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**and debris flows
**

Xiaobo Wang, Norbert R. Morgenstern, and Dave H. Chan

Abstract: Flow slides and debris flows incorporate a broad range of sediment–fluid mixtures that are intermediate between

dry rock avalanches and hyperconcentrated flows. Following a comprehensive review of some existing analytical ap-

proaches to debris flow runout analysis, a new analytical model based on energy conservation has been formulated. The

new analytical model was developed to deepen the understanding of fundamental aspects in modeling of granular flows

and to improve the geotechnical mobility analysis of flow slides and debris flows. The Lagrangian finite difference method

was used to solve the governing equations. The model and numerical scheme have been tested against analytical solutions

and experiments of granular flows with simplified geometries for sliding mass and basal topography. Results of granular

flow simulations indicate that the model based on energy conservation performs well and is robust. The model can be

used for geotechnical analysis of a wide range of dense granular flows, such as flow slides and debris flows.

Key words: flow slides, debris flows, runout analysis.

Re´sume´ : Les glissements par lique´faction et les e´coulements de de´bris comprennent un large e´ventail de me´langes fluide-

se´diments qui sont a` mi-chemin entre les avalanches de roches se`ches et les e´coulement hyperconcentre´s. Suite a` une re-

vue exhaustive de quelques approches existantes pour l’analyse du parcours des e´coulements de de´bris, un nouveau mode`le

analytique base´ sur la conservation de l’e´nergie a e´te´ formule´. L’objectif de ce nouveau mode`le est de mieux comprendre

les aspects fondamentaux de la mode´lisation des e´coulements granulaires ainsi que d’ame´liorer l’analyse de mobilite´ ge´o-

technique des glissements par lique´faction et des e´coulements de de´bris. La me´thode de diffe´rence finie de Lagrange est

utilise´e pour re´soudre les e´quations. Le mode`le et le sche´ma nume´rique ont e´te´ compare´s a` des solutions analytiques et a`

des expe´rimentations d’e´coulement granulaire ayant des ge´ome´tries simplifie´es de masse glissante et de topographie de

base. Les re´sultats des simulations d’e´coulement granulaire indiquent que le mode`le base´ sur la conservation de l’e´nergie

performe bien et est robuste. Le mode`le peut donc eˆtre utilise´ pour des analyses ge´otechniques d’une grande varie´te´

d’e´coulements granulaires denses, tels que les glissements par lique´faction et les e´coulements de de´bris.

Mots-cle´s : glissement par lique´faction, e´coulement de de´bris, analyse de parcours.

[Traduit par la Re´daction]

Introduction

Flow slides and debris flows are extremely rapid flows of

a highly concentrated mixture of water and predominantly

coarse granular material. This type of granular flow is com-

posed of a poorly sorted, sediment–water mixture that com-

monly contains more than 50% solids by volume. The

constituent sediment usually varies widely in size, from

clay particles to boulders of several metres in diameter. Be-

cause of high flow velocities, large impact forces, long run-

out distance, and poor temporal predictability, flow slides

and debris flows are among the most dangerous and destruc-

tive natural hazards (Johnson and Rodine 1984; Jakob and

Hungr 2005).

Flow slides and debris flows are complex in their physical

behavior and demand subtle theoretical descriptions and nu-

merical models. However, validation of flow slide and de-

bris flow simulation models against field observations is

often difficult or impossible because of the dangers involved

with in situ experimental campaigns, uncontrollable geo-

physical conditions, and unpredictable time and locations of

natural flow events (Hutter 2005). Although laboratory tests

of flow slides and debris flows of reduced size can be per-

formed under well-defined and well-controlled conditions,

these dense granular flows are known to be scale-dependent

and runout distance is greatly influenced by the rate of pore

pressure dissipation (Hutchinson 1986; Iverson 1997). The

significance of scale effects raises questions regarding the

application of experimental observations to predicting flow

slide and debris flow behaviors in practice. Because of these

difficulties in experimental tests and field observations, nu-

merical modeling has become an important and promising

alternative in flow slide and debris flow studies.

Within the framework of dense granular flow simulations,

Received 20 November 2008. Accepted 7 April 2010. Published

on the NRC Research Press Web site at cgj.nrc.ca on

18 November 2010.

X. Wang. Thurber Engineering Limited, Edmonton, AB T6E

6A5, Canada.

N.R. Morgenstern. Department of Civil and Environmental

Engineering, University of Alberta, 3-075 Markin/CNRL Natural

Resources Engineering Facility, Edmonton, AB T6G 2W2,

Canada.

D.H. Chan.

1

Department of Civil and Environmental

Engineering, University of Alberta, 3-038 Markin/CNRL Natural

Resources Engineering Facility, Edmonton, AB T6G 2W2,

Canada.

1

Corresponding author (e-mail: dave.chan@ualberta.ca).

1401

Can. Geotech. J. 47: 1401–1414 (2010) doi:10.1139/T10-039 Published by NRC Research Press

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depth-averaged equations have been predominantly applied

to modeling debris avalanches, debris flows, and other types

of fast-moving landslides. The depth-averaged model is es-

tablished by integrating the mass and momentum conserva-

tion equations in differential form over the flow depth with

the use of Leibnitz’s law. Integration of the differential form

of the conservation laws over the flow depth considerably

reduces the computational time required in rapid landslide

runout analysis. Constitutive properties of the sliding mass

are incorporated into governing equations through the basal

flow resistance in the depth-averaged model. The flow re-

sistance is expressed in terms of averaged velocities when

fluid models such as the Bingham (Johnson 1970) and

Herschel–Bulkley (Huang and Garcı ´a 1998) models are

selected. The Coulomb frictional law has been widely

employed to compute basal shear resistance in the depth-

averaged model for dense granular flow simulations in

geotechnical engineering. The magnitude of resistance is

determined by the product of overburden normal stress and

coefficient of basal friction.

