Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation
Advisor: Director General for Urban and Rural Development, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Board of Head: Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Director of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Ministry of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Ministry of Home Affairs Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa Board of Editor: Hartoyo, Johan Susmono, Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto Design: Rudi Kosasih Production: Machrudin Distribution: Anggie Rifki Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
From the Editor 1 Your Voice 2 Main Feature Solid waste is still a "waste" 3 Facts about solid waste 3 Reducing methane gas emission from a final disposal site 6 Learn about solid waste from the Chinese 9 Good environmental governance to increase the regional governments' concern to environment 11 Interview Bad solid waste management, poor health condition Article Solid waste as a source of energy. A challenge to the world of solid waste management in Indonesia Pre-study on waste material. Case study: The city of Surabaya Solid waste management in Makassar Water supply and environmental sanitation program management and future challenges The problem with water supply and environmental sanitation in Kab. Kebumen Domestic waste water processing system in the city of Tangerang Solid waste brings a blessing to the village of Temesi, Kab. Gianyar, Bali Reportase Mrs. Bambang Wahono's role play: Manager solid waste, makes Banjarsari green Solid waste capsule, a model for long term solid waste storage Telescope Bandung Municipal Cleaners, Inc. Book Info CD Info Website Info Visit WASPOLA program dissemination in the province of Gorontalo Windfall over Pringga Jurang About WASPOLA The implementation of National Policy for Community Based WSS Development at the regional level WASPOLA working group workshop WASPOLA Central Project Committee meeting About WSS MPA/PHAST Orientation Training WWS Working Group Took Part in Nusantara Water 2004 ProAir Project Planning and Evaluation Meeting Appropriate Technology Seminar: Waste water processing Preparation of ProAir Project in Kabupaten Alor WSS Bibliography Agenda Glossary 13
16 18 20 22 23 25 27
29 35 37 38 39 40 41
42 44 45 46 47 47 48 49 50 51 52
Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Don't forget to be brief and accompanied by identity.
F ROM EDITOR
Dear Reader, Percik is now pacing into a new stage in its effort to reach a wide rage of drinking water and environmental sanitation stakeholders all over the country. Percik is now spreading itself all over the areas between Sabang and Merauke, though, yet in a limited number. Praise to God, Percik has gained a wider acceptance. This is evidenced from the many responses addressed to us. Some even wish to subscribe with payment -whereas Percik is distributed free of charge. This of course is quite pleasing. Last week, together with WASPOLA Program and the WSS Working Group as our parent organization we attended Nusantara Water 2004 at the Jakarta Convention Center. This we did as an effort to bring Percik closer into the inner circle of WSS related stakeholders. We will keep on trying to make this magazine better and better acknowledged as a reference and is used as a means for communication by those involved in this field. Dear reader, in this edition, Percik presents to you the main feature about solid waste. Why? Solid waste is still a nagging problem in this country. Environmental sanitation issue cannot be separated from solid waste. Everyone knows that, but not many have real concern about this problem. This is like a saying, "Let the dogs bark, the caravan will keep moving," solid waste problem never finds its solution despite many words have been said about cleanliness and health. Solid waste is not simply a technical problem. One that relates to what technology is to apply and how much money is to avail. The Secretary General of Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructures, Budiman Arief, explains that. The key, he says that waste material must be treated in
WSS Working Group always sit down on floor if they met in workshops.
a systemic manner. More than that, M. Gempur Adnan, Deputy State Minister of Environmental Affairs for Regional Environmental Management Improvement indicates that it all depends on the mutual commitment of the stakeholders. Without such commitment do not expect any complete solution could be reached. Funding is only a priority number so-and-so. This time Percik also presents you articles from solid waste material related activists and practitioners. We hope that the various articles in reference to the main feature will contribute to our common knowledge about waste material. Not less interesting, there is a report of a woman managing waste
material since a long time ago. Thanks to her perseverance her neighbourhood, located in the heart of Jakarta, is now green and nice looking. This place has turned into a tourist attraction. Many visitors both domestic and foreigners come to learn what the woman has done. And, because of her efforts she has won several distinction and acknowledgements. As always, Percik comes with the usual columns. We hope there will be comments and inputs from the readers so that the magazine could steadily improving itself. Lastly, we hope this magazine is useful to you, our dear readers. Best regards.
Percik August 2004
Y OUR VOICE
MDGs lack eagerness
Congratulations for the publication of Percik. Permit me to suggest that Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) should be more strongly socialized to the regional community in order to generate eagerness and its echo more audible in the ears of all in the community. In this way the community would be inspired and eventually develop a moral obligation to make the MDGs goals and targets into reality.
Natalia Silitonga Office of the Bupati Toba samosir Economic Section-Head of Kimpraswil Sub Section, Jl. Pagar Batu No. 1 Balige North Sumatra
making their best effort towards the socialization. We are also having our share in this effort by publishing it in Percik of the last edition. What we did is nothing without a systematized socialization movement by the stakeholders themselves. (The Editor)
solid waste safety section of Kabupaten Musia Rawas, South Sumatra, towards Healthy Indonesia 2010.
