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Date: 03/07/12

A Panorama of CFD

A Few Glimpses of CFD Magic A Glance at CFD History and CFD Greats What is CFD - A Dummy’s Definition Fluid Mechanics – Complexity to Chaos

Why CFD?

15 Steps to the Babel Tower of NSE

**CFD and its Cousins
**

And its Moments of Success

**The Future Beckons
**

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A Few Glimpses of CFD Magic

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**Ship Stern Flow
**

Ship model moving at 7 and 8 knots with constant forward speed. 25.7 Billion cells to resolve the flow field

**Cray XE6 that used 12,288 processors
**

Each data dump requires 1.2 Tera Bytes. Each time step takes 19.29 seconds

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The Karman Vortex Street

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**Simulation of Karman Vortex Street using ANSYS CFX 11:
**

Mesh is done by ICEM CFD 11 with ~ 1.120.000 nodes. Analysis type: Transient with detached eddy turbulence model. Reynolds number is 100, inlet velocity is 0.075m/s. Simulation time: 30s with time step of 0.025s. Time to complete: 29h 5min Computer system: 5 paralell PCs with total 20 partitions (4 partitions/PC)

Laboratory Visualization of Karman Vortex Street

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Flow Induced Forces

CFD Simulation of Flutter (Tacoma Bridge)

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CFD History and CFD Greats

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**Navier Stokes Equations – Early History
**

Daniel Bernoulli (1700-1782) : Energy Conservation Leonhard Euler (1707-1783) : Euler equations, conservation of momentum and mass. Claude Louis Marie Henry Navier (1785-1836): George Gabriel Stokes (1819-1903) Added viscous transport to the Euler equations, which resulted in the now famous Navier-Stokes equation

**http://www.amwel.com/history.html
**

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**Navier Stokes Equations – Recent History
**

J Leray [1930s] - proposed that solutions to these equations could possibly be singular GI Taylor and Andrey Kolmogorov [1930-45] Statistical Theory of Turbulence O.A. Ladyzhenskaya [1963] Established two dimensional turbulence is impossible E. Lorenz [1963] Demonstration of deterministic chaos through numerical simulations of simple NS models Commercial CFD codes tend generally to be quite robust, and they will often produce results even for problems that are not properly posed. These can range from easily recognized “garbage out” due to “garbage in” to solutions that look “physically correct” but which are wrong in subtle ways. Clearly, the latter are far more dangerous, but in any case it behooves users of commercial software to know sufficient mathematics of the N.–S. equations to reliably construct wellposed problems

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**NS Equations – Importance of Well Posed Problems
**

The NS equations are universal: Apply to every situation and geometry; The Initial and BCs are however critical: They not only determine the variety in solutions and but also whether the mathematical problem makes sense.

Commercial CFD codes tend generally to be quite robust, and they will often produce results even for problems that are not properly posed. These can range from easily recognized “garbage out” due to “garbage in” to solutions that look “physically correct” but which are wrong in subtle ways.

Clearly, the latter are far more dangerous, but in any case it behooves users of commercial software to know sufficient mathematics of the N.–S. equations to reliably construct wellposed problems

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**CFD Classical - History
**

RSL: Richardson (1904) : the first FDM solution for the stress analysis of a masonry dam. Lewis Fry Richardson, England (1881-1953): first numerical weather prediction system dividing physical space into grid cells and using the finite difference approximations. "forecast-factory" A. Thom (1933) : The earliest numerical solution for flow past a cylinder Courant, Friedrichs, and Lewy [1928]: CFL Condition for Stability John Von Neumann [1954], Solutions with shock waves Godunov [1959], Foundations of Upwind Algorithms

**Lax and Wendroff [1960], Conservation, Consistency and Stability
**

MacCormack [1969], Time split Algorithms

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**CFD Modern – Star Gallery
**

– the entire theory of modern CFD algorithms van Leer [1974], (Netherlands) Suhas Patankar [1972] (India) Ami Harten [1978, 1983] (Israel)

**Achi Brandt [1980] (Israel)
**

Phil Roe [1981, 1984] (England) A. Jameson [1982] (USA) Stanley Osher [1987] (USA) Sukumar Chakravarthy [1981] (USA) SM Deshpande [1987] India …………many more

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**CFD Text books:
**

Roache [1972, 1999]: Fundamentals of Computational Fluid Dynamics Patankar [1980]: Numerical Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow

