IUCN and Role of Protected Areas in meeting climate challenges

Saadullah Ayaz

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

Definitions of Protected Areas
IUCN’s definition ‘A clearly defined geographical space, recognized, dedicated and managed, through legal or other effective means, to achieve the longTerm conservation of nature with associated ecosystem services and cultural values’
Dudley, N.(2008); Guidelines for Applying Protected Area Management Categories, IUCN

CBD’s definition ‘A geographically defined area which is designated or regulated and managed to achieve specific conservation objectives’

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

Protected areas helping people cope with climate change
Protected areas already cover over 13.9 per cent of the world’s land surface and growing Protected areas are are proven “green” and cost-effective natural solutions to help address the climate change. They; • reduce greenhouse gas emissions through carbon storage and sequestration • maintaining the essential ecosystem services upon which people depend.
http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/natsols_4pp_highres_single _pages_with_cropmarks.pdf
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

Dual role of Protected Areas
Capture: At least 15% of the world’s terrestrial carbon stock is stored in PA globally. Storage: Natural ecosystems capture more than 4.7 gigatonnes of carbon annually

Protected areas maintain ecosystem integrity, buffer local climate, and reduce risks and impacts from extreme events Maintain essential ecosystem services that help people cope with changes in water supplies, fisheries, disease and agricultural productivity caused by climate change.

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

CC- Role of Protected Areas
Protected areas are proven tools for maintaining essential natural resources and services, which in turn can help increase the resilience and reduce the vulnerability of livelihoods in the face of climate change: Water: both purer water and (especially in tropical montane cloud forests) increased water flow Fisheries: Marine and freshwater protected areas conserve and rebuild fish stocks Food: Protecting crop wild relatives to facilitate crop breeding and pollination services; providing sustainable food for communities Health: Ranging from habitat protection to slow the expansion of vector-borne diseases that thrive in degraded ecosystems to access to traditional medicines
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

• Recognises the role of protected areas as tools for permanent carbon storage and sequestration and call for the implementation of robust protected areas systems as a core component of national strategies to achieve land-based emissions reductions Emphasises the role of ecosystems in climate change adaptation and incorporate protection of natural ecosystems within national adaptation strategies and action plans (including National Adaptation Programmes of Action – NAPA) for protection of natural ecosystems as a costeffective alternative to technology- and infrastructure based adaptation measures and to avoid mal-adaptation Permit nationally appropriate mitigation and adaptation actions that involve the enhancement of protected areas or national protected area networks to receive financial and technical assistance through climaterelated financial mechanisms
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

Convention on Biological Diversity has recognized the role of PAs in addressing climate change in Programme of Work on Protected Areas (PoWPA): “1.4.5 Integrate climate change adaptation measures in protected Area planning, management • Encourages development of tools and methods to support countries to evaluate climate impacts and increase resilience of their protected areas systems, and ensure that their role in mitigation and adaptation is fully explored Emphasizes the importance of increasing connectivity among national protected areas and trans-boundary protected areas Cultivate political urgency for the development of marine protected areas and protected areas in underrepresented biomes The Convention also recognizes that there are significant opportunities for mitigating climate change and adapting to it, while enhancing the conservation of biodiversity

• • •

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

PACT 2020: Protected Areas and Climate Turnaround
PACT was formally launched at the IUCN World Conservation Congress in 2008 and supported by IUCN’s Innovation Fund. Under PACT 2020- Climate change was acknowledged to be’ the greatest threat to biodiversity and the global system of protected areas was noted as one of the most powerful solutions. PACT 2020 aims to
“Ensure that protected areas and protected area systems are recognised as an important contribution to climate change adaptation/mitigation strategies for biodiversity and human livelihoods”.

http://www.iucn.org/about/union/commissions/wcpa/wcpa_events/wcpa_climatepas ummit/wcpa_pact2020/
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

The Issue
60% of global ecosystem services are degraded, reducing their ability to mitigate the impact of natural disasters Economic losses from climate disasters have increased tenfold in 50 years, and “natural” disasters continue to increase in frequency and intensity Warmer regional temperatures, have already had significant impacts on biodiversity and ecosystems

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment http://www.millenniumassessment.org/documents/document.356.aspx.pdf

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

CC as driver of Biodiversity Loss
A comprehensive assessment of the links between ecosystem health and human wellbeing, climate change is likely to become the dominant direct driver of biodiversity loss by the end of the century
(Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2007)

Projected changes in climate, combined with land use change and the spread of exotic or alien species, are likely to limit the capability of some species to migrate and therefore will accelerate species loss
(CBD, 2009) www.cbd.int/doc/bioday/2007/ibd-2007-booklet-01-en.pdf

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

IPCC’s Analysis
“Observational evidence from all continents and most oceans shows that many natural systems are being affected by regional climate changes, particularly Temperature increases.”
IPCC Fourth Assessment Report http://www.ipcc.ch/publications_and_data/publications_ipcc_fourth _assessment_report_synthesis_report.htm

