A Seminar report on ANALYSIS OF THE DISTRIBUTED GENERATION SYSTEM AND THE INFLUENCE ON POWER LOSS Submitted in partial fulfilment
of the requirements for the award of degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Supervised by: Mr. Anil Swarnkar Assistant Professor Department of Electrical Engineering
Submitted by: Naveen Sharma 2008UEE127 Electrical Engg.
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL ENGIMEERING MALAVIYA NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY JAIPUR
I hereby submit the seminar entitled “Analysis of the distributed generation system and the influence on power loss” in the Department of Electrical Engineering of the Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur, under the supervision of Mr. Anil Swarnkar, Assistant Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, Malaviya National Institute of Technology, Jaipur.
Naveen Sharma (2008UEE127) The seminar report is hereby approved for submission.
Date: February 22, 2012
(Anil Swarnkar) Assistant Professor Department of Electrical Engineering
I take this opportunity to express my deep sense of gratitude and indebtedness with profound respect to my mentor Mr. Anil Swarnkar, Assistant Professor for his generosity, expertise and guidance while working on this Seminar and throughout my studies.
I would like to thank Prof. K. R. Niazi, Head of Department, Electrical Engineering, MNIT, Mr. Ashok Kumar Agrawal, Associate Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, MNIT Jaipur and Mr. V. K. Jain, Associate Professor, Department of Electrical Engineering, MNIT Jaipur for giving me opportunity to do this work.
Naveen Sharma 2008UEE127 Electrical Engineering
The distributed resource energy has been widely used to cope with the higher demand for power quality. The association of different Distributed Generation System (DGS) could cause as many problems as it may solve. The generation and loads could be considered as a microgrid and separate from the distribution system to isolate the micro-grid’s load from the disturbance without harming the distributed network’s integrity. This paper discusses the operation principle of the distributed generation system and the influence it introduced into the distributed network. The location and penetration of the distributed generation system would influence the power loss of the grid. Simulation and analysis has been done to verify the results. The methods are proposed to properly design the location and penetration of distributed generation system and improve the power quality. The purpose of this paper is to quantify this benefit for the simple case of a radial distribution feeder with concentrated load and distributed generator. With the introduction of DG, line loss reduction can be expected. The analysis is conducted for varying locations of the distributed generator along the feeder and for varying output capacities. The results are presented in graphical form in terms of clearly-defined normalized parameters.
List of Figures
Figure No. Figure 1
Title A simple radial distribution system without DG
Page No. 14 15 22 24
Schematic Figure 2 of A radial system with the inclusion of DG Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Variation of line loss reduction with DG power output Variation of line loss reduction with different DG location
Variation of line loss reduction with different DG operating 27 power factor
Student Declaration Acknowledgement Abstract List of Figures Nomenclature Chapter 1: Introduction
2.1 Sensitivity of the System 2.2 Power Quality 2.3 Voltage Fluctuation 2.4 Reliability 2.5 Losses and Voltage Profile
2 3 4 5 7 8-10
12 12 13 13 13
Chapter 2: Impacts of DG Chapter 4: System Modelling Chapter 4: Line Loss Reduction Analysis
5.1 Line Loss Analysis for System without DG 5.2 Line Loss Analysis with DG 5.3 Total Line Loss 5.4 Line loss reduction 5.5 Per Unit Line Loss Reduction
16 16 17 18 18
Chapter 5: Minimising the Losses
5.1 Power Factor 5.2 Location of DG
Chapter 6: Conclusion References
IDG IL IS L PLoss0 PLoss1 PLoss2 PLoss-wdg PDG PL PFDG PFL QDG QL r R Y
DG output current per phase Load current per phase Source current per phase Total length of distribution line Total line loss before the inclusion of DG Line loss from DG location to the location of load after the inclusion of DG Line loss from source to the DG location after the inclusion of DG Total line loss after the inclusion of DG Real power of DG Real power of Load Operating power factor of DG Power factor of Load Reactive power of DG Reactive power of Load Line resistance per phase per unit length Total resistance per phase Fraction of real load power supplied by DG
A/Ф A/Ф A/Ф Km W W W W W W
VAr VAr Ω/km.Φ Ω/Φ
