood ,grandees and an assemblage of religious scholars including sheikhs, ulemas and hafizes who knew the whole Koran by heart. Shahjahan had graced the event with his presence, and as the empresss father Asaf Khan was present by imperial request, a great banquet was spread before the then nascent tomb and guests partook of a variety of foods, sweetmeats and fruits. Verses from the Koran filled the air, prayers were offered for the soul of the dead and a hundred thousand rupees went into charity. In later years on other anniversary days, Shahjahan attended memorials at the

incomplete edifice whenever in Agra, formally accompanied by Jahanara and the harem .The ladies always occupied a central platform set up for the occasion, and remained concealed from the public gaze by kanats, screens of red cloth and velvet. Noblemen gathered under pitched tents. The Mehtab garden is innundated and looks desolate. Its scenic beauty will reappear only when the floods recede. That the rear portion of the building complex remains safe is a mystery. The stream keeping away from the rear wall has prevented damage. On Saturday too I visited the spot and then I called on the Prince (Dara) who also paid me a return visit. Then taking leave of all I resumed my journey (to take charge as govrneor of the Deccan) on Sunday and today the 8th instant I am in the vicinity of Dholpur Thus from Aurangzebs noting it is apparent that in 1652 A.D. itself the Taj Mahal building complex had become so ancient that it needed elaborate repairs. So what was carried out in 1652 A.D was not the completion of a new building but the repairs to an old building complex. Had The Taj Mahal been a building completed in 1653 it would not have fallen to the lot of a chance ,lone visitor like Aurangzeb to notice the defects and order repairs in 1652.The defects should have been noticed by the thousands of workmen and hundreds of court supervisors who were supposed to be building the Taj Mahal. And since such serious defects had been in fact noticed a year before completion all the tom-tomming of the master builders of the Taj is utterly unjustified. The builders of the Taj were no doubt master-craftsmen but they were not Shahajahans contemporaries but Hindus of several centuries earlier. Similarly it was not Shahjahan who commissioned the Taj Mahal but some ancient Hindu king . Likewise the Taj did not come into being as an Islamic mausoleum but as Hindu temple palace. The builders of the Taj Mahal ancient secret revealed Tourists come from the world over to see Taj at Agra and all marvel at the genius of the architects that could plan and accomplish so lovely a dream of marble. They were commissioned by the Mogul emperor Shahjahan to raise a mausoleum befitting his love for Mumtaz Mahal, his beloved consort ; and they created this Wonder of the world. Yet, despite strenuous efforts to discover it , their identity had remained a mystery ;wild guesses as to their origin being foreign were abroad. Even Bernier (1642 A.D.) notes only a rumour that the architect was killed lest the secret of his art be revealed and a rival to Taj created. But the secret has at long last been found in a manuscript book discovered lately in the library of Mr.Mehmud Khan of Bangalore. The glory of building the Taj belongs definitely to India,to a family of Lahore architect, Ahmad, the father ,and his three sons. The book is in Persian verses in the Persian character, its author being Lathfullah Maaahandis, himself one of the three son architects and it is almost 300 years old, falling within the last years of Shahjahans reign. It has been declared to be the only copy in the world, by the well-known authority on these matters , Syed Suleiman Sahib Nadvi,Principal ,Shibly Academy ,Azamgarh. The book is in Mahandis own handwriting .As is noticed from different verses, the author was a staunch follower of Dara Shikoh , Shahjahans eldest son ,and when Aurangzeb finally came to power, after defeating Dara Shikoh, the author and his family suffered. He sent a petition to the emperor but as it was not heeded the family had to retire into seclusion and poverty. It seems that the book was very secretly kept by the family in fear of Aurangzeb ,as it contained verses in praise of Dara Shikoh .The subsequent dates and writing on the last page show that the book was brought and kept in the library of the library of the historical personage Nawab Ebrahim Khann Hazbar Jung ,the famous Mahammedan general nick named Gardy ,who sided with the Maharatas in the battle of Panipat in 1761 against Ahmed Shah Abdali.The book has been in the family of the present owner for generations, but it was not noticed until Moulana Syed Suleiman Nadvi ,the well known historian, author and editor of the Moariff (the monthly journal of the Society of Authors and Shibly Academy, Azamgarh ,U.P.) Discovered it and, on information gleaned from it, read a lengthy Urdu paper on the builders of the Taj in Punjab University. In the verses on two pages of the book described in the article, the author praises Shahjahan ,and speaks of his father Ahmed, the Nadarul-Asar (the unique of the world ),as supreme master craftsman, geometer ,astronomer and prosateur .He was appointed court architect by Shahjahans Ryal Warrant ,and was the builder of the Taj Mahal at Agra and the Lal Quila (Red Fort) at Delhi. He died in 1649,two years after the Taj was built .The author his son and co-architect of the Taj learnt at his feet. Article titled Some Facts About the Taj Mahal by Mohammed Din, published in The illustrated weekly of India dated December 30,1951.The article runs thus:

When The Taj Mahal was built, the many mechanical aids available today were unheard of; yet the extraordinary ingenuity employed in its construction and the high degree of engineering skill evidenced in its design make the mind pause. Not less remarkable were the talent and skill of the artisans employed. In translating this fabulous architectural dream into brick and mortar, and area 967 ft. long and 373 ft. wide was excavated to a depth of 44 ft. where sub-soil water was met .The whole excavated area was filled in mass with rubble stone in hydraulic lime to provide a common foundation for the three heavy structures, the Taj Mahal , Jamaet Khana and one mosque which were to be raised close to one another. About 20,000 men were engaged on this work. Over this foundation the plinth of the Taj Mahal , 313 ft. square and 8 ft. high, was built in stone with hydraulic lime mortar and marble stone casing. The casing was laid after the rubble masonry was raised to its designed height, then the marble facing was set. The main engineering problem was to haul up the materials to the required height during the progress of the work. This was done by constructing wooden pillars of square timber posts bundled together and skillfully tied with top levels at different heights, and so spaced as to carry a strong platform 40 ft. wide and a spiral roadway with a slope of 1 in 20, to permit loaded mules and mule carts to run over it, and to hold dumps of materials for construction work. This spiral platform was continuous and ran all round the dome, and remained in position till the work was raised to its designed height of 240 ft. above ground level. Special engineers were engaged to build the scaffolding and platform, and 500 carpenters and 300 blacksmith were employed on this project alone. The total length of the spiral platform was about 4,800 ft. The mortar was hoisted by means of Persian wheels, which were fitted on the spiral platform. These were worked by bullocks and mules. The materials for the massive work were brought from many distant places. The marble stone was obtained from Makrana in Rajputana ,for which about a thousand elephants were engaged. The maximum weight of a block of stone was about 2.5 tons, which is the safe carrying capacity of an elephant. A number of elephants were also engaged to work the pulleys. The timber for scaffolding was brought from the Kashmir and Naini Tal areas. About 2000 camels and 1000 bullock carts were employed for carting bricks and light materials to the construction site and about 1000 mules for lifting the materials along the spiral platform. The marble stone required for drum and dome was dressed on the ground and then lifted and laid in position by means of pulleys After the main dome and drum work was finished, work on annexes and subsidiary buildings was taken in hand and completed in the same manner. There are four minarets at the four corners of the Taj Mahal. The river Jumna was half a mile away from the structure. After the building was completed , the river was diverted artificially to flow alongside the Taj to add to the beauty of landscape. Contemporary Mughal writers recorded the names of those who designed and constructed the Taj Mahal, and the names and quantities of precious stones used. It appears that Mohammed Isa Afandi, of turkey, was the chief designer and draftsman. Among the other foreigners employed on the construction, there were men from Arabia ,Persia, Syria ,Baghdad and Samarkand and there was at least one Frenchmen, Austin de Bordeaux, a goldsmith. The precious stones used included 540 pieces of cornelian from Baghdad, 670 turquoises from upper Tibet, 614 malachites from Russia ,559 onyxes from Deccan and 625 diamonds from Central India. The construction of Taj Mahal was begun in 1632 and was not completed till 1650.It is believed to have cost more than a crore and a half of rupees which in terms of the present value of money ,would be at ten times as much .Two thirds of this were contributed by the State office and one third by third by the State treasury of the province. The allocations of expenditures on different parts of the structure have been carefully recorded in documents which are still existent. Shahjahan, magnificent in his kingship, was equally magnificent in his sorrows. This exquisite memorial of an emperors love was built by the sorrowing Shahjahan for his departed spouse. He manifestly designed it to go down in history to a worshipful posterity; three hundred years after, it is still acclaimed as one of the supreme achievements of the architect. The measurement mentioned could of course always be taken from the erstwhile Hindu Temple palace, which stands before us today as the Taj Mahal, and stuffed into any post-mortem of the construction. The account of how the edifice was erected is apparently the result of an hind-sight post-mortem carried out by some contemporary architects, as far as they can visualize it

.As for the 500 carpenters and 300 blacksmiths and such others employed, we have no special objection because that many would be easily absorbed in erecting even a scaffolding around the massive Hindu Temple palace, which the Taj Mahal is, to convert it into a Mughal tomb. The following conclusions emerge from what Emperor Shahjahans own court chronicler has recorded in the official history of the reign, Badshahnama : 1.The Taj Mahal is a Hindu palace. 2.It has around it a majestic and spacious garden. 3.The huge building complex was obtained in exchange (if at all ) for almost a song, i.e. at best transferring to the owner an open plot of land. This too seems fishy because the location and the size of the plot of land are not mentioned. Most probably it was just a blatant expropriation effected by turning Jaisingh out of his wealthy ancestral palace. The detail that Jaisingh was compensated by gifting him on open plot of land is obviously a royal Islamic bluff to cover up the fact that Raja Jaisingh was blatantly robbed of his wealthy temple-palace. 4.The Hindu palace had a dome. 5.Mumtaz was buried, so they say, under that dome soon after her exhumed body was brought from Burhanpur to Agra, if at all. 6.The estimated expenditure (to transform the Hindu Palace into a Mughal tomb ) was Rs.40 lakhs .(the actual expenditure is unknown ). 7.Of the above sum , Rs.5 lakhs was spent on the grave and cenotaph and the balance of Rs 35 lakhs on the scaffolding and the Koranic engravings. 8.Designer or architects are out of the picture, since the Taj Mahal was never raised by Shahjahan. 9.The Hindu palace was known as Mansinghs palace during Emperor Shahjahans time though it was in the occupation of his grandson Jaisingh.