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

Summary of IPCC-AR IV Conclusions (contd…)
There is also high confidence of the effects on hydrological systems including:
• Increased runoff and earlier spring peak discharge in many glacier- and snow-fed rivers • Warming of lakes and rivers in many regions, with effects on thermal structure and water quality

There is high confidence that changes in marine and freshwater biological systems are associated with rising water temperatures and related changes in ice cover, salinity, oxygen levels and circulation including:
• Shifts in ranges and changes in algal, plankton and fish abundance in high-latitude oceans • Increases in algal and zooplankton abundance in high-latitude and high-altitude lakes • Range changes and earlier fish migrations in rivers

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

Summary of IPCC-AR IV Conclusions (contd…)
there is very high (i.e. 90 percent) confidence that recent warming is strongly affecting terrestrial biological systems, including:
• Earlier timing of spring events, such as leaf-unfolding,egg-laying and bird migration • Plants and animals shift ranges pole-wards and upwards

There is high (80 per cent) confidence that natural systems related to snow, ice and frozen ground (including permafrost) are affected, including the:
• Enlargement and increased numbers of glacial lakes • Increasing ground instability in permafrost regions and rock avalanches in mountain • Changes in Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems, including those in sea-ice biomes, and affecting top predators

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

Summary of IPCC-AR IV Conclusions (contd…)
There is increasing evidence of climate change impacts on coral reefs. Sea-level rise and human development are also contributing to losses of coastal wetlands and mangroves and increasing damage from coastal flooding In the higher latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere agricultural and forest management impacts include earlier spring planting of crops, and alterations in disturbances of forests due to fires and pests Some impacts on human health, such as excess heat-related mortality in Europe, changes in infectious disease vectors in parts of Europe, and earlier onset of and increases in seasonal production of allergenic pollen in the high and mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere Impacts on human activities in the Arctic, in relation to hunting activities and shorter travel seasons over snow and ice, and in lower-elevation alpine areas, such as changes in mountain sports activities
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

IUCN’s Solutions

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

IUCN- at the Core of Solution
IUCN believes that conserving nature can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions (mitigation) and help us adapt to the impacts of climate change IUCN’s work puts nature at the centre of climate change solutions in hundred of programmes and projects across the world IUCN’s Climate Change Network coordinates and facilitates climate change work across the Union’s programmes, commissions and member organizations. IUCN’s UN Observer Status offers a unique position at key international decision-making fora, including the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC)
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

IUCN’s Viewpoint
Wise conservation and management of biodiversity, protected areas, World Heritage and natural resources must be an important component of any climate change adaptation

IUCN is uniquely positioned to support climate change adaptation actions at all levels from local to regional to global

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

Granada Summit on Protected Areas and Climate Change
November, 2009

Reaffirmed that protected area systems can provide cost‐effective means to combat climate change Recognised that increasing ecosystem resilience through effective protection will enhance the persistence and functions of protected areas in reducing climate change risks to society and biodiversity.

http://cmsdata.iucn.org/downloads/conclusiones_de_la_reu nion_de_granada_final_3_.pdf
IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

IUCN and Climate Change Adaptation
The Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) Thematic Group of IUCN’s Commission on Ecosystem Management (CEM), promotes the science and practice of Ecosystem-based Adaptation. Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) is the use of biodiversity and ecosystem services as part of an overall adaptation strategy to help people to adapt to the adverse effects of climate change. EbA aims to maintain and increase the resilience and reduce the vulnerability of ecosystems and people in the face of the adverse effects of climate change.

Ecosystem-based Adaptation
A nature’s solution to climate change

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

IUCN- People and Livelihoods
IUCN introduced “Community-based Risk Screening Tool - Adaptation and Livelihoods” (CRISTAL) CRISTAL can reduce impacts of climate change on community livelihoods First tested in IUCN project in Mali (Inner Delta of the Niger River) Made available by IUCN for wider global use

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

IUCN’s Guidelines for Precautionary Principles
IUCN developed “Guidelines for Applying the Precautionary Principle to Biodiversity Conservation and Natural Resource Management” Responding to uncertainty (also relevant to climate change)

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

CC-PA- Suggested Policy Response
Well managed protected areas can provide a cost effective option for implementing climate change response strategies because start-up costs have already been met and socio-economic costs are offset by other services that protected areas supply
Protected Areas: helping cope people with climate change http://www.undp.org.tr/publicationsDocuments/natural_solutions_original.pdf

Governments develop policies for “climate sensitive public goods including natural resource protection, coastal protection and emergency preparedness
Stern’s Review on Economics of Climate Change http://www.hm-treasury.gov.uk/d/CLOSED_SHORT_executive_summary.pdf

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

Thank you

Saadullah Ayaz
Coordinator Climate Change/ Country Network Coordinator Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities IUCN Pakistan saad.ayaz@iucn.org

IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful