TILMAN ARETZ’S BLOG [http://taretz.blogspot.

com]———The space program of the PRC

The space program of the PRC
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 1 Different projects in the PRC space program ........................................................................... 2 Carrier rockets.............................................................................................................................................................................. 2 Spacecrafts: Shenzhou ................................................................................................................................................................ 2 Space station: Tiangong ............................................................................................................................................................. 3 Lunar probes: Chang’e ............................................................................................................................................................... 3 Mars probes: Yinghuo ................................................................................................................................................................ 3 Weather satellites: Fengyun........................................................................................................................................................ 3 Positioning satellites: Beidou ..................................................................................................................................................... 4 Relay satellites: Tianlian .............................................................................................................................................................. 4 Telecommunications satellites ................................................................................................................................................... 4 Dongfang Hong .................................................................................................................................................................... 4 Xinnuo .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Yatai and Zhongxing ............................................................................................................................................................ 5 Earth observation satellites ....................................................................................................................................................... 5 Gaofen .................................................................................................................................................................................... 5 Haiyang and Huanjing ......................................................................................................................................................... 6 Yaogan .................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Ziyuan ..................................................................................................................................................................................... 6 Scientific probes and technological laboratories .................................................................................................................... 7 Shijian and Tance .................................................................................................................................................................. 7 Chuangxin and Shiyan ......................................................................................................................................................... 7 Others ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 7 Tianhui .................................................................................................................................................................................... 7 Tiantuo ................................................................................................................................................................................... 8 Foreign/commercial satellites successfully launched into space from the PRC ........................................................ 8 Satellite launch centers in the PRC .......................................................................................... 8 Chronological list of successful launches from JSLC, TSLC, and XSLC ......................................................................... 9 PRC astronauts ...................................................................................................................... 10 Ethnic Chinese astronauts on non-PRC missions............................................................................................................... 10 Timeline/chronology of major events ..................................................................................... 10

Introduction
In its ambition to become a global superpower, the People’s Republic of Chi na (Zhonghua renmin gongheguo 中華人民 共和國, abbrev. PRC) has been developing an increasingly sophisticated space program, including manned missions. The origins of these activities can be traced back to the 1950s when the PRC strived for building up a nuclear arsenal and constructing ballistic missiles to deliver their deadly payload. Today, the different types of “Long March” carrier rockets (yunzai huojian 運載火箭) have proved sufficiently reliable in launching satellites and spacecrafts. The variety of spacecrafts and satellites deployed by the PRC is equally impressive. Besides their spacecrafts (zairen hangtai 載人航太) and space station (kongjianzhan 空間站) there are weather satellites (qixiang weixing 氣象衛星), positioning satellites (dingwei weixing 定位衛星), relay satellites (zhongduan weixing 中繼衛星), telecommunications satellites (tongxun guangbo weixing 通信廣播衛星), Earth observation satellites (duidi guance weixing 對地觀測衛星), scientific probes and technological laboratories (kexue tance yu jishu shiyan weixing 科學探測與技術試驗衛星), even lunar probes (yueqiu tance 月球探測) and Mars probes (huoxing tance 火星探測) have been launched. This file provides a glance at the development of the PRC’s space program and briefly explains its different projects.

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TILMAN ARETZ’S BLOG [http://taretz.blogspot.com]———The space program of the PRC Under the PRC State Council (guowuyuan 國務院) the following agencies were in charge of the developing space program: 1982–1988 Ministry of Space Industry (hangtian gongyebu 航天工業部), 1988–1993 Ministry of Aviation and Space Industries (hangkong hangtai gongyebu 航空航太工業部), and since 1993 the China National Space Administration (guojia hangtianju 國家航天局, abbrev. CNSA) under the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology (gongye han xinxihuabu 工業和信息化部, abbrev. gongxinbu 工信部 in Chinese and MIIT in English). Another important institution is the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (Zhongguo kongjian jishu yanjiuyuan 中國空間技術 研究院, abbrev. CAST).

Different projects in the PRC space program
★ CARRIER ROCKETS
Name in English ................ Name in Chinese ................................................... Code Fengbao-1 ...................................fengbao yihao 風暴一號 ...................................................... FB-1 Long March I .............................changzheng yihao 長征一號 ................................................ CZ-1 / CZ-I Long March II ...........................changzheng erhao 長征二號 ................................................ CZ-2 / CZ-II Long March III .........................changzheng sanhao 長征三號 .............................................. CZ-3 / CZ-III Long March IV ..........................changzheng sihao 長征四號 ................................................. CZ-4 / CZ-IV Long March 2C .........................changzheng erhao bing 長征二號丙 .................................... CZ-2C Long March 2D .........................changzheng erhao ding 長征二號丁 .................................... CZ-2D Long March 2E .........................changzheng erhao kunbangshi 長征二號捆綁式 ............... CZ-2E Long March 2F ..........................changzheng erhao ji 長征二號己 ........................................ CZ-2F Long March 3A .........................changzheng sanhao jia 長征三號甲 .................................... CZ-3A Long March 3B .........................changzheng sanhao yi 長征三號乙 ..................................... CZ-3B Long March 3C .........................changzheng sanhao bing 長征三號丙.................................. CZ-3C Long March 4B .........................changzheng sihaoyi 長征四號乙 ......................................... CZ-4B Long March 4C .........................changzheng sihaobing 長征四號丙...................................... CZ-4C

★ SPACECRAFTS: SHENZHOU
“Shenzhou” (神舟), meaning “divine craft” in English, stands for a series of unmanned and manned spacecrafts. All of them were launched from Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center (JSLC) in Gansu Province on Long March 2F (CZ-2F) carrier rockets. The landing area for the spacecrafts’ return to earth is Siziwang 四子王 in Inner Mongolia. Mission Shenzhou-1 [神舟一號] Shenzhou-2 [神舟二號] Shenzhou-3 [神舟三號] Shenzhou-4 [神舟四號] Shenzhou-5 [神舟五號] Shenzhou-6 [神舟六號] Shenzhou-7 [神舟七號] Shenzhou-8 [神舟八號] Shenzhou-9 [神舟九號] Shenzhou-10 [神舟十號] Crew — — — — 1 2 3 — 3 3 Launch date 1999, Nov. 20 2001, Jan. 10 2002, March 25 2002, Dec. 29 2003, Oct. 15 2005, Oct. 12 2008, Sept. 25 2011, Nov. 1 2012, June 16 2013, June 11 Signed off 1999, Nov. 21 2001, Jan. 16 2002, April 1 2003, Jan. 5 2003, Oct. 16 2005, Oct. 16 2008, Sept. 28 2011, Nov. 17 2012, June 29 2013, June 26 Duration 21 hours 11 minutes 7 days 10 hours 22 minutes 6 days 18 hours 51 minutes 6 days 18 hours 36 minutes 21 hours 22 minutes 4 days 19 hours 32 minutes 2 days 20 hours 28 minutes 6 days 13 hours 34 minutes 12 days, 15 hours, 28 minutes 14 days, 14 hours, 29 minutes Orbits 14 117 107 108 14 76 45 262 N/A N/A

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TILMAN ARETZ’S BLOG [http://taretz.blogspot.com]———The space program of the PRC

★ SPACE STATION: TIANGONG
“Tiangong” (天宮), meaning “heavenly palace” in English, was used as name for the PRC’s first orbital space laboratory: Tiangong-1 (tiangong yihao 天宮一號). It was launched on Sept. 29, 2011 from JSLC on a Long March 2F carrier rocket. Two successful docking maneuvers were conducted in 2011 by remote-control with unmanned Shenzhou-8 on Nov. 3 and Nov. 14; two successful docking maneuvers took place in 2012 with manned Shenzhou-9—on June 18 (automated) and on June 24 (manual docking). The distance between Earth and Tiangong-1 is 343 km.

