Hany R. Anderson, MSc., P.Eng.
EDX Engneering. Inc. P.O. 1547 Box Eugene. Oregon 97440 Tel: (503) 3450019 Fax: (503) 3458145
Abstroct Digital terrain elevation model @TEM) databases are essential for realistically calculating path loss and coverage areas for radio communication systems of all types. Because such propagation models are wellsuited to computer programs, the factors determining efficient DTEM data structure and necessary DTEM data accuracy are largely derived from the requirements of the computerized propagation models. The first part of this paper discusses DTEM data structures for efficient elevation retrieval. The second part esamines the required DTEM accuracy needed to achieve acceptable path loss results given commonlyused diffraction loss propagation primitives. The results show that obstacle elevation errors on the order of 1525 meters can be tolerated before calculated path loss changes by more than about 2 dB on obstructed paths.

terrain database must be repeatedly accessed to find elevation values along the great circle path. For a typical areawide propagation study, 360 radial paths may be used extenmng out from the base station transmitter and spaced every degree in true azimuth. If the study ra&als are 50 km long (a typical value for cellular base station studies), and the point spacing along each ra&al is 0.1 km, a total of 180,000 elevation points must be extracted from the database. For a composite study with dozens of base stations, literally millions of elevation points along study radials are required. It's therefore worthwhile to make terrain extraction algorithms as efficient as possible. The points along a terrain profile peat circle path arc conveniently defined by a latitudelongitude pair. As the exvaction process moves out along a radial. the latitudelongitude location of each point is calculated using spherical trigonometry, the r&al azimuth. thc point &stance. and the base station latitudelongtudc mr&nates. With the latitudelongitude position of the point known, the next step is to determine the position in the database where this point occurs. In general. terrain elevation databases will consist of sets of daMiles. each of which covers a defined geographical area. Wittun each datafile the elevation points arc usually arranged in a simple rowcolumn matrix format such that the geographical position of an elevation point is conveyed by the rowcolumn position in the matrix. The terrain elevation lookup process essentmlly is the process of answering three questions about the location of the point: 1) which datatile?, 2) wluch row?. and 3) which column?
1.0 DTEM Database Structures
DTEM's are generally orgaruzed in two forms  vector format and raster or gnd format. Vector databases are collections of vectors usually describing elevation contours where vector endpoints have equal elevation. or constant slope vectors in which the vector endpoint elevations are different. Vector databases are often the &rect product of digtizing topographic maps. Unfortunately, they are inefficient to use in computer programs because there is no simple mapping from geographic position to DTEM database position due to the nonumform density of the vector data. Grid format DTEM's are therefore almost universally used with propagation software because there are simple mapping algorithms whch relate geographic position to the location of the data point in the database.
The datafile question can be easily answered in one of two ways. Where the database has a uniform, homogeneous structure. the datafile names themselves can For most currently used propagation models, path loss convey the area covered. For example, for a 20 km s is predict using a 2 dmensional (2D) terrain profile 20 km data tile in Great Britain, the tile with southbetween the transmitter and the receiver. The 2D west comer National Grid coordinates of x=300000. profile follows the radio path from transmitter to rej=100000 could have a file name such as ceiver forming a sector of a great circle path on the EDX30010.TER. The "30" is the x position of thc earth's surface. To construct a terrain profile, the
0 1993 The Institution of Electrical Engineers. Printed and published by the IEE, Savoy Place, London WCPR OBL,UK.
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southwest comer; the "010" is the y position. The next file east would be named EDX32010.TER The next file north would be named EDX30012.TER and so forth. With such a predefined file name structure. it is only necessary to translate the latitudelong" at the desired point into National Grid coor&nates. construct the file name using the coor&nates rounded off to 20 km intervals, open the file. and read the data.
If the files in the database are nondorm, it is necessary to use a "header" record in each file whch contains the coordinates of the comers of the area which the datafile covers. The information in the headers for all files is read and cataloged when the propagation program is started so that fin&ng the appropriate file during the terrain extraction process involves a quick search through the cataloged header infowtion.
used in the conversion operations. Latitudelongitude to UK Nation Grid coordinate conversion is typically with 1 meter of known results using this method. T h s is certainly adequate accuracy for the terrain lookup process. Because the linear x.y datafile arrangement requires the extra conversion step, (and the conversion calculations are nontrivial). from a computational viewpoint the latitudelongitude grid structure is preferable to the linear x,y arrangement. The disadvantage, of course. of the latitudelongtude wormnate system is that it is not linear on flat maps and thus more Micult for people to use when manually determined coor&nates. By contrast, linear x,y systems are easy to use for manual coordinate determination.
