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NI SOC

Pet r ol eum Engi neer i ng
Applications of Temperature Measurements in
Production Logging
(I t d t ) (Introductory)
Z. Dastkhan
Jan 2010
Appl i cat i ons of Temper at ur e Measur ement i n Pr oduct i on Loggi ng Anal ysi s
Z Dast khan Z. Dast khan
History of Production Logging
The earliest production logs consisted of temperature logs
(1930s) and flowmeters (1940s), to which were soon added fluid-
density and capacitance logs (1950s) Flow-rate measurements density and capacitance logs (1950s). Flow-rate measurements
were gradually improved by the development of radioactive
tracer logs and improvement to the basic spinner flowmeter.
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Appl i cat i ons of Temper at ur e Measur ement i n Pr oduct i on Loggi ng Anal ysi s
Z Dast khan Z. Dast khan
Applications of Production Logging
 Dur i ng Dr i l l i ng & Compl et i on  Dur i ng Dri l l i ng & Compl et i on
 Dur i ng Subsequent Pr oduct i on or I nj ect i on

Lost-Circulation Zones
Well-Kick Source & underground Blowouts
Cement Tops
 Dur i ng Wor kover Oper at i ons
p
Cement Bond Quality/Integrity
Gravel Pack Quality
Perforation Location & Performance
Well Treatment Evaluation
Flow Profile
Interval Isolation
Reasons for Anomalous Rate Changes
Well Treatment Evaluation
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Appl i cat i ons of Temper at ur e Measur ement i n Pr oduct i on Loggi ng Anal ysi s
Z Dast khan Z. Dast khan
Production Logging Tool (PLT)
 Spinner Flowmeter Tool
 High Resolution Pressure Gauge g g
 Fluid Density Tool
 Fluid Capacitance Tool (dielectric constant measurement)
 Temperature Log
 Noise Log
 Radioactive Tracer Log
 Casing Corrosion Logs
 Th l D Ti (TDT) L S t ti M it i  Thermal Decay Time (TDT) Log - Saturation Monitoring
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Appl i cat i ons of Temper at ur e Measur ement i n Pr oduct i on Loggi ng Anal ysi s
Z Dast khan Z. Dast khan
PLT ►Temper at ur e Log
In production logging, temperature logs are the center of
our universe. They are always correct, although
sometimes hard to interpret by themselves. sometimes hard to interpret by themselves.
Temperature logs are run in wells to locate production
sources, gas and liquid entry points, locating
channels,and evaluation of mechanical integrity of well
completion. It also provides temperature information for
PVT equations and charts. q
Temperature is the only quantity that can be easily
and accurately measured in the wellbore.
Typical temperature tool ►
y
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Appl i cat i ons of Temper at ur e Measur ement i n Pr oduct i on Loggi ng Anal ysi s
Z Dast khan Z. Dast khan
Temperature Measurement
Most temperature tools work on a similar principle, utilizing the
varying electrical conductivity of a thin wire that accompanies
h i bi t t t changes in ambient temperature.
In the standard the variations in resistance of a platinum resistor
are measured using a Wheatstone bridge.
Absolute accuracy is not so good (typically ±3 °F), but its
resolution is very high (0.05 °F)
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Appl i cat i ons of Temper at ur e Measur ement i n Pr oduct i on Loggi ng Anal ysi s
Z Dast khan Z. Dast khan
Plat inum Resist ance Thermomet er
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Appl i cat i ons of Temper at ur e Measur ement i n Pr oduct i on Loggi ng Anal ysi s
Z Dast khan Z. Dast khan
Joul e-Thomson Ef f ect
The change in t emperat ure when t he gas is expanded fast g p g p
and no heat is t ransferred (adiabat ic).
T
K
|
|

|
c
=
Below inversion point when gas is expanded is posit ive
H
JT
P
K
|
.

\
c
=
K Below inversion point , when gas is expanded, is posit ive,
and gas is cooled.
JT
K
For nat ural gas (mainly met hane), t he inversion point in
typical reservoir t emperat ure is 7300 psi.
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Appl i cat i ons of Temper at ur e Measur ement i n Pr oduct i on Loggi ng Anal ysi s
Z Dast khan Z. Dast khan
Temper at ur e Pr of i l e i n Wel l p
St at i c Condi t i on St at i c Condi t i on
Fl owi ng Condi t i on Fl owi ng Condi t i on
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Appl i cat i ons of Temper at ur e Measur ement i n Pr oduct i on Loggi ng Anal ysi s
Z Dast khan Z. Dast khan
I nt er pr et at i on of Temper at ur e Logs
Liquid entry point
Higher temperature of fluid g p
coming out from formation
Liquid entry point
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Appl i cat i ons of Temper at ur e Measur ement i n Pr oduct i on Loggi ng Anal ysi s
Z Dast khan Z. Dast khan
I nt er pr et at i on of Temper at ur e Logs
Gas entry point
Gas expansion and production
Cooling effect due to
Joule-Thomson effect
Gas expansion
and entry point and entry point
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Lower permeability results in more pressure
drop, therefore more cooling occurs.
Appl i cat i ons of Temper at ur e Measur ement i n Pr oduct i on Loggi ng Anal ysi s
Z Dast khan Z. Dast khan
I nt er pr et at i on of Temper at ur e Logs
Liquid flow behind
casing casing
Heating occurs somewhere
b l t i t below entry point.
Liquid entry point q y p
Flowing point
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Appl i cat i ons of Temper at ur e Measur ement i n Pr oduct i on Loggi ng Anal ysi s
Z Dast khan Z. Dast khan
I nt er pr et at i on of Temper at ur e Logs
Gas flow and expansion
behind casing
Cooling occurs somewhere
below entry point.
Gas entry point
Expansion point
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Appl i cat i ons of Temper at ur e Measur ement i n Pr oduct i on Loggi ng Anal ysi s
Z Dast khan Z. Dast khan
Rol e of Temper at ur e Log i n
Pr oduct i on Log I nt er pr et at i on
Intensity Profile Velocity Profile Intensity Profile Velocity Profile
Temperature Log
Channel Check No Flow Shot
Cross flow Check
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Cross-flow Check
Any question? Any question?
E-mail: dastkhan.z@nisoc.ir