★ LUNAR PROBES: CHANG’E
“Chang’e” (嫦娥) is the name of the goddess of the Moon in Chinese mythology and stands for a project with lunar probes launched from Xichang Satellite Launch Center (XSLC) in Sichuan Province. “Chang’e I Lunar Satellite” (chang’e yihao yueqiu tance weixing 嫦娥一號月球探測衛星) was launched from on Oct. 24, 2007 on a Long March 3A carrier rocket and entered the moon’s orbit on Nov. 5. At the end of a 16-month moon-mapping mission it crashed into the moon in a controlled collision on March 1, 2009. Chang’e II (chang’e erhao 嫦娥二號) was launched on Oct. 1, 2010 on a Long March 3C carrier rocket and stayed on a lunar orbit from Oct. 6, 2010 to June 8, 2011. On Dec. 13, 2012 it flew by asteroid 4179 Toutatis and has become since a deep-space exploration mission. Chang’e III (chang’e sanhao 嫦娥三號) was launched on Dec. 2, 2013 on a Long March 3B carrier rocket for first lunar rover mission named “Jade Rabbit” (yutu 玉兔).

★ MARS PROBES: YINGHUO
Yinghuo 1 (yinghuo yihao 螢火一號) was an unsuccessful bid by the PRC to send a probe to Mars; “yinghuo” (螢火) means “fairy light” in English. It was launched on Nov. 9, 2011 by a Zenit-2 booster rocket from Russian-leased Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan together with Russia’s unmanned Phobos-Grunt probe. The vehicle veered off course after reaching earth orbit, attempts to fire its engines for the journey to Mars failed in the following days, and eventually it was declared lost on Nov. 17, 2011 by the CNSA. The probe was destroyed on Jan. 15, 2012 during its fiery re-entry in the Earth’s atmosphere and disintegrated over the Pacific Ocean.

★ WEATHER SATELLITES: FENGYUN
“Fengyun” (風雲), meaning “wind and clouds” in English, stands for a series of weather satellites. Four satellites of the Fengyun-1 series, all launched from Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center (TSLC) in Shanxi Province, their names in Chinese being FY-1A = 風雲一號A, FY-1B = 風雲一號B, FY-1C = 風雲一號C, and FY-1D = 風雲一號D. Mission FY-1A FY-1B Launch date CZ- Remarks 1988, Sept. 7 IV failed after 39 days 1990, Sept. 3 IV failed after 165 days Mission FY-1C FY-1D Launch date CZ- Remarks 1999, May 10 4B operational 7+ years 2002, May 15 4B operational 10 years

Satellites from the Fengyun-2 series, all launched from XSLC. Please note that FY-2-01 was not launched because an accidental explosion on April 2, 1994 destroyed the satellite while it was being tested at XSLC, one worker was tragically killed in the inferno. Fengyun-2 mission FY-2-01 [風雲二號 01 星] FY-2-02 [風雲二號 02 星]/FY-2A FY-2-03 [風雲二號 03 星]/FY-2B FY-2-04 [風雲二號 04 星]/FY-2C Launch date — 1997, June 17 2000, June 25 2004, Oct. 19 CZ— III III 3A Fengyun-2 mission FY-2-05 [風雲二號 05 星]/FY-2D FY-2-06 [風雲二號 06 星]/FY-2E FY-2-07 [風雲二號 07 星]/FY-2F Launch date 2006, Dec. 8 2008, Dec. 23 2012, Jan. 13 CZ3A 3A 3A

A weather satellite named Fengyun-3 (fengyun sanhao 風雲三號) was launched on May 7, 2008 from TSLC on a Long March 4C carrier rocket.

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TILMAN ARETZ’S BLOG [http://taretz.blogspot.com]———The space program of the PRC

★ POSITIONING SATELLITES: BEIDOU
“Beidou” (北斗), referring to the Chinese word of the Big Dipper asterism (beidou qixing 北斗七星), stands for Beidou Navigation System (beidou daohang xitong 北斗導航系統), an alternative to the GPS network, aka Compass Navigation Satellite System (beidou weixing daohang xitong 北斗衛星導航系統, abbrev. CNSS). Beidou-1 was a regional positioning system covering the Greater China area for which four satellites were launched from XSLC on CZ-3A carrier rockets—Beidou-1A on Oct. 31, 2000; Beidou-1B on Dec. 21, 2000; Beidou-1C on May 25, 2003; and Beidou-1D on Feb. 3, 2007. The fourth satellite veered off its course and failed. Beidou-2 is a system with global coverage. So far, 16 satellites were launched from XSLC (on two occasions two on the same rocket): No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Satellite Compass-M1 Compass-G2 Compass-G1 Compass-G3 Compass-IGSO1 Compass-G4 Compass-IGSO2 Compass-IGSO3 Launch date 2007, April 14 2009, April 15 2010, Jan. 17 2010, June 2 2010, Aug. 1 2010, Nov. 1 2010, Dec. 18 2011, April 10 CZ3A 3C 3C 3C 3A 3C 3A 3A No. 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 Satellite Compass-IGSO4 Compass-IGSO5 Compass-G5 Compass-M3 Compass-M4 Compass-M5 Compass-M6 Compass-G2R Launch date 2011, July 27 2011, Dec. 2 2012, Feb. 25 2012, April 30 " 2012, Sept. 19 " 2012, Oct. 25 CZ3A 3A 3C 3B " 3B " 3C

★ RELAY SATELLITES: TIANLIAN
Tianlian 1 (tianlian yihao 天鏈一號) is the name for a program of tracking and data relay satellites which were launched from XSLC on Long March 3C carrier rockets. According to Xinhua News Agency, the PRC’s first data relay satellite network was complete after the launch of Tianlian I-03 (tianlian yihao lingsan 天鏈一號 03). “Tianlian” (天鏈) literally means “heavenly chain” in English. Satellite Tianlian I-01 Launch date 2008, April 25 Satellite Tianlian I-02 Launch date 2011, July 11 Satellite Tianlian I-03 Launch date 2012, July 25

★ TELECOMMUNICATIONS SATELLITES
There are several series of telecommunications satellites in the PRC, notable Dongfang Hong, Xinnuo, Yatai, and Zhongxing. Listing them can be confusing sometimes because occasionally satellites were taken over by a different company and then renamed.