The above account being fairly plausible fits with the truth that the Taj Mahal is an ancient Hindu palace commandeered for conversion into a Mughal tomb. In spite of this fundamental vagueness we would have accepted the duration of the period during which the Taj Mahal was a building if there had been any consensus about it among historians. Unfortunately, there is none .See how many versions are there: 1.The Maharashtreeya Jnyankosh quoted (Pp. 35-36 ,Maharashtreeya Jnyankosh ,ibid,Vol. 15) says that the construction commenced in 1631 A.D. and ended in January 1643 A.D.That gives a period of a little less than 12 years . 2.The encyclopaedia Britannica (P. 758, Encyclopaedia Britannica ,1964 Ed.,Vol. 21) says the building was commenced in 1632.More than 20,000 workmen were employed daily to complete the mausoleum building itself by 1643,although the whole Taj complex took 22 years to complete .Unlike the first encyclopaedia ,the latter gives us two separate periods :one of 10 to 11 years and the other of 22 years. About this latter period of 22 years we would also like to know why the mausoleum needed a building complex containing stables and guard and guest rooms was Mumtaz still supposed to go riding, casting away the burqa and escorted by large cavalry contingents? Was she also expected to receive guests? 3.Taverniers account runs completely counter to all Mughal versions, which form the basis of the encyclopedic accounts quoted above. The Encyclopaedia Britannica account is actually as amalgam of the Tavernier and Mughal accounts in as much as it borrows the figure of 20,000.workmen and 22 years from Tavernier while deftly weaving in it the 11or 12 year period fancied in Mughal accounts. Tavernier (PP.109-111, Travels in India, ibid.) says he witnessed the commencement and accomplishment of this great work on which they expended 22 years during which 20,000 men worked incessantly .The cost of it has been enormous. The scaffolding alone cost more than the entire work Even presuming that Tavernier arrived in Agra in 1641, and the work began soon after his arrival there, it should have lasted from 1641 to 1663.But Shahjahan was deposed and imprisoned by his son Aurangzeb in 1658 .How then could the work of the Mumtaz mausoleum proceed until 1663,i.e. five years after his losing control of state affairs ? And if, in fact, It did, what are we to make some Mughal accounts, which claim that the work had ended in 1643? Then again, is the problem of the commencement of the construction still remains hanging in air. 4.Mr.Mohammed Dins article (The Illustrated weekly of India dated Dec 30,1951.) asserts the construction of the Taj Mahal was begun in 1632 and was not completed till 1650.Mr.Mohammed Din seems to be sure only of the date when the building

commenced .If we take 1632 as the year of commenced then what are we to make of Taverniers assertion that work started in his presence ? 5.Yet another version estimates the Taj Mahal to have been under construction for 17 years .This is from Mr. Aroras book (P. 10 City of Taj by R.C. Arora ,printed at the Hiberninan Press,15 Portuguese Church Street ,Calcutta). He says Shahjahan commenced building the Taj in 1631,the fourth year his accession .The splendid mausoleum was completed in 1648. It is not even certain that Mumtaz died in 1630.Even assuming that she died in 1630 she perhaps died towards the close of that year. In such a case is it possible for the emperor to make a decision to build a dreamland monument, have a huge amount sanctioned for it, broadcast his scheme to distant lands, have artists prepare plans have them sent to Shahjahan, from among which, we are told,he selected one ,have a wooden model constructed ,the necessary workmen collected, the bewildering variety of material ordered and construction begun all by 1630? Since bricks (and timber) are generally bought and used soon after being marketed (and are not stored for generations like diamonds, bullion and ornaments) thermoluminescence is very helpful in determining the age of a brick-structure fairly accurately. The carbon C14 test is applicable to anything, which had been part of a living organism such as piece of bone or timber. A living tree continues to breathe in carbon di oxide while alive. But once it is dead the breathing in stops and the dead piece continues to lose its carbon di oxide (including C14) content at a known rate. The report published in the Itihas Patrika (a quarterly journal,Vol 4 No. 4 dated 31 December 1984,THANA)is produced hereunder. Sample 1 Wood piece from door at North (east) end of Taj Mahal at beach level fronting on Jumna River. Age 1359+ - 89 A.D. Thus there is a 67% probability that the age of the sample lies between 1448 and 1270 A.D. Submitted by Evan T.Williams Professor of chemistry City University of New York, Brooklyn College, Brooklyn,N.Y.,11210

The Taj Mahal originated as a temple -The inscription in Sanskrit has 34 stanzas of which stanzas 25,26 and 34 being relevant to our topic are reproduced as translation. Translated, these means :He (King Parmardi Dev or on his behalf his minister Salakshan ) raised a palace which had inside it the idol of Lord Vishnu whose feet the king used to touch with his (bowed ) head. Similarly the King also had constructed this temple,(dedicated) to the God who bears the crescent on His (fore)head, made of crystal white stone. Consecrated in that (magnificent) temple the lord (was so pleased that He) never thought of repairing to His (Himalayan ) abode on mount Kailas. The inscription found at Mauja Bateshwar,near Agra is at present in the Lucknow Museum.It is of the King Paramardi Dev dated Vikram Samvat 1212,Ashwin(month),5th day of the bright lunar fortnight. It has in all 34 stanzas which describe the origin of the Chandratreya (regal) dynasty and its important rulers. The inscription was found embedded in a mound at Bateshwar .It was later deposited in the Lucknow Museum by General Cunnigham, where it still is.The two beautiful marble temples which King Paramardi Dev had raised, one for Lord Vishnu and the other for Lord Shiva were subsequently desecrated during Mughal invasions .Some clever(farsighted)person has this inscription ,concerning these temples, buried in a mound. It remained buried for many years until1900 A.D. when during excavations it was discovered by General Cunnigham. The Shiva (Chandramauleeshwar) temple is obviuosly the Taj Mahal for the following reasons: 1.It is of crystal white marble as mentioned in the inscription . 2.Its pinnacle and entrance arches bear the trident (trishul) which is an exclusive emblem of Chandramauleeshwar. 3.The edifice is said to have been of such captivating beauty that the Lord (Shiva) Chandramauleeshwar never again thought of returning to his Himalayan abode of Kailas. 4.The Taj Mahal garden included plants and tress all sacred to Hindus. Among them is the Bel and Harshringar ,the leaves and flowers of which are considered a necessity for the worship of lord Shiva. 5.The central Chamber of the Taj Mahal which is now believed to contain the cenotaphs of emperor Shahjahan and his wife Arjumand Banu Begum has around it ten

quadrangular chambers providing a perambulatory passage for devotees as is the Hindu custom. 6.As the devotee passes through each of those rooms, ventilators provide him a view of the centre of the octagonal central chamber where the emblem of Lord Chandramauleeshwar was consecrated. 7. The high dome of the Taj Mahal central chamber with its reverberative effect provided the proper gimmick to produce the ecstatic din that accompanies the worship of Lord Shiva when he is supposed to perform the cosmic(Tandava Nritya) dance amidst the blowing of conches, beating of drums and tolling of bells. 8.The high dome is also a common feature of Shiva temples to enable the hanging of a pitcher for water to drip over the emblem of Lord Shiva. The chain which held the pitcher still remains suspended from the centre of the dome. 9.Silver doors and gold railings mentioned as fixtures of the Taj Mahal are a common feature of Hindu temples surviving even to our own day .Had the gold railing, fancied to have been provided for Mumtazs tomb, been subsequently removed one should have seen holes in the mosaic flooring for the props which supported the railing. There are no such holes. That means that it was Shahjahan who removed the gold railing of the ancient Hindu Shiva temple and carried it away to the treasury, before using the location of the Hindu idol to graft an Islamic cenotaph. Visitors may also notice there an ancient Hindu colour sketch of eight directional pointers,16 cobras,32 tridents and 64 lotus buds all Hindu motifs in multiples of eight That design is sketched in the concave domed ceiling of the octagonal central chamber, which anyone standing close to Mumtazs cenotaph may look up and see. 10.Guides at the Taj Mahal still mention a tradition of a drop of rainwater dropping from the high dome top on the cenotaph within. This obviously is a remnant of the past memories of the water dripping on the emblem of Lord Shiva from the pitcher. 11.Tavernier mentions the six courts in the Taj Mahal building complex where a bazar used to be held. It is common knowledge that in Hindu tradition bazars and fairs are invariably held around temples which constitute the focal points of Hindu life. 12.The trident(trishul) which is Lord Shivas exclusive weapon is also inlaid at the apex of the Taj Mahals marble entrance arches on all four sides It is in red and white lines exactly as some Hindus wear in colour on their foreheads. Its being installed there at the apex of the entrance arches clearly proves that it is an unmistakable Shiva temple. 13.A full length design of the entire trident pinnacle as it towers above the dome, has been inlaid in the red stone yard to the right of the Taj Mahal as we stand facing the marble edifice. This again proves its Hindu origin since it has been a tradition in Hindu architecture to inscribe the basic scale used in the construction of every building ,somewhere in the premises. In the case of Taj Mahal the length of its trident pinnacle may be the basic scale used in raising the Shiva temple. 14.The Taj Mahal itself is far from Persian .It is a corrupt from of the Sanskrit term Tejo Maha Alaya meaning Resplendent Shrine It was known as resplendent shrine because it reflects a dazzling sheen in sunlight and moonlight. That name also attaches to it because Lord Shivas third eye is said to emit a jet of lustre i.e. teja.The tarditional conjecture that the term Taj Mahal derives from the name of Mumtaz Mahal porves baseless on closer scrutiny. 15. Apparently Akbar did not dispossess the Jaipur royal family of the Taj Mahal because the Jaipur family was his strongest Hindu ally and its scion ,Bhagwandas and Mansingh were his most trusted generals. They were also in laws of the Mogul rulers.That after Humayuns defeat the Taj Mahal passed into the hands of the Jaipur royal family is apparent from Emperor Sahhajahans chronicle which admits having commandeered The Taj Mahal from Jai Singh ,the then head of the Jaipur royal family. 16.Besides the trident pinnacle, there are other Hindu symbols in the Taj namely the conch, the lotus and the sacred Hindu chant OM in Devanagiri character. Visitors to the Taj may notice the letter om woven in bold relief in embossed flower designs on the interior marble walls. As one stands poised at the top of the stairs leading to the basement (to se what they call the real graves ) one may see on the walls around the upper marble cenotaph chamber ,at chest level, the esoteric sacred Hindu letter om woven into embossed marble flower pattern. Pink lotus patterns on the border of the grilled panels that enclose the cenotaph may also be noticed.

A peacock Throne could never have been ordered by fanatic mediaeval Mughal rulers surrounded by even more fanatic maulvis. Throughout their millennium long rule in India their one penchant was to break images not to make them. The peacock Throne could only be a piece of Hindu Palace furniture because traditionally a Hindu throne must have the effigy of some bird or animal known for its splendor or valour. In Hindu terminology the very term for a throne is a Lion Seat (Simhasan).