In this paper, a slice-based model based on energy conser-

vation was formulated on a macroscopic scale after a review

of the existing numerical models for granular flow simula-

tions. Compared with the existing depth-averaged slice-

based models, our new model incorporates deformation

work and internal energy dissipation into the governing

equations. The numerical method for practical implementa-

tion of the governing equations is presented following the

model formulation. Model verification has been undertaken

by comparing numerical predictions with analytical solu-

tions and experimental observations of granular flows.

Existing mathematical models for granular

flow simulations

Mathematical modeling of granular flows was originally

introduced by Savage and Hutter (1989, 1991). Based on

mass and momentum conservation equations for flow on a

rough inclined plane, and using the depth-averaging process

and making scaling arguments, Savage and Hutter (1989)

derived the one-dimensional, depth-averaged equations for

the shallow free-surface flow of dry granular materials. The

model assumes that a moving granular mass behaves as a

cohesionless Coulomb frictional material and the relation-

ship between shear and normal stresses on internal and

rough bounding surfaces obeys the Coulomb friction law.

Multi-dimensional extensions of the Savage–Hutter model

have been formulated for analyzing dry granular flows.

Iverson (1997) and Iverson and Denlinger (2001) intro-

duced Coulomb mixture theory and derived the governing

equations for a wide spectrum of grain–fluid mixture flows

based on a two-phase analysis. The Coulomb mixture model

assumes that solids and interstitial fluids in debris flows be-

have constitutively as Coulomb frictional materials and

Newtonian viscous fluids, respectively. Advection–diffusion

equations are postulated to describe pore pressure changes

in response to the movement of solids (Iverson and Denlin-

ger 2001). Denlinger and Iverson (2004) developed a mathe-

matical depth-averaged model using a rectangular Cartesian

coordinate system to simulate granular avalanches across ir-

regular three-dimensional terrains. The equations are solved

numerically using a hybrid finite volume and finite element

scheme. Fluxes of mass and momentum across vertical cell

boundaries are computed using the finite volume method

and stresses accompanying the deformation within the gran-

ular avalanche are calculated using the finite element

method. The stresses are first evaluated based on constitutive

relations for an isotropic linear elastic material and then cor-

rected using the Coulomb yield criterion. The model was

tested against laboratory experiments of dry sand avalanches

across irregular basal topography. Good agreement was ob-

tained between theoretical prediction and experimental tests

(Iverson et al. 2004).

Pitman and Le (2005) proposed a two-fluid model for

granular flows of the mixture of solid particles and fluid.

Continuity and momentum equations are formulated explic-

itly for both solid and fluid phases in the two-fluid model.

Interactions between particles and the fluid are taken into

account in the model with a velocity-dependent force. Puda-

saini et al. (2005a, 2005b) extended the Savage–Hutter

model for debris flow simulation by including pore pres-

sures in the model. The extended model has been applied to

analyzing debris flow flume tests, and good agreement is

obtained between theoretical predictions and experimental

observations (Pudasaini et al. 2005a, 2005b). However, the

pore pressures are not predicted; they are merely assumed

by employing an advection–diffusion equation similar to

those proposed by Iverson and Denlinger (2001).

The Savage–Hutter model and its generalized versions

have been tested against laboratory experiments of rapid

granular flows over a wide variety of bed topographies

(Hutter and Koch 1991; Greve and Hutter 1993; Wieland et

al. 1999; Iverson et al. 2004). Theoretical predictions were

found to be in good agreement with experimental measure-

ments. The Savage–Hutter model and its various generalized

versions have been established as the leading models in the

area of dry granular flow analysis (Pudasaini and Hutter

2007). However, their broad applications are limited to mod-

eling of dry granular flows over the simple topography ana-

lyzed in most laboratory experiments.

Slice-based dynamic analysis has been developed and

used in studies of fast-moving gravitational flows, such as

rapid landslides, debris flows, and liquefaction flow slides.

Hungr (1995), Tinti et al. (1997), Miao et al. (2001), and

Kwan and Sun (2006) are examples. In the slice-based

model, the flowing mass is represented by an ensemble of

contiguous slices (two dimensions) or blocks (three dimen-

sions) that are subjected to gravitational forces, basal resist-

ance, and internal forces. While sliding down over a

specified sliding surface, the slices interact with each other,

dissipating energy along their bases and exchanging momen-

tum between adjacent slices. The shape of the slices can be

changed during the flow process, but total volume is con-

served and no mass can penetrate between slices. Newton’s

laws of motion are employed to define the relationship be-

tween slice movement and forces acting on each slice. A

Lagrangian description is generally adopted to easily deter-

mine locations of the slices. A general survey of the

momentum-based models indicates that the methods of cal-

culation of gravitational forces and basal resistance are very

similar. It is the treatment of internal forces that distin-

guishes one method from another (Wang 2008).

1402 Can. Geotech. J. Vol. 47, 2010

Published by NRC Research Press

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Hungr (1995) presented a dynamic model (DAN) for run-

out analysis of rapid landslides. DAN is based on an explicit

solution of the Saint-Venant equations with the integration

of a variety of constitutive relationships that have been

widely applied in debris flow modeling. The displaced mate-

rials of a landslide are represented by a number of boundary

elements and mass elements. Formulation of the governing

equations is based on the law of conservation of momentum

for the boundary elements. Mass conservation is applied to

the mass elements to calculate changes in flow depth and in-

ternal deformation within the landslide. Flow resistance

along the sliding surface is determined using the constitutive

law specified in the analysis. The resultant longitudinal pres-

sures acting on the boundary elements are determined from

the product of the hydrostatic pressure gradient of the equiv-

alent fluid and a lateral pressure coefficient (Hungr 1995).

