16 Personality Factors The 16 personality factor questionnaire (16PF) is an objectively scorable test devised by basic research in psychology to give

the most complete coverage of personality possible in a brief time developed by Raymond Cattell. In addition to leading to the discovery of the 16 PF, the research identified the broad dimensions called the BIG five factors of personality. Cattell conceptualized personality in terms of a hierarchical, multilevel structure with primary and second order order traits. The 5 global scales give an overview of an individuals personality make up at a broad level of functioning while the more specific primary provide an in depth picture of the individuals unique personality dynamics. Comprehensive coverage of personality rests upon the measurement of sixteen functionally independent and psychologically meaningful dimensions isolated and replicated in more than 30 years of factor analytic research on normal and clinical groups. The personality factors measured by the 16 PF are not just unique to the test but instead rest within the context of a general theory of personality. Nearly 10 years of empirical, factor analytic research preceded the first commercial publication of the test in 1949. Forms A,B,C, and D, are appropriate for literate individuals whose educational level is roughly equivalent to that of a normal high school student. Forms E and F are designed for individuals with marked educational and reading deficits. Ten to thirteen items are provided for each scale in form A and B. In Form C and D, there are 8 items for the factor B scale, 7 items for the motivational distortion scale and 6 items for each of the remaining scales. The questions are arranged in a roughly cyclic order determined by a plan to give maximum convenience in scoring by stencil and to insure variety and interest for the examinee.The items in the final forms are the survivors from several thousands of items originally tried and constitute only those which continue to have significant validity against the factors after 10 successive factor analyses (Cattell, 1973) on different samples. These analysis have both verified the existence and natural structure of the 16 factors, and cross validated the test items in their correlation with the factors on different adult population samples. The validity of the test itself is meant to be a concept (or construct) validity. That is to say, the test questions as stated above are chosen as being good measures of personality factors, as these factors are represented in research analysis. PRO FORMA OF THE CLIENT Name: H.S. Age: 25 Gender: female Education/Occupation: Software engineer. Date of administration: 16/06/2012

referred by: Self referred for: Personality Assessment Presenting complaints: Test adminitered: 16 PF Observations: The client was able to concentrate and complete the questionnaire in an orderly manner. Her attention was aroused and sustained throughout the session. Test Results: The client, H.S, aged 25, currently working for a software company was assessed on the 16 PF Factors Factor A Factor B Factor C Factor E Factor F Factor G Factor H Factor I Factor L Factor M Factor N Factor O Factor Q1 Factor Q2 Factor Q3 Factor Q4 7 5 9 10 8 4 7 8 8 5 5 5 6 7 7 5 Raw score 4 6 7 9 6 3 6 6 8 5 6 4 5 8 5 4 Sten score


On the MD, the client had a raw score of 5 and sten score of 3, which indicates that she is not motivationally deviated. Based on the interpretation of the 16 PF assessment conducted, the client has a raw score of 10 and a sten score of 9 on factor E, this indicates that the person is assertive, self-assured and independent minded. She tends to be austere, a law to herself, hostile or extrapunitive, authoritarian (managing others and disregards authority). Her dominance in terms of being stubborn and competitive may be an advantage or disadvantage depending on the situation put forth. On factor G she has a raw score of 4 and sten score of 3, which indicates a weaker superego strength, she tends to be unsteady in purpose. She is often casual and lacking in effort for group undertakings and cultural demands. Her freedom from group influences may lead to antisocial acts, but at times makes her more effective, while her refusal to be bound by rules causes her to have less somatic upset from stress. On factor L, she has a raw score of 8 and a sten score of 8, this indicates a sense of protension. She tends to be mistrusting and doubtful. She is often involved in her own ego, is self-opinionated, and interested in internal mental life. She is usually deliberate in her actions, unconcerned about other people and a poor team member. On factor Q2, her raw score was 7 and sten score was 8, this indicates self sufficiency. She is resourceful and prefers to make her own decisions. She is temperamentally independent, accustomed to going her own way, making decisions and taking action on her own. She discounts public opinion but is not necessarily dominant in her relations with others. She does not dislike people but simply does not need their agreement or support. The client averaged on all other factors. On factor A she had a raw score of 7 and sten score of 4. which indicates that she is neither reserved nor outgoing, detached or warmhearted, critical or easy going and neither cool nor participating. overall she is neither sizothymic nor affectothymic. On factor B, her raw score was 5 and sten score was 6, which indicates that she is of average intelligence. she does not have a concrete or abstract way of thinking and is in between the two types. Overall she has average scholastic mental capacity. On factor C, her raw score was 9 and sten score was 7, this indicates that she is emotionally stable at most times. She faces reality, and can be calm and mature. however since her sten score is 7 and tends towards the higher score she may be affected by feelings, emotionally less stable and easily upset less often than the other traits mentioned above. On factor F she has a raw score of 8 and a sten score of 6, which indicates that she is neither sober nor happy-go-lucky, serious or impulsively lively, taciturn nor enthusiastic. She may show normal, stable emotions and behavior.

On factor H she has a raw score of 7 and sten score of 6. This indicates that she is neither shy nor venturesome, restrained nor socially bold, neither diffident nor uninhibited, and timid nor spontaneous. On factor I she has a raw score of 8 and sten score of 6. It indicates that she is neither tough minded nor tender minded, self reliant or dependent, realistic nor over protected, a no nonsense person nor sensitive. On factor M, she has a raw score of 5 and sten score of 5. This indicates that she is neither practical nor imaginative, neither regulated by external affairs nor wrapped up in inner urgencies, neither careful nor careless, neither proper nor bohemian. On factor N, she has a raw score of 5 and sten score of 6. This indicates that she is neither forthright nor shrewd, neither natural nor calculating, artless or worldly, sentimental or penetrating. On factor O, she has a raw score of 5 and sten score of 4, this indicates tha she tends to be placid, self assured, confident and serene rather than apprehensive, worrying, depressive and troublesome. On factor Q1, she has a raw score or 6 and sten score of 5. This indicates that she is neither conservative nor experimental, respecting or critical, has established ideas or liberal and analytical. She is neither tolerant of traditional difficulties nor free thinking. On factor Q3 She has a raw score of 7 and sten score of 5. This shows that she does not have undisciplined self-conflict and is neither controlled, she does not fully follow her own urges and neither does she follow self image, she is neither careless of protocol nor socially precise. On factor Q4, she has a raw score of 5 and sten score of 4. This indicates that she tends to be mostly relaxed, tranquil, torpid and unfrustrated rather than tense, frustrated, driven and over wrought. Conclusion: Overall the client seems like she has some strong and stable personality features and if managed appropriately can be a well adjusted person. She may tend to be full herself and pay attention only to her own needs at times. However she also has characteristics of being calm and confident in herself.

Recommendations: 1) Client has to be careful not to be stubborn and aggressive in all situations and use these characteristics only when need be. Anger management may be required if she cannot manage these traits.


2) She may need to work on her skills of empathizing with others and learning to be a team player rather than going solo on most things. She could attend group therapy sessions and bulid on socializing skills 3) 4) If rule evading is excessive in nature this may also need to addressed with some cognitive or behavioral training. Her suspicions may tend to overpower her and if they do she needs to seek help.

References Cattell, H., & Meade, A. (2008). The sixteen personality factor questionnaire. In The Sage Handbook of Personality Theory and Assessment. (pp. 135 – 159). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Cattell, H., & Schuerger, J. (2003). Essentials of 16 PF assessment. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. Hogan Assessment System. (2010). The history of personality. Retrieved August 14, 2010, from http://www.hoganassessments.com/history-of-personality