Hardly had the project begun, than we are told that by 1635 Shahjahan had amassed such a plethora of gems and bullion, within seven years of his accession that he did not know what to do with them. He therefore had a fabulous Peacock Throne ordered. According to Shahjahans court chronicler (PP. 45-46,ibid.),it appears that the peacock Throne was three yards long, two and a half yards broad, yards high and set with jewels worth 86 lakh rupees. The canopy had 12 emerald columns. On top of each pillar were two peacocks thick set with rubies ,diamonds, emeralds and pearls. The throne cost ten million rupees. The marble screen enclosing an octagonal area in the centre of the cenotaph chamber was, according to the Badshahnama placed here in 1642 by Shahjahan According, however ,to competent authority the screen was placed here by Aurangzeb after he laid his fathers remains there. Had the Taj been an original tomb, Shahjahan would never have allowed Indian flora to form the dominant feature of the tapestry design inside the mausoleum of his wife. It is idle to argue that because the workmen employed on the Taj happened to be Hindus their motifs got incorporated in the Taj design. It must be remembered that it is the person who pays the piper that calls the tune. Moreover when it is a question of the peace of departed soul, symbols and motifs of a detested religion would never have been allowed to be incorporated in the ornamental patterns of the Taj. In fact the whole idea of having such a luxurious tomb built and having decorative patterns made inside it is frowned upon in Islamic religion and tradition. But Shahjahan had no alternative but to put up with them since he had taken over a ready made heathen monument. We have cited five direct proofs to establish that the Taj is an ancient Hindu palace. These are: 1.Shahjahans own court chronicler Mulla Abdul Hamids admission. 2.Mr.Nurul Hasan Siddiquis book, The City of Taj, reiterates the same position. 3.Taverniers testimony too establishes that a lofty palace had been obtained, and that it was a world tourist attraction even before Mumtazs burial. 4.Emperor Shahjahans great grandfather Baburs Memoirs refer to the Taj Mahal 104 years before Mumtazs death whose tomb the Taj is supposed to be. 5.The Encyclopaedia Britannica has been quoted to show that the Taj Mahal building complex comprises guest rooms, guard rooms and stables. These are all adjuncts of a temple palace but never of a tomb. In addition to the above we have ,in the foregoing pages, advanced many other proofs as follows: 6.The very name Taj Mahal means a crown palace or a resplendent shrine (Tejo Maha Alaya) and not a tomb . 7.Shahjahans reign was as full of turmoil and warfare as that of most other Mughal rulers of India. He could not therefore, have any wealth, peace, security or inclination to launch on such an ambitious project as the Taj Mahal. 8.Shahjahans lechery and profligacy ruled out any special attachment to Mumtaz, whose mausoleum the Taj has been misrepresented to be. 9.Shahjahan was cruel, hard hearted and stingy ;as such he could never have the artists soft heart and a liberal patrons generosity to lavish wealth on a building to house a corpse. 10. Mulla Abdul Hamid Lahori, the court chronicler, mentions no architect and estimates the cost of the work done to be only Rs 40,00,000 which clearly shows that no new building was erected. 11.Shahjahan, whose reign was supposed to be a golden period of history, has not left even a scrap of authentic paper about the construction of Taj Mahal. There are no authentic orders commissioning the Taj ,no correspondence for the purchase or acquisition of the so-called site ,no design drawings no bills or receipts and no expense account sheets Some of those usually produced or referred to have already been proved to be forgeries. 12.Had Shahjahan really been the conceiver of the Taj Mahal, he need not have specially instructed Mulla Abdul Hamid Lahori not to forget mentioning or describing its construction in the official chronicles, because the grandeur and majesty of the Taj as the finest achievement of a ruling monarch could never be lost sight of by a paid court chronicler. 13.That Shahajahan could not even in his wildest dreams conceive undertaking such a gorgeous project is apparent from the fact that even the Mughal accounts tell us that he made the workers toil on meagre rations without giving them any cash payment. Tavernier tells us that Shahjahan could not marshal even timber enough for as much as scaffolding. Some accounts have also pointed out that Shahjahan made Rajas and Maharajas pay a large part of the cost. So even the additions and alterations required

in converting a Hindu palace to the semblance of a Mughal tomb were made by compelling labourers to toil for a mere meagre food allocation and by imposing levies on subservient chieftains. 14. If a stupendous monument like the Taj Mahal were specially built for the burial of a consort there would be a ceremonial burial date and it would not go unrecorded. But not only is the burial date not mentioned but even the approximate period during which Arjumand Banu Begum may have been buried in the Taj Mahal varies from six months to nine years of her death. 15. Mumtaz was married to Shahjahan when the latter was 21 years old. Royal children in his times used to be married much before their teens. This shows that Arjumand Banu was Shahjahans umpteenth wife. There was thus no reason why she should have been buried in a special monument. 16. Having been a commoner by birth Arjumand Banu was not entitled to a special monument 17.History makes no special mention of any out of the way attachment or romance between the two, unlike that of Jahangir and Nurjahan. This shows that the story of their love is a concoction seeking to justify the myth about the building of the taj over her body. 18. Shahjahan was no patron of art. Had he been one, he would not have had the heart to chop off the hands of those who are said to have toiled to build the monument for his wife. An art lover especially one disconsolate on his wifes death,would not indulge in an orgy of maiming skilful craftsman. But the maiming story is apparently true because made to toil mercilessly on meagre rations on a palace usurped from its erstwhile Hindu master, the infuriated workmen broke out in revolt. 19.There is no record in history that Shahjahan had any special infatuation for Mumtaz. In fact history records that he used to run after various other women from his own daughter to his maids. 20.The existence of the landing ghat on Yamuna River at the rear suggests a temple palace, not a tomb. 21.Even the central marble structure consists of a 23-room marble palace suit which is superfluous for a tomb. 22.The plan tallies with ancient Hindu architectural design and specifications. 23.The entire Taj building consists of over 1000 rooms along its corridor, in two basements, on the upper floors and in its numerous towers, which clearly bears out the contention that it was meant to be a temple palace. 24. The many annexes, guard and guest rooms etc. prove that it is a temple palace. The pleasure pavilions in the Taj premises could never form part of a tomb but only of a palace. 25.The Taj complex houses a pair of Nakkar Khanas, i.e. drum houses. Drum houses are not only superfluous in a tomb but it is a positive misfit because a departed soul needs peace and rest. On the other hand a drum house is a necessary concomitant of a temple-palace because drum beats are used to herald royal arrivals and departures summoning of the townsfolk for royal announcements and proclamations and announce divine worship time. 26.The Taj building complex also contains cowpen which used to be part of all Hindu royal and temple premises. 27.The Sanskrit words Kalas and pranchi (fenced off open spaces around the dome and other structures) would never have been in the Taj premises had it originated as a Mughal tomb. 28.The decorative patterns and motifs throughout the Taj Mahal are not only entirely of Indian flora but also of sacred Hindu emblems like the lotus, which infidel characteristics, according to Islamic beliefs would never allow any peace to the soul of the Mughal lady, if any, lying buried beneath. 29. The galleries, arches, supporting brackets and cupolas are entirely in the Hindu style such as can be seen all over Rajasthan. 30. Like every other suspicious aspect of Taj, its period of construction is variously stated to be 10,12,13,17 or 22 years, which again proves that the traditional story is a concotion. 31.Even Taverniers testimony that he saw the commencement and the end of this work, while weakening the traditional case, strengthens ours. 32. The reports that Shahjahan levied large amounts on rajas and Maharajas and that the so called (tampering) work dragged on over 10,12,13,17,or even 22 years are all very true details. Since Shahjahan was too shrewd and hard headed to spend anything out of his own treasury and would lose no opportunity of taxing and persecuting the local people, he made political capital even out of the death of his own wife.

33.The designers are variously mentioned by Western scholars to be Europeans, and are claimed by Mughals to be Mughals, while the Imperial Library Manuscript contains Hindu names. 34.The Taj Mahal had a grand garden. A graveyard never boasts of luscious fruits and fragrant flower trees, since the idea of enjoying fruit and flowers of a graveyard orchard is revolting. 35.The trees, moreover were those bearing Sanskrit names and select sacred plants at that ,like Ketaki, Jai, Jui, Champa, Maulashree, Harshringar and Bel. 36.The designer of Taj is unknown. 37.Far from causing him any expenditure, the Taj proved to be a veritable gold mine for Shahjahan. While Arjumand Banu was buried in a stripped, cold,stone temple palace, the building was robbed of all its costly trappings which were removed to Sahjahans treasury. 38. The Taj palace is located in the twin township of Jaisinghpura and Khawaspura which are Rajput words, not Mughal.Pura in Sanskrit signifies a busy locality and not an open plot of land as is sometimes claimed. 39.The Taj Mahal entrance faces south. Had it been a Mughal building it should have faced west. 40.Its decorative and marble work tallies exactly with that in the Amer(Jaipur) palace built circa 967. 41.The Taj temple palace has various other annexes outside its outer peripheral redstone wall, meant for courtiers and palace staff. 42. Akbar on his early visits to Agra used to stay in Khawaspura and Jaisinghpura, which clearly shows that he stayed in the Taj . 43.Bernier,another foreign visitor to Shahjahans court, tells us that the nether chambers had a rare magnificence and no non-Mughal was allowed entry to them.That shows the hush-hush secrecy maintained about them. 44.Even the term Taj Mahal doesnt figure in any Mogul court records. 45.An English visitor, Peter Mundy who was in India only for about a year after Mumtazs death mentions the Taj Mahal as one of the most spectacular buildings. Thus Shahjahans sacrilege of the Hindu Taj temple-palace by misusing it as an Islamic graveyard ought to be rectified by removing Arjumand Banus remains,if they really are in the Taj Mahal, to her original grave, still existing in Burhanpur. The garden pavilion of an Hindu mansion in Burhanpur(about 600 miles south west of Agra) where Mumtaz was buried in1631 A.D. after her death in her 14th delivery during 18 years of married life. Shahjahan Mumtaz had encamped in the adjoining Hindu palace during a north south journey when Mumtaz died.The ground plan of the orthodox Vedic octagonal Tejomahalaya shrine in Agra where Mumtazs exumed body is supposed to have been interred again. Why this sacrilege? An aerial view. The white marble Tejomahalaya framed by four towers at its plinth-corners on the south bank of the sacred Yamuna river. Two identical red stone buildings(each with three marble domes) facing the marble edifice from the east and west were meant to be reception pavilions for royal or religious congregations. The central marble building and the flanking red stone buildings are all seven storied with octagonal features, which is a Vedic specialty. Seven storied octagonal buildings are mentioned even in Ramayanic description of Ayodhya. A meticulous count will reveal 33 arches in the marble plinth seen in front in between the two towers on the left and the right. Since the marble platform is a square the breadth too has 33 arches consequently the marble plinth itself encloses 33x 33=1089 rooms That is the ground floor. Above it on either side of the lofty entrance arch may be seen vaulted arches on two levels one above the other, which constitutes two more stories in marble. The outer western gateway leading to the spacious parking area for visitors vehicles lined by arcaded red stone verandahs with rooms for shopkeepers selling their wares. The entire parking area is lined by such shopping arcades which Tavernier describes as bazar of six courts The western gateway has assumed importance in modern times because the main bus depot and railway stations of the populous, bustling Agra city lies in that direction. In olden days it was the elevated gateway at the left which used,to be the main entrance of the Tejganj alias Tajganj township. The Tejomahalaya shopping arcade has had at its outer eastern and western corners, flanking the Shree gate, two other subsidiary sentinel-temples. This octagonal pavilion with a white dome in the southwest corner bearing the inverted lotus cap and straight Vedic pinnacle pitcher shaft is one of them. But alas, since Shahjahans time the sacred sanctum has an Islamic cenotaph attributed to an harem-maid Satunnisa Khanam. But since no name is inscribed on it that seems to be an inspired canard explaining away the desecration of the Hindu shrine. The interior of the multi-storied vaulted entrance gate leading first to the rectangular garden and then to the wonder marble edifice at the far end. The temple palace

management staff used to work on both floors on various assigned duties. The carved decorative red stone bunting around the interior and exterior of this gateway, about knee-high from the floor, if minutely observed turns out to be an ingenious running chain of three-in-one Ganesh images, two in profile on the flanks and one with a frontal facing in the middle. The marble Taj Mahal has identical vaulted lofty archways in all the four directions. Their temple dcor was chiseled away and Koranic extracts were improvised to fill the cavities. Close look at the marble stone frames around the vertical and horizontal Koranic passages to notice the patches of dissimilar shapes and tints of marble used. Cobras lined up above a string of inlaid temple bells pattern form the upper border of the Taj Mahal. Both cobras and bells have sacred associations in Vedic spiritual lore. The seven arches at the bottom enclose the stairs, which lead to the top of the marble plinth symmetrically from the right and left. The Nandi(Lord Shiva s Bull ) occupied the spot where the person clad in white robes is seen standing facing the entrance, before it was uprooted at Shahjahans orders. That spot was patched up later with inferior reddish slabs. There is trident shaped designs in inlay filigree at the two upper corners of the entrance and the trident shaped red lotus bud at the apex of the arch. The Koranic stones fixed vertically and horizontally along such lofty arches on all four sides were improvised to fill up gaping cavities left after digging out idols of Vedic deities and Sanskrit extracts. We arrive at the above conclusion because (1) a close inspection of the marble frames enclosing the Koranic extracts reveal patches of marble of different shapes and tints (2) The Koranic extracts are random, haphazard out of sequence and incomplete (3) On hot days with the visitors feet burning on the marble plinth a fierce sun beating down on the head and the eyes burning with intense sunlight radiated by the white marble sheen even a devout Mughal knowing Arabic wont have the heart or even the steady head or patience to crane and strain his eyes and neck alternately vertically and horizontally to make any head or tail of that message of Allah. A close-up of the upper part of a minaret. The galleries rest on snake-shape brackets, which is a distinct Hindu architectural trait. Mumtazs tomb in the crypt (basement). The pavement patched up with marble slabs of varying sizes and tints indicating that the Shivling here has either been replaced by the cenotaph or is covered up by it. After one enters the lofty arch from the marble platform one steps onto spacious halls which form a perambulatory passage all around the central octagonal sanctum. That sanctum too has entrances on all four sides. But only the south entrance has been kept open since Shahjahans time. All these outer and inner entrances had silver doors which are common to all renowned Hindu(Vedic) shrines. Those were uprooted and ranged on the outer marble plinth before being spirited away to Shahjahans Mogul treasury. European visitors to the shrine around 1631 A.D. noticing the uprooted costly fixtures such as silver doors ranged on the marble platform misunderstood them to have been ordered by Shahjahan to be used in the building. Contrarily the thousands of labourers rounded up from the by lanes of Agra city under threats of dire consequences were forced to toil gratis to uproot all the costly fixtures such as the gem studded gold railings(around the Shivaling),silver doors, precious stones stuffed in the marble lattices and the golden pitcher dripping water on the Shivlinga, and transport them to the mogul treasury. Notice the framed decorative panels to the left and right of the doorway. They depict embossed OM shaped Dhatura flowers and conchshell- type foliage. The panel at the left has the sacred conchshell design. The right side panel depicts a plant with flowers shaped like the sacred Vedic chant (OM). Mumtazs cenotaph in the foreground and subsequent Shahjahans cenotaph besides it in the upper marble octagonal chamber. Notice that both the cenotaphs are highly decorated with inlay work. Neither Shahjahan nor Mumtaz could have been buried here because this chamber is on the 4th floor above the river surface. Corpses are invariably buried in mother-earth and never on stone floors. Consequently this so-called Mumtazs cenotaph in this central octagonal chamber either covers the sacred Hindu ( Vedic ) Shivling itself or the sacred spot from which the Shivling was uprooted. Shahjahan and Mumtaz must be fake. Why should there be even one pair of fake cenotaph? And since one pair of cenotaphs is fake the crucial question is which is the fake one. The one in the lower chamber or upper chamber? Or does each floor contain one fake and the genuine cenotaph alternating between Shahjahan and Mumtaz? Science have been so somnolent for the last 350 and odd years as to allow the preposterous Shahjahan and Mumtaz legend, stained with carnal love to pass muster in spite of being riddled with a myriad loopholes disclosed. Around the hook (from which hangs the chain) is a sketch in concentric circles. In the smallest innermost circle are arrows symbolizing the eight surface directions. Around it is another circle of 16

serpents looking down on the Shivling underneath. Around it is a wider circle of 32 tridents. Surrounding it is a bigger circle depicting 64 lotus buds. Even this mathematical progression of multiples of 8 i.e. 8x2=16x2=32x2=64 is of esoteric Vedic significance and has no relation with Islam. The preponderating significance of 8 in Vedic tradition may be judged from terms such as Ashtapailu, Ashtavadhani, Ashtaputra, Ashtadhatu, Ashtang Ayurved, Mangalashtak and Sastang namaskar. The octagonal lattice around the cenotaph of Mumtaz (which has replaced or covered the sacred Shivling) has in its upper border a total of 108 pitchers, some rotund and striped and some oblong like vases. The rotund striped pitcher is seen bathing the Shivaling underneath with a stream of milk. The decorative flora on the vase and other parts of the Taj Mahal alias Tejomahalaya is all native to India. Such decoration in the orange, Vedic colour behooves a Hindu temple or palace but never a somber Islamic sepulchre. A close-up of the gilded pinnacle rising from the inverted lotus cap of the marble dome .The pinnacle is known as Kalash in Vedic parlance because of the stack of pitchers which constitute it. The curvy shaft seen in the upper portion represents the crescent on Lord Shivas forehead. Above it is an oblong pitcher, two mango leaves curving on either side with a coconut balanced on top. Such a coconut topped pitcher represents divinity in Vedic tradition. The three domes of the so called mosque are a misfit in Islam. Since Islam has only one Allah and one prophet for whom is the third dome? Moreover the qibla (i.e. the prayer niche) is not aligned to the Kaba in Mecca as it should be in a genuine mosque. Also when there are three qiblas instead of one they couldnt all be aligned to the Kaba at the same time. And since the twin buildings on the eastern flank is a non-mosque it automatically follows that its counterpart to the west is also a non-mosque. Only buildings with the same function and purpose can have an identical design. There is staircase and another symmetrical one at the other end lead down to the storey beneath the marble platform Tow such staircases (one each at the eastern and western ends) behind the marble plinth take one to the nether chambers. Visitors may go to the back of the marble plinth at the eastern or western end and descend down the staircase because it is open to sky. But at the foot the archaeology department has set up an iron grill door which it keeps locked. Yet one may peep inside from the iron grill in the upper part of the door. Shahjahan had sealed even these two staircases. It was the British who opened them. But from Shahjahans time the stories below and above the marble ground floor have been barred to visitors. We are still following Mogul dictates and Mughal secrecy though long free from Mogul Islamic rule. One of the 22 locked rooms in the secret storey beneath the marble platform of the Taj Mahal, which the archaeological Survey of India keeps conspiratorially locked to hoodwink the public. Therefore the public must pressurized the government to open all locked and sealed chambers in all monuments including the Taj. Strips of ancient Hindu paint are seen on the wall flanking the doorway. The niches above had paintings of Hindu gods, obviously rubbed off by Mughal desecrators. One of the 22 riverside rooms in a secret storey of the Taj Mahal unknown to the public. Shahjahan far from building the shining marble Taj wantonly disfigured it. Here he has crudely walled up a doorway. Such imperial Mogul vandalism lies hidden from the public. This room is in the red stone storey immediately below the marble platform. Indian history has been turned topsy turvy in lauding destroyers as great builders. Therefore Shahjahan should be referred to not as the creator of Taj but as a plunderer of its costly fixtures and disfigurer of the sublime, serene beauty of the holy Tejomahalaya. Many such doorways of chambers in secret stories underneath the Taj Mahal have been sealed with brick and lime. Concealed inside could be valuable evidence such as Sanskrit inscriptions, Hindu idols, the original Hindu model of Taj, the desecrated Shiva Linga, Hindu scriptures and temple equipment .The Government is deliberately refraining from opening hundreds of such sealed chambers. Inside the Taj Mahal for fear of enraging Mughals and exposing the incompetence of historians worldwide.

There was the traditional treasury well of the Hindu temple palace. Treasure chests used to be stacked in the lower stories. Accountants, cashiers and treasurers sat in the upper stories. On being besieged if the building had to be surrendered to the enemy the treasure chests used to be pushed into the water for salvage later after recapture. For real research, water should be pumped out of this well to reveal the evidence that lies at the bottom. This well is inside a tower near the so called mosque to the west of the marble Taj. Had the Taj been a mausoleum this octagonal multi storied well would have been superfluous.

The Hindus, who had ruled India for at least 4000 years from the Pandavas to Prithviraj,
did not have even a single monument to their credit? If they did not build any