The value of the lateral pressure coefficient is dependent on

the coefficients of active and passive earth pressures, the

stiffness coefficient, and the average tangential strain of the

mass elements. Initially, the coefficient of lateral pressure at

rest is used for each element. The magnitude of the lateral

coefficient is then increased or decreased by a value equal

to the product of the incremental strain times a stiffness co-

efficient. The lateral coefficient can vary between the mini-

mum and maximum values, which correspond to the active

and passive states, respectively. Hungr (2003) proposed that

the values of the active and passive earth pressures can be

determined based on internal frictional strength of the slid-

ing material using the equation proposed by Savage and

Hutter (1989).

An improved debris mobility model (DMM) was pre-

sented by Kwan and Sun (2006). DMM is based on the

model for the dynamic analysis of rapid landslides (DAN)

developed by Hungr (1995). The formulation of flow resist-

ance in DMM is based on the entire wetted perimeter of the

flow channel. For simplicity, the cross section of the flow

channel is approximated by a trapezoid in the modified

DMM formulation. Calculation of internal forces in DMM

is based on the hydrostatic gradient and lateral pressure co-

efficient, which is dependent on the local internal deforma-

tion states of the landslide. The method proposed by Hungr

(1995) is used in DMM to calculate the coefficient of lateral

earth pressure. The total flow resistance consists of resistan-

ces developed at the base of each slice and on the two side

slopes of the channel. The basal resistance is calculated us-

ing the same procedure as in the original formulation of

DAN (Hungr 1995). The resistances on side slopes are de-

termined from the sliding mass above the side slopes and

the constitutive law specified in the analysis. Applications

of DMM and DAN in modeling rapid landslides in Hong

Kong show that very similar front velocities are predicted

by both models (Kwan and Sun 2006). However, the back-

calculated strengths from DAN are greater than those deter-

mined from the improved DMM due to incorporation of re-

sistances on the side slopes in the DMM model.

A block-based model was proposed by Tinti et al. (1997)

to simulate movements of flow slides over slopes. Interslice

forces in the block-based model are expressed in terms of an

interaction coefficient, which is dependent on the dynamic

states of the slices and the instantaneous distance between

the slice centers. The value of the interaction coefficient

varies between 0 and 1, which represent two limiting condi-

tions for interslice actions. When the interaction coefficient

is equal to 0, interacting slices have the same post-interaction

velocities irrespective of their pre-interaction states, and

slices move as if they are adhered to each other; this is

the maximum possible interaction. When the interaction

coefficient is equal to 1, the slices retain their pre-interac-

tion velocities as if no interaction had taken place. In gen-

eral, the interaction coefficient can be determined from a

function in terms of interaction intensity, deformability pa-

rameter, and shape parameter (Tinti et al. 1997).

Miao et al. (2001) proposed a sliding block model for the

runout analysis of rapid landslides. The model starts with a

limit equilibrium assessment and incorporates mass dynam-

ics and soil deformation into the calculation of sliding

movement. In the sliding block model, the sliding mass is

divided into a number of slices. Forces acting on a single

slice consist of gravity, basal resistance, and interactions be-

tween slices. The initial interslice forces are determined

from the limit equilibrium analysis using the method of un-

balanced thrust, in which the resultant interslice force is as-

sumed to be parallel to the base of the preceding slice and

acts at the midpoint of the height of the slice. The critical

state corresponding to a factor of safety of 1 is considered

as the initial state. Initial acceleration of the slices is calcu-

lated based on the initial unbalanced forces. After the mass

movement is triggered, the interslice forces are determined

from the deformation energy, which is calculated using the

macroscopic deformation of the slices and bulk deformation

modulus. For slices in a tensile state, the deformation energy

vanishes and the interslice forces are assumed to be zero.

The basal shear resistance is determined based on the over-

burden normal force using the Coulomb frictional law, sim-

ilar to the methods used by other sliding block models.

Application of the sliding block model to two rapid land-

slides in China (Miao et al. 2001) indicated that the sliding

block model can result in considerable fluctuations in the

velocity field within very short periods of time.

Formulation of the slice-based model using

the energy conservation law

The existing slice-based models incorporate the effects of

internal deformation on the flow dynamics using either the

interaction coefficient (Tinti et al. 1997) or deformation en-

ergy (Miao et al. 2001). The interslice forces proposed in

the slice-based model are primarily dependent on the magni-

tude of deformation and dynamic state of the slices. How-

ever, application of the slice-based models of Tinti et al.

(1997) and Miao et al. (2001) to rapid landslide simulation

is either difficult or impractical because of the great uncer-

tainties involved in the calculation of the interslice force and

the determination of model input parameters required. For

instance, the significant fluctuations in the velocity field pre-

dicted by Miao et al.’s (2001) model are caused mainly by

inappropriate computation of the interaction forces in terms

of the deformation energy. A slice-based model incorporat-

ing internal energy dissipation is presented in this paper.

The formulation of the new model is based mainly on the

conservation of energy of slices during the flow process.

Wang et al. 1403

Published by NRC Research Press

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Mechanical energy equations

The rate of change of the kinetic energy of a material vol-

ume can be written as the sum of three parts (Aris 1962):

(1) The rate at which the body forces do work, i.e., change

in potential energy.

(2) The rate at which the surface stresses do work.

(3) The rate at which the internal stresses do work, i.e.,

change in internal energy due to deformation.