Dongfang Hong

“Dongfang Hong” (東方紅), meaning “the east is red” in English, was used as name for telecommunications satellites. Dongfang Hong-1 was the first satellite ever to be launched by the PRC and served propaganda purposes. The satellites Dongfang Hong-2A 2 to Dongfang Hong-2A 5 were also named ChinaSat 1 to ChinaSat 4. Dongfang Hong-2A 5 was lost when the upper stage of the CZ-III carrier rocket failed to reignite. Mission Dongfang Hong-1 [東方紅 1 號] / DFH-1 Dongfang Hong-2 [東方紅 2 號] / DFH-2 Dongfang Hong-2A 1 [東方紅二號甲-1] / DFH-2 A1 Dongfang Hong-2A 2 [東方紅二號甲-2] / DFH-2 A2 Dongfang Hong-2A 3 [東方紅二號甲-3] / DFH-2 A3 Dongfang Hong-2A 4 [東方紅二號甲-4] / DFH-2 A4 Dongfang Hong-2A 5 [東方紅二號甲-5] / DFH-2 A5 Dongfang Hong-3 1 [東方紅三號 1] / DFH-3 1 —aka— Launch date Launch site 1970, April 24 JSLC 1984, April 8 XSLC 1986, Feb. 1 XSLC 1988, March 7 XSLC 1988, Dec. 22 XSLC 1990, Feb. 4 XSLC 1991, Dec. 28 XSLC 1994, Nov. 29 XSLC CZI III III III III III III 3A

ChinaSat 1 ChinaSat 2 ChinaSat 3 ChinaSat 4

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TILMAN ARETZ’S BLOG [http://taretz.blogspot.com]———The space program of the PRC Dongfang Hong-3 2 [東方紅三號 2] / DFH-3 2 Dongfang Hong-4 [東方紅四號] / DFH-4 ChinaSat 6 ChinaSat 6A 1997, May 12 2010, Sept. 4 XSLC XSLC 3A 3B

Xinnuo

“Xinnuo” (鑫諾) is the phonetic form for “Sino” in Chinese, and the satellites of the Xinnuo series—dubbed “Sino Satellite” (abbrev. SinoSat)—are broadcast and communications satellites, mostly for satellite TV. The launch site for the six satellites of this project was XSLC, but Xinnuo-4 never made it into space; originally scheduled to be launched in 2008, lift-off was first postponed to early 2009 and then to 2011, albeit no launch has been reported so far. Mission Abbrev. Xinnuo-1 [鑫諾一號] SinoSat-1 Xinnuo-2 [鑫諾二號] SinoSat-2 Xinnuo-3 [鑫諾三號] SinoSat-3 Launch date 1998, July 18 2006, Oct. 29 2007, June 1 CZ3B 3B 3A Mission Xinnuo-4 [鑫諾四號] Xinnuo-5 [鑫諾五號] Xinnuo-6 [鑫諾六號] Abbrev. SinoSat-4 SinoSat-5 SinoSat-6 Launch date — 2011, June 21 2010, Sept. 5 CZ— 3B 3B

Yatai and Zhongxing

The Yatai and Zhongxing series are telecommunications satellites. “Yatai” (亞太) is the Chinese abbreviation for Asia-Pacific, and “Zhongxing” (中星) is an abbreviation for China Satellite, therefore Zhongxing satellites are sometimes called ChinaSat. Zhongxing-7 (Zhongxing qihao 中星 7 號, aka ChinaSat 7) was launched on Aug. 18, 1996 from XSLC on CZ-III but failed to reach the correct orbit due to underperformance of the carrier rocket, and Zhongxing-8 was launched from Kourou/Guyana on Ariane-5ECA. Mission Yatai 1 [亞太一號] Yatai-2R [亞太 2R] Yatai-6 [亞太六號衛星] Yatai-7 [亞太七號衛星] Zhongxing-1 [中星一號] Zhongxing-1A (= ChinaSat 1A) [中星 1A] Zhongxing-2 [中星二號] Zhongxing-2A [中星 2A] Zhongxing-3 [中星三號] Zhongxing-4 [中星四號] Zhongxing-5A [中星 5A] Zhongxing-5B [中星 5B] Zhongxing-5C [中星 5C] Zhongxing-5D [中星 5D] Zhongxing-6 [中星六號] Zhongxing-6A [中星 6A] Zhongxing-6B [中星 6B] Zhongxing-7 [中星七號] Zhongxing-9 [中星九號] Zhongxing-10 [中星十號] Zhongxing-11 [中星十一號] —aka— Zhongxing-5A / Xinnuo-3 Launch date Launch site 1994, July 21 XSLC 2007, June 1 XSLC 2005, April 12 XSLC 2012, March 31 XSLC 1988, March 7 XSLC 2011, Sept. 19 XSLC 1988, Dec. 22 XSLC 2012, May 27 XSLC 1990, Feb. 4 XSLC 1991, Dec. 28 XSLC 1998, May 30 XSLC 1998, July 18 XSLC 2007, May 31 XSLC 1996, July 3 XSLC 1997, May 12 XSLC 2010, Sept. 4 XSLC 2007, July 5 XSLC 1996, Aug. 18 XSLC 2008, June 9 XSLC 2011, June 21 XSLC 2013, May 2 XSLC CZIII 3A 3B 3B III 3B III 3B III III 3B 3B 3A III 3A 3B 3B III 3B 3B 3B

DFH-2A 2 DFH-2A 3 DFH-2A 4 DFH-2A 5 Zhongwei-1 Xinnuo-1 Xinnuo-3 DFH-3 2 Xinnuo-6 / DFH-4

Xinnuo-5

★ EARTH OBSERVATION SATELLITES
Gaofen
Gaofen 1 (gaofen yihao 高分一號) is a high-definition earth observation satellite that was launched on April 26, 2013 from JSLC on a Long March 2D carrier rocket.

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TILMAN ARETZ’S BLOG [http://taretz.blogspot.com]———The space program of the PRC

Haiyang and Huanjing

Haiyang 1 (haiyang yihao 海洋一號) is a series of experimental satellites commissioned by the State Oceanic Administration (guojia haiyangju 國家海洋局, abbrev. SOA); “haiyang” (海洋) is the Chinese word for ocean. HY-1A 衛 星 was launched on May 15, 2002 from TSLC on a Long March 4B carrier rocket, HY-1B 衛星 has not been launched yet. Haiyang 2 (haiyang erhao 海洋二號) monitors the maritime environment and was launched on Aug. 16, 2011 from TSLC on a Long March 4B carrier rocket. Huanjing 1 (huanjing yihao 環境一號) was a satellite commissioned by the PRC State Council for probes of the environment and disasters; “huanjing” (環境) is the Chinese word for environment. The satellites of that series were launched from TSLC on Long March 2C carrier rockets—HJ-1A and HJ-1B were launched together on Sept. 6, 2008, HJ-1C was launched on Nov. 19, 2012.