monuments where did they, their countries and the common people live? If during that period, as is nostalgically described rivers of milk and honey flowed in India, and every chimney emitted smoke of gold, where all that wealth stored? And if Rome is built by the Romans, London by Londoners and Tokyo by the Japanese, how come that in India alone Delhi, Agra, Fatehpur Sikri, Allahabad, Ahmedabad and a host of other cities teeming with mediaeval monuments, built by a wide assortment of foreigners like Afghans, Turks, Iranians, Mongols, Abyssinians, Kazaks and Uzbeks and in fact by every other community except Indian themselves? And were these Indians, thus insinuated to be nincompoops the novices in the building art, not the same who constructed the Madurai temples, Rameswaram, Konarak, Khajuraho, Ajanta, Ellora and a host of other rock cut edifices, the mount Abu temples, mighty forts like Ranthambhore and luxurious palaces, as at Ambar and Udaipur? And if at all it was the aliens named above who founded all the important towers in India and built all its magnificent monuments how is it that they all had a uniform penchant for the Hindu style of Indian architecture? If they had such captivating attraction for Indian culture how is it that the very name Hindu was anathema to them so as to provoke them to plunder and massacre, rape and destruction? And if for centuries these alien rulers and their alien noblemen built all their tombs and palaces in the Hindu style do their cultural and religious descendants the Mughals of today build even a single tombs, mosque or home with even one single Hindu motif on them? And how is it that these aliens belonging to diverse nationalities, different strata from slave to prince, and various races display the same vigour and identical taste in building monument after monuments, city after city and tombs and mosques all in the Hindu style? Why is it that they built only tombs and mosques without corresponding palaces? If they built only tombs for their predecessors and mosque where did these alien rulers and their noblemen themselves stay? And in the context of deadly intestate succession struggles that used to ensure in all Mughal households from princes to paupers. How was it that successors to titles built tombs for hated predecessors for whose blood they had thirsted, and to supplant whom they were so very eager? And when the whole realm used to be thrown into utter confusion and revolts and warfare erupted on the death of every Mughal sovereign where did money to build a palatial tomb for him come from? Who controlled the treasury exclusively in those perilous times? And was not all the money available needed to raise armies, maintain huge harems and consolidate ones own position? And where was the time and peace necessary to supervise the construction of palatial tombs? Where was the architectural know how in those days of stark illiteracy and in an atmosphere seething with plotting and treachery? If it consistent with human psychology that even granting normal filial love a son or son-in-law succeeding a deceased ruler will build a palace for a dead body but none for himself and his children, wives and concubines? Is there any Mughal individual or group even in this 20th century when orthodoxy, fanaticism and autocracy have lost some of their edge, who would be ready to build tombs and mosque styled like temples? In fact will the richest of them build any expensive tomb for his predecessor at all? And how is it that the mediaeval buildings seen in Delhi, Agra and Fatehpur Sikri, are identical with those in Ambar, Bikaner, Jaisalmer and Jodhpur known to exist from pre-Mughal times? And if no such magnificent mansions existed when Mughal invasion of India started what were the invaders fighting for and what were the Indian Kshatriyas defending? That leads to another incongruity namely that Indian warriors gave battle to the invading army in open country? If that is so how do we explain names like Kot Kachwaha, Nagarkot and Umarkot, since kot signifies a fortified township? We know for certain that in ancient times all buildings from humble residences of the common folk to those the kings, used to have massive battlemented walks enclosing huge courtyards and spacious apartments. There are two sepulchral mounds in the central chamber of the Taj which look like Mughal tombs, and could very well be those of Mumtaz Mahal, one of thee thousands of consorts of Shahjahan, and of Shahjahan himself. It is well known that many such mounds are fake. Such mounds have sometimes been found on the terraces of historic buildings where no dead person could be buried by one chance. Another reservation is that no specific burial date of Mumtaz being on record it is highly doubtful whether she was at all buried in the Taj. Period is mentioned a between six months to nine years of her death. Such vagueness, even after a special palatial mausoleum is stated to have been constructed for her body, is highly suspicious. Manuchi, an officer in the service of the East India Company during Aurangzebs time, has recorded that Akbars tomb is empty. Who knows then whether Mumtazs supposed tomb is not empty too. In spite of such weighty reservations we are ready to presume that the two tombs could be those of Mumtaz and Shahjahan. Koranic texts have been inscribed along the outside of some of the arches. Our weighty reservations on this point is that such inscriptions exist on the exterior of the Adhai Din

Ka Zopda in Ajmer and on the so-called Kutub Minar in Delhi, but they are known to be a camonflage. Proofs in support of our contention that the Taj Mahal is an ancient Hindu temple-palace. Shahjahans own official court chronicle from a grave in Burhanpur (after a six month burial there) was brought to Agra and interred inside a mansion of unique splendour capped with a dome. Raja Mansinghs mansion was owned by Mansinghs grandson Jaisingh. Prince Aurangzeb in 1652 A. D. reports carrying out some urgent, hasty repairs to the cracked dome and leaking seven-storeyed building complex. Entrance asserts that ready brand new in 1652. Does the archaeology department know better than prince Aurangzeb? Pairs of Shahjahan-Mumtaz graves, i.e. a pair each in the marble basement and the marble ground floor. Why two graves each? Did each of them die a double death? And why is the marble slab of Mumtazs cenotaph in the basement just plain white when its hump and the other three cenotaphs have filigree decoration. There are no orders commissioning the Taj, no correspondence for the purchase or acquisition of the socalled site, no design drawings, no bills or receipts, and no expense account sheets. By no stretch of imagination could a graveyard ever be designated as a palace unless a palace itself has been converted into a graveyard. Had Shahjahan really been the conceiver of the Taj, he need not have specially instructed Mulla Abdul Hamid not to forget mentioning or describing its construction in the official chronicle because the grandeur and majesty of the Taj as the finest achievement of a ruling monarch could never be lost sight of by a paid court chronicler. He should not need a special remainder for it. Abdul Hamid chroniclers contains serious discrepancies like the absence of the designers name, and a ridiculously low estimate (40 lakh rupees) of the cost of the Taj, which is scoffed at by subsequent scholars. The entire Taj complex contained nearly 300 or even more rooms along its corridors, in the basement, the upper floors and its many towers. The so-called mosque on one flank and the nondescript, counterpart euphemistically explained away as a useless Jawab served as the guest pavilions, guardrooms and waiting halls of the palace. The words Kalas and Basai (tower) are Sanskrit words. Even Taverniers testimony that he saw the commencement and the end of the building work while weakening the case of traditionalists strengthens our case because Tavernier arrived in India only in 1641 i.e. 10 years after Mumtazs death. Koranic etchings were carried out he referred to it as the commencement and the end of the building work during his presence in India. Traditional accounts tell us that the Taj had gem-studded marble screens, gold railings and silver doors. Even Shahjahans own or even his wifes palace did not possess such fairy-tale fixtures while the two were alive. The Taj had a grad garden. A graveyard never boasts of luscious fruit and fragrant flower trees since the idea of enjoy the fruit and flowers of a graveyard orchard is revolting. The trees, moreover, were those bearing Sanskrit names, and select sacred plants at that like Ketaki, Jai, Jui, Champa, Maulashree, Harshrinagar and Bel. It is a pity that both our Government and our scholars show no eagerness to open up the underground chambers of the Taj, clear the debris, provide lighting, remove the fillings in staircases and rooms and let students of history and even laymen have a free run of the premises. The Tarikh-i-Taj Mahal deed has been detected to be a forgery. The great historian Sir H. M. Elliot in his preface to eight-volume study of mediaeval chronicles has very aptly and pointedly remarked that the history of the Mughal period in India is an interested and impudent fraud.. That the external symbol of love. Close on the heels of the debate over the exact date of Taj Mahals construction, doubts have now been raised whether it was actually constructed by the Mughal emperor Shajahan or not! It is latest twist to the legend of the Taj , by the President of the Institute of Re-writing Indian History of Pune claiming that the Taj Mahal was actually Tejo-Mahalaya, a Shiva temple that was taken from Jaipur Maharaja Jaisingh by Sahajahan for the burial of his beloved Mumtaj Mahal . That the petition points out that Sahajahans own court chronicle, the Badshahnama, admits (on page 403, vol.1) that a grand mansion of unique splendour, capped with a dome ( Imaarat-e-Alishan wa gumbaza) was taken from the Jaipur King and was then known as Raja Man Singhs Palace. That the 161- points petition also says that the Archeological Survey of India (ASI) notices have declared that Taj Mahal stood brand new in 1652 AD. But Prince

Aurangzebs letter to his father emperor Sahajahan, dated July-August 1652 AD,records that the several buildings in the fancied seven- storeyed burial place of Mumtaj were so old that they were all leaking, while the dome had developed a crack on the northern side. (The letter s recorded in at least three chronicles titled Aadaab-e-Alamgiri, Yaadgarnama and Muraqqa-I-Akbarbadi). That the Aurangzeb, therefore ordered immediate repairs to the building, while recommending to the emperor for more elaborate repairs later, which is a proof that during the Sahajahans reign itself the Taj complex was so old as to need immediate repairs, said the petition while quoting the points from the book of P.N. Oak, Founder Director of the Institute of Re-writing Indian History. That the Institute has also claimed in the petition that a Sanskrit inscription (wrongly termed a Bateshwar inscription and currently preserved in the Lucknow Museum) dated 1155 AD was removed from the Taj Mahal Garden on Sahajahans order, which referred to the raising of a Crystal white Shiva temple so alluring that Lord Shiva once enshrined in it decided never to return to Mount Kailash his usual abode. This inscription also supports the claim that Taj Mahal was a temple palace and Lord Shiva is known as Tejo ji by Jats, added the petition. That on being adopting a policy of Divide and Rule , in 1843 AD Governor General Lord Auckland with his Lieutenant Alexander Cunningham tempered with the entire historical data of the Archeology Department by showing these Hindu palaces as Mughal monuments. This petition is expected Split in to nineteen parts, the argument is based on historical facts and the aim is to bring the truth to the fore, Its is such circumstantial evidence which we propose to lay before the bar and bench of learned public opinion. Some of the 118 evidence mentioned in the petition proving that the Taj Mahal was Shiva Temple includes:The word Mahal is not a Mughal word and in none of the Mughal countries around the world, there is any building known as Mahal. A wooden piece from the riverside eastern doorway of the Taj subjected to the carbon14 test by an American laboratory has revealed it to be 300 years older than Sahajahan. The Taj Mahal has trident pinnacle over the dome. The central shaft of the trident depicts a Kalash holding two bent mango leaves and a coconut. The embossed patterns on the marble exterior of the cenotaph chamber wall are foliage of the conch shell design and the Hindu letter OM. The Taj Mahal entrance faces South. Had the Taj been an Islamic building it should have faced West. : The Historical Evidences collected in the research conducted by petitioner No.2 are as under:According to the British historian Keene, Agra fort has been in existence from the preChristian era. Ancient Hindu kings like Ashok (3rd Century B.C.) and Kanishka (1st Century B.C.) had lived in that fort. That same fort is again referred to by the Persian poet-historian Salman,in the 11th century A.D.. Early in that century when the Hindu king Jaipal ruled over Agra. The fort suffered its first Mughal raid under the invader Mahmud of Ghazni. Thereafter some chauvinistic Islamic accounts vaguely claim that the Mughal sultan Sikandar Lodi demolished the Hindu fort. That claim has been found to be baseless. A few years later another vague claim is made by some other mediaeval Mughal falterers that sultan Salim Shah Sur either destroyed the Hindu fort or Sikandar Lodis fort and built his own fort at exactly the same place or some other place. Even the claim has been found to be fraudulent because no trace is found of the fort that Salim Shah Sur is said to have built. Mughal history is replete with such fraudulent claims, according to the late British historian Sir H. M. Elliot. The claim that Akbar built the fort is also found to be baseless because while he is said to have demolished the fort in 1565 A.D., a murderer Adham Khan being thrown from the terrace of a palace-apartment inside the fort in 1566 A.D. is emphatic proof that the claim made on behalf of Akbar is as fraudulent as those made on behalf of two other Mughal sultans earlier. In fact it is also pointed out that not a single building of Akbars time exists in the fort. Akbars son Jahangir is said to have perhaps built a palace inside the fort here or there demolishing his own fathers palace but even that conjecture is found to be based on mere fancy or on some idle engravings. Jahangirs son Shahjahan is said to have demolished 500 buildings inside the fort and erected 500 others. On the very face of it this claim is absurd. No one will merely for fun of it destroy 500 palatial mansions built by ones father or grandfather. Such demolition itself will occupy a lifetime. Moreover it must also be remembered that Shahjahan is credited with building the fabulous Taj Mahal in Agra, a whole new township of Delhi,