H. Syamsul Anwar Head of Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Musi Rawas
Helping Regional Stakeholders
With the publication of a media specialized in water supply and environmental sanitation (Percik) it has helped us in our job to build interaction with the stakeholders in order to create a common understanding and cooperation between the stakeholders and the Dinas Kesehatan particularly hygienic water and
We are very pleased if the readers could obtain benefit from Percik. The magazine is published to disseminate various policies and programs related to drinking water and environmental sanitation and at the same time also as a means for stakeholders to mutually share information and experience. (Editor) We have received many letters expressing congratulations and acknowledgements from the readers who have received Percik that it is impossible for us to mention them one by one. (Editor)
Your suggestion does indeed conform to our expectation. The stakeholders are
PAPER WRITING COMPETITION
The Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Working Group in collaboration with the Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure invite authors to a competition in writing essay: TITLE: MANAGEMENT OF COMMUNITY BASED WATER SUPPLY AND ENVIRONMENTAL SANITATION SUB TITLE: 1) Community Empowerment in the management of water supply and environmental sanitation 2) Community based funding in the management of water supply and environmental sanitation 3) The institution for the community based water supply and environmental sanitation management 4) The role of women in the community based water supply and environmental sanitation management REQUIREMENTS 1. Competition is open to the public 2. Length of paper is 10-15 pages folio, at 1.5 spacing and is written in Indonesian language 3. The paper has never been published anywhere else 4. The participant must enclosed a photocopy of his personal identity 5. The paper must be submitted to the Committee the latest on October 28, 2004 6. The winner of the competition will be made known to the public on November 28, 2004 7. Winner Prizes: First Prize : Rp5.000.000 Second Prize : Rp3.000.000 Third Prize : Rp1.500.000 For further details please contact: The Committee of Writing Competition Jl. Cianjur No.4 MentengJakarta Pusat Telp. 62-21-31904113
Percik August 2004
MA I N F E A T U R E
Is Still A Waste
We cannot escape from solid waste. Every day there must be something we have to throw away. In the office, at home, and elsewhere. It is not surprising, therefore, that if we fail to properly manage solid waste it will become scattered all around us.
or some people a piece of paper or a bagful of waste doesn't mean anything. But as the paper and domestic waste accumulate with similar material from many people, problem will arise, especially in urban areas where land space is a scarce resource. The fact indicates that the potential area for the formation of waste material generation keeps on increasing from time to time. Waste material generation There is no accurate data that tell us accurately the amount of waste material
generation in Indonesia. But based on Bappenas estimate as quoted from Buku Infrastruktur Indonesia (Indonesian Infrastructure Book) in 1995 the waste material production in Indonesia is estimated at 22,5 million tons, and in 2020 it will increase to more than twofold into 53,7 million tons. In big cities of Indonesia each person is estimated to cast away 600-830 grams of solid waste every day. As an illustration, we could quote the data from several big cities. Jakarta produces 6,2 thousand tons, Bandung 2,1
thousand tons, Surabaya 1,7 thousand tons, and Makassar 0,8 thousand tons of solid waste every day (Damanhuri, 2002). Such an amount calls for a considerable amount of effort to handle it. Based on the above data the total area for final disposal site is estimated at 675 ha in 1995 and will increase up to 1.610 ha in 2020. This condition will cause a big problem considering that the scarcity of empty space especially in big cities. One of the examples is the difficulty faced by the government of Jakarta after Bantar Gebang facility is no more available. Solid Waste Handling Based on BPS data in 2001 only 18,03 percent of the waste was transported, 10,46 percent buried, 3,51 percent turned into compost, 43,76 percent burned, and the remaining 24,24 percent was dumped into rivers, empty lots, etc. It can be seen
Percik 3 August 2004
M AIN FEATURE
The community awareness that the amount of waste transportWaste Handling Penanganan Sampah (%) of cleanliness is relatively suffied was very little, the same is the cient though it is limited within portion for compost production, one's own property. Their while the portion which was burned 60 homes are free from litters but and dumped into an unlikely place 50 unfortunately the waste materireached 68 percent. This condition 40 al is dumped into places like indicates the potential source for 30 drainage, river, and even an water and air pollution including a 20 empty lot belonging to a neighmedium for disease contamination. 