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ABSTRACT

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GEAFOL cast-resin dry-type transformers are the ideal solution wherever high load densities necessitate provision of power sources close to the load. They give designers the necessary freedom of action, since they facilitate economic implementation of network concepts, because they are environmentally friendly and safe, and because they allow installation of power sources close to the load without the need for special rooms and precautions. These are aspects which predestinate these distribution transformers for use in buildings. GEAFOL cast-resin dry-type transformers can be easily integrated anywhere – directly at the site, regardless of whether a commercial or residential building is involved, or an industrial plant, or public transport services. Requirements stipulated in regulations such as those for fire protection or water conservation can be easily satisfied using GEAFOL cast-resin dry-type transformers. The design employed is not only flame-retardant and self-extinguishing, humidity-proof and tropic-proof, but is also low-noise. And because a whole range of possibilities are available, matching to the plant is facilitated and planning is more flexible. These planning guidelines give important tips on how to get the best results using GEAFOL transformers in your plant.

Cast-resin power transformers encase the windings in epoxy resin. These transformers simplify installation since they are dry, without cooling oil, and so require no fireproof vault for indoor installations. The epoxy protects the windings from dust and corrosive atmospheres. However, because the molds for casting the coils are only available in fixed sizes, the design of the transformers is less flexible, which may make them more costly if customized features (voltage, turns ratio, taps) are required. Cast-resin dry-type transformer can be easily integrated anywhere directly at the site, regardless of whether a commercial or residential building is involved, or an industrial plant, or public transport services

DESIGN FEATURES:
1. Three-limb core made of grain-oriented, low-loss electro-laminations insulated on both sides 2. LV winding made of aluminium strip. Turns firmly glued together by means of insulating sheet wrapper material 3. HV winding consisting of vacuumpotted single foil-type aluminium coils 4. LV terminals normal arrangement: Top, rear special version. Bottom, available on request at extra charge 5. HV terminals variable arrangements for optimal station design HV tapping links on low-voltage side for adjustment to system conditions, re connectable in de energized state 6. Resilient spacers to insulate core and windings from mechanical vibrations, resulting in low noise emissions 7. Clamping frame and truck rollers can be swung around for lengthways or sideways travel

INTRODUCTION:
GEAFOL cast-resin drytype transformers are the ideal solutions wherever high load densities necessitate provision of power sources close to the load.

8. Insulation: Mixture of epoxy resin and quartz powder Makes the transformer maintenance-free, moisture-proof, tropicalized, flame-resistant and selfextinguisher * Temperature monitoring by PTC thermistor detectors in the LV winding * Paint finish on steel parts Multiple coating, RAL 5009 On request: Two-component varnish or hot-dip galvanizing (for particularly aggressive environments)

CONNECTION SYSTEMS:
Connection of the high-voltage side: In the standard design the HV connection of the transformer is at the top coil connection, connection at the bottom is available as an option (Fig. 5). Screwed circuit connections are used for the delta connection. The transformer connection is made at the end of the connection rods, alternatively at a straight or angled terminal face.

Connection of the HV side using plug-type connectors:
Connection of the HV side using external conical plug-type penetrations is possible

High-voltage tapping:
The HV tappings allow matching to local network conditions. The desired tapping can be selected by means of connection straps and screwed connections.

Connection of the low-voltage side:
In the standard design the LV connection of the transformer is also at the top coil connection, connection at the bottom is available as an option (Fig. 7). If intermediate expansion links are employed, the LV side connection is protected against mechanical stress and transmission of structure-borne noise.

Connection of earthing and shortcircuiting devices:
Either straight or angled conical fixed points, of diameter 20 mm or 25 mm, can be mounted at the conductor connections, at the HV side at the connection rod and at the LV side at the conductor terminal face.

TEMPERATURE MONITORING:
Each GEAFOL transformer is fitted with three temperature sensors installed in the LV winding, and a solid-state tripping device with relay output. The PTC thermistors used for sensing are selected for the applicable maximum hot-spot winding temperature. Additional sets of sensors with lower temperature points can be installed for them and for fan control purposes. Additional dial-type thermometers and Pt100 are available, too. For operating voltages of the LV winding of 3.6 kV and higher, special temperature measuring equipment can be provided. Auxiliary wiring is run in protective conduit and terminated in a central LV terminal box (optional). Each wire and terminal is identified, and a wiring diagram is permanently attached to the inside cover of this terminal box.

FIRE SAFETY:
GEAFOL transformers use only flame-retardent and self-extinguishing materials in their construction. No additional substances, such as aluminum oxide trihydrate, which could negatively influence the mechanical stability of the cast-resin molding material, are used. Internal arcing from electrical faults and externally applied flames do not cause the transformers to burst or burn. After the source of ignition is removed, the transformer is selfextinguishing. This design has been approved by fire officials in many countries for installation in populated buildings and other structures. The environmental safety of the combustion residues has been proven in many tests.

ADDITIONAL FORCED-AIR COOLING: TO INCREASE THE TRANSFORMER POWER RATING:
The output rating of GEAFOL transformer up to 2500kVA can be increased up to 50% as a result of mounting centrifugal-flow fans. For example, the continuous power rating of a 1000kVA transformer can be increased to 1500kVA using this efficient method of a forced

cooling without exceeding the permissible winding temperatures. The cost of the fans and of fan controls remain practically constant within the output range up to 2500kVA. In the case of power ratings up to 400kVA, it is generally more economical to select a transformer with a higher output rating than to install forced-air cooling. Continuous operation at 150 % rated power output is permissible with type of cooling AF; however, in this case the load losses are 2.25 times those at 100 % rated output, for example, in the case of a 1000kVA transformer 22.5 kW instead of 10 kW. If a transformer of higher rated power output is used, the load-dependent losses would be lower; however, the no-load losses be higher. It can thus be seen that forced-air cooling is not an economical solution for continuous operation but is on the other hand a favorable alternative for making available reserve capacity and for coping with load peaks. The maintenance costs may also be increased by the use of ventilator fans. Single-phase AC induction motor the main factor governing the noise level. A control device is needed for starting the fans as a function of the temperature. The fans are switched off by means of an adjustable time relay incorporated in the control device.