The kinetic energy equation for a unit volume mass is

given by:

½1 r

d

dt

1

2

u

i

u

i

_ _

¼ rg

i

u

i

þ

@

@x

j

ðu

i

t

ij

Þ À t

ij

e

ij

where r is the density of the fluid, t is time,

u

i

u

i

¼ u

2

1

þ u

2

2

þ u

2

3

is kinetic energy per unit volume, u

i

is

the component of the velocity vector in the x

i

direction, rg

i

is the body force per unit volume in the x

i

direction (where

g

i

is the component of the acceleration vector), t

ij

represents

components of the stress tensor, and e

ij

represents compo-

nents of the strain rate tensor.

An integral form of the mechanical energy equation can

be derived by integrating each term in eq. [1] over a mate-

rial volume or a slice of a landslide body, V. Using Gauss’

theorem, eq. [1] in the Lagrangian system becomes

½2

d

dt

_

V

1

2

ru

i

u

i

_ _

dV ¼

_

V

rg

i

u

i

dV þ

_

A

u

i

t

ij

dA

j

À

_

V

t

ij

e

ij

dV

Each term in eq. [2] is a time rate of change: the first

term is the rate of the kinetic energy of a material volume,

the second is the rate of total work done by the body force

acting on a material volume, the third represents the total

work done by the forces acting on the surface of a material

volume, and the fourth represents the rate of energy dissipa-

tion due to deformation of a material volume. The deforma-

tion work includes two parts: the work due to volume

expansion and the work due to irreversible deformation. For

an incompressible fluid, the work due to volume expansion

is zero and the deformation work represents irreversible ki-

netic energy dissipation. Thus, the term

_

V

t

ij

e

ij

dV repre-

sents a rate of loss of kinetic energy and a gain of internal

energy due to deformation of the volume.

The body force can be represented as the gradient of a

scalar potential. The rate of work done by body forces can

be taken to the left-hand side of eq. [2] and can be inter-

preted as a change in the potential energy. For an incom-

pressible fluid and debris, r is constant and the mass within

a material volume can be determined from

½3 m ¼

_

V

r dV

and eq. [2] can be rewritten as

½4

d

dt

1

2

m u

2

i

þ mgz

W

_ _

¼

_

A

u

i

t

ij

dA

j

À

_

V

t

ij

e

ij

dV

where u

i

is the average velocity component of a material vo-

lume, g is gravitational acceleration, z

W

is the elevation of

the center of gravity of the sliding mass, and A

j

is the com-

ponent of the surface area vector. The left-hand side of

eq. [4] thus represents the rate of change of mechanical en-

ergy (the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy).

Derivation of governing equations based on the

conservation of energy

The sliding mass is divided into a series of contiguous sli-

ces, as shown in Fig. 1. Forces acting on a typical slice of

width b and height h are shown in Fig. 2. In the figures, b

is the width of the slice, h is the height of the slice, N is

the normal force, subscript n is the slice number, P is the

interslice force, T is the shear force acting along the base of

the slice, u is the mean velocity of the slice along the base

of the slice, W is the weight of the slice, q is the inclination

of the base of the slice with respect to the horizontal, and

subscripts L and R denote properties on the left and right

sides, respectively, of a slice.

As indicated in Figs. 1 and 2, the derivation of governing

equations is based on the deformation in the flow direction.

Effects of side-wall deformation perpendicular to the flow

direction are not included in the formulation. With the as-

sumption that the interslice shear forces in the vertical direc-

tion are negligible, the rate of total work done by the surface

forces in eq. [4] is given by

½5

_

A

u

i

t

ij

dA

j

¼ P

L

u

L

cosq

L

À P

R

u

R

cosq

R

À T u

where q

L

and q

R

are inclinations between velocities and cor-

responding interslice forces acting on the left and right

sides, respectively, of the boundary.

The rate of change of the total potential energy of a slice

in eq. [4] can be expressed as the sum of the rate of poten-

tial energy changes due to the displacement and deformation

of the slice, as shown in Fig. 2

½6

d

dt

ðmgz

w

Þ ¼

d

dt

ðmgz

w1

Þ þ

d

dt

ðmgz

w2

Þ

½7 m ¼ rbh

where (d/dt)(mgz

w1

) represents the rate of change of poten-

tial energy due to displacement of the center of the gravity,

(d/dt)(mgz

w2

) represents the rate of change of the potential

energy due to deformation of the slice, and r is the mean

density of the sliding mass. Thus

½8

d

dt

ðmgz

W1

Þ ¼ Àmg u sinq

½9

d

dt

ðmgz

W2

Þ ¼ À

1

2

mgh e

zz

where e

zz

is the mean vertical strain rate of a slice defined in

Fig. 3.

Using eqs. [5] to [9], eq. [4] becomes

½10

d

dt

1

2

m u

2

_ _

¼ mg u sinq þ

1

2

mgh e

zz

þ P

L

u

L

cosq

L

À P

R

u

R

cosq

R

À T u À

_

V

t

ij

e

ij

dV

1404 Can. Geotech. J. Vol. 47, 2010

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Summing both sides of eq. [10] for all slices (k = 0 to n

in Fig. 4) gives the rate of change of the kinetic energy of

the overall sliding mass:

½11

d

dt

n

k¼0

1

2

m

k

u

2

k

_ _

¼

n

k¼0

m

k

g u

k

sinq

k

þ

1

2

ðh e

zz

Þ

k

_ _

À

n

k¼0

T

k

u

k

À

n

k¼0

_

V

k

t

ij

e

ij

dV

k

It is obvious that the rates of work done by interslice forces

cancel each other in the preceding derivation. Equation [11]

states that the rate of the change of kinetic energy of a sliding

mass is equal to the sum of the rate of potential energy

change, the rate of work done by resistance force along the

base of the sliding mass, and the rate of deformation work.