10 bour. NIMBY (not in my backEven in the city proper, the portion 0 yard) phenomenon is quite of waste material burned and unCarried dominant here. This condition scrupulously dumped in unlikely Diangkut Piled composting Burned Lainnya Ditimbun Made Dibuat Dibakar Other has developed from the absence place amounts to 50,76 percent. Kompos of a satisfactory waste material The portion of the total waste being management service. buried is still relatively high at Urban Rural Total Perkotaan Perdesaan Total If we try to compare between 10,46 percent. Plastic and similar the community's willingness to material is a resistant compound Source: National Bureau of Statistics, 2002 contribute for water supply and and is relatively difficult to decomgarbage handling service, the latter is repose, therefore, burying such kind of The Main Issue The low coverage of waste material latively lower. This is because the comwaste is not a good idea. Compost making is not widely known among the pop- management service, especially in the munity does not have any idea what waste cities can adversely affect health condi- material handling looks like. ulation. The requirement for land space for Most of the final disposal sites are tion, may cause various abdominal as well designed to apply sanitary landfill tech- as rat infested diseases. Part of the waste final disposal site is increasing. It is necnique. But as time progresses most of is disposed of into a river which is potent essary to find an alternative waste materithem turn back into open dumping (70 cause to flooding during wet season. The al handling method that requires the least percent) and only 30 percent still practic- method and practice for reducing the land area. On the other hand, there is presently no ing controlled landfill and sanitary land- amount of waste is generally known to us fill. Several cities are practicing con- and though in a small scale it is practiced national policy for waste material managetrolled landfill technique. They are: Ja- particularly by the scavengers. Com- ment that may serve as a legal umbrella for karta, Bandung, Semarang, Surabaya, posting is also done but in a very limited an initiative taken by an interested group or stakeholders. The existing regulations are Padang, Malang, Yogyakarta, Pontianak, scale. In the meantime, the existing final partial and scattered in various regional adBalikpapan, Banjarmasin and Denpasar. The reason for less sanitary landfill in disposal facilities are not properly ma- ministrations or government sector agenIndonesia is because of lack of manage- naged. In order to bring down the size of cies. It is natural therefore, that up to now ment discipline in following the technical pile and the failure to benefit from the there is neither institutionalized system, coprocedure, insufficient O&M budget, dif- methane gas produced from the decom- ordination nor integration in waste material ficulty in obtaining dirt soil for cover, position process part of the waste materi- management. With the beginning of regional autoshortage of heavy machinery, low techni- al is burnt down. While in the Kyoto cal capacity, and an absence of scavengers Protocol duly ratified by the government, nomy the responsibility for waste materiorganization in the final disposal as an a reducing methane gas emission is pre- al management is relinquished to the requisite. Other issues related to final regional government. But unfortunately, integrated part of the operation. disposal management include unplea- there are many regions do not consider sant smell, degradation of water quality waste material issue a priority. This is Characteristic of Waste Material Solid waste in cities is different from from waste material disposed of directly evidenced from the lean budget set aside the villages. In general, 80 percent of into the river, penetration of leachate into for dealing with waste material problem. city wastes consist of organic material, surface and ground water sources, air the remainder is inorganic. Half of the pollution and spreading of carcinogenic Policy for the future It is compulsory that in order to find a dioxin compound. inorganic waste is plastic material.
Percik August 2004
M AIN FEATURE
solution to solid waste problem, a systemic and integrated approach must be applied involving all the stakeholders. The more so with the proclamation that world zero waste must be reached in 2025. Several steps that can be taken towards that direction are among others:
1. Minimizing the production of waste through the application of 3R (reduce, reuse and recycle) principle. It is necessary to introduce this principle extensively into the community at this matter is improvement of awareness large in order to make them willing to and responsibility in solid waste managereuse and to recycle their waste. This step ment. The community can assume the is of course preceded with a community role in, (i) management (reducing its proeducation program about the importance duction); (b) supervision (keeping an eye of separating domestic waste to make the throughout the management process); (c) following process easier. The 3R concept user (as individual, group or together will be more effective if it is supported by with the business sector take benefit from a legislation, provision of reward and the waste material); (d) operator (operate punishment as appropriate, to all related and maintain a waste material treatment stakeholders, whether the scavengers, the facility); (e) funding agency (see the diaordinary community members, and oth- gram). ers. Further, the conversion of waste to energy is worth a serious attention because there is no SYSTEM AND MECHANISM OF ROLE OF COMMUNITY one is presently taking a serious attention in this. If the MONITORING SYSTEM waste has found its utilization Funding agency since the very beginning of its Supervision production than the sanitary landfill facility will not need a large area any more. Sanitary Community Management landfill is only used for the treatment of residue from an Reduce incinerator. Operator Compost 2. Increasing the role of the community and the business sector The step in minimizing solid waste production will not be effective unless there is an active participation of the community. They are the producers and they will suffer the most if waste material is not properly managed. The key to
Reuse Recycle Sorting
Organic Waste Inorganic Waste Dangerous Waste Human Resource as operator and maintenance - Transportation feet - Biogas plant - Incenerator - Final Disposal Site
Waste material issue is not limited within a single city, rather it also involves the neighbouring regions. Air, water and soil pollution involves an extensive area beyond an administrative boundary.