also the Red fort in Delhi, The Jama Masjid in Delhi and perhaps many other buildings. Not only are there no court records of any building activity but also even inscriptions do not substantiate any building claim. We wish to alert visitors not to be misled by the appearance of Arabic or Persian lettering on mediaeval buildings. All such lettering is mostly of Koranic extracts or the name of Allah. Those inscriptions are seldom temporal. In a few instances where there are temporal inscriptions they usually bear the name of the engraver or of the person buried and some irrelevant matter. For instance nowhere on the Taj Mahal has it been mentioned that the Taj Mahal was built by Shahjahan. We therefore wonder how the whole world had been duped for 300 long years into believing that the Taj Mahal was built by Shahjahan. Similar is the case with Red fort in Agra. No where is it said that Akbar or his son Jahangir or the latters son Shahjahan built anything there. In this connection we also want to alert visitors to mediaeval buildings and students and scholars of history not to believe in translations of Arabic and Persian inscriptions presented readymade to them through earlier books. We have found in very many instances that they have been distorted in translation. For instance on the Taj Mahal the inscriber has carved his name as Amanat Khan Shirazi (an insignificant slave of the emperor Shahjahan). Anglo-Mughal accounts have boosted this inscriber of letters as one of the great wonder architects of the world. Similarly on Fatehpur Sikri where a building is said to have been graced (by his presence) by Salim Chisti it is merrily ascribed to him. We therefore advise all students of history never to take for granted the translation of Mughal inscriptions provided heretofore but get them translated de novo whenever one has to make use of them. The whole question of the translation and interpretation of Mughal inscriptions not only in India but throughout the world must be reopened and gone through thoroughly, for much wishful thinking has gone into presenting them in translations to non-Mughals. In fact it would be very educative to have an encyclopaedia for all Mughal inscriptions and the misleading translations and interpretations they have been subjected to heretofore. As an instance of a great snare in the study of mediaeval history such exposure will be of immense educative value in warning future researchers and students of history. That once the hurdle of a false Mughal claim made on Akbars behalf is got over, we find that the fort that we see today in Agra is the same which was owned by ancient Hindu kings like Ashok and Kanishka .After Akbar there is no serious claim made on behalf of any Mughal ruler as the author of the fort. That means that the fort that we see in Agra city today is the ancient Hindu ochre fort a colour so dear to Hindus. In fact ochre is the colour of Hindu flag- a colour for which and under which they have fought for their national and cultural existence and identity a colour which has inspired them to great deeds of valour, sacrifice, bravery, chivalry, gallantry and glory. Can that ochre colour be ever owned by Mughals? It goes against all history and tradition. Despite several centuries of Mughal occupation and canards of Mughal authorship all the forts Hindu associations are intact. This is something remarkable. The two thousand year history of the fort that Keene traces turns out to be authentic. The slight hitch and doubt that he encounters gets explained away by his own very intelligent footnote that the incident of a murderer having been flung from the terrace of the palace inside the fort could not be possible if the fort had been destroyed a year earlier. The lack of any coherence in the dates of starting the forts construction and its completion is proof of the fact that the world has been buffed about the Mughal origin of the fort. Mughal accounts are unable to explain the name of any apartment, as to who built it, when was it built, what for it was built, what its cost was and why it has an Hindu aura about it ? This is because the fort did not originally belong to the invaders from Arabia ,Iran ,Turkey, Afghanistan, Khazasstan and Uzbekstan. They were mere intruders , conquerors, usurpers. All this discussion should convince the reader that the Red Fort in Agra is of hoary Hindu antiquity and is at least 2200 years old. That H. M. Elliot, and many western scholars records that the theory of construction of Taj Mahal by Shah Jahan is an imprudent and interested fraud. We are questioning the logical reasoning and all such guidelines prescribed that a sham history is offered to us which can be tornado into pieces with a little close scrutiny. Emperor Jahangir died on 27th October 1627 and the Prince Khurram ascended the throne at Agra on 5 th Feb 1628. The corroboration of the logical perceptions may lead to the inescapable conclusions that the long slavery paradoxically enough to make us slave has shaped the destitution Hindu confidence to a naught and the flame of truth burning in the heart of a civilised citizen to protect their radical traditional heritage culture has been completely vanished.

Hinduism is now been impeached by gross dereliction of their duty. The invader based on the concept of destruction of the existing religion have gathered the undue predominance for outraging the modesty which was sometimes earlier being done by Muhammad Bin Quasim in 712 A. D. while offering the two daughters of King Dehar to Abdullah Abbas of Omen by invading their chesty. Muhammad Bin Quasim was stitched inside the leather of the cow and the same has become the situation of every nationalist movement as the Government has prohibited every effort to trace out the truth by maintaining status quo to the falsehood. The Distortion of history is another serious charge against the Archaeological Survey of India in Agra. A structure bearing an inscription in Persian and invocation to Allah was identified as Haveli Ratan Singh, which was pompously opened to the world by the local Member of Parliament Sri Raj Babbar. The work on the socalled Ibadat Khana in Fatehpur Sikri has to be suspended when historians raised several questions about its veracity A voluminous petition by noted Agra historian Prof. R. Nath to the Director General of, Archaeological Survey of India with copies to the minister and the secretary of culture has highlighted the Archaeological Survey of India lapses. A similar writ petition has also been filed in the Supreme Court by Rajiv Sethi and others against the Archaeological Survey of India for its poor conservation of the monuments of Red Fort Delhi. That the objective hidden behind for filing the present writ petition is for exposure of the truth after due investigation on the basis of the historical evidences, which may protect the monuments namely Taj Mahal, Agra Red Fort and Fatehpur Sikri from its detonation of the existing building. The petitioner is making the exposure of the falsehood on the basis of the photographs taken the closer lances showing the writing of Koranic script upon the tiles by making the grooves in the marble and having the imposture there upon after removal of the original Sanskrit description comprising of 34 stanzas, which has been found written upon the Bateshwar inscription and having the description there of in the research work of conducted by Shri P.N. Oak through his writing namely The Taj is a Temple Place on Page No. 198 having recital of 24,25 and 34 Stanzas relevant for establishment. That Taj Mahal was built as temple of Lord Shiva, while Atmauddola was having the ideal of Lord Vishnu, which were constructed by the King Parmarde Dev or on his behalf by his Minister Salakshan in 1212 , Vikram era Ashwani Subday 5th day of Purnima (the bright luner fort night). The true copy of the photographs of the files having Koranic script, the photographs from back side showing the construction of the ground floor through Red Stone and the marking of the Kalash on the terrace of the Red Stone building and the description in Hindi placed outside the Taj Mahal as displaying the Script out side these monuments after reshuffling of the main temple and the Sanskrit writing on the temple, taken from the out side the building of Taj Mahal and the extract of writing shown by Sri P.N. Oak having Sanskrit inscription on Bateswar inscription The entire world is being fool by the fundamentalist follower of the Mughal invaders by drawing the attention of the tourist to the self exposure of the truth through falsehood, which will be revealed to every conscience citizens by introspections of the preaching given to the visitors by the self proclaimed guide of these monuments. It is submitted that can there be two graves of Arjuman Bano, Mumtaj Zilani and Shah Jahan on 3 4 floor of the building at two places at the same time. There is also an interesting phenomena, which is hidden regarding the existing monuments having the octagonal well for the supply of the water inside the Red Stone building having the different idols, deities and the symbol of worship of the Hindu religion, mysteriously covered with hypothetical justification, which are concealed for visiting by the tourist even at the cost of collapsing the monument of Taj Mahal. On the other hand, it is resplendent immortal tear drop of deception by converting the glorified palace comprising of four storey building having a Shiva Temple on the top of Tejo-Mahalya (a palace of Lord Shiva commonly known as Tejo Ji by Jat predominating inhibition of Taj Ganj area at Agra) on the cheek of time (probably during Aurangzeb period which became the downfall of the Mughal period). The Archeological Department alleges the construction of the building from 1628 A. D. onward upto 1656 A. D. as displayed on the marble stone planted outsides the gate of Taj Mahal. The Waqf Act 1995 has provided the further authority to the Mughal fundamentalist to scaffold the existing monument by abrogation and subjugation of the existing structure to their own pre-domination. Thus the facts finding committee is required to be appointed to find out the truth as history may not be tutored according to the dictate of the foreign ruler and the Hindu citizens who were living prior to the arrival of Christianity may get their deemed justice for which they were entitled to remain intact after the independence of our nation.