Since the desired elevation point coor&nates are Propagation Studies known in terms of latitudelongtude, finding the right row and column in the datafile matrix is most rapidly done when the gnd of points are at even An issue whch frequently arises is the relative merits latitudelongitude intervals. The 3 arc second data of radial line and regular grid propagation studies. base covering the United States is such a database. Finding the correct row and column numbers is a In a radial line study, elevation points are found along simple matter of subtracting the latitudelongitude of ra&als emanating from the transmitter site. Path loss the comer from the latitudelongitude of the subject calculations are then done to each point on each rapoint, and hviding by the grid point spacing in geo mal. The results are then plotted in a variety of ways such as multicolored radial lines where the color ingraphcal seconds. dicates the field strength. Alternately, the ensemble Usually the desired point does not fall &rectly on a of ra&al line path loss results can be mapped into a grid location so that it's necessary to find surroundng regular gnd for a colored grid &splay. contouring. s grid points and performing an interpolation among etc. T h ~ is a computationally eficient approach both them. Several simple and elaborate schemes have for terrain data emaction and for path loss calculabeen used or suggested for Uus interpolation problem. tions, especiall) if recursive techmques are used to but simply using the four surrounding comer points compute diffraction loss as the study proceeds out and linear interpolation has been shown to be about along a ra&al. The drawback, of course. is that thc as good as any approach [I], and is certainly compu study resolution gets more crude as the &stance from tationally efficient since it only requires a one row or the transmitter increases simply because the ra&als are getting farther apart. column shift to find the necessary four points. The other approach is to define a study grid. construct terrain profiles to each point in the grid, perform lo each point, and then plot path loss results as a colored grid. There is a much greater computational burden associated with tlus approach since each of the extracted profiles can only be used latitudelongitude position to the linear x,y coordinate to find the path loss at one point (in general). Also. system on whch the datafile is based. This recursive techniques cannot u s 4 to accelerate the tion requires knowledge of the map projection and rate at whch path loss results are obtained. mcular earth elliusoid constants. In our work we've found the Trakverse Mercator conversion forIf a hypothetical study area with a 50 km radius is mulae for ellipsoids as found in [2] accurately perconsidered, and the radial line approach is used with form Uus coordnate translation when the particular 1 degree ra&al spacings and 0.1 km point spacings earth radius, eccentricity, and projection biases are When the datafile does not use a regular latitudelongitude spacing but a linear x,y spacing in meters for Great Britsuch as the 50 meter ten;lin a further translation step is needed for each extracted pint, This extra step converts the
2.0 Radial Line versus Regular Grid
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along the radials, a total of 180,000 known path loss calculation points will result. If an arbitrary random point is chosen wittun the 50 km radius, the worst case distance Merence between tlus point and a point where a path loss calculation has been done occurs at the end of the radials where they're farthest apart. This &stance = 50.0 x sin (1.0 degree)/2.0. or 0.43 km. If the total study area is considered with an area of 7,853 square kilometers. the average area represented by each know path loss calculation point is 0.0436 square kilometers. With the fixed study grid, to achieve the same worst
KnifeEdge Obstacle Diffraction
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from transmitter
to
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case distance error as the radial line study, the gnd
point spacing would be set at 0.86 km. With the 50 km radius, the number of grid points is about 10.617, so 10,617 terrain profiles with an average length of 25 km are required. This compares with the radial line case where only 360 radials required, each with a length of 50 km. T i is a substantially greater comhs putational burden for the fixed grid case. Moreover, when the total study is considered, each know path loss calculation point represents on average 0.739 square kilometers for the fixed grid, more than 16 times greater than the 0.0436 square kilometers for the ra&al line study. The average area a known point must represent is directly related to the amount of distance error wluch exists between an arbitrary random point chosen in the study area and the nearest known path loss calculation point. While it is true the resolution of the radial line apih proach is concentrated near the transmitter, even w t equivalent worst error conditions at the end of the ra&als as in the example above, the fixed grid approach is still inferior from a computational viewpoint. The r a d d line approach is thus preferred for propagation stu&es, and is widely used in commerciallyavailable propagation s o h a r e products.
I
Figure 1 Krufeedge obstacle diffraction.