**Peyret and Taylor [1983]: Computational Methods Fluid Flow
**

Anderson, Tannehill, and Pletcher [1984, 1997]: Computational Fluid Mechanics and Heat Transfer Hoffman [1989]: Computational Fluid Dynamics Vol.I and Vol. II Hirsch [1988, 1990]: Numerical Computation of Internal and External Flows: The Fundamentals of Computational Fluid Dynamics Fletcher [1988]: Computational Techniques for Fluid Dynamics Vol. 1/2 J Anderson: Computational Fluid Dynamics

**TJ Chung: Computational Fluid Dynamics
**

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What is CFD - A Dummy’s Definition of CFD

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What is CFD

A field of study concerned with the use of high-speed digital computers to numerically solve the complete nonlinear partial differential equations governing viscous fluid flows.

The prediction of the behavior of fluids and of the effects of fluid motion past objects by numerical methods rather than model experiments

**A Dummy’s Definition of CFD
**

CFD is a branch of Computational Science and Mathematical Modeling uses the methods of Numerical Mathematics and Simulations To study, understand and where possible predict the Physics of Flow

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Fluid Mechanics – Complexity to Chaos

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Cat Lapping its Milk: Froude Number in Action

The Froude Number hovers close to unity, the inertial force balancing the gravitational force

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**The Venturimeter Flow
**

Flow Quantity of Interest: Volume Flow rate Q

**Calculation involves only the 1-D Energy (Bernoulli) Equation and Mass Continuity Equation
**

Critical Re ~ 106

=>

=>

=>

CFD performed on a Venturi geometry utilizing massively parallel (greater than 1000 cores) Spectral Method LES algorithm. And the same Venturi , turns in to a C-D nozzle when the upstream pressure driving the flow exceeds a critical value

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Why CFD?

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**Exact Solutions to N-S Equations
**

Unsteady Parallel Flows (Plate Suddenly Set in Motion)

Unsteady Flow in a Tube

Noncircular Pipe Flows

Plane Poiseuille Flow

The N-S equations are not exactly an easy animal to tame: Firstly they are PDEs and secondly they are non-linear Exact solutions to N-S Equations are known only for very simple geometries 21 Insert Footer

**What is the Way Out?
**

The insight lies in the definition of the derivative:

Lim Δx→0

(1a)

**And the Taylor Series (1b)
**

x-a = Δx = h

**1a is just a ratio of numbers 1b links the function value at a point to a sum of such ratios of numbers
**

Now look at the Continuity Equation: It is just a sum of 3 derivatives at a point vanishing to zero

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**What is the Way Out?
**

Replace the derivatives by ratios of increments and sum

(u(x+Δx)-u(x))/ Δx + (v(y+ Δy)-v(y))/ Δy + (w(z+ Δz)-w(z))/ Δz =0

We have just derived a difference Equation for mass conservation! And the differential equation has been simplified to an algebraic equation!! And this trick works for all equations…..and all the time!!! Well, Almost all the time…………but that is a detail

The takeaway is that: We can almost always replace differential equations by algebraic equations

**And we know how to solve algebraic equations, linear or non-linear
**

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15 Steps to the Babel Tower of NSE

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The Incompressible N-S Equations

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**The 15 steps to NSE Solution
**

And the first step to taming the ‘NSE monster’ is……..Solve:

Step 1 ut + cux = 0

**u is the unknown and c does not depend on u
**

It turns out that the solution process can turn out garbage As seen on the figure on top

However over the years CFD practitioners have developed better algorithms Over the years the algorithms evolved: addressing equation complexity and dimensional complexity: The solution on the right is a consistent approximation to exact solution And we may assert that the NS Equations have been tamed though not all the physics that is contained in it!!!

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**The 15 steps to NSE Solution
**

Step 1: Step 2: Step 3: Step 4: Step 5: Step 6: Step 7: Step 8: Step 9: ut + cux = 0; Linear Advection Equation ut + uux = 0; Non-Linear Advection (Inviscid Burger’s) Equation ut = ν uxx ; The Heat Equation

ut + cux = ν uxx ; Linear Viscous Burger’s equation ut + uux = ν uxx ; ut = ν (uxx + uyy ); ut + cux + duy = 0; Non-Linear Viscous Burger’s Equation 2-D Heat equation 2D Linear Advection Equation 2D Linear Viscous Burger’s equation

ut + cux + duy = ν (uxx + uyy );

ut + aux + buy = 0; 2D Linear Inviscid Burger’s Equation vt + cvx + dvy = 0

Step 10: ut + uux + vuy = 0; 2D Non-Linear Inviscid Burger’s Equation vt + uvx + vvy = 0