With the development of economy and technology, the centralized generation facilities are giving way to smaller, more distributed generation partially due to the loss of traditional economies of scale. The distributed generation system has the following obvious advantages: 1) Using the clean energy properly such as the solar energy, wind energy and biology fuel to reduce the emission of wasted gas during electricity generation; 2) In the distribution network, when the physical capacity of the generation system is insufficient as the increase of the loads, building the distributed generation system could satisfy the partial increase of loads and reduce the investment of electricity generation facilities; Meanwhile, it could make up the insufficiency of the peak of electricity consumption; 3) It could improve the partial reliability of power supply in the distributed network; 4) It could improve the efficiency of energy use and reduce the loss in transmission grid, such as using the technology of thermoelectricity cogeneration to enhance the utilization ratio of the primary energy. Some of the major factors behind increasing penetration of DG are listed below: a. Retail competition brought upon by utility structuring b. With expanded choice, customers are demanding customized power supplies to suit their needs. c. Need to defer large capital investments in building new central-station power plants and transmission lines. d. Advent of several technologies with reduced environmental impacts and high conversion efficiencies e. Advent of efficient and cost-effective power electronic interfaces to improve reliability and power quality f. Ability to effectively control a number of components and subsystems using state-of-the-art computers to manage loads, demands, power flows, and customer requirements.
Several DG technologies are under various stages of development. They include micro turbines, photovoltaic systems (PV), wind energy conversion systems (WECS), gas turbines, gas-fired IC engines, diesel engines, and fuel cell systems [5-7]. At present, wind energy has become the most competitive among all renewable energy technologies . The environmental benefits of using renewable energy are well perceived. Wind application also offsets fuel costs that can be relatively high in some generating plants. It is evident that limitations in the energy available in wind and its intermittent behaviour degrade system reliability. A comprehensive evaluation of cost and reliability is required to analyze the actual benefits of utilizing wind energy. The reliability aspects of utilizing wind energy have largely been ignored in the past due the relatively insignificant contribution of these sources in major power systems, and consequently due to the lack of appropriate techniques. Increasing application of wind energy can create significant impacts on system cost and reliability. proper allocation of DG units into existing distribution system plays a crucial role for the improvement of the system performance; therefore for DG planning, optimal allocation of DG is one of the most important aspects. Integration of DG into an existing utility can result in several benefits. These benefits include: a) Line loss reduction. b) Reduced environmental impacts. c) Peak shaving d) Increased overall energy efficiency e) Relieved transmission and distribution congestion. f) Voltage support and deferred investments to upgrade existing generation, transmission, and distribution systems.
This paper focuses on line loss reduction analysis. In this study, one-concentrated load is assumed at the end of the line. With the introduction of DG, line loss reduction can be expected. After the introduction of distributed generation there will be a reduction in looses in the line and how it is going to happen will be shown here in this report. This factor is analyzed, quantified and presented here for different locations of the DG along the feeder and for different DG power outputs.
On a very long line when there are many buses coming out from it, what matter is where we are introducing the distributed generation? At which bus number i.e. which is the location, at what power factor? Most preferable location can be found out by using any of the algorithms, which calculates loss at every location and then finally tells where the loss is minimum.
CHAPTER-2 IMPACT OF DISTRIBUTED GENERATION
Distribution systems are designed on the assumption that electric power ﬂows from the power system to the load. Therefore, if output ﬂuctuations or a reverse ﬂow from generators occurs on the grid because of DG, there is likely to be some inﬂuence on the overall system in terms of power quality or protection and safety. The potential impacts of DG are:
2.1 Sensitivity of the system
Depending on the location of the fault, the sensitivity of the relay system is liable to deteriorate. Fault current decreases on the feeder at the substation by supplying fault current from DG. For this reason, the relay system either may not be able to detect the fault or may be slow to detect it.