Rounded Obstacle Diffraction
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from
to receiver
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~
Figure 2  Rounded obstacle Mraction.
Wedge Obstacle Diffraction
3.0 DTEM Accuracy For Propagation
Modeling
Propagation models use a variety of information from Figure 3 Wedge obstacle diffraction. DTEMs to calculate path loss. For empirical models. few percent of each other despite the fact that the 3 such as the CCIR and FCC propagation curves, or the Okumura (Hata) model, usually only antenna height arc second database has 10 times the horizontal above average terrain (HAAT) and sometimes delta H resolution. (interdecile terrain variation), is used. Models which primarily rely on average elevations or some other While these empirical propagation models require general terrain statistic, are fairly insensitive to limited DTEM accuracy. because of tlus same insenDTEM accuracy. For example, calculated HAAT sitivity to terrain, these models can give seriously invalues from the 30 arc second and 3 arc second ter accurate path loss prdctions when the terrain along rain databases covering the U.S. are typically witlun a the path departs widely from the average values

Therefore, these models cannot be regarded as locationspeclfic propagation models. Locationspecific propagation models use diffraction and reflection calculations of some type along witli the actual x,y,z location of terrain features on thc path between the transmitter and receiver. The question to be addressed here is what level of error can tolerated in the x,y,z position of a terrain obstacle before the calculated path loss changes by a sigruficant amount, say 1 or 2 dB? To examine this issue, calculations were done with three merent terrain obstacle models a knife edge. a "rounded" edge. and a lossy dielectric wedge. These obstacle models are shown in Figures 1 2 and 3. This obstacle models are typical . of those found in commonlyused propagation models. such as TIREM. LongleyRice, JRC, etc., although each model may use Werent methods to combine losses due to multiple obstacles.

50 40 30 20 10
0 10 20 30 40 50 Obstacle Elevation Error (meters)
Figure 4 W e edge path loss change.