Numerical scheme for the analytical model

based on energy considerations

Depth-averaged governing equations can be solved using

either a Lagrangian or Eulerian scheme. Two finite difference

Fig. 3. Uniform deformation assumed in the slice-based model. e

xx

, mean horizontal strain rate.

Fig. 2. Forces on a typical slice.

Fig. 1. Representative slice in the slice-based model.

Wang et al. 1405

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methods — one Lagrangian the other Eulerian — have been

tested against flume experiments on dry granular flows

(Savage and Hutter 1989). Simulations indicated that the Eu-

lerian scheme based on the upwind flux correction method

gave poor predictions of experimental avalanches with gen-

eral initial profiles. The Lagrangian finite difference approach

(Savage and Hutter 1989, 1991) is simple, efficient, and reli-

able for the granular rapid flow problem that involves a free

surface, dry bottom, and moving boundaries. The approach is

based on a Lagrangian, moving mesh, finite difference

scheme in which the flowing material is divided into quadri-

lateral cells in two dimensions or triangular prisms in three

dimensions. Boundary locations are determined for each time

step. The depth of a cell is calculated from the cell volume

and boundary locations. Numerical simulations of the flume

experiments on dry granular flows showed very good agree-

ment between theoretical predictions and experimental data

(Savage and Hutter 1989, 1991; Wieland et al. 1999).

Numerical methods proposed by Hungr (1995), Tinti et al.

(1997), Miao et al. (2001), and Kwan and Sun (2006) for

solving the governing equations of fast-moving landslides

have many similarities. These numerical methods are based

on the Lagrangian finite difference scheme similar to that

formulated by Savage and Hutter (1989).

Following the procedures of Savage and Hutter (1989), the

Lagrangian finite difference scheme is presented here for solv-

ing the equations of the slice-based model with internal energy

dissipation. In the Lagrangian scheme, the sliding mass is dis-

cretized into a number of slices, as shown in Fig. 4. In Fig. 4,

(h

c

)

k

denotes the average height of the center of slice k and

(x

c

)

k

, (x

b

)

k

, and (x

b

)

k+1

denote the locations of the center (sub-

script c) and boundaries (subscript b) of slice k. Mass conser-

vation of slice k during the landslide motion indicates

½12

d

dt

ðV

k

Þ ¼ 0

where V

k

is the volume of slice k. The mean height of a

slice at time t can thus be determined from

½13 ðh

c

Þ

t

k

¼

V

k

ðx

b

Þ

t

kþ1

À ðx

b

Þ

t

k

Solving the governing equations of rapid landslides re-

quires determination of the positions of the boundaries of

each slice at time t. The numerical scheme assumes that all

the variables involved in the calculation at t + Dt are known

from the previous time t, where Dt is the time step interval.

In the framework of the Lagrangian finite difference

scheme, the governing eq. [10] can be written as

½14

E

tþDt

k

À E

t

k

Dt

¼

_

W

t

k

½15 E

k

¼

1

2

m

k

u

2

k

½16

_

W

k

¼ m

k

g u

k

sinq

k

þ

1

2

m

k

gh

k

ð e

zz

Þ

k

þ ðP

L

u

L

cosq

L

Þ

k

À ðP

R

u

R

cosq

R

Þ

k

À T

k

u

k

À

_

V

k

t

ij

e

ij

dV

where E

k

is the kinetic energy of slice k, and

_

W

k

is the sum

of the rate of the work done by body force, surface force,

and energy dissipation due to deformation of slice k. E

k

and

_

W

k

are determined from eqs. [15] and [16], respectively.

The constitutive law and assumptions regarding the inter-

slice forces and deformation work are required for calculat-

ing the rate of work in eq. [16]. The basal shear resistance

can be determined based on the constitutive laws for materi-

als. For Mohr–Coulomb materials, the basal resistance along

the base of the slice can be expressed as

½17 T

k

¼ tA

k

¼ ðc þ s tanf

b

ÞA

k

¼ cA

k

þ N

k

tanf

b

where T

k

and N

k

are shear resistance and normal force acting

on the base of slice k, t is shear stress, A

k

is basal area of

slice k, c is cohesion, s is normal stress, and f

b

is basal fric-

tion angle.

Equation [17] is a generalized form of the Mohr–Coulomb

equation. In dense granular flow simulations, either a

purely cohesive or a frictional model is generally used as

a constitutive law in back-analyses of liquefaction flow

slides or debris flows. It is evident that if the friction angle

is equal to 0 (f

b

= 0), eq. [17] reduces to the purely cohe-

sive model; if the cohesive strength is equal to 0 (c = 0),

eq. [17] reduces to the frictional model. Wang (2008)

back-analyzed case histories of liquefaction flow slides us-

ing the cohesive and friction models. The effects of con-

stitutive models on the dynamic analyses were discussed

by comparing model predictions with field observations in

terms of runout distance, deposit distribution, and velocity

profiles.

In granular flow simulations, lateral pressure can be ap-

proximated as a product of hydrostatic pressure and the co-

efficient of lateral pressure, if the frictional model is used as

a constitutive law. By neglecting interslice shear forces in

the vertical direction, the lateral pressure can be written as

½18 ðP

L

Þ

k

¼

ðK

L

Þ

k

gðh

b

Þ

2

k

2

½19 ðP

R

Þ

k

¼

ðK

R

Þ

k

gðh

b

Þ

2

kþ1

2

where (K

L

)

k

and (K

R

)

k

are the lateral earth pressure coeffi-

cients on the left and right sides, respectively, of slice k;

g = rg is the unit weight of the sliding mass; and (h

b

)

k

and

(h

b

)

k+1

are flow depths on the left and right sides of slice k

(Fig. 4), respectively. The lateral stress coefficient can be

active, passive or hydrostatic (coefficient of lateral stress

equal to 1) based on the local strain rate (velocity gradient)

of a slice in the longitudinal direction.