2.2 Power quality
The voltage of substation distribution lines is controlled by a programmed timer or line drop compensator (LDC). Generally, a single distribution transformer has several feeder lines, and the voltage for these lines is adjusted in a block. Additionally, an SVR compensates the voltage mid-way along the line in heavy power flow or long transmission lines. The load of each feeder should be balanced proportionally to utilize these voltage control systems. If there are many DG connections concentrated on a speciﬁc line, the gap in the power ﬂow among feeder lines widens because of the back-ﬂow from the DG. This difference might cause the voltage proﬁle of feeder lines to deviate from the proper range.
2.3 Voltage Fluctuation
The voltage of the local line system is likely to ﬂuctuate if the output of DG changes over a short time and this ﬂuctuations would cause over- or under-voltage at the customer’s receiving point. There is particular concern when generating systems that depend on natural conditions, such as wind power or solar photovoltaic generators, are interconnected to the local system.
2.4 System Reliability
DG units can have a positive impact on distribution system reliability if they are correctly coordinated with the rest of the network. A common example of DG use is as generation backup, in which the unit operates in the case of main supply interruption.
A DG application that is gaining popularity is the injection of power into the network when the DG capacity is higher than its local loads. A typical example is a co-generation plant, where the DG owner is charged only for the difference between the energy drained from the distribution utility and the amount injected into the network. When the DG is operating in parallel with the system, new considerations are introduced in the network operation and planning procedures. A simple alternative to model DG is as constant active and reactive power injections independent of the system voltage at the unit terminal bus. The DG model of negative load can have a positive impact in system reliability if the reliability evaluation model considers capacity constraints during system restoration after a fault.
Another alternative is to model DG units as controlled voltage sources in which the terminal voltage is maintained at a constant value by reactive power injection. Under this circumstance, it should be avoided to treat all DG sources as available for dispatch by the utility whenever necessary, since the DG units are not necessarily property of the distribution utility. This problem can be solved by modeling the maximum amount of active power dispatch-able by the unit and the periods when it will be available.
2.5 Losses and voltage proﬁle
Distribution systems are usually voltage regulated through tap changing at substation transformers and by the use of voltage regulators and capacitors on the feeders. This form of voltage regulation assumes power ﬂow circulating from the substation to the loads. DG introduces reversed power ﬂows that may interfere with the traditionally used regulation practices. For this reason, the inappropriate DG allocation can cause low or over-voltages in the network. On the other hand, the installation of DG can have positive impacts in distribution system by enabling reactive compensation, the voltage control, reduction of losses, besides contributing to frequency regulation and providing spinning reserve in main system fault cases. 12
A precise way of analyzing the voltage regulation of a system with embedded DG is through simulation using power ﬂow algorithms capable of analyzing multiple sources of DG together with the operation of voltage regulators. In this analysis, it is important to recognize that the power injected by the DG unit can result in voltages within the allowed limits at the DG installation site, but it could, also, result in undesired values at other parts of the feeder. DG also provides positive impact in electric losses due to its proximity to load centers. DG units should be allocated in places where they provide a higher reduction of losses. This process of DG allocation is similar to capacitor allocation to minimize losses . The main difference is that the DG units cause impact on both the active and reactive power, while the capacitor banks only have impact in the reactive power ﬂow. Unfortunately, the electric energy utility does not have absolute control of the installation places, since DG is usually of consumers’ or independent producers’ property. In spite of that, it is of great interest for the utility to use a methodology for optimal DG allocation in order to have an indication of the effects caused in the system by the location suggested by the independent producers.
CHAPTER-3 SYSTEM MODELING
Here we will take a system to analyse the results after introducing DG in it and therefore two simple radial systems are considered: a) System without DG b) System with the inclusion of DG.
Losses will be calculated in both cases to see whether there is a difference between two case and if yes then how much and after that we’ll see on what factors this losses are going to depend.
Both systems have a concentrated load at the line end. The total length of the line is assumed to be L km. Schematics of the two cases are shown in Figures 1 and 2.