Yaogan

“Yaogan” (遙感), meaning “remote sensing” in English, stands for a series of remote-sensing satellites. Its first satellite, Yaogan-1 (yaogan weixing yihao 遙感衛星一號) was launched on April 27, 2006 from TSLC on a Long March 4B carrier rocket, the following satellites were launched from varying launch sites on varying carrier rockets. Mission Yaogan-1 Yaogan-2 Yaogan-3 Yaogan-4 Yaogan-5 Yaogan-6 Yaogan-7 Yaogan-8 Yaogan-9 Launch date 2006, April 27 2007, May 25 2007, Nov. 12 2008, Dec. 1 2008, Dec. 15 2009, April 22 2009, Dec. 9 2009, Dec. 13 2010, March 5 Launch site CZTSLC 4B XSLC 2D TSLC 4C JSLC 2D TSLC 4B TSLC 2C JSLC 2D TSLC 4C JSLC 4C Mission Yaogan-10 Yaogan-11 Yaogan-12 Yaogan-13 Yaogan-14 Yaogan-15 Yaogan-16 Yaogan-17 Yaogan-18 Launch date 2010, Aug. 10 2010, Sept. 22 2011, Nov. 9 2011, Nov. 30 2012, May 10 2012, May 29 2012, Nov. 25 2013, Sept. 2 2013, Oct. 29 Launch site CZTSLC 4C JSLC 2D TSLC 4B TSLC 2C TSLC 4B TSLC 4C JSLC 4C JSLC 4C TSLC 2C

Ziyuan

“Ziyuan” (資源), meaning “resources” in English, is used for three series of Earth observation satellites. A major part of the first series is the ongoing project China-Brazil Earth Resources Satellite (Zhong Ba diqiu ziyuan weixing 中 巴地球資源衛星, abbrev. CBERS). After the PRC and Brazil agreed to jointly build and launch remote sensoring satellites, PRC FM Qian Qichen 錢其琛 and his Brazilian counterpart Roberto Costa de Abreu Sodré signed a pact about the program on July 6, 1988 in Beijing. The objective was to establish a complete remote sensing system (space and ground segment) to supply both countries with multispectral remotely sensed imagery. The main partner on the PRC side was the Chinese Academy of Space Technology (CAST). The first three satellites built under the joint PRC-Brazil program belonged to the Ziyuan-1 series, a fourth one was developed and launched without Brazilian participation. The series Ziyuan-2 and Ziyuan-3 are PRC projects. Name Ziyuan-1A [資源一號 01 星] Ziyuan-1B [資源一號 02 星] Ziyuan-1B2 [資源一號 02B 星] Ziyuan-1C [資源一號 02C 星] Ziyuan-2A [資源二號 01 星] Ziyuan-2B [資源二號 02 星] Ziyuan-2C [資源二號 03 星] Ziyuan-3 [資源三號] Abbrev. ZY-1A ZY-1B ZY-1B2 ZY-1C ZY-2A ZY-2B ZY-2C ZY-3A Launch date 1999, Oct. 14 2003, Oct. 21 2007, Sept. 19 2011, Dec. 22 2000, Sept. 1 2002, Oct. 27 2004, Nov. 6 2012, Jan. 9 Launch site TSLC TSLC TSLC TSLC TSLC TSLC TSLC TSLC CZ4B 4B 4B 4B 4B 4B 4B 4B CBERS code CBERS-1 CBERS-2 CBERS-2B — — — — —

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TILMAN ARETZ’S BLOG [http://taretz.blogspot.com]———The space program of the PRC

★ SCIENTIFIC PROBES AND TECHNOLOGICAL LABORATORIES
Shijian and Tance
“Shijian” (實踐) means “to put into practice” in English. Please note that no information is available about a Shijian-3, a Shijian-10, a Shijian-13 or a Shijian-14. The satellites of the Shijian-6 series were launched two at a time. “Tance” (探測) means “probe” or “exploration” in English. Mission Shijian-1 [實踐一號衛星] Shijian-2 [實踐二號衛星] Shijian-4 [實踐四號衛星] Shijian-5 [實踐五號衛星] Shijian-6 [實踐六號衛星 A/B] Shijian-6 [實踐六號衛星 C/D] Shijian-6 [實踐六號衛星 E/F] Shijian-6 [實踐六號衛星 G/H] Shijian-7 [SJ-7] Shijian-8 [SJ-8] Shijian-9 [SJ-9] Shijian-11 Shijian-11-02 Shijian-11-03 Shijian-11-04 Shijian-12 Shijian-15 Shijian-16 Tance-1 [探測一號衛星] Tance-2 [探測二號衛星] Launch date 1971, March 3 1981, Sept. 20 1994, Feb. 8 1999, May 10 2004, Sept. 9 2006, Oct. 24 2008, Oct. 25 2010, Oct. 6 2005, July 6 2006, Sept. 9 2012, Oct. 14 2009, Nov. 12 2011, July 29 2011, July 6 2011, Aug. 18 2010, June 15 2013, July 20 2013, Oct. 25 2003, Dec. 30 2004, July 25 Launch site Carrier rocket Remarks JSLC CZ-I Re-entry on 1979, June 17 JSLC FB-1 XSLC CZ-3A TSLC CZ-4B TSLC CZ-4B TSLC CZ-4B TSLC CZ-4B TSLC CZ-4B JSLC CZ-2D JSLC CZ-2C TSLC CZ-2C JSLC CZ-2C JSLC CZ-2C JSLC CZ-2C JSLC CZ-2C JSLC CZ-2D TSLC CZ-4C + Shiyan-7, Chuangxin-3 JSLC CZ-4B XSLC CZ-2C TSLC CZ-2C

Chuangxin and Shiyan

“Chuangxin” (創新) means “innovation” in English. Please note that no information is available about a Chuangxin-2. “Shiyan” (試驗) means “experiment” in English. There is no information available about a Shiyan-5 and Shiyan-6. Mission Chuangxin-1 [創新一號] Chuangxin-1-02 [創新一號 02 星] Chuangxin-1-03 [創新一號 03 星] Chuangxin-3 [創新三號] Shiyan-1 [試驗一號] Shiyan-2 [試驗二號] Shiyan-3 [試驗三號] Shiyan-4 [試驗四號] Shiyan-7 [試驗七號] Launch date 2003, Oct. 21 2008, Nov. 5 2011, Nov. 20 2013, July 20 2004, April 18 2004, Nov. 18 2008, Nov. 5 2011, Nov. 20 2013, July 20 Launch site Carrier rocket TSLC 4B JSLC 2D JSLC 2D TSLC 4C XSLC 2C XSLC 2C JSLC 2D JSLC 2D TSLC 4C Remarks + Ziyuan-1 + Shiyan-3 + Shiyan-4 + Shijian-15, Shiyan-7

+ Shijian-15, Chuangxin-3

★ OTHERS
Tianhui
“Tianhui” (天繪) was used as name for mapping satellites. So far, two of them were launched from JSLC on Long March 2D carrier rockets. Tianhui is a combination of the two words “tian” (天), meaning “sky” or “heaven”, and “hui” (繪), meaning “to draw” or “to paint”.