3. Increasing inter-regional coordination in waste material management Solid waste issue is not limited within a single city, rather it also involves the neighbouring regions. Air, water and soil pollution involves an extensive area beyond an administrative boundary. Therefore, selection of a final disposal site which up to now is based on administrative region is irrelevant. In the future it will become compulsory to develop a regional solid waste management system as a common effort to solve difficulty in obtaining a land space for solid waste disposal site. 4. Development of new technologies The capacity in solid waste related services depend on the available technology. An optimum management can be achieved if it involves a suitable technology. That is why, an application of new technology can be one alternative for improvement of solid waste management capacity especially in cities. 5. Extensive campaign in hygiene behaviour Solid waste management will not be effective unless there is a common awareness that a hygienic environment is also their basic demand. The improvement of awareness must be done continuously to all segments of the community. Hygiene education program must be inserted in school curriculum since early on. Finally, increasing the interest off all solid waste related stakeholders can no longer wait. How sophisticated in the technology, plenty of money to send, good human resources capacity, but without interest from the stakeholders, solid waste will remain 'waste'. OM/MJ
Economic Activity Industry Recycle Source of production
Together with business sector
Source: Ministry of Environment
Percik 5 August 2004
M AIN FEATURE
Facts About Solid Waste
What is solid waste? Waste is a material rid of or thrown away from man's or nature's activity and has no immediate economic value What is the classification of solid waste? Based on its origin solid waste can be classified as, (i) domestic waste consisting of household refuse, rubble from a building demolition, sanitation and road litters. In general this kind of waste comes from settlement and commercial areas, (ii) dangerous materials such as refuse from industrial plant and from a hospital, which may contain poisonous substance, such as used battery, shoe polish, drug containers, (iii) medical waste. Based on its shape it can be classified as, (i) dry inorganic waste such as metal, can, bottle which will not decay naturally, (ii) wet inorganic waste such as from kitchen, restaurant wastes, food crumbs which will decay naturally. (iii) dangerous waste material, such as used battery, used syringe. Based on degradability solid waste can be classified as, (i) biodegradable, solid waste that will decompose naturally such as organic wastes including kitchen waste, fruit, flower, leaf and paper, (ii) non-biodegradable consisting of recycleable wastes such as plastic, paper, glassware; poisonous waste like medicine, paint, battery, shoe polish, medical waste such as syringe. What is the time needed for solid waste to decompose? The time needed for solid waste to decompose depends on the type of the material. In general, organic waste decomposes immediately, while other material such as plastic is estimated to decompose in one million years. What step can be taken to minimize domestic solid waste production? Solid waste production can be minimized. The principle is the reduction
FOTO: OSWAR MUNGKASA
Type of waste material Organic waste (plant, fruit etc.) Paper Cotton dress Wood Woolen dress Aluminium, can, and similar material Plastic bag Glassware
Time to decompose 1-2 weeks 10-30 days 2-5 months 10-15 years 1 year 100-500 years 1 million years? Not known
must be made as near as possible to its origin. In connection with solid waste reduction we are acquainted with 3R principle (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) which later became 4R (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle, Refuse). The basic difference between 3R and 4R principle is the additional of Refuse principle (sometimes also called Replace) which focuses on using a more
4R (Refuse, Reuse, Recycle, Reduce) 1. Refuse. Use a more durable material instead of one time only 2. Reduce. Produce less waste 3. Reuse. Use material that can be used more than once. 4. Recycle. Use a material than can be recycled later on.
durable material instead of one time only. The advantage of 4R principle is reducing greenhouse effect, less air and water pollution, energy saving, conservation of resources, less land space for final disposal, generating employment, and promoting green technology. Solid waste type depends on community's cultural habit. In modern society especially in big cities plastic material is widely used. As an illustration, the majority of domestic waste is plastic bag brought home from the store, or styrofoam ex food container. Plastic waste is a great threat to our environment because it takes about one million years before it fully decomposes (at that time world may have ended in a doomsday). This condition makes us aware of the importance of application of 4R principle in order to minimize solid waste production. Therefore the movement for reducing solid waste production must start from its place of origin, i.e. the household. Therefore the application of this principle depends to a large extent on the community awareness.
Percik August 2004
M AIN FEATURE
The time needed for waste material to decompose depends on the type of the material. In general, organic waste decomposes immediately, while other material such as plastic is estimated to decompose in one million years
thick dirt layer. Later the site will be made into a parking lot. (iii) Sanitary Landfills. Unlike an ordinary Landfill a sanitary landfill uses waterproff material to prevent leachate pollute the surrounding. The operational cost for a sanitary landfill is considerably higher. (iv) Incinerator. Solid waste is put into a separator to pick out all the recyclable material. What is not recyclable is incinerated. Incineration is usually the last alternative to pick. Solid waste handling is more inclined to medically favourable handling technique. (v) Composting. A biological process that enables microorganisms decompose organic wastes into farm manure. What is the responsibility of the producers? If the household is given a role to reduce solid waste production through 4R principle, then the producers must also be imposed with a clear responsibility. The producers could help the household in applying 4R principle. One of them is through EPR (Extended Producer Responsibility) program which represents an effort to promote the producer to reuse the product and packaging it produces. An incentive program to producers is a must. OM
How can solid waste be treated? There are at least 5 widely known methods in solid waste treatment: (i) Open dumps. Solid waste is disposed of in an open space and let it to rot naturally without any further action
taken. (ii) Landfills. This is a relative better disposal site as compared to open dump. After dumping the solid waste is covered with dirt soil and compacted. After all the space is used the site is covered with a
FACTS ABOUT SOLID WASTE IN THE U.S.
