Dimaapi, Shanine April O.

BSMT 1C

Plant Organs: ROOTS Learning Objectives:      Describe the functions of the roots, and describe two features of roots that shoots lack. Contrast the structure of a primary eudicot root and a monocot root, and describe the functions of each tissue. Trace the pathway of water from the soil through the various root tissues. Describe several roots that are modified to perform unusual functions. Discuss the significance of roots to humans.

Root Structure and Function
Roots grow underground and are out of sight. Roots functions are for anchorage, absorption, conduction and storage. It absorbs water and dissolved minerals from the soil. There are two types of root system:  Taproot System- a root system consisting of one prominent main root with smaller lateral roots branching from it.  Fibrous Root System- a root system consisting of several adventitious roots of approximately equal size that arise from the base of the stem.

Roots possess a root cap and root hairs
The root system have several structures that shoots lack. Two of them are the root cap and root hairs.  Root Cap- a covering of cells over the root tip that protects the delicate meristematic tissue directly behind it.  Root Hair- an extension of an epidermal cell of a root that increases the absorptive capacity if the root.

Roots of Herbaceous Eudicot and Monocots
The central core in most herbaceous eudicot roots is vascular tissue  Epidermis- a single layer of protective tissue that covers the roots  Cellulose- absorbs water as a sponge does  Cortex- composed primarily of loosely arranged parenchyma cells with large intercellular spaces; make up the bulk of the root  Endodermis- the innermost layer of the cortex of root that prevents water and dissolved materials from entering the xylem by passing between cells  Casparian Strip- a band of waterproof material around the radial and transverse cells of the endodermis; ensure the water and minerals enter the xylem only by passing through the endodermal cells  Symplast- a continuum consisting of the cytoplasm of many plant cells, connected to the next by plasmodesmata  Apoplast- a continuum consisting of the interconnected, porous plant cell walls, along which water moves freely  Stele- a cylinder of vascular tissues that are located at the center of primary eudicot root  Xylem- the centermost tissue of the stele; conduct water and dissolved materials o Tracheids o Vessels  Phloem- located in patches between xylem arms; conduct CHO o Sieve-tube elements  Vascular Cambium- gives rise to secondary tissues in woody plants  Pith- lacking in primary eudicot root; a ground tissue found in the centers of many stems and roots The central tissue in some monocot roots is pith Unlike the xylem in herbaceous eudicot roots, the xylem in monocot root does not form a solid cylinder of vascular tissues in the center. Instead, the phloem and xylem are in separate alternating strands that in cross section are arranged in a circle around the centrally located pith, which consists of parenchyma cells.

Roots with Unusual Functions
 Prop Root- an adventitious root that arises from the stem and provides additional support for the plant  Buttress Root- hold the trees upright and aid the extensive distribution of the shallow roots  Pneumatophore- a specialized aerial root produced by certain trees living in swampy habitats  Contractile Root- a specialized root, often found on bulbs or corms, that contracts and pulls the plant to a desirable depth in the soil

The Pathway of water from the soil through the various root tissues:
Root hair epidermis cortex endodermis pericycle xylem of root

 Suckers- aboveground stems that develop from adventitious buds on the roots  Rhizobia- nitrogen-fixing bacteria  Nodules- a small swelling n the root of a leguminous plant in which beneficial nitrogen-fixing bacteria  Mycorrhiza- a mutually beneficial association between a fungus and a root that helps the plant absorb essential minerals from the soil

Guide Questions:
1. Define roots. 2. What are the functions of roots? 3. Illustrate the pathway of water from the soil to the root tissues. 4. Enumerate the unusual roots. Define each. 5. What is the function of the root cap? 6. What gives rise to the secondary tissues of the woody plants? 7. Differentiate the taproot system from the fibrous root system. 8. What is pith? 9. What does xylem do? What are the two parts of the xylem? 10. What are the difference between symplast and apoplast?

Answer key:
1. Roots are the part of the plant that grows underground. 2. It absorbs water and other minerals from the soil. Its functions are anchorage, absorption, conduction and storage. 3. Root hair epidermis cortex endodermis pericycle xylem of root

4. Prop Root- an adventitious root that arises from the stem and provides additional support for the plant Buttress Root- hold the trees upright and aid the extensive distribution of the shallow roots Pneumatophore- a specialized aerial root produced by certain trees living in swampy habitats Contractile Root- a specialized root, often found on bulbs or corms, that contracts and pulls the plant to a desirable depth in the soil 5. The root cap covers the root tip and it protects the meristematic tissues behind it. 6. Vascular cambium. 7. Taproot System is a root system consisting of one prominent main root with smaller lateral roots branching from it while Fibrous Root System is a root system consisting of several adventitious roots of approximately equal size that arise from the base of the stem. 8. Pith is a ground tissue that is located at the center of many stems and roots. 9. Xylem conducts water and dissolved materials. Tracheids and vessels. 10. Symplast is a continuum consisting of the cytoplasm of many plant cells, connected to the next by plasmodesmata while Apoplast is a continuum consisting of the interconnected, porous plant cell walls, along which water moves freely.

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