Equations proposed by Savage and Hutter (1989) have

been commonly used for calculating the coefficients of lat-

eral earth pressure in the analysis of dense granular flows.

The derivation of the Savage–Hutter equations for the lateral

stresses assumes that Coulomb failure occurs simultaneously

along the bed and within the sliding mass. Therefore, the

definition of the Savage–Hutter coefficients is often as-

sumed to be more representative than those of Rankine lat-

eral earth pressure coefficients used in classical soil

mechanics. Examination of the Savage–Hutter equations in-

dicates that the coefficient of lateral earth pressure would be

1406 Can. Geotech. J. Vol. 47, 2010

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greater than unity even as a slice is expanding, i.e., in an ac-

tive state, if the value of the basal friction angle is close to

that of the internal friction angle (Fig. 5). This is physically

inadmissible and inconsistent with the assumptions for the

model presented here. In the model developed in this paper,

the active or passive state of stress on the left side of a slice

is dependent on whether the slice is expanding or contract-

ing. It is also assumed that the contribution to the magnitude

of lateral stress from internal deformations is more signifi-

cant than that from the materials of the thin shear zone

along the bed. The values of the lateral stress coefficients

are calculated for a frictional material using the Rankine

equation

½20 ðK

L

Þ

k

¼

1 À sinf

1 þ sinf

¼ tan

2

45 À

f

2

_ _

@u

@x

_ _

k

> 0

1

@u

@x

_ _

k

¼ 0

1 þ sinf

1 À sinf

¼ tan

2

45 þ

f

2

_ _

@u

@x

_ _

k

< 0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

Fig. 5. Coefficients of lateral earth pressure based on the Savage–Hutter (Savage and Hutter 1989, 1991) definition.

Fig. 4. Notations used for the slice-based model. h, height of the slice; b, width of the slice; subscript c, center; subscript b, boundary.

Wang et al. 1407

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p

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u

s

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o

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where f is the internal friction angle.

For a purely cohesive material, the internal friction angle

is equal to 0 and the total lateral forces calculated using the

Rankine theory are

½21 ðP

L

Þ

k

¼

1

2

gðh

b

Þ

2

k

À 2cðh

b

Þ

k

@u

@x

_ _

k

> 0

1

2

gðh

b

Þ

2

k

@u

@x

_ _

k

¼ 0

1

2

gðh

b

Þ

2

k

þ 2cðh

b

Þ

k

@u

@x

_ _

k

< 0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

According to eq. [21], the calculated horizontal force is

negative when a slice is in the active state and (hb)

k

< (4c/g).

Because tensile stresses occur rarely in soils, eq. [21] is

modified as follows:

½22 ðP

L

Þ

k

¼

1

2

gðh

b

Þ

2

k

@u

@x

_ _

k

! 0

1

2

gðh

b

Þ

2

k

þ 2cðh

b

Þ

k

@u

@x

_ _

k

< 0

_

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

_

Deformation of the slice is simplified as a pure shear de-

formation, as shown in Fig. 3. The deformation work rate is

approximated by

½23

_

V

k

t

ij

e

ij

dV ¼ ð t

xx

e

xx

þ t

zz

e

zz

Þ

k

b

k

ðh

c

Þ

k

where

ð e

xx

Þ

k

¼ Àð@=@xÞðu cosqÞ

k

¼ Àðu

R

cosq

R

À u

L

cosq

L

Þ

k

=b

k

is the mean horizontal strain rate and t

xx

and t

zz

are mean

horizontal and vertical stresses, respectively. Following the

conventions of stress and strain representation usually

adopted in geotechnical engineering, negative signs have

been introduced so that compressive stresses and compres-

sive strains are positive quantities.

For an incompressible fluid

½24 e

xx

þ e

zz

¼ 0

½25 ð t

zz

Þ

k

¼

gðh

c

Þ

k

2

Fig. 6. Comparison between analytical and numerical solutions of a dam break over a horizontal plane with a 08 basal friction angle.

1408 Can. Geotech. J. Vol. 47, 2010

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For a frictional material, lateral stresses are computed from

½26 ð t

xx

Þ

k

¼ K

k

ð t

zz

Þ

k

where K

k

is calculated by averaging the coefficients of lat-

eral stress on left and right sides of the slice

½27 K

k

¼

ðK

L

Þ

k

þ ðK

R

Þ

k

2

For a purely cohesive material, the coefficient of lateral

earth pressure is equal to 1 and the average lateral stresses

inside slice k can be calculated by

½28 ð t

xx

Þ

k

¼

ð t

zz

Þ

k

@u

@x

_ _

k

! 0

ð t

zz

Þ

k

þ 2c

@u

@x

_ _

k

< 0

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

Using eqs. [18] to [28], the kinetic energy of slice k at

time t + Dt can be determined from

½29 E

tþDt

k

¼ E

t

k

þ

_

W

t

k

Dt

The center velocity of a slice at time t + Dt is

½30 ðu

c

Þ

tþDt

k

¼

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2E

tþDt

k

m

k

¸

The boundary velocity is approximated as

½31 ðu

b

Þ

tþDt

k

¼

ðu

c

Þ

tþDt

kÀ1

þ ðu

c

Þ

tþDt

k

2

Displacement of the slice boundary is

½32 ðx

b

Þ

tþDt

k

¼ ðx

b

Þ

t

k

þ

ðu

b

Þ

t

k

cosq

t

k

þ ðu

b

Þ

tþDt

k

cosq

tþDt

k

2

Dt

where ðx

b

Þ

t

k

and ðx

b

Þ

tþDt

k

are x coordinates of boundaries of

slice k at time t and t + Dt, respectively.