In 2001 waste production amounted to 209 million tones or approx. 4,4 pounds per capita per day. Increased twofold from the amount of 1960. About 30% is recycled, 15% burned, and 56% transported to disposal site. In 1990 recycling and composting reduced 64 million tons of solid waste that should have been transported to disposal site. At present 30% of waste material is recycled. This percentage increases twice compared to the condition 15 years ago. Recycling of used batteries reached 94%, paper 42%, plastic bottles 40%, beverage and beer can 55%. The number of final waste disposal sites reduces from 8.000 in 1998 to 1.858 in 2001 with relatively the same capacity.
FACTS in OTHER COUNTRIES
United States is an industrialized nation with the biggest waste material producer 4,4 pounds of waste per capita per day, followed by Canada 3,75 pounds, and the Netherlands 3 pounds. Germany and Sweden are two industrialized nations with the least waste material production. United State is an industrialized nation with the highest recycling proportion at 24%, followed by Switzerland 23% and Japan 20%.
Percik 7 August 2004
M AIN FEATURE
Reducing Methane Gas Emission
inal disposal site is the largest contributor in methane gas emission in the US, and probably also in Indonesia. Whereas a disposal site is actually one of energy source potentials. LFG (landfill gas) is produced when solid waste is undergoing decomposition. This gas comprises 50% methane (CH4), the main component of natural gas, and the rest is carbon dioxide (CO2). As an illustration, in December 2003, there are 360 LFG based power generating projects in the US and another 600 potential final disposal sites for similar establishment. Some of the advantageous from using LFG based energy are, (i) reduce unpleasant smell, (ii) minimize methane gas emission and negative effect to global climate. It is estimated an LFG project can reduce up to 60-90% of methane gas produced in the disposal site, depending on the technology applied. Methane gas is processed to produce water and CO2 when the gas is converted into electricity. To produce approximately 4 MW of elec-
SOURCE: FANI WEDAHUDITAMA
tricity is equivalent to planting 60.000 acres of forest a year or reducing CO2 emission of 45.000 cars a year. This amount of energy can replace the use of coal for 1.000 locomotives or the use of 500 barrels of fuel oil, (iii) reduce air pollution through burning less non-renewable fuel, such as coal, natural gas and oil, (iv) creating new employment, income
Solid Waste and Climatic Change
e may not quite aware that solid waste can influence the climate through emission of green house gases in several ways. What is the linkage between solid waste to climatic changes? First. Solid waste decomposition at the final disposal site produces methane gas which is 21 times stronger than CO2 in producing green house effect. Second. An incinerator releases CO2, the same type of gas produced by the trucks transporting the waste.
What is the waste material management strategy for reducing emission of green house gases? Minimizing the production of organic waste for processing in the final disposal site. As the waste decomposes methane gas is released. Reducing incinerating of solid waste . This will reduce the production of CO2. Recyclable waste usually need less energy for the processing, thus emission could be kept to a minimum.
and cost saving. The LFG utilization program in US has significantly reduce methane emission at an amount of 14 metric million tons carbon equivalent (MMTCE), a benefit in reducing green house gases from planting 18 million acres of forest or reducing annual emission of 13 millions of cars. While the other 600 waste disposal sites with potentials for generating electricity from methane gas, based on calculation, can generate power for the consumption of 1 million homes. There are several processing alternatives for converting methane gas into energy, (i) electric power generator, (ii) direct use in lieu of the ordinary fuel like natural gas, coal and petroleum, (iii) cogeneration, a combination of heat and power (Combined Heat and Power/CHP) to generate electricity and heat. Aside from the benefit of converting LFG into power it should also be borne in mind that the process is also producing an emission of NOx gas which is detrimental to ozone layer and causing foggy smoke to the surrounding. OM
Percik August 2004
M AIN REPORT Learn About Solid Waste from the Chinese
SOURCE: ENDANG SETYANINGRUM
he Olympic contest in Athens was over, the Bamboo Curtain country will in turn host the meeting in Beijing in 2008. In anticipation to the forthcoming event the Chinese people are busying themselves from straightening up the problems of infrastructures till making the city presentable and clean. The scene is quite obvious in Beijing, the capital city. Although this is seemingly still a long way off, the city is tidying itself up and infrastructure development works are rolling steadily. It is of course understandable, because they don't want to find out that the city with 16 million people disappoint the athletes, officials and supporters from all over the world while they stay there as their guests. For the Olympic event the Chinese government has issued a special policy for the improvement of city environment including its solid waste management system. The city government has formulated a local policy for waste material management containing, (i) increase the level of coverage to 98% in 2007; (ii) recycle and composting 30% of total solid waste; (iii) solid waste separation at the source up to 50% in 2007; (iv) in 2007 landfill management meets standard environmental requirement; and (v) continuing development of leachate processing technology in order to meet the required effluent standard. Solid Waste Management Condition Technical Aspect Solid waste management in Beijing is not too far different than it is in Indonesia. The composition and characteristic of solid waste in both places is almost similar. The handling process from the initial source up to the final disposal is also the same, including the fact that no separation is done in the source.