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**The 15 steps to NSE Solution
**

Step 11: ut + uux + vuy = ν (uxx + uyy ); 2D Non-Linear, Viscous Burger’s Equation vt + uvx + vvy = ν (vxx + vyy );

Step 12: uxx + uyy = 0 ; 2-D Laplace Equation 2-D Poisson Equation

Step 13: uxx + uyy = P(x, y) ;

Step 14: ut + uux + vuy = - (1/ρ) px + ν (uxx + uyy ); 2D N-S Momentum Equations vt + uvx + vvy = - (1/ρ) py + ν (vxx + vyy ); pxx + pyy = P(x, y) ; 2D Pressure correction equation

Step 15: ut + uux + vuy + wuz = - (1/ρ) px + ν (uxx + uyy + uzz) vt + uvx + vvy + wvz = - (1/ρ) py + ν (vxx + vyy + vzz) wt + uwx + vwy + wwz= - (1/ρ) py + ν (wxx + wyy + wzz) pxx + pyy + pzz = P(x, y, z)

The full 3D N-S momentum and pressure correction equations

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CFD and its Cousins

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The Compressible N-S Equations

Ref: incompressible-Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations.pdf

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The N-S Equations of Momentum Conservation

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The N-S Equations Control Volume Form

Ref: incompressible-Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations.pdf

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The N-S Equations in Vector Conservation Form

Ref: incompressible-Incompressible Navier-Stokes Equations.pdf

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The CAA Equations

CAA – Computational Aero - Acoustics

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The MHD Equations in Vector Conservation Form

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The MHD Equations in Vector Form

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CFD and Drag Reduction

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A Feel for Form (or Shape) and Drag

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**Why is Drag Important
**

A 10 percent reduction in the drag of civilian aircraft, could yield a 40 percent increase in the profit margin of an airline An 5 percent improvement in lift to drag (L/D) ratio directly translates to a similar reduction in fuel consumption, translating to $5 billion savings for a fleet of 500 aircraft

V-shaped grooves, called riblets, spaced 40 microns apart on the surface of an aircraft's wing or fuselage leads to a 5 to 6 percent reduction in viscous drag

A one count drag increase (DCD = .0001) On the Concorde, requires two passengers, out of the 90 ~ 100 passenger capacity, be taken off the North Atlantic run For an executive business jet the range decrease is 17 miles/drag count. For advanced supersonic transports range decrease is about 100 miles/drag count. A one count drag decrease (DCD = .0001) a 50% cut in CO2 emissions per passenger kilometre

**and an 80% cut in nitrogen oxide emissions
**

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**Drag Minimisation in Natural World
**

Tooth-like structures, called denticles, on the skin of sharks are believed to significantly reduce drag Ducklings swimming in single-file experience a 8 to 40% decrease in energy cost The duckling at the end of the formation appears to receive the largest energy savings Drag reduction in single-file formation is associated with small spacings between individuals (< one body length) Dolphins achieve remarkable propulsive efficiency as they swim, it is long speculated that these creatures do it by moving their skins generating small turbulent eddies to reduce drag

40 Insert Footer http://www.vulcaniasubmarine.com/DOLPHIN%20TWO.htm

Minimisation of Lift-Induced Drag-Wing Design

**The classical way is to increase the aspect ratio of the wing. A340 wing AR=9.3.
**

The fastest swimming fish and marine mammals have propulsors with AR ranging from 3.4-8.7 AR above 8-10 provides little further advantage and may be structurally limited

Ref: drag-reduction-technologies-for-civil-transport-aircraft-reneaux.pdf 41 Insert Footer

And its Moments of Success

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Boeing Wing-Body-Tail Design Cycle

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The Boeing Story

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**Community Noise : The CAA Story
**

85 dB Noise Contours at O’Hare

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Acoustic Field due to a Deep Cavity

Ref: gupea_2077_28924_1-CAA-WaveEqnSolver.pdf

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Other Applications

Moisture Condensation in Supersonic Flight

NASA OVERFLOW-D simulation of X-38 flight vehicle using Chimera

AuroraHypersonic Aircraft Discovery – Reentry Vehicle

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The Future Beckons

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The Role in Design Cycle

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