That the most crucial document sufficient to acknowledge the truth is their own Badshah-Nama of Abdul Hamid Lahori which disclose the transfer of majestic magnificent palace having the temple of Lord Vishnu and Lord Shiva for the burial of Arjumand Bano Begum known Mumtaz Zilani, who was buried at Bhuranpur died due to the excessive pain during delivery of 14th child which was considered to be the bad omen by the Mughal priests. The names of the 14 children born out of the wedlock between Prince Khurram and Mumtaz Zilani were 1. Jahan-ara Begum, 2. Darashikon, 3. Shahshiya, 4. Roshan-ara Begum, 5. Aurangzeb, 6. Muradbaksh while eight children died. Thus, it could hardly be believed that during funeral ceremony of the deceased children, the celebration would have been done by raising the alleged construction of Taj Mahal and other Mughal monument by emperor Shah Jahan. That the second glaring truth may be revealed from the Aurangzebs letter written to Shah Jahan, which purports to make the elaborated repair over the dome. This letter is the best piece of admission regarding the alleged claim set up for construction of the monument form 1628 to 1658 A. D. The letter is dated long back and is recorded in at least three contemporary Persian chronical titled as Adaab-e-Alamgiri, Muraqqa-eAkbarabadi and yaadgaarnama and preserved in National archives New Delhi. That the two farmans of Shah Jahan to ex-rulers of Jaipur bearing modern number 176 and 177 issued on 18th Dec 1633 demanding Makrana stone and the stone cutter for scaffolding the Koranic grafts, which are the imposture filling up the gap between the Hindu sculpture and the symbol of religion written in Sanskrit having the inscription in 34 stanza indicating that Tejo-Mahalya was raised as a palace by King Paramardi Dev and by his Minister Salakshan dated 1212 Vikram Era, Ashwil, Sunday, 5th day of bright lunar fortnight, these inscriptions can be seen in the book titled Kharjuwahak Alias Wartaman (modern Khajuraho by D.J.Kaleand on Page 270-274 of Epigraphia Indica, Vol.1 obtainable from Shri M.D. Kale, advocate Chhatttarpur, Madhya Pradesh, India). That the other inscriptions is found at Bateshwar excavations preserved at Lucknow Museum which is the direct prove of raising the two crystal white marble building in 1155 as Chandrs-Mauleshwar Temple at Taj Mahal, while Vishnu Temple at Itimad-uddaulah. The trident exclusive album of Chandra-Mauleshwar having captivating Beauty of Lord Shiva, who never thought of returning to his Himalayan abode lit Kailash Parvat is nothing but the central chamber of the Taj Mahal where he used to suppose to perform Tandav Nratya dance amidst the blowing of conches, the beating of drums and tolling bells. That Shah Jahan, who is allegedly known for commissioned the large number of magnificent palaces, mosque, and tombs with marble monumental glories during Mughal period was not the great building. The alleged materialised vision of loveliness, a poem in stone, a dream in marble, a novel tribute to the grace of Indian womanhood, a resplendent immortal tear-drop on the cheek of time, the wonder of the world known as Taj Mahal is not the construction of marble glory of Mughal period but the same is converted from a Shiva Temple to the graveyard of Arjumand Bano Begum purported as Mumtaz Zilani and Khurram commonly known as Shah Jahan. That It is commonly known that during their inseparable companion, 14 children were born out of them 4 sons and 4 daughters survived. It is falsely alleged that Arjumand Bano Begum was the trusted political advisor of Prince Khurram during their 19 year of matrimonial alliances, as Prince Khurram became Emperor Shah Jahan only in 1628 A. D. and Arjumand Bano Begum died on June 17, 1631. Thus, it is a false concoctions that the construction of Taj Mahal started in the memory of Arjumand Bano Begum alias Mumtazilani, who was given burial in Jain-Aabadi Garden in Burhanpur, which is located at about 600 kilometers from Akbarabad, now known as Agra. It is said Arjumand Bano Begum was playing the chess with Shah Jahan on 17th June 1631. Suddenly both of them heard the crying of a baby. The sound of weeping was discovered that this was coming from the womb of the Begum Sahiba herself. The learned men, saints, tantriks were called to interpret and they have suspected to be a bad omen if Shah Jahan helped in the treatment of Begum Sahiba. Thus, Arjumand Bano died as she was not allowed to survive the dreadful omen and due to intensity of excessive pain she died. Thus, the connotation that the Taj Mahal is a Nobel tribute to the grace of Indian womanhood is a falsehood. The Extract taken from the THE TAJ MAHAL AND ITS INCARNATION based on the Original Persian data on its Builders, Material, Costs, Measurements etc. presentation by Historical Research Documentation Programme, Jaipur by Prof. R. Nath, Rajasthan University shall be produced at the time of Hearing. That under these circumstances, it is expedient in the interest of justice that on the basis of the different historical evidences, which are now being placed on the record of the present and are based upon the historian and rather based upon their own admission in Badshahnama, it is now expedient in the interest of justice, that a facts

finding committee comprising of the prominent citizens, Jurists historian and other impartial agencies may be appointed for revealing the truth to the General Public as the students may not be compelled to rely upon the false concoction by the Mughal emperor, otherwise the students will may have the foundation based on the false hood, which may erode the very existence of our ancient culture and heritage on the foundation of which the country may stain for and may raised its head before the entire world. Since there has been the further detoriation of the existing historical evidences under the garb of the maintenance of the historical monuments having the alleged mosque inside there by virtue of it these monuments of the national importance are managed by the Waqf Board and as such it is expedient in the interest of justice that the respondents may be restrain from permitting from destroying the valuable evidence by any person as the truth may be revealed regarding the correct authorship of all these monuments to the public with any further scope holding of the law under the garb of providing the maintenance to the mosque otherwise it will the great loss of the students of history, which can be compassionate with the term of money. The similar structure providing the coverage to the big building towards its right and left side have been deflected to be to mosque and the replica on the other hand. Can there be the existence of symbol like Swastik, OM, Lotus, Snake, Peacock, and Trident in every carving out of the structure to the public. The coconut with mango leaf put on the top of the pitcher is the symbol of worship compelled with these identities. What is hidden inside the dome structure, which is never allowed to be visited to its visitors. Can there be any octagonal building chosen by a Mughal Ruler, which is a symbol of recognition of eight directions/ dimension of the universe recognize by Hindu religion? Can any one may imagine it as the truth that the Koranic scripts is carbed out on the tiles , which has been pasted by removing the existing recital of Sanskrit Stanzas written by the creator of the said temple. Can the Union of India pose any justification for closing of the red stone building by placing the mud on the front side up to plinth of marble construction? Can the Govt. of India may provide any justification for closer of the doors of the two story building made out of the red stone visual towards the back side of the Taj Monuments with the doors permanently sealed through its imposture stone planted from out side for hiding the truth regarding the actual authorship of this monuments of national importance. Agra Red Fort for providing a true barrier upon the identity of the great monuments, the hidden chamber inside the building below the structure shown to the public are purposely concealed from the eyes of the visitors, which have the existence of the Hindu tradition of construction of the palace by Hindu Ruler as their style of living and for accumulation of the natural rainy water Babali but it has been candestalinely concealed from the general public. The reason for concealment of all these important historical evidence is on account of the fact is that there are three caves leading to the different monuments of Etmaudolla, Fatehpur Sikri and also to Taj Mahal. If these caves are allowed to be seen by the public and the scientific investigation of the same may be permitted to be done regarding the hidden chamber through scientific method, it will be revealed that the existence eof Agra Red Fort was remain in existence for more than 2,000 year before when great emperor Akbar and emperor Kanishka have used these buildings as there palaces. The petitioner is also filing the inscription having Koranic script leveled upon it for indicating the same to be the Mughal monuments. He is also filing the hidden portion of Anoop Mahal having so many construction leading to the underground building of Fatehpur Sikri , which is not shown to the public by filling the water on the entrance Gate by the Waqf Board, which is now converting every symbol of Hindu origin by having a plaster upon the aforesaid historical evidences. He is also filing the Snake like appearance having the appearance of Shesh Nag, which is said to have the entire Gate of the earth upon its hoods according to the Hindu Vedic scripture. Had there been the construction of these monuments by the Mughal Emperor, they would have never created such type of the Hindu Religions identity inside these monuments. The true copy of the photographs of imposter Koranic Script on Buland Darwaza, Terrace of Anoop Mahal having so many construction leading to the underground building, Snake like appearance having the appearance of Shesh Nag of Fatehpur Sikri indicating the aforesaid exposure of the truth for displaying them in the present writ petition as a facts finding committee to revealed the truth The common symbols found at Fatehpur Sikri, constructional technique of all these building in one category which are commonly represented as Hindu religious symbols building. The letter of the Director General of Archeological Survey of India, New Delhi Bearing D. O. letter number 54/16/73-M dated 22nd /24th May 1973 to Dr. R. Nath, Professor of History Department and Historical research Documentation Programme, Jaipur acknowledge the truth. It is alarming that although the voice of the great historical was raised before the pavement stones of the main plinth of tomb of Humayun

was replaced by orthodox Mughals, the preservation of the masons mark by the circle superintending archeologists of the different regions would not be maintained despite assurance given by then Director General M. L. Desh Pande in reply to the letter written by Prof. R. Nath on 15th May 1973,. Similarly there are number of the remains of the deities/temples like structures lying there in Fatehpur Sikri, which signifies the construction of the temple from more than two thousand years before. The discovery of Yakchh Idol fragmented deity comprising of significant sculptures work and a Shiva- Linga of 3.5 feet height and a deity of the Vishnu have been recovered from the adjoining areas of Fatehpur Sikri. There has been the demand of the people to declare Fatehpur Sikri as an Ancestor Heritage City, which remained in existence even prior to the period of before arrival of Christianity, when Lord Mahaviras Jain religion was in existence. The first Jain pilgrimage of Rishi Bhagdev statue was recovered having the description of Om, Samvat 1079 Jaishth Sudi 11 Ravi Swaty Nakshatray , The transcription of Sri Vimlacharya samtane suplok cha dhanpatti tambhya karya titti has been discovered written upon the same. This signifies that in 1022 AD Din (Day) Swaty Nakshatray- Sri Sambhaw Nath IIIrd Jain pilgrimage statue was constructed by the son of Sri Vimlacharya namely Pawan Srawak Devraj and his wife Dhanpatti. These idols are hidden inside the earth in Sikri village, while on the top hillside of Fatehpur Sikri, there are the existence of the temple of Lord Shiva, Lord Vishnu and Maa Durga which are still hidden inside the earth. This is still a secret, that who have committed this scaffolding in order to provide the extinction of Vedic literature from the access of the people. The petitioner is also filing the news Item published on 2/4/1999, 15/6/1999,3/2/2000,15/1/2000, 29/1/2003 and 8/3/2003 in Amar Ujala on the basis of investigation conducted at Fatehpur Sikiri for foundation of Fatehpur Sikri is the great heritage of Hindu Sanskriti, in which starting from Jain religion upto the period of emperor Ashoka there were many rulers using this heritage city of Hindu culture and religious identity as there palace and other religious monuments. However the under ground hidden chamber still visualize to the public regarding their existence may be seen from out side but surprisingly enough to submit that these hidden apartment and other idols and deities recovered from village Kagarol at the nearby vicinity of Fatehpur Sikri are not visualised by the Archaeological Survey of India till date. Can the bast majority of Hindu religion may desperately be allowed to see the existence all sof these monuments having the fixture and identity resembling to the Hindu religion to be supervise by the follower of the Mughal invaders under the garb of having the alleged mosque inside all the three buildings and to get a caumaflag of the Mughal pre-domination under the provisions of the Waqf Act 1995on the basis of diplomatic appeasement policy to the minority by the Central Government? Or the majority of 85 % of the population has got their right to become conversant regarding the truth hidden inside these buildings. It is submitted that our children may not be thought the historical events with the falsehood, which is based on false perceptions of the super domination of such elements having the dis integration of the nation, which was visualize at the time of partition of our country in two segmentation on the devise of the British policy adopted by our present day politician to rule upon the nation. Thus the petitioner is filing the present Supplementary. Affidavit for placing certain other facts , which may provide strengthen to the relief sought in the present writ petition and thereby the indulgence of this Honble Court as these monuments may be protected in respect of their two identity otherwise the hue and cry listen at present from the scream of the future citizens having the prospective atrocities repeated by fundamentalist aggressors invaders to our great cultural heritage, may never forgive their curse to the present system having the foundation of three institutions in our so called democratic set up in our country These monuments are being neglected. The 150 year old Archaeological Survey of India seems to have lost its direction and zeal to conserve the National treasures on account of these scaffoldings committed by the interested parties having the control of these socalled Mughal monuments under the provisions of Wakf Act, 1995 in Agra- Delhi circuit due to all kinds of malpractice. A long list of charges against the mandarins in the Agra ASI would shock any one concerned about preserving history and culture. The ASIs pathetic goof- up in the Taj Heritage Corridor is well known. But no heads rolled in the Archaeological Survey of India for failing to sound the alarm bell on the corridor project in time. The Archaeological Survey of India mandarins have acted according to their whims and fancies in the matter of restoration work. Several important monuments including the Jami Masjid of Agra and the tomb Rasul Shah near Fatehpur Sikri have been will fully neglected, though these buildings are in need of immediate repairs. Archaeological Survey of Indias official vandalism crossed all limits when a decision was taken to treat the Taj Mahal with Multani Mitti. Luckily, the experiment was limited to a small surface. Had it been applied to the whole mausoleum, it would have destroyed the original transparent white polish (vajra lepa). The Archaeological Survey of India has also

