RAILWAY SIGNALLING

BY SHAHNAWAZ HAQUE DEPT. OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING GURU NANAK INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Principles of Signalling
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ The Time Interval System Fixed Signalling Distant Signals Interlocking Blocks The Track Circuit Multi-Aspect Signals Four-Aspect Signalling A Safe Braking Distance The Overlap
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Track Unoccupied

Track Occupied

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Automatic Warning System(AWS)
‡ An alarm sounds in the driver's cab whenever a train approaches a caution or stop signal. If the driver fails to acknowledge the alarm, the train brakes are applied. The system is called AWS. ‡ A form of a track mounted, non-contact inductor. ‡ The AWS "ramp" as the inductor is known, is placed about 185 m on the approach side of the signal between the rails. ‡ AWS ramp contains a pair of magnets, the first permanent, the second an electro-magnet linked to the signal to provide an indication of the aspect. ‡ Operation is based on energising and denergising of the electromagnet. ‡ Enforcement-A very simple system called trainstop is used.

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Train Protection and Warning System (TPWS)
‡ If a train approaches a stop signal showing a danger aspect at too high a speed to enable it to stop at the signal, it will be forced to stop, regardless of any action (or inaction) by the driver. ‡ Consists of two pairs of electronic loops are placed between the rails. Each pair consists of, first an arming loop and secondly, a trigger loop.

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TPWS Unit

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Automatic Train Protection(ATP)
‡ It can be either mechanical or electronic. ‡ Electronic ATP involves track to train transmission of signal aspects and (sometimes) their associated speed limits. ‡ ATP Speed Codes-Gives two pieces of information about the state of the line ahead - what speed can it do in this block and what speed must it be doing by the time it enters the next block. ‡ ATP Speed Code includes an antennae on the train, electronic track circuitry and generates codes ‡ The code data consists of two parts, the authorised speed code for this block and the target speed code for the next block.
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ATP Code Transmission

‡ ATP Signalling codes contained in the track circuits are transmitted to the train. ‡ Data is passed to an on-board decoding and safety processor. ‡ The permitted speed is checked against the actual speed. ‡ At the trackside, the signal aspects of the sections ahead are monitored and passed to the code generator for each block. ‡ The code generator sends the appropriate codes to the track circuit. 8/22/2010

Route Signalling
‡ Junctions-Signals are provided at junctions. The signal has to perform two functions to confirm to the driver that the route is set and the points locked for the indicated route and that the block ahead is clear.

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Route Signalling
‡ Route Locking -The section of track between the signal and the points is "route lockedµ. -Once this track circuit is occupied the point control is locked and the points cannot be moved. ‡ Track locking-the track circuit at the points is also interlocked with the point operation system to prevent any movement taking place while the train is passing through

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Automatic Train Operation(ATO)
‡ It is the non-safety part of train operation related to station stops and starts. ‡ The basic requirement of ATO is to tell the train approaching a station where to stop so that the complete train is in the platform ‡ Use of beacon - originally a looped cable, now usually a fixed transponder

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‡ ANY QUESTIONS???

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THANK YOU

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