However, Beijing which produces 9.000 tons of waste material per day (in comparison to 6.000 tons in Jakarta) has an excellent service, in terms of its coverage (90%) as well as its quality of service. Although no separation is made at its source origin, but the transfer stations are equipped with such a facility. In this way the waste transported to final disposal is only the residual. Then the organic waste is processed into compost, in a city scale facility with the present capacity at 200-400 tons/day. The collecting and transportation are almost the same with our condition here, including the tricycle cart and compactor truck. But the transportation quality and efficiency is excellent because one transfer station is built at 8 km spacing. The final disposal site applying sanitary landfill method is also in a sufficiently good quality. The table below presents the reader the total, area and capacity of landfills in Beijing. Table 1 Landfills in Beijing
No Location Area (Ha) Capacity (tons/day)
1. 2. 3. 4.
Bishinshu landfill Liutilun landfill Asuwei landfill Anding landfill
33,7 46,5 60 21,6
1000 1500 2000 700
The components of a landfill comprise a waterproof base, leachate collector network, leachate pond, oxidation ditch, a drainage ditch around the landfill, gas collector (presently is to be burnt), control road, and buffer zone, weighing scale, heavy machinery, water tank, dirt cover, office, sport facility, a stock of dirt for cover. Though the facility is relatively sufficient, the leachate processing does not
produce the standard effluent set for Beijing. The following table indicates the process and effluent quality from several landfills in Beijing vs. the effluent standards for China and Beijing. Table 2: Leachate processing result
Tipe Parameter Effluent quality parameter
Type of Leachate Proses Pengolahan Processing Leachate
kualitas efluent leachate BOD Amonia BOD Amonia 22,9 126 17 24 1,2 – 15
Beishinshu Liulitun Asuwei Pilot Test RO Membrane
Diangkut ke sewerage Transported to sewerage treatment plant treatment plant Oxidition Ditch Oxidation ditch Oxidation Ditch Oxidation ditch Filtrasi dengan reverse osmosis Reverse osmosis filter
324 787 3 - 17
Percik August 2004
M AIN REPORT
SOURCE: ENDANG SETYANINGRUM
Table 3: Effluent China and Beijing
COD BOD Amonia < 300 < 150 < 25
< 60 < 20 < 25
Final dirt cover is done using clay soil, geo textile, bentonite, and clay/top soil. The land is then planted with vegetation and is kept as an open space. Management aspect Waste management in Beijing is operated by "Solid Waste Agency" (BSW-AD). This institution gets its funding (investment as well as O&M) from the city government budget and from the community contribution. The amount of tariff depends on the size of family. A family of more than 3 members is charged at an amount of RMB3 per person a month (equivalent to Rp3.000). For a family of three or less RMB2 per person per month. Community participation in Beijing is highly commendable, but the role of private sector in management is lacking. Lessons learned Technical aspect A coverage increase to almost 100% in 2007 indicates the seriousness of government commitment. This condition is needed for a metropolitan city like Jakarta. Although Beijing hasn't been applied the 3R principle, but the separation process conducted at the transfer station has contributed a satisfactory result. Big/metropolitan cities in Indonesia can adopt the practice by putting up transfer stations equipped with separation facility. Another interesting thing is that for the purpose of 2008 Olympic Games in 2007 solid waste separation right at the initial source is targeted to reach
50% level. For Indonesian case a serious application of 3R principle must start immediately. The transportation process is very efficient, because transfer station is located within the radius of 8 km. In Indonesia it is built at a more than 25 km spacing. A high capacity (200-400 tons/day) composting installation is considered advantageous (good compost quality and is used by the farmers). In Indonesian application big scale composting can be done without the necessity for application of the principle of economic benefit system. Sanitary landfill applied in the final disposal is appropriate considering the availability of support components and operational reliability. For Indonesian application it is deemed necessary to build a strong will and hard work in improving landfill quality. The application of a stricter effluent standard for Beijing has pushed the development of leachate processing technology such as reverse osmosis (RO), all for the sake of safeguarding the environment particularly water resources.
Management aspect The city government of Beijing is highly committed to improving the landfill quality (except for the effluent, at present it is in a satisfactory condition). The existence of seriousness and professional attitude of the field workers is a valuable asset to the success of Beijing clean program. In Indonesia generally, the workers with a cleaning job feel themselves as "men from odd place". The contribution collected from community is based on incentive to smaller families; in Indonesia incentives can be applied based on a lesser amount of waste. Enforcement of regulation against littering has been quite effective; in Indonesia such a deed is conducted indifferently and bears no marked consequence, one is more afraid of running against traffic light, or "three in one' regulation, or failure to put on safety belt than throwing litters out of the window. The community is quite conscious in clean environment. In Indonesia this kind of consciousness must be built; it might be necessary to include it in school curriculum since early age. The above lessons can be adopted by the Indonesian policy makers. Why not take a lesson from China, the Bamboo Curtain nation whose city cleanliness is comparable to that of European and Japanese cities?
Endang Setyaningrum, Directorate of Metropolitan, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastucture, Member of WSS Working Group
Percik August 2004
M AIN REPORT
Governance Development Program
To Increase the Local Government Concern to Environment
n the absence of Adipura award, the attention to cleanliness is fading out. The local governments that used to be so eager to compete among each other for a clean and beautiful city have almost gone, especially after 1998. Towns and cities that used to keep a relatively high mark in cleanliness, have suddenly gone down in evaluation conducted in 2003. This happens in almost all big cities -metropolitan, big, medium and small- of Indonesia, as can be seen in Table 1.