been guilty of arbitrarily closing monuments on the questionable ground of damage by tourists who did not appreciate works of art and history. This is a clear violation of the1958Act, which allows free movement to the public in any protected monument including the white marble ancient buildings of Agra Fort. The basement, which is comprising of the Red Stone has been converted by deleting the sign of Hindu construction of the building. Shah Jahan died in Agra Fort in captivity in the early hours of the night of Monday, the 26th Rajab A. H. 1076/1666 A. D. Jahanara, daughter of Mumtaj Mahal was also living with Shah Jahan after the death of Arjumand Bano Begum. On his death R an Andaaz Khan, the commander of Fort, Khurajah Phul came into Ghusal-Khanah where Sayyed Mohammad Kannauji and Qaji Kurban, chief Qaji of Agra were called upon. At Muthamman Burj where Emperor Shah Jahan had died. His body was transported by boat through Darwaja Nashab of the Muthamman Burj and the outer Sher Haji Gate, which are now closed for the public. The institute of Islamic history culture and civilization Islamabad, Pakistan has published a book on Thatta Architecture in 1982. This book disclose the monument built by Mughal through bricks in their regions. It is important to notice that there is brick built structure set have been raised during Shah Jahan period at Thatta. There is no other name of any other Mughal ruler for construction of the mosque of Tughril Begh showing the new technique to dome construction dated 1059 A. D. / 1649 A. D. by Shah Jahan. The tomb of Esa Khan II Tarkhan having the domed tomb with pillared galleries dated 1054 A. H. / 1644 A. D. On these construction everywhere you may find the octagonal brick built tomb with Hindu Symbol decorating the ceiling with Vedic scripture and paintings but these monuments have least preserved by Archeological Department at Pakistan. The tomb is enclosure of Bqqi Begh Uzbek showing the chronical dome on octagonal drum is said to have been constructed on 1050 A. H. / 1604 A. D. The elevations of the grave stones of Diwan Shurfa Khan showing the engraving decorated in typical Tarkhan Style on the side of Cenotaph is dated 1038 A. H. / 1638 A. D. which is said to have been construction during Shah Jahan reign at Thatta. The Amir Mohammad Khan mosque at Thatta is a high soldiered single domed square brick built structure depicting glazed tiles of Mughal Shah Jahan period is dated 1039A. H. / 1629A. D.. The Janis Mosque of Thatta is said to have been built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan which has triple entrance of newly laid garden infront of mosque with water fountains playing in the middle of water channels and cypress trees surrounding to the corridors is dated 1054 A. H. / 1647 A. D. during Shah Jahan period. The ceiling of the main entrance of Janis Mosque showing the wooden dross glazed pannels enamelled tiling of the wall, squint and interlaced arch at the underside of the half domb with a ceiling with sunflower at the apex giving the effort of starry sky are certainly the Hindu Religious symbols of architect which have been converted as the Mughal monuments by Archeological Department of Islamabad. Thatta came under the Mughals after Mirza Zani begh captured the city and there after his son Mirza Begh later renamed as Jagirdar of Thatta came to the power during Shah Jahan period 54 Mughals ostracised for supporting Vande Mataram FIFTY-FOUR pro-B J P Mughals were excommunicated and their marriages nullified by a local Mufti after they reportedly expressed the view that singing of national song Vande Mataram was not un-Islamic, a fatwa which has sent ripples in the community in Agra. While issuing the fatwa, Mufti Abdul Quddus Rumi declared that singing of the national song would lead them (Mughals) to hell. It was wrong for Mughals to sing Vande Mataram, the Mufti said, adding, those advocating the song were deviating from the religion. The fatwa also nullifies the wedding of those ex-communicated. Mughals who statement in favour of the national song should offer prayers to renew their faith in Islam and remarry according to Islamic rites, he said. That around 1963-64 one of P. N. Oak articles published in some Gujarati papers claimed that all of Ahmedabads 1000 mosques were 1000 captured temples and the mains Bhadrakali temple was being misused by Mughals as their Jama Masjid. Since Mughals are tutored to find every excuse to pick up a quarrel with the Hindus. This was quite a novel, unheard of and unabashed plea Thanks to Allah, perhaps no building by laws of any country demand that every building must be shorter than the local mosque. Yet the Mughals everywhere are a law unto themselves. Their nurture trains them to be on a perpetual prowl and keep up a continuous growl to terrify everybody and force every non-Mughal to declare himself a Mughal that is how Islam was spread. On further effort they ascertained the writers name as P. N. Oak and found out my address. The owner of the firm then wrote a pathetic letter describing his anguish and

shock at the Mughal demand and requesting me to help him tide over the predicament by my historical acumen. The Ahmedabad Mughal got the shock of their life. Never in history had they ever got such a stunning retort and rebuff. A practical instance is provided by the description in Mughal chronicles of a magnificent Krishna temple in Mathura which Mohammad Ghazni says could not have been completed even in 200 years, and another in Vidisha (modern Bhilsa) which could take 300 years to build. Any identifiable details in earlier records of what is at present known as Taj Mahal, luckily, Babur, the founder of the Mughal dynasty in India, who was the great great grandfather of emperor Shahjahan, has left us a disarming and unmistakable description of the Taj Mahal, if only we have the inclination and insight to grasp it. On page 192, Vol. II, of his Memories emperor Babur tells us Pp. 192 and 251, Memoirs of Zahir-Ed-Din Mohammad Babur, Emperor of Hindustan, Vol. II, written by himself in the Chaagatai Turki. Translated by John Layden and Willian Erskine; annotated and revised by Sir Lucas King, in two volumes. Humphrey Milford, Oxford University Press, 1921. On Thursday (May 10, 1526) afternoon I entered Agra and took up my residence at Sultan Ibrahims palace. Later on page 251 Babur adds : A few days after the Id we had a great feast (July 11, 1526) in the grand hall, which is adorned with the priestly of stone pillars, under the dome in the centre of Sultan Ibrahims palace. It may be recalled that Babur captured Delhi and Agra by defeating Ibrahim Lodi at Panipat. As such he came to occupy the Hindu palace which Ibrahim Lodi, himself an allien conqueror, was occupying. Babur, therefore, calls the palace at Agra which he occupied as Ibrahims palace. In describing it Babur says that the palace is adorned the peristyle of pillars. Ornamental towers at the corners of the Taj Mahal plinth. Great hall which is obviously the magnificent room which now houses the cenotaphs of Mumtaz and Shahjahan. Further tells that in the centre it had a dome. Thus it is clear that Babur lived in the palace currently known as the Taj Mahal from May 10, 1526, until his death on December 26, 1530, intermittently. That means that we have a clear record of the existence of the Taj Mahal at least 100 years before the death of Mumtaz (the so-called Lady of the Taj) around 1630. Vincent Smith tells us that Baburs turbulent life came to a peaceful end in his garden palace at Agra. This again is emphatic proof that Babur died in the Taj Mahal. Taj Mahal is the only palace in Agra which had a spectacular garden. The Badshahnama refers to the garden as sabz zamini meaning verdant, spacious, lofty, lush garden precincts. In the large octagonal hall (of the Mystic House) was set the jewelled throne, and above and below it were spread out hangings embroider with gold, and wonderful strings of pearls. The octagonal hall of the Mystic House is obviously the central octagonal hall of the Taj Mahal in which a hundred years later Sahajahan raised the tomb of Mumtaz, and in 1666 Aurangzeb buried his father emperor Shahjahan. The Taj Mahal is called the Mystic House because it originated as a Shiva temple replete with Vedic motifs. The same building was also called the Great House because it was a magnificent royal residence. There are two sepulchral mounds in the central chamber of the Taj which look like Mughal tombs, and could very well be those of Mumtaz Mahal, one of thee thousands of consorts of Shahjahan, and of Shahjahan himself. It is well known that many such mounds are fake. Such mounds have sometimes been found on the terraces of historic buildings where no dead person could be buried by one chance. Another reservation is that no specific burial date of Mumtaz being on record it is highly doubtful whether she was at all buried in the Taj. Period is mentioned a between six months to nine years of her death. Such vagueness, even after a special palatial mausoleum is stated to have been constructed for her body, is highly suspicious. Manuchi, an officer in the service of the East India Company during Aurangzebs time, has recorded that Akbars tomb is empty. Who knows then whether Mumtazs supposed tomb is not empty too. In spite of such weighty reservations we are ready to presume that the two tombs could be those of Mumtaz and Shahjahan.

SOME BLUNDER OF INDIAN HISTORICAL RESEARCH Constitution alien rule in India for over a millennium has resulted in implanting in Indian histories numerous blundering nations as sacrosanct concepts. If by history we mean a factually and chronologically accurate account of a countrys past current Indian histories deserve to be classed with Arabian Nights. Such history must be repudiated and rewritten. Like a virus infection the blunder of Indian historical research have affected other spheres too.

Feel deeply concerned at the alarming state of Indian history as it is being taught in our education institutions, as it is being tackled on misleading assumption in our research organizations and as it is presented to the world at large through official academic channels. The extent and depth of the inaccuracies and fabrications that bedevil Indian history amount to a national calamity. What is still more tragic is that beside the many distortions, perversions and anomalies that abound in current historical texts there are many missing chapters. Those missing chapters relate especially to the sway that Indian Kshatriyas once held from Bali island in the South East pacific to the Baltic in the north and from Korea of Arabia and possibly over Mexico. It is in that vast region, at the very least, that the digvijayas (conquests) which we hear about very often in Indian scriptures, were carried out. Our histories make no mention of that sway. At least broad realization of the major points at which Indian historical research has branched off the path at factual and chronological truth, and a realization that at least some of its important chapters are missing, is essential on the part of scholars, teaching institutions, research organizations, students, teachers and lay men. It is intended to unfold here quite a few blunders of Indian historical research which have occurred to me. By no means do I presume to give an exhaustive list of such blunders. The few that I intend to deal with hereafter should serve as specimens to alert all those connected with Indian history, that the fare served to them, day in and day out, in the name of Indian history is infected with myths, and is deficient in nutritional values because of its missing chapters. If minor errors of grammar, syntax or subject matter in academic text books find us highly agitated how much more should be our resentment at the defective and deficient Indian history that is being taught to us and presented to the world at large. Though our subject title is SOME BLUNDERS OF INDIAN HISTORICAL RESEARCH yet at least in some instances, it will be observed, those blunders have a bearing on world history. The rewriting of the missing chapters and faulty portions of Indian Histories of other regions and of the world as a whole. From this point of view this topic should be of immense importance to students, teachers and scholars of history all the world over.

YOGESH KUMAR SAXENA ADVOCATE, HIGH COURT Counsel for the Petitioner