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TILMAN ARETZ’S BLOG [http://taretz.blogspot.com]———The space program of the PRC Mission Tianhui I [天繪一號] Launch date 2010, Aug. 24 Mission Tianhui I-02 [天繪一號 02 星] Launch date 2012, May 6

Tiantuo

Tiantuo I (tiantuo yihao weixing 天拓一號衛星) is a mini-satellite created by the National University of Defense Technology (guofang kexue jishu daxue 國防科學技術大學) in Changsha (Hunan Province), and it was launched alongside a Yaogan satellite. Tianhui is a combination of the two words “tian” (天), meaning “sky” or “heaven”, and “tuo” (拓), meaning “to expand”, “to develop” or “to make a rubbing” [e. g. of an inscription]. Mission Tiantuo I [天拓一號衛星] Launch date 2012, May 10 Description Launch site CZExperimental satellite (optical imaging etc.) TSLC 4B

Foreign/commercial satellites successfully launched into space from the PRC
Launch date 1990, April 7 1990, July 16 1992, Aug. 14 1992, Oct. 6 1994, July 21 1994, Aug. 28 1995, Nov. 28 1995, Dec. 28 1996, July 3 1997, Aug. 20 1997, Oct. 17 1997, Dec. 8 1998, March 26 1998, May 2 1998, Aug. 20 1998, Dec. 19 1999, June 12 2005, April 12 2007, May 14 2008, Oct. 30 2011, Dec. 29 2012, Sept. 29 2012, Nov. 27 2012, Dec. 19 2013, Dec. 20 Mission/satellite name Asiasat 1 [亞洲一號] Badr [巴達爾-A] Optus B1 [澳大利亞 B1 / 澳普圖斯 B1 衛星] Freja [弗利亞] Apstar 1 [亞太一號] Optus B3 [澳大利亞 B3 / 澳普圖斯 B3 衛星] Asiasat 2 [亞洲二號] Echostar 1 [回聲一號] Apstar 1A [亞太一號 A] Agila 2 [菲律賓馬部海] Apstar 2R [亞太 2R] Motorola Iridium 42, 44 [銥系統衛星] Motorola Iridium 51, 61 Motorola Iridium 69, 71 Motorola Iridium 76, 03 Motorola Iridium 11, 20 Motorola Iridium 14A, 21A Apstar 6 [亞太六號] NigComSat-1 [尼日利亞一號通信衛星] Venesat-1 [委內瑞拉一號通信衛星] NigComSat-1R [尼日利亞通信衛星 1R] VRSS-1 [委內瑞拉遙感衛星一號] Apstar-7B [亞太七號 B] GK-2 [土耳其 GK–2 地球觀測衛星] Tupac Katari [玻利維亞通信衛星] Launch site CZ- Country XSLC III Hong Kong/USA " 2E Pakistan " " Hong Kong JSLC 2C Sweden XSLC III Hong Kong " 2E Australia " " Hong Kong " " USA " III Hong Kong " 3B Philippines/USA " " Hong Kong TSLC 2C USA " " " " " " " " " " " " " " " XSLC 3B Hong Kong " " Nigeria " " Venezuela " " Nigeria " " Venezuela " " France JSLC 2D Turkey XSLC 3B Bolivia

Failed launches • 1992, Dec. 21: “Optus B2” [澳大利亞 B2 / 澳普圖斯 B2 衛星] from XSLC on a CZ-2E—windshear-caused implosion shortly after lift-off destroyed payload • 1995, Jan. 25: “Apstar 2” [亞太二號] from XSLC on a CZ-2E—rocket exploded shortly after lift-off • 1996, Feb. 15: “Intelsat 708” [國際 708 號] from XSLC on a CZ-3B—veered off course and crash-landed

Satellite launch centers in the PRC
JSLC = Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center (Jiuquan weixing fashe zhongxin 酒泉衛星發射中心) in Jiuquan 酒泉 (Gansu Province); est. Oct. 20, 1958 [coordinates—latitude 40°58'03"N, longitude 100°16'43"E]

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TILMAN ARETZ’S BLOG [http://taretz.blogspot.com]———The space program of the PRC TSLC = Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center (Taiyuan weixing fashe zhongxin 太原衛星發射中心) in Taiyuan 太原 (Shanxi Province); est. in [early] March 1967 [coordinates—38°50'56.71"N, 111°36'30.59"E] WSLC = Wenchang Satellite Launch Center (Wenchang weixing fashe zhongxin 文昌衛星發射中心) in Wenchang 文昌 (Hainan Province); est. Sept. 22, 2007 and still under construction [coordinates—19°34'1.20"N, 110°52'1.20"E] XSLC = Xichang Satellite Launch Center (Xichang weixing fashe zhongxin 西昌衛星發射中心) in Xichang 西昌 (Sichuan Province); est. Dec. 29, 1970 [coordinates—28°14'45.66"N, 102°1'35.60"E]