SILENCE IS A TRANSFORMER PRIORITY:
Special design measures have reduced the noise level of GEAFOL cast-resin dry type transformers to that of oil-immersed transformers. The noise level values are to be found in the catalog “GEAFOL cast-resin transformers 100kVA to 16000kVA”. Noise is caused as a result of magnetostriction of the core laminations. In the case of distribution transformer noise is dependent on the induction and not on the load. The noise level can be increased by voltage harmonics, e.g. caused by converter operation.

The GEAFOL transformer:

Basic

distribution

RECYCLING OF TRANSFORMERS:

GEAFOL

Of all the GEAFOL transformers manufactured since 1965, even the oldest units are not about to reach the end of their service life expectancy. In spite of this, a lot of experiences have been made over the years with the recycling of coils that have become unusable due to faulty manufacture or damage. These experiences show that all the metallic components, i.e. approx. 90% of all materials, can be fully recovered economically. The recycling method used by Siemens does not pollute the environment. In view of the value of the secondary raw materials, the procedure can be economical even considering the currently small amounts.

OVERVIEW OF FEATURES AND ADVANTAGES:

 Innovative clean design  Power range up to 3.15 MVA and voltages up to 36Kv (medium voltage) or 450 V (low voltage)  Up to approx. 10 % lower weight  Up to approx. 30 % increase in power possible through  Forced-air cooling  GEAFOL transformers are designed for  Indoor installation close to their point of use at the center of the major consumers  Proven GEAFOL technology and quality  Optimum compromise between size and power  These transformers from all restrictions that apply to oil-filled electrical equipment, such as oilcollecting pits, fire walls, fireextinguishing equipment, etc.  Climatic Class C2, Environmental Class E1* and Fire Classification F1  GEAFOL transformers are completely maintenance-free for their lifetime.  Maintenance-free windings embedded in moisture-proof,  Fire-resistant and selfextinguishing insulating material that is suitable for the tropics  This type of transformers reduces civil works, cable costs, transmission losses, and installation costs.

 High electrical safety thanks to foil winding  Freedom from partial discharges up to twice the rated voltage  Standardized accessories

Transforming voltage into safety . Solutions for administration and culture  GEAFOL powers one of the tallest office buildings in Europe.  Power supply around the clock GEAFOL in the hospital.  Culture on a grand scale –and with eight GEAFOL transformers. Transforming potential Renewable energy into power-

APPLICATIONS GEAFOL TRANSFORMERS:

OF

Transforming energy into speed. Solutions for transportation and traffic systems  Functional reliability with low maintenance costs  Problem-free subway traffic  Power for the airport infrastructure in Amsterdam  Power supply for the Transrapid line between Shanghai and the Pudong international airport

 Mechanically strengthened GEAFOL transformers ensure that the power produced by the wind power plant reaches the consumer.  Whether in rural or urban environments, GEAFOL transformers ensure that power can be used  GEAFOL transformers also function without problems under extreme environmental conditions. Transforming requirements into solutions Industrial solutions  Powerful and reliable: forced cooling ensures stable thermal conditions even under peak load  Twenty years of daily operation in an aggressive environment with low maintenance costs  The numerous industrial requirements for transformers are enormous. Economical in every respect

At Amusterdam Airport

Transforming requirements into solutions  GEAFOL transformers are optimally equipped for the harshest operating conditions in mining  Low and rugged: GEAFOL in a potassium mine  In the rolling mill directly alongside the consumer: GEAFOL in converter operation  Underground: on-site power supply in an ore mine  1700 m below the surface: Safe power supply at 90 % humidity Transforming isolation into independence Solutions on the high sea  New type of cooling system for the transformers of the “Grand Princess”  North of the Arctic Circle: Safely underway with GEAFOL  With GEAFOL below deck: One of the largest crane ships in the world

certification. The thermal load on the transformer represents a particular challenge in the power range from 20 MVA. Therefore, for the new GEAFOL transformers in this rating class, we have developed a highly efficient cooling method which operates with novel cooling ducts. What is new about it is that special cooling ducts are now used in the higher-voltage winding and the core to dissipate heat losses. Besides that, by means of the new coil support system we absorb the high axial forces that arise in the event of a shortcircuit. In this system, the coils are fixed with spring pressure and, at the same time, the increased thermal expansion of the larger coils is compensated

GEAFOL:SUPERIOR TECHNOLOGY:
The performance data of GEAFOL transformers has developed continuously in terms of rated power , operating voltage and rated lightning impulse withstand voltage. Since as early as 1977, distribution transformers have been manufactured and GEAFOL transformers above 5 MVA developed to meet customer’s specific requirements. Dry transformers must be marked in conformity with the verified ambient, climate and fire categories. Extensive testing is required for

CONCLUSION:
GEAFOL transformers, with their environmentally sustainable technology and versatility, ensure efficient energy distribution at load centers. Since their introduction, GEAFOL cast resin transformers have proven outstanding in reliably and safely supplying power directly to consumers around the world. Major advantages include high operating safety, practically maintenance-free operation, and

extensive power reserves. They also offer compactness and the assurance that the flame-retarding, self-extinguishing insulation will not release toxic gases in the event of a malfunction, even if electrical arcing occurs. Today, GEAFOL is synonymous with reliable performance under the widest range of operating conditions!

REFERENCES:
  www.siemens.com/energy www.epri.com