Fig.1. A simple radial distribution system without DG
For the system with distributed generation, DG is assumed to be G Km from the source and therefore (L-G) Km from load so as to simplify our calculations.
Fig.2. The simplified model of the distributed system
The following assumptions are made in the study: a) Load is Y-connected; line current is the same as phase current; IL = IP. b) Load absorbs real power at some specified power factor. c) DG produces real power at a lagging or leading or unity power factor. d) VP is the RMS load phase voltage. VP is the reference phasor, VP ∠0°.
The load complex power is SL = PL+ jQL, therefore, the current absorbed by load is:
CHAPTER 4 ANALYSIS OF LOSS REDUCTION DUE TO PENETRATION OF DG
Electrical line loss occurs when current flows through transmission and distribution systems. The magnitude of the loss depends on amount current flow and the line resistance. Therefore, line loss can be decreased by reducing either line current or resistance or both. If DG is used to provide energy locally to the load, line loss can be reduced because of the decrease in current flow in some part of the network.
Loss Analysis for System without DG
Schematic of the system for this analysis is shown in Figure1. Line loss on a distribution feeder is equal to the product of line current squared times the line resistance.
Therefore, line loss equation for a three phase system is defined as:
This is loss in the line when there is no distributed generation in the line.
4.2 Loss Analysis with DG
Assuming that the line is short, voltage drop along the line is neglected. Schematic of this system is shown in Figure 2. The complex power supplied by the DG equals to SDG = PDG + JQDG. Thus, DG output current :
The power loss of the grid is divided into two parts: (I) the power loss PLoss1 from the source to the distributed source, (II) the power loss PLoss2 from the distributed source to the load.
Power Loss from Source to DG Location
From Figure 2, it can be seen that
Is = Id- IDG =
Therefore, the expression for PLoss1 can be given as:
Power Loss from DG Location to Load.
the power loss in this section can be expressed as:
4.3 Total Loss:
It will be sum of the two losses i.e. losses in the line from source to DG location and losses in the line from DG location to load location and therefore total line loss can be expressed as:
PLoss-wdg =PLoss1+PLoss2 =
( ) ( )
4.4 Loss Reduction
We have calculated both losses i.e. loss without application of DG and losses after application of DG. Now we will compare in between the two and final expression of the reduced losses in the line will be.
LR= PLoss0 –PLoss-wdg =
The positive sign of LR indicates that the system loss reduces with the integration of DG. In contrast, the negative sign of LR implies that DG causes the higher system loss.
Per-unit Loss Reduction
Per-unit loss reduction (PULR) is defined as the ratio of loss reduction to the line loss without DG. PULR presents the benefit of DG in normalized form. PULR = LR/ LossB
Consequently, the percentage of line loss reduction is simply defined as: % LR = PULR*100
CHAPTER- 5 MINIMISING THE LOSSES
Factors which can be controlled so as to minimise the losses further by using a particular value of each to form a combination which will eventually lead to loss minimisation among all combination. Factors to be discussed here are: a) Power Factor (lagging, leading or unity). b) Load demand. c) Location of DG in the line.
5.1 Power Factor The Possibility of Lagging and Leading Power Factor Loads
Loads can have lagging or leading or unity power factor. With lagging power factor, load absorbs reactive power from the system which implies Q is positive. With leading power factor, load delivers reactive power to the system which means Q is negative.
From the basic concept of the power triangle, the equation for the load reactive power can be expressed in terms of power factor and real power as:
The Possibility of Lagging and Leading Power Factor Operation of DG
DG can be operated in three modes: lagging or leading or unity power factor. Under lagging power factor operation, DG produces reactive power for the system. Thus, Q is positive. Also Q is negative for leading power factor operation because DG absorbs reactive power from network. The reactive power equation for DG is expressed as:
Y=PDG/P The Four Possible Cases Arising Out of the Different Power Factors of Load and DG
There are four possible combinations of power factors of load and DG. Case 1, DG operates at a lagging power factor while load has leading power factor. Case 2, DG operates at a lagging power factor and load is also lagging. Case 3, DG operates at a leading power factor and load is leading as well. Case 4, DG operates at a leading power factor while load has lagging power factor. However, cases 1 and 4 yielded the same result for PULR and so did cases 2 and 3. Therefore, by substituting (10) and (11) into (9), PULR for the four possible cases can be expressed in terms of two different equations.