Chronological list of successful launches from JSLC, TSLC, and XSLC
Jiuquan (JSLC) Launch date Mission 1970, April 24 DFH-1 1971, March 3 Shijian-1 1981, Sept. 20 Shijian-2 1999, Nov. 20 Shenzhou-1 2001, Jan. 10 Shenzhou-2 2002, March 25 Shenzhou-3 2002, Dec. 29 Shenzhou-4 2003, Oct. 15 Shenzhou-5 2005, July 6 Shijian-7 2005, Oct. 12 Shenzhou-6 2006, Sept. 9 Shijian-8 2008, Sept. 25 Shenzhou-7 2008, Nov. 5 Shiyan-3 " CX.-1-02 2008, Nov. 5 Shiyan-3 2008, Dec. 1 Yaogan-4 2009, Nov. 12 Shijian-11 2009, Dec. 9 Yaogan-7 2010, March 5 Yaogan-9 2010, June 15 Shijian-12 2010, Aug. 24 Tianhui I 2010, Sept. 22 Yaogan-11 2011, July 6 Shijian-11-03 2011, July 29 Shijian-11-02 2011, Aug. 18 Shijian-11-04 2011, Sept. 29 Tiangong-1 2011, Nov. 1 Shenzhou-8 2011, Nov. 20 Shiyan-4 " CX.-1-03 2012, May 6 Tianhui I-02 2012, June 16 Shenzhou-9 2012, Nov. 25 Yaogan-16 2013, April 26 Gaofen-1 2013, June 11 Shenzhou-10 2013, Sept. 2 Yaogan-17 2013, Oct. 25 Shijian-16 CZI I FB-1 2F 2F 2F 2F 2F 2D 2F 2C 2F 2D " 2D 2D 2C 2D 4C 2D 2D 2D 2C 2C 2C 2F 2F 2D " 2D 2F 4C 2D 2F 4C 4B Taiyuan (TSLC) Launch date Mission 1988, Sept. 7 FY-1A 1990, Sept. 3 FY-1B 1999, May 10 FY-1C " Shijian-5 1999, Oct. 14 ZY-1A 2000, Sept. 1 ZY-2A 2002, May 15 FY-1D " HY-1A 2002, Oct. 27 ZY-2B 2003, Oct. 21 ZY-1B " Chuangxin-1 2004, July 25 Tance-2 2004, Sept. 9 Shijian-6A/B 2004, Nov. 6 ZY-2C 2006, April 27 Yaogan-1 2006, Oct. 24 Shijian-6C/D 2007, Sept. 19 ZY-1B2 2007, Nov. 12 Yaogan-3 2008, May 7 Fengyun-3 2008, Sept. 6 HJ-1A + 1B 2008, Oct. 25 Shijian-6E/F 2008, Dec. 15 Yaogan-5 2009, April 22 Yaogan-6 2009, Dec. 13 Yaogan-8 2010, Aug. 10 Yaogan-10 2010, Oct. 6 Shijian-6G/H 2011, Aug. 16 Haiyang 2 2011, Nov. 9 Yaogan-12 2011, Nov. 30 Yaogan-13 2011, Dec. 22 ZY-1C 2012, Jan. 9 ZY-3A 2012, May 10 Yaogan-14 " Tiantuo I 2012, May 29 Yaogan-15 2012, Oct. 14 Shijian-9 2012, Nov. 19 HJ-1C 2013, July 20 Shijian-15 " Chuangxin-3 " Shiyan-7 2013, Oct. 29 Yaogan-18 CZIV IV 4B " 4B 4B 4B " 4B 4B " 2C 4B 4B 4B 4B 4B 4C 4C 2C 4B 4B 2C 4C 4C 4B 4B 4B 2C 4B 4B 4B " 4C 2C 2C 4C " " 2C Xichang (XSLC) Launch date Mission 1984, April 8 DFH-2 1986, Feb. 1 DFH-2 A1 1988, March 7 DFH-2 A2 1988, Dec. 22 DFH-2 A3 1990, Feb. 4 DFH-2 A4 1991, Dec. 28 DFH-2 A5 1994, Feb. 8 Shijian-4 1994, Nov. 29 DFH-3 1 1996, July 3 ChinaSat 5D 1996, Aug. 18 ChinaSat 7 1997, May 12 DFH-3 2 1997, June 17 FY-2A 1998, May 30 ChinaSat 5A 1998, July 18 Xinnuo-1 2000, June 25 FY-2B 2000, Oct. 31 Beidou-1A 2000, Dec. 21 Beidou-1B 2003, May 25 Beidou-1C 2003, Dec. 30 Tance-1 2004, April 18 Shiyan-1 2004, Oct. 19 FY-2C 2004, Nov. 18 Shiyan-2 2005, April 12 Yatai-6 2006, Oct. 29 Xinnuo-2 2006, Dec. 8 FY-2D 2007, Feb. 3 Beidou-1D 2007, April 14 C.-M1 2007, May 25 Yaogan-2 2007, June 1 Xinnuo-3 2007, July 5 ChinaSat 6B 2007, Oct. 24 Chang’e-1 2008, April 25 Tianlian I-01 2008, June 9 ChinaSat 9 2008, Dec. 23 FY-2E 2009, April 15 C.-G2 2010, Jan. 17 C.-G1 2010, June 2 C.-G3 2010, Aug. 1 C.-IGSO1 2010, Sept. 5 Xinnuo-6 2010, Oct. 1 Chang’e II 2010, Nov. 1 C.-G4 2010, Dec. 18 C.-IGSO2 CZIII III III III III III 3A 3A III III 3A III 3B 3B III 3A 3A 3A 2C 2C 3A 2C 3B 3B 3A 3A 3A 2D 3A 3B 3A 3C 3B 3A 3C 3C 3C 3A 3B 3C 3C 3A

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TILMAN ARETZ’S BLOG [http://taretz.blogspot.com]———The space program of the PRC 2011, April 10 C.-IGSO3 2011, June 21 Xinnuo-5 2011, July 11 Tianlian I-02 2011, July 27 C.-IGSO4 2011, Sept. 19 ChinaSat-1A 2011, Dec. 2 C.-IGSO5 2012, Jan. 13 FY-2F 2012, Feb. 25 C.-G5 2012, March 31 Yatai-7 2012, April 30 C.-M3 + M4 2012, May 27 ChinaSat-2A 2012, July 25 Tianlian I-03 2012, Sept. 19 C.-M5 + M6 2012, Oct. 25 C.-G2R 2013, May 2 ChinaSat 11 2013, Dec. 2 Chang’e III Abbreviations in this table: “C.” stands for “Compass” of the Beidou-2 series, “CX.” for “Chuangxin”. 3A 3B 3C 3A 3B 3A 3A 3C 3B 3B 3B 3C 3B 3C 3B 3B

PRC astronauts
Terminology———astronaut (yuhangyuan 宇航員) or taikonaut (taikongren 太空人) Fei Junlong 費俊龍 (b. 1965), PRC taikonaut (Shenzhou-6 in October 2005) Jing Haipeng 景海鵬 (b. 1966), PLA fighter pilot and taikonaut (Shenzhou-7 in September 2008) Liu Boming 劉伯明 (b. 1966), PLA fighter pilot and taikonaut (Shenzhou-7 in September 2008) Liu Wang 劉旺 (b. 1969), PRC astronaut (Shenzhou-9 in June 2012) Liu Yang 劉洋 (b. 1978), PLA fighter pilot and first female PRC astronaut (Shenzhou-9 in June 2012) Nie Haisheng 聶海勝 (b. 1964), PRC taikonaut (Shenzhou-6 in October 2005 and Shenzhou-10 in June 2013) Wang Yaping 王亞平 (b. 1980), female PRC astronaut (Shenzhou-10 in June 2013) Yang Liwei 楊立偉 (b. 1965), first PRC taikonaut to enter space (on Shenzhou-5 in October 2003) Zhai Zhigang 翟志剛 (b. 1966), PLA fighter pilot and first PRC taikonaut to perform a spacewalk (on Shenzhou-7 in September 2008) Zhang Xiaoguang 張曉光 (b. 1966), PRC astronaut (Shenzhou-10 in June 2013)