50 40
30 20 10 0 10 20 30 40 50 Obstade Elovatian Error (meters)
For each of the three obstacle models, a selection of path geometries where tested using path lengths of 2, 5. 10 , 20. 30 and 50 kilometers. In each case a single isolated obstacle was positioned in the center of the path with the rest of the path elevations set to zero. The effective earth ra&us (k factor) was set at 4/3.In each case the "correct" obstacle height was set at 250 meters. so as path length increased, the rad0 path bending angle over the obstacle became increasingly shallow. The transmit antenna elevation was set to 50 meters and the receiver antenna elevation was set to 3 meters above the zero elevation plane. The frequency was set to 500 M H z and vertical polarization was assumed.
For knife edge and rounded obstacle m a c t i o n , the path loss was computed using the formulas in [3]. These are simple and efficient algorithms which were developed by curvefitting the Fresnel diffracbon loss curve in the shadow region. These equations do not apply outside the shadow region. The radius of the rounded obstacle was set at 100 meters.
For the wedge obstacle loss, the formulas found in [4 I were used. A conductivity of 15 mS/m and a relative permittivity of 15 were used for the wedge material constants,values which are typical for the earth. The local wedge face roughness was set to 0.5 meters. hi propagation models using wedge obstacles, the interior angle of the wedge is usually calculated using the terrain elevations on either side of the wedge center. A hill with gentle slopes would be represented by a wedge with a large interior angle, while a mountain peak or cllff might have a relatively small interior angle. For the studies done here, the interior angle was set at 140 degrees.
Figure 5  Rounded edge path loss change.
0.3 50 40 30 20 10
0
10 20
30 40 50
0hst;rolo Elevation Error (meters)
Figure 6  Wedge path loss change.
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For each obstacle model type, and each path geometry, the obstacle loss was computed as the obstacle elevation was varied away from the "correct" value of 250 meters. These elevation variations, then, simulate DTEM elevation errors. The results of the studies are shown in Figures 4, 5, and 6 for the krufe edge, rounded edge, and wedge obstacles, respectively. Note that the dB path loss scale for the rounded obstacle case in Figure 5 is different from the scale in Figure 4 and 6. The results show that for knife edge and wedge obstacles, terrain elevation errors up to 250 meters can be tolerated without the calculated path loss changmg by hn more t a 2 dB. For rounded obstacles, the path loss changes are greater, but for k20 meter errors on all but the shortest path, the path loss changes are still withm about 2 2 dB.
O course, these stuhes only consider obstructed f paths and the relative path loss changes. A more dramatic change will occur when the elevation error results in the receive point making a transition from the lineofsight to the shadowed region. Very small path elevation errors could cause th~s transition, and the resulting change in path loss will depend on thc frequency and Fresnel zone ramus. At 0.6 Fresnel zone clearance. the obstacle loss is 0 dB and increases to 6 dB when the path just grazes over the top of thc obstacle.
4.0 Conclusions
A mscussion of DTEM database retrieval techniques and required DTEM accuracy for effective use in propagation models has been presented. The following conclusions can be drawn from Uus &scussion:
1. Grid format DTEMs using geographcal latitudelongtude references are preferable to linear x,y or local gnd referenced DTEMs.
Simlar studes were done w t h the n o d "correct" obstacle height set to 100 meters, such that the 250 meter error was a greater percentage of the total obstacle height The path loss changes were greater but st111 wUun the 2 dB range for elevauon errors of +I5 meters The results for the krufe edge case are shown in Figure 7 The "lanks" in some curves are due to the transihon from one equauon to another from the M e edge M a c t l o n loss curve fits in 131
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2. Radial linebased propagation studes are computationally more eficient than fixed grid studies for equivalent study resolution.
3. DTEM elevauon errors on the order of 25 meters (depending on absolute obstacle height and obstaclc model) can be tolerated before typical calculated path loss changes by more than about 2 dB.
10 0
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5.0 References
[I] F.P. Fontan and J.M.H. Rabanos ,"Selection of Digtal Terrain Data Base Parameters For Radmcommunication Svstem Planning Applications". IEEI' Transactions on Broadcasting, vol. BC39. no. 3, pp 335343, September 1993. 121 J.P. Snyder. Map Projections Used Bv the C'.S Geological Surve.v, 2nd Emtion, United States Gov20 030 40 50 5
6 00
50
2
100

50 40 30 20 10 0 . 10 1 5
ernment Printing Office, Washngton, 1982.
Obstacle Elevation Error (meters)
131 "Transmission Loss Predictions for Tropospheric Communication Circuits," Techcal Note 101. NTIS access number AD 687820. NTIS, US Department Additional studtes were also done with the obstacle of Commerce. Springfield, Virginia. elevation held constant while the obstacle position along the path was varied by 5100 meters. For all 141 R.J. Luebbers. "Finite Conductivity Umform GTD paths and obstacles, the resulting path loss changes Versus Knife Edge Dfiaction in Prehction of were all less than about 1.5 dB. For the knife edge Propagation Path Loss". IEEE Trans. on An1enna.v and wedge cases, the losses over t h ~ slateral error and Prop.. vol. AP32. no. 1. pp. 70 76, Januan 1984. range were less than 0.5 dB. Figure 7 Knife edge path loss change. Nominal "correct" obstacle height = 100 meters.

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