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Berthon Silitonga 09121500004 CLT IN INDONESIA CURRICULUM Everybody has learned mother tongue since childhood.

The process occurs naturally and properly in communicating in the society. Communication is a part of human’s daily activities. Through communication, people share ideas and thought with others. In that way, active interaction among people can take place. In line with the more sophisticated world, people are demanded to be able to communicate not only in mother tongue but also in foreign language, especially English. Obviously English is difficult due to limited knowledge in foreign language. It is important for the students to learn English. But there are a lot of difficulties that make the English teaching is not easy to be applied. In Indonesia, where English is a foreign language, English teaching uses method that exist. However, the application is difficult due to the role of English in Indonesia. The context of English language teaching in Indonesia is inescapable from its role, considered more as a foreign language rather than a second language. In a setting where English is a foreign language, students usually learn with low intrinsic motivation; English may be deemed irrelevant with students’ needs because the language is not part of their everyday life. One of the methods that most of schools in Indonesia use is communicative approach. Communicative Approach assumes that students are able to acquire written or oral language when they are motivated and are not nervous. Communicative language teaching (CLT) is an innovation in English language teaching (ELT). CLT emerged as a new teaching approach in Britain in the 1970s. Proponents of CLT regarded CLT as an innovation with many specific characteristics. CLT views language as a tool for communication. It insists that interactional speaking activities in classrooms will be illustrations of real communication. It ensures that students have sufficient exposure to the target language.

“It is a fact that most Indonesian teachers are still using teacher-centered approaches in their classrooms” (Naya, 2009). This idea is supported through the teachers’ experiences. Most of them do this kind of activity for some reasons such as: the big number of students in most of schools in Indonesia, less of creativity and

Berthon Silitonga 09121500004 knowledge on how to design the teaching learning process that centered on the learners/students, and the limited time. The teacher doesn’t make their students construct their own knowledge themselves. Whereas, the goal of CLT is making all the students be able to speak each other. But in Indonesia, lecturing is more mainly used. The teacher speaks more than the needed in CLT. While the characteristic of CLT (Communicative Language Teaching in Indonesian context) are as follows: 1. 2. 3. 4. The communicative syllabus should be applied. In Indonesia, it has been applied since 1984 until 1994; CLT in the Indonesian context is relevant to PKG approach (1985), meaning- based approach; It is not totally different from CLT in the Western context since the goal of the teaching and learning is communicative competence; When applying CLT in the Indonesian context teachers should integrate the four language skills even though reading is thought prior to other skills; 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Vocabulary and grammar should be taken into consideration; Group work and pair work activities are recommended to be implemented; Teachers play the roles as facilitators, motivators, managers of the class; Assessment is implemented in the process and at the end of semester; Theme-based is implemented; local content should be taken in to consideration. (Kimtafsirah, 2006) English in communicative language teaching emphasizes on the communicative competence of learners. Learners are mostly forced to communicate what they really want to do through giving their ideas, thoughts, and feelings. They should been taught how and when these communicative tasks and acts are performed in order they are able to communicate whatever the subjects are. It is because that learning English by using CLT encourage everyone goes beyond the structures and take another account of

Berthon Silitonga 09121500004 aspects of communication. Now, the English learners concerns with how to use English, not English usages. Littlewood (1981) said that CLT is as a great approach but the teacher stills needs to teach grammar and vocabulary and allow students to practice in a controlled context before engaging in a CLT activity. CLT is great for producing the target language in an authentic and meaningful manner but the teacher should combine it with other methods and approaches to be more complete in his/her teaching. For example the teacher needs to consider how to teach grammar and introduce new vocabulary. The idea is for the teacher to focus on the students and what will allow the students to better learn and practice the target language. It must also be emphasized again that the focus of CLT is on communication and conveying meaning. Language form or accuracy can and should be taught also but they are not emphasized in CLT activities. The teacher can create plenty of plenty of opportunities for the students to focus on those points. However, the objective in communication is to exchange information and ideas.


Berthon Silitonga 09121500004 Competence-Based Curriculum. (2004) Competence Standard of English Lessons for Junior High Schools. The Indonesian Department of National Education.. Kimtafsirah. 2006. Communicative Approach in Indonesia (PKG Approach) Larsen-Freeman, Diane. 2000. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. 2nded. New York, NY: Oxford University Press Littlewood, W. (1981). Communicative language teaching. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press. Naya, K (2009). THE EFFECT OF COMMUNICATIVE LANGUAGE TEACHING (CLT) METHOD ON ENGLISH COMPREHENSION FOR STUDENTS AT THE FIFTH GRADE. Bandung. Adventist University of Indonesia.