GOAL AND AIM OF GOVERNANCE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM
Governance Development Program
Regional government House of Representative Public Stakeholders
Effective government Good Environmental Governance Empowered Society
Civil Society Program
This fact tells us that in many places of this country the environmental issues tend to increase. Some happens naturally, but many are caused by human hands in line with the increasing number of population and a greater demand for natural resources and living space. That's why, there is a need for capacity improvement in environmental management. The old centralized model is no more applicable, it should be replaced with a decentralized model. Each region may utilize all its potential and mobilize all segments of its community and be aware of how serious the environmental hazard
has become and how urgent is the demand to redeem it, so that they could make an action plan for environmental sustainability. However, the precondition for an effective and sustainable environmental management is the establishment of good governance. It is from there that a new paradigm was born, i.e. good environmental governance. This paradigm becomes the underlying principle for a Governance Development Program of the Ministry of Environment designed for the purpose of to strengthening the capacity of the local government to practice good governance principle in environmental sector and at the same time also improve the performance of government administration. This program is supported with Program Warga Madani (Civil Society Program) which is directed towards community empowerment. The Governance Development Program started implementation in 2002. It was launched in Bali on 5 June to coincide with commemoration of the Environment Day. The Deputy Minister of Environment for Regional Environmental Management
Capacity Development, M. Gempur Adnan, describes the essence of Good Environmental Governance Program is strengthening coordination system to enable the government to get the most accurate response so that solution to the most urgent issues could be taken. The system development includes the mechanism to guarantee that all parties involved could voice out their ideas in a democratic manner, guarantee of a fair and transparent procedure in planning and implementation, and the application of standard and criteria to judge a fair and transparent implementation. Some of the elements in the Governance Development Program that are influential in the achievement of Good Environmental Governance are as the following: 1. Motivation of the Head of the Regional Administration; 2. Competence and commitment of chief of institution; 3. Human resources capacity; 4. Existence of a support policy; 5. Establishment of accountability system; 6. Availability of fund.
Percik August 2004
M AIN REPORT
During 2002-2003 the activity was focused on the monitoring and evaluation of environmental issues of the cities and urban areas, covering the aspects of solid waste management, management of vegetative covered open space, management of public facility, and water pollution control. This year 59 cities join the program. Beside a direct field observation each region is given a set of questionnaires to fill in. Evaluation is made on managerial, learning capability, institution, physical output, and innovation aspects. The information and data collected are fed into the baseline data bank and are updated on yearly basis. Capacity development policy and program is formulated based on the existing data. In the second implementation year (Jun 2003 - May 2004) the number of participating towns/cities increases to 123. Out of this number 31 are qualified for nomination as the cleanest towns/cities for winning Adipura award. This award consists of Anugerah Adipura (Adipura Award) for towns/cities whose performance exceeds predetermined criteria, and Piagam Adipura (Adipura Charter) is given to towns/cities whose performance is nearing the predetermined criteria. Last June there were 15 towns received Anugerah Adipura and 15 others won the Piagam Adipura. The award was made by the President in a ceremony held at the presidential palace. The program does not end here. This will continue. Of course with some adjustments in terms of monitoring and evaluation and in its institutionalization aspects. The ultimate goal remains, establishment of good environmental governance. (MJ)
M. Gempur Adnan, Deputy Minister of Environment for Regional Environmental Management Capacity Development
"The key, Local Government Commitment"
veryone knows what to do with solid waste. Everyone also knows the shortcomings connected to it, such as technical, financial, equipment, and human resources. But why does the problem persist? Neither in those regions to where once an assistance has been given. Then what is the keyword to this problem? We have come to a conclusion that all this depends on the commitment of the regional government. Do they, the regional government and its community, have any commitment to solve the problem of waste material? If they do, money is no problem. The area will be free from litters if the regional government is committed. Otherwise, whatever assistance given won't do any good.There is always problem with money. It should be allocated to the right direction. Through this program, we intend to improvement the regional government's commitment. To instill the feeling of disgraced once one finds
the area messy. We will encourage everyone to make litter free and clean city an issue. If this issue is not brought to the surface the local government will remain indifferent. Currently we are doing our best to raise this solid waste issue up to the decision making level, regional and central. In this way we hope regional and central commitment will develop and thicken. Imagine if the president voices out, the governor speaks louder, then we can expect that something will get done. This program will be voluntary in nature. It consists of two components, one is to encourage clean and green city. The second is capacity building. We encourage the regions to improve their capacity in environmental management especially one related to city. We organize workshops, training, comparative studies, etc. in relation to city management. The focus is laid on solid waste, improvement in public facility, and vegetative covered open space. We will
limit up to these three things first because the condition in the regions is that messy. If we tackle all at once, nothing will happen. This program is in essence quite similar to the Adipura. The mechanism is what makes it different. In the good governance program there is the capacity building component, which is absent in Adipura. In Adipura once a year, good governance three times a year. Everything is transparent. Each city knows what progress it has made each time it is monitored and evaluated. Other cities also have the opportunity to know. The community knows from the mass media because we always try to expose it. We cannot expect, though, that the cities winning the competition is indeed clean. All is still dirty. But if we wait, when will they reach a preferred level of cleanliness? This means an endless wait. We hope in 5 years there will be 50 clean cities in Indonesia. (MJ)
Percik August 2004
Budiman Arief, Secretary General, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure
"Bad Solid Waste Management, Poor Health Condition"
o l i d w aste is not an easy problem to solve. As evidence, no definite solution has yet been found for solid waste problem in Indonesia. There are many factors involved each intermingling with the others. That is why, solid waste management is a system so that its implementation calls for a synergic effort from all the stakeholders. That is the essence of discussion between Percik and Mr. Budiman Arief, Secretary General, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure in his office. The following are the excerpts of the conversation: Speaking of the present solid waste management in Indonesia, how does it look like? In general, solid waste management, especially of the cities, is insufficient. Though it was sufficiently good when there was the Adipura program between 1986-1996, because it was motivated with the reward for the cities which could maintain cleanliness. After that the condition is declining. Only recently there is another program, good environmental governance which started in 2002. But the echo is not as extensive as the Adipura because the number of participants is limited. Why was the condition declining? Was it because of the absence of reward or some other factor? There was no reward indeed. Secondly there was that crisis. Solid waste handling is no priority any more. The government attention is shifted to poverty and all other related problems.