The height of slice k at t + Dt is computed by

½33

ðh

c

Þ

tþDt

k

¼

V

k

½ðx

b

Þ

tþDt

kþ1

À ðx

b

Þ

tþDt

k

ðh

b

Þ

tþDt

k

¼

ðh

c

Þ

tþDt

kÀ1

þ ðh

c

Þ

tþDt

k

2

½34 ðh

b

Þ

tþDt

0

¼ 0; ðh

b

Þ

tþDt

n

¼ 0

Fig. 7. Comparison between analytical and numerical solutions of a dam break over a 308 slope with a 08 basal friction angle.

Wang et al. 1409

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p

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s

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a

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where V

k

is the volume of slice k, ðh

b

Þ

tþDt

k

is the height of

the left boundary of slice k at t + Dt, and ðh

c

Þ

tþDt

k

is the cen-

tral height of slice k at t + Dt.

At time t = 0, the velocities and kinetic energy of the sli-

ces are equal to zero. The initial movement of slice k can be

determined from momentum conservation

½35 m

k

d u

k

dt

¼ m

k

g sinq

k

À T

k

þ ðP

L

À P

R

Þ

k

cosq

k

The velocities and displacements of slices during the first

time step can be calculated as long as accelerations are ob-

tained from eq. [35]. The motion of each slice can then be

determined using equations of energy conservation with the

Lagrangian difference scheme presented above. The compu-

tation proceeds until the maximum slice velocity is under

the velocity threshold specified. It is worthwhile to note

that the dynamic model based on energy consideration as-

sumes that lateral pressure and basal resistance on individual

slices are known and defined by the Rankine and Mohr–

Coulomb equations. The momentum equilibrium of the

overall sliding mass is not examined during the calculation

and assumptions about the forces do not satisfy statics. As a

consequence, the dynamic analysis using the new analytical

model cannot converge to the static case because kinematics

are not being considered in the formulation and the internal

force distribution implicit as calculated in the static case dif-

fers from that assumed in the model. The threshold velocity

plays a key role in terminating the calculation process.

Based on the classification of flow-like landslides (Hungr et

al. 2001), a value of 0.05 m/s can be used as a velocity

threshold in the analyses of case histories of flow slides and

debris flows, which are among the extremely rapid class.

Model verification and numerical

experiments

Performance of the slice-based model and numerical

scheme presented in previous sections has been tested by

comparing model predictions with analytical solutions of

one-dimensional granular flows and experimental observa-

tions of granular slumping on a horizontal plane.

Comparison between model predictions and analytical

solutions

Mangeney et al. (2000) presented an analytical solution

for a one-dimensional granular avalanche over an inclined

plane. The analytical solution describes the motion of a

flow front of the dam-break granular flow over an infinite,

uniform slope with a Coulomb-type friction acting at the

base of the flow. It should be noted that the analytical solu-

tion of Mangeney et al. (2000) can only be applied to an

idealized flow where (i) lateral earth pressure is assumed to

be hydrostatic, (ii) the basal friction angle is not greater than

the slope angle, and (iii) the flow never stops on the slope.

Fig. 8. Comparison between analytical and numerical solutions of a dam break over a 308 slope with 108 basal friction angle.

1410 Can. Geotech. J. Vol. 47, 2010

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Figures 6 to 9 present a comparison between the analyti-

cal and numerical solutions of dam break scenarios on hori-

zontal and inclined planes. Numerical analyses were carried

out using the model developed in this paper. An internal

friction angle of zero has been used to provide the hydro-

static lateral pressure distribution in all the simulations. Fig-

ure 6 shows the result of the dram break scenarios over a

horizontal plane with zero basal friction. Figures 7 to 9

present comparisons between analytical solutions and nu-

merical predictions for dam break scenarios on a 308 slope

with and without the basal frictional resistance applied. It is

observed that numerical simulations provide a good repre-

sentation of the dam break–induced granular flows over hor-

izontal and inclined planes.

Simulation of granular slumping on a horizontal plane

Granular flows induced by the collapse of initially static

columns of sand over a horizontal surface were investigated

experimentally by Lajeunesse et al. (2005). Effects of the in-

itial column geometry on the flow runout behavior and in-

ternal flow structure were explored in the experiments.

Granular materials used in the experiments were glass beads

1.15 or 3 mm in diameter. Granular materials were initially

contained within a cylindrical or rectangular tank. Axisym-

metric or two-dimensional granular flows were created by

quickly raising the cylinder or removing the gate. Experi-

mental observation demonstrated that the flow dynamics

and final deposit depends on the initial aspect ratio of the

granular column, which is defined as the ratio of the initial

height to horizontal extent of the column.

Numerical simulations of the spreading of granular col-

umns on a horizontal plane have been conducted using the

dynamic model formulated based on energy conservation.

The value of the internal and basal friction angles used in

the analysis is 258, which is the average of values reported

by Lajeunesse et al. (2005). Figure 10 presents the normal-

ized final profiles of numerical simulations and experimental

observations of the spreading of columns with the same ini-

tial aspect ratio, but witha different initial basal length.

Comparison of theoretical and experimental final profiles in

Fig. 10 indicates that the dynamic analysis provides a rea-

sonable prediction of the runout distance for flows induced

by the collapse of granular columns over a horizontal plane.