Ethnic Chinese astronauts on non-PRC missions

Leroy Chiao 焦立中 [Jiao Lizhong] (b. 1960), Chinese-American engineer and NASA astronaut (space missions: STS-65 in 1994, STS-72 in 1996, STS-92 in 2000, Soyuz TMA-5 in 2004, ISS Expedition 10 in 2004-2005) Ed Lu 盧傑 [Lu Jie] (b. 1963), Chinese-American physicist and astronaut (space missions: STS-84 in 1997, STS-106 in 2000, Soyuz TMA-2 and ISS Expedition 7 in 2003) Taylor Wang 王贛俊 [Wang Ganjun] (b. 1940), first Chinese-American scientist ever sent into space [in April/May 1985 on US space shuttle “Challenger”/STS-51-B]

Timeline/chronology of major events
1958 1959 Oct. 20: The establishment of the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center ( Jiuquan weixing fashe zhongxin 酒泉衛 星發射中心, abbrev. JSLC) in Jiuquan 酒泉 (Gansu Province) begins May: With Soviet help, the PRC establishes the Malan Base ( Malan jidi 馬蘭基地) near Lop Nor 羅布泊 in Qakilik County 若羌縣 (Bayingolin Mongol Autonomous Prefecture 巴音郭楞蒙古自治州,

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TILMAN ARETZ’S BLOG [http://taretz.blogspot.com]———The space program of the PRC Xinjiang) for the development of the PRC’s atomic bomb Nov. 5: The PRC successfully launches its first surface-to-surface missile in Jiuquan Oct. 16: Successful test explosion of the first Chinese nuclear bomb at Malan/Lop Nor; the PRC government declares that the PRC will never be the first to use nuclear weapons Oct. 27: The PRC successfully tests a medium-range ballistic missile in Jiuquan [Early] March: The establishment of the Taiyuan Satellite Launch Center (Taiyuan weixing fashe zhongxin 太原衛星發射中心, abbrev. TSLC) in Taiyuan 太原 (Shanxi Province) begins June 17: The PRC successfully tests a hydrogen bomb at Malan/Lop Nor April 24: The first Chinese satellite “Dongfang Hong I” (dongfang hong yihao 東方紅一號) is blasted into orbit on a “Long March I” (changzheng yihao 長征一號) rocket from Jiuquan and transmits the Cultural Revolution song “The East is Red” (dongfang hong 東方紅) Dec. 29: The establishment of the Xichang Satellite Launch Center (Xichang weixing fashe zhongxin 西昌衛 星發射中心, abbrev. XSLC) in Xichang 西昌 (Sichuan Province) begins Oct. 16: The PRC conducts its last atmospheric test explosion of a nuclear bomb at Malan/Lop Nor April 8: The PRC launches its first experimental communications satellite “Dongfang Hong II” (dongfang hong erhao 東方紅二號) on a “Long March III” (changzheng sanhao 長征三號) rocket from XSLC July 6: During Brazilian President José Sarney’s six-day state visit in the PRC (July 3–8), PRC Foreign Minister (FM) Qian Qichen 錢其琛 and his Brazilian counterpart Roberto Costa de Abreu Sodré sign a satellite agreement July 21: The PRC successfully launches a satellite from XSLC on a “Long March III” rocket Feb. 15: Shortly after launch from XSLC a “Long March 3B” (changzheng sanhao yi 長征三號乙) rocket carrying the satellite “Intelsat 708” veers off course and crash-lands in a village, 8 people are killed May 12: The PRC successfully launches the communications satellite “Dongfang Hong III” (dongfang hong sanhao 東方紅三號) on a “Long March 3A” (changzheng sanhao jia 長征三號甲) rocket from XSLC Nov. 20: The PRC launches the unmanned capsule “Shenzhou-1” (shenzhou yihao 神舟一號) into space from JSLC on a “Long March II” (changzheng erhao 長征二號) rocket; the capsule makes 14 complete orbits of the earth and lands 21 hours after launch in Inner Mongolia Oct. 31: The PRC launches the first satellite in its Compass Navigation Satellite System ( beidou weixing daohang xitong 北斗衛星導航系統, abbrev. CNSS) Dec. 21: The PRC launches its second CNSS satellite May 25: The PRC launches its third CNSS satellite Oct. 15: Launch of a “Long March 2F” (changzheng erhao ji 長征二號己) rocket carrying the “Shenzhou-5” (shenzhou wuhao 神舟五號) space capsule from JSLC for the PRC’s first manned space mission; first taikonaut Yang Liwei 楊立偉 completes 14 orbits and lands 21 hours after launch in Inner Mongolia on Oct. 16 Oct. 19: The PRC launches its first geo-stationary meteorological satellite “Feng yun-2-04” (fengyun erhao lingsixing 風雲二號 04 星) on a “Long March 3A” rocket from XSLC Oct. 12: Launch of a “Long March 2F” rocket with a “Shenzhou-6” (shenzhou liuhao 神舟六號) space capsule from JSLC for a 5-day flight with taikonauts Nie Haisheng 聶海勝 and Fei Junlong 費俊龍 Oct. 17: Shenzhou-6 lands safely at 4:32 a.m. local time in Siziwang 四子王 (Inner Mongolia) Dec. 8: The PRC launches its second geo-stationary meteorological satellite “Feng yun-2-05” (fengyun erhao lingwuxing 風雲二號 05 星) on a “Long March 3A” rocket from XSLC Jan. 11: The PRC successfully launches an anti-ballistic missile from XSLC to destroy an old PRC polar orbit weather satellite ca. 865 km above earth, the US government protests, Japan and Australia express their concern about a possible new arms race in space April 14: The PRC launches its fifth CNSS satellite (also its first navigation satellite) on a “Long March 3A” rocket from XSLC May 14: The Nigerian communications satellite “NigComSat-1” is launched to space from XSLC on a “Long March 3B” carrier rocket Oct. 24: The PRC launches a “Long March 3A” rocket carrying its first lunar orbiter “Chang’e I” (chang’e yihao 嫦娥一號) from XSLC; Chang’e I enters the moon’s orbit on Nov. 5 Nov. 26: PRC Premier Wen Jiabao reveals the first moon pictures captured by its lunar probe Chang’e I