Here are the equations for four different cases of power factor :
PULR equation for cases 1 and 4:
PULR equation for cases 2 and 3
In case of case 2 and case 3, the only difference between the values of per unit line loss reduction is that of sign of 3rd term in the bracket. One is positive and other is negative.
5.1.2 Results Of Loss Reduction Analysis
The influences of varying DG location and varying DG power output are considered in this section. In order to evaluate the effect of DG power outputs to the system loss, both of load and DG power factors are set at 0.85 lagging and the DG is assumed to install at the middle of feeder. The DG power outputs are varied over seven values: 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0, 1.2, and 1.4 pu while the amount of load is kept constant at 2.0 pu. PULR values calculated using (13) are plotted against DG power outputs, as expressed in Figure 3.
Fig.3. Variation of line loss reduction with DG power output .
From the figure, it is clearly seen that DG can reduce the line loss in the system. This is due to the fact that DG supplies a portion of real and reactive power to the load. Thus, the feeder current reduces from the source to DG location, resulting in lower electrical line loss. However, higher DG ratings cannot always guarantee lower line loss. The figure shows that as DG rating increases higher than 2.0 pu, the rate of line loss reduction actually declines. This indicates that DG may cause a higher line loss in the distribution system if the rating and location of DG are not well justified. Hence, this fact should be taken into account before determining the rating and location of DG. The suitable rating of DG mainly depends on the amount and location of load in the feeder. Generally, the higher amount of load, the penetration of DG can be higher without causing higher electrical line loss in the system.
Location Of DG
The location of DG also plays a vital role for electrical line loss. To study this affect, the locations of DG are varied along the feeder: 20 (location 1), 40 (location 2), 60 (location 3), 80 (location 4), and 100% (location 5) from the source while load and DG power factors are kept at 0.85 lagging. PULR are calculated once again by (13) and the results are shown in Figure 4.
Figure 4 clearly indicate that both of rating and location of DG are highly sensitive to the line loss in the system. The results show that the line loss reduces as DG is installed closer and closer to the load. However, this fact only applies for the case that DG rating is well matched with the amount of load. If the ratio of DG power output to the amount of load increases beyond the suitable point, the DG that installed near the load will cause more electrical line loss than the one that installed far away from the load. This is because load cannot consume all the power supplied by DG. Thus, the remaining power from DG is fed back to the source via the distribution line, resulting in higher line loss. However, it should be noted that the location of load in this study is placed at the line end.
Since DG can be operated in either lagging or leading power factor mode, its operating power factor also has an impact on feeder line loss. To evaluate the influence of DG operating power factor, DG power factor is set to operate at 0.8 lagging and 0.9 leading. It can be seen from Figure 5 that line loss reduction exhibits the higher value under lagging power factor condition than leading power factor condition. This is because DG support the reactive power required by load. Thus, the line current decreases, resulting in lower line loss under lagging power factor condition.
The use of distributed generation system would make the association of many kinds of distributed system possible and easy to control. However, the problems it connected into the grid would be as much as it solve, such as the voltage distribution. This paper has considered the benefit of DG on loss reduction for a simple case of a radial distribution line with one concentrated load at the end and one DG. The results clearly indicate that DG can reduce the electrical line loss. However, the inclusion of DG does not always guarantee the line loss. If the location and injecting capacity are not properly designed, the power loss of the system would increase and harm the stability of the system. Various optimisation techniques can be used to simulate the various locations and injecting capacity of the distributed system and verify the proper location and capacity ratio of the distribution system. This method would improve the power quality and enhance the stability of the system. The benefits obtained by the introduction of DG should be weighed against the costs involved before deciding on the use of DG. As DG technologies improve and cost decrease, their use is expected to rise.
Fig.5- Variation of line loss reduction with different DG operating power factor.
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