It should be noted, as shown in Fig. 11, that when the

Savage–Hutter equations for the coefficients of the lateral

stresses are used in the governing equations based on energy

conservation, the fit is not as good either in terms of runout

distance or shape.

It has been observed that granular slumping involves the

following two processes: (i) collapse and fall of the column

and (ii) spreading of the granular mass on a horizontal plane

until it comes to rest. During these processes, the initial po-

tential energy in the tall column is converted into kinetic en-

ergy and is also dissipated because of internal deformation

Fig. 9. Comparison between analytical and numerical solutions of a dam break over a 308 slope with 208 basal friction angle.

Wang et al. 1411

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and basal friction. The complexity of the collective dynam-

ics of momentum transfer and energy dissipation involved in

granular slumping highlights the difficulties in modeling this

class of problems within the framework of classical shallow

water equations. To simulate the slumping of the granular

mass, it appears that a model should be capable of account-

ing for vertical momentum transfer associated with the fall

of the column and also capturing the features of the subse-

quent horizontal spreading. It is possible to apply a depth-

averaged model to modeling sideways flow of a granular

mass. Unfortunately, the initial vertical column collapse and

momentum transfer intrinsically violate the shallow water

assumptions and cannot be accounted for by shallow water

approaches. It is evident that the theoretical predictions are

far from describing the whole process of granular slumping

and there are still many issues to be resolved. However, it

has been observed surprisingly that the simulations carried

out by using the new analytical model are able to reproduce

many features of the spreading of a granular mass. The

model based on energy considerations provides new insights

into the approaches used for investigating granular flows.

The model has been used in modeling a number of debris

flow cases (Wang 2008).

Discussion

Flow slides and debris flows generally exhibit pervasive,

fluid-like deformation. Morgenstern (1978) investigated mo-

bile flows in a wide variety of geological and geomorpho-

logical settings and concluded with the observations that

characterization of mobile soil and rock flows and the de-

sign of protective structures should proceed using principles

of fluid mechanics. The fundamental equations of flow dy-

namics are based on three universal laws of conservation:

conservation of mass, conservation of momentum, and con-

servation of energy. During the last three decades, conserva-

tion laws of mass and momentum have been widely applied

in the formulation of numerical models for granular flow

simulations (Savage and Hutter 1989; Hungr 1995; Iverson

1997; Denlinger and Iverson 2001, 2004; Iverson and Den-

linger 2001; Iverson et al. 2004). However, energy conserva-

tion has not been explicitly accounted for in the granular

flow simulations.

Morgenstern (1978) pointed out that large volumes of soil

or rock can become fluidized by virtue of energy transfer

mechanisms following instability. Iverson et al. (1997) pro-

vided an extended discussion on mobilization of debris

Fig. 10. Nondimensional final deposit of granular slumps with the same initial aspect ratio of 3.2 (simulation using Rankine coefficient of

lateral earth pressure).

1412 Can. Geotech. J. Vol. 47, 2010

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flows from landslides and noted that three processes are in-

volved in the mobilization:

(1) Widespread Coulomb failure within the sediment mass.

(2) Partial or complete soil liquefaction by high pore-fluid

pressure.

(3) Conversion of landslide translational energy to internal

vibrational energy.

These three processes operate simultaneously and synerg-

istically in many circumstances and the change of pore-fluid

pressures and conversion of energy are crucial components

in flow slide and debris flow mobilization and evolution.

Formulation of the governing equation (eq. [10]) is based

on energy considerations and idealization of complex energy

transfer mechanisms involved in mobilization, motion, and

deposition of flow slides and debris flows. Within the

framework of the universal energy conservation law, energy

dissipation due to internal deformation is integrated into

geotechnical analysis of granular flows explicitly. Based on

conservation laws of mass and energy, the analytical model

developed in this paper provides new insights into quantita-

tive analysis of granular flows in geotechnical settings.

Generally speaking, the momentum conservation and en-

ergy conservation principles provide identical results when

applied to certain flow problems. However, it has long been

realized that particle interactions, such as intergrain collision

and sliding, dissipate energy in granular flows (Jaeger and

Nagel 1992; de Gennes 1999). The internal forces in granu-

lar flows are much more complicated than the assumptions

in the existing depth-averaged continuum models. Formula-

tion of governing equations for granular flows within the

framework of energy conservation offers a simpler and

clearer explanation based on granular flow physics and lends

itself to the incorporation of other phenomena, such as those

related to particle breakdown.

Conclusions

A slice-based model is proposed to simulate debris flows,

flow slides, and other types of rapid landslides from a geo-

technical perspective. The model is formulated based on

universal conservation laws of mass and energy. Effects of

deformation work and internal energy dissipation on debris

flow dynamics are accounted for explicitly in the proposed

model.

A Lagrangian finite difference method has been presented

to solve the governing equations for the granular flow simu-

lations. The terms due to deformation work in granular

flows are incorporated into the solution to account for the

effects of internal energy dissipation. Simulations of simple

granular flows have been undertaken to examine the plausi-

bility of the model and applicability of the numerical

Fig. 11. Nondimensional final deposit of granular slumps with the same initial aspect ratio of 3.2 (simulation using Savage–Hutter coeffi-

cient of lateral earth pressure).

Wang et al. 1413

Published by NRC Research Press

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scheme. The results of granular flow simulations provide

evidence that the model based on the energy conservation

law is robust.

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Professor P. Steffler at

the University of Alberta for contributions to the formula-

tion of the analytical model and numerical solution pre-

sented in the paper. The authors also benefitted from

discussions with Professor O. Hungr at The University of

British Columbia and Professor S.M. Olson at the University

of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign.

This research has been sponsored by the Natural Sciences

and Engineering Research Council of Canada.

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