1960 1964 1966 1967

1970

1980 1984 1988

1994 1996 1997

1999

2000

2003

2004 2005

2006 2007

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TILMAN ARETZ’S BLOG [http://taretz.blogspot.com]———The space program of the PRC 2008 May 27: The PRC launches the weather satellite “Fengyun-3” (fengyun sanhao 風雲三號) on a “Long March 4C” (changzheng sihaobing 長征四號丙) rocket from TSLC Sept. 25: A “Long March 2F” rocket blasts “Shenzhou-7” (shenzhou qihao 神舟七號) into space for a 68-hour flight from JSLC at 21:10 local time, on board are the astronauts (yuhangyuan 宇航員) Zhai Zhigang 翟志剛, Jing Haipeng 景海鵬 and Liu Boming 劉伯明 Sept. 27: Shenzhou-7 mission commander Zhai Zhigang successfully performs China ’s first spacewalk, starting at 8:30 UTC and lasting 13 minutes Sept. 28: Shenzhou-7 lands safely in Inner Mongolia’s Siziwang at 17:37 local time Oct. 30: The Venezuelan communications satellite “Venesat-1” is launched to space from XSLC on a “Long March 3B” carrier rocket Dec. 23: The PRC launches its third geo-stationary meteorological satellite “Feng yun-2-06” (fengyun erhao lingliuxing 風雲二號 06 星) on a “Long March 3A” rocket from XSLC March 1: The PRC’s lunar probe “Chang’e I Lunar Satellite” (chang’e yihao yueqiu tance weixing 嫦娥一號月 球 探 測 衛 星 ) crashes into the moon in a controlled collision at the end of a 16-month moon-mapping mission April 15: The PRC launches its second CNSS navigation satellite on a “Long March 3C” (changzheng sanhao bing 長征三號丙) carrier rocket from XSLC April 22: The PRC launches the remote-sensing satellite “Yaogan VI” (yaogan weixing liuhao 遙感衛星六 號) on a “Long March 2C” (changzheng erhao bing 長征二號丙) carrier rocket from TSLC Sept. 14: Construction of the Wenchang Space Satellite Launch Center (Wenchang hangtian fashechang 文昌 航天發射場) begins on Hainan Island Dec. 9: The PRC launches the remote-sensing satellite “Yaogan VII” (yaogan weixing qihao 遙感衛星七號) on a “Long March 2D” (changzheng erhao ding 長征二號丁) carrier rocket from JSLC Aug. 10: The PRC successfully launches the remote-sensing satellite “Yaogan X” (yaogan weixing shihao 遙 感衛星十號) on a “Long March 4C” carrier rocket from TSLC Aug. 25: Chang’e II reaches the Earth–Sun L2 Lagrangian point Sept. 29: The PRC’s first space laboratory “Tiangong-1” (tiangong yihao 天宮一號) is launched on a “Long March 2F” carrier rocket from JSLC Nov. 1: The PRC launches the unmanned “Shenzhou-8” (shenzhou bahao 神舟八號) spacecraft from JSLC using a “Long March 2F” carrier rocket Nov. 3: The PRC’s Shenzhou-8 spacecraft successfully docks with the Tiangong-1 space lab module some 343 km away from earth Nov. 9: A PRC Mars orbiter named Yinghuo-1 (yinghuo yihao 螢火一號) is launched by a Zenit-2 booster rocket from Russian-leased Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan together with Russia’s unmanned Phobos-Grunt probe but veers off course after reaching earth orbit, attempts to fire its engines for the journey to Mars fail in the following days; the PRC successfully launches the remote-sensing satellite “Yaogan XII” (yaogan weixing shierhao 遙感衛星十二號) on a “Long March 4B” carrier rocket from TSLC Nov. 14: A second remote-controlled space docking between the unmanned PRC crafts Shenzhou-8 and Tiangong-1 is successfully completed Dec. 20: The Nigerian communications satellite “NigComSat-1R” is launched to space from XSLC on a “Long March 3B” carrier rocket Dec. 27: The PRC launches the Beidou Navigation System (beidou daohang xitong 北斗導航系統), an alternative to the Global Positioning System (GPS) network Jan. 9: The PRC launches the Ziyuan III satellite (ziyuan sanhao weixing 資源三號衛星) aboard a Long March 4B rocket from TSLC April 30: Two more satellites for the Beidou Navigation System/CNSS are launched from XSLC on a “Long March 3B” carrier rocket May 6: The PRC successfully launches the Tianhui I-02 (tianhui yihao ling’er xing 天繪一號 02 星) mapping satellite on a “Long March 2D” carrier rocket from JSLC May 10: The PRC successfully launches the remote-sensing satellite “Yaogan XIV” (yaogan weixing shisihao 遙感衛星十四號) from TSLC on a “Long March 4B” carrier rocket along with the small satellite Tiantuo I (tiantuo yihao weixing 天拓一號衛星)

2009

2010 2011

2012

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TILMAN ARETZ’S BLOG [http://taretz.blogspot.com]———The space program of the PRC May 27: The PRC successfully launches the telecommunications satellite “Zhongxing 2A” (zhongxing 2A 中星 2A) into orbit from XSLC using a Long March 3B carrier rocket June 16: Launch of the spacecraft “Shenzhou-9” (shenzhou jiuhao 神舟九號) on an upgraded “Long March 2F” carrier rocket from JSLC with astronauts Jing Haipeng, Liu Wang 劉旺 and Liu Yang 劉 洋 (female) on board June 18: Shenzhou-9 successfully docks with Tiangong-1 June 24: Successful manual docking between Shenzhou-9 and Tiangong-1 June 29: Shenzhou-9 lands at 10:05 a.m. local time in Inner Mongolia’s Siziwang July 25: After the launch of data relay satellite Tianlian I-03 (tianlian yihao lingsan 天鏈一號 03) on a “Long March 3C” carrier rocket from XSLC, the PRC’s first data relay satellite network is complete Sept. 29: The Venezuelan communications satellite “VRSS-1” is launched to space from XSLC on a “Long March 2D” carrier rocket June 11: Launch of the spacecraft “Shenzhou-10” (shenzhou shihao 神舟十號) on a “Long March 2F” carrier rocket from JSLC with astronauts Nie Haisheng, Zhang Xiaoguang 張曉光 and Wang Yaping 王亞平 (female) on board June 13: Shenzhou-10 successfully completes an automated docking with orbiting Tiangong-1 June 20: PRC female astronaut Wang Yaping holds a lecture from orbiting Tiangong-1 broadcast live by video to the High School Affiliated to Renmin University of China (Zhongguo renmin daxue fushu zhongxue 中國人民大學附屬中學) in Beijing June 23: Shenzhou-10 successfully completes a manual docking with orbiting Tiangong-1 June 26: Shenzhou-10 lands at 8:07 a.m. local time in Inner Mongolia’s Siziwang Dec. 2: The PRC launches its first lunar rover mission, Chang ’e III, also dubbed “Jade Rabbit” (yutu 玉 兔), from XSLC on a Long March 3B carrier rocket Dec. 6: The PRC’s lunar probe “Chang’e III” enters the moon’s orbit Dec. 14: The PRC’s lunar probe “Chang’e III” successfully conducts a soft landing maneuver on the moon on 13:11 UTC, the rover “Jade Rabbit” separates from the lander and rolls on the surfaces of the moon on 20:35 UTC Jan. 25: The moon rover “Jade Rabbit” experiences a mechanical control abnormality Feb. 13: BBC reports that the moon rover “Jade Rabbit” had been ‘declared dead’, Xinhua News Agency reports it ‘awoke’ despite experiencing a mechanical control abnormality March 14: The moon rover “Jade Rabbit” ‘wakes up’ from a slumber during the lunar night, the website of the State Administration of Science, Technology and Industry for National Defence ( guojia guofang keji gongyeju 國家國防科技工業局, abbrev. guofang kegongju 國防科工局 in Chinese and SASTIND in English) reports

2013

2014

[File last edited/updated on Mon, March 17, 2014]

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