All this makes solid waste management left behind. The attention by the kabupaten/city government is also declining. There is probably interrelated factor influencing. The absence of reward reduces the attention. Solid waste handling is actually one of the basic service to the public. Solid waste is closely related to health. A city without a good solid waste management one may be sure that the level of health condition is poor because garbage piles are the homes of disease vector. What about financial factor? If we look into solid waste management in general, and this we have informed to all kabupaten/kota governments throughout the country, that there are 5 dominant aspects governing the solid waste management. Each of the
aspect is inter-related with the others. If we want success, all the aspects must be properly considered. First is institutional. The second, financial. The third, technical. The fourth legal; and the fifth is community participation. Many would think that solid waste is purely technical, which is utterly misleading. All the aspects must mutually supportive. Take for instance, the institutional aspect. If in a city the responsible institution is given a very low status, the institution will have a real hard time. A section or sub-section chief will have difficulty to see a Mayor because he is too low an employee. Therefore there must be an agreement, that for a big city the institution responsible for solid waste management must be a Dinas level. In a medium city a sub-dinas, and not lower. Financially there must be sufficient
Percik August 2004
fund. APBD for solid waste must not be too small. It will be difficult. In reality, if it is managed properly, solid waste can generate income, though not 100 percent recovery. At least 70 percent of the expenses can be recovered from the contribution. Thus the subsidy requirement is only 30 percent. If the financial aspect is not put into order and the contribution is not properly collected, the effort will only be wasting money. From the legal aspect, the regulation must be made effective. The regional government regulation must be specific and clear. If no action is taken against some littering, what will happen next. Waste is produced by man's activity, therefore law must be upheld. From the technical aspect one cannot do as one wishes. There is calculation to be made. What system to be applied, the time for transport, what will be done at the disposal site. Then from the community participation, this is one of the most important thing. If the community does not support, the costs will become extremely high. Therefore community participation must be built and increased. All five aspects are inter-related. Does it mean there is no one single dominant factor? That is right. But the first thing is the availability of fund. Otherwise what can we do? But still, money is no guarantee. What has the government done in the solid waste management? Depkimpraswil (ministry of public work) is responsible for preparing guidelines. We have produced many guidelines how to handle solid waste in the right manner. That is not all, though. We also prepare a stimulant program. We make it available to the really interested regional government. If not interested, we wouldn't give it because it would mean waste of money. Look at their effort and see in what way we could help. This also is a kind of reward.
How many regional governments have been granted the stimulant? Since 2001 there have been many. We have helped the newly established cities, for example as initial equipment we gave them a truck. If later it turns out effective we add with another one. What plan does the government have for the future? I think we have to continue with what we have started. Improvement must be made to final disposal ground. The regional government wants to apply sanitary landfill, but the fact is merely open dumping. This is what causes many protests. Open dumping should have been left out entirely. We might not be able to apply a sanitary landfill technique in full, but we are heading there. We will provide assistance to a regional government who still has difficulty in handling a final disposal ground. What should be done with the community? All the regional governments must take action to educate the community about solid waste management. As an example, there is a family who has paid a garbage collector but he is still required to pay a duty to the Dinas Kebersihan. This will lead the community into confusion. They should be given information that from the technical point of view solid waste management consists of waste collecting from individual homes, than transport to disposal ground and finally the processing. The payment to RT/RW is only for collecting which represents 30 percent of the whole technical process. Sometimes, however, what the RT/RW collects too much that nothing is left for the Dinas Kebersihan. Therefore, the community must be educated so that they fully understand what is what in solid waste management.
What is your opinion regarding the community awareness of solid waste? I think the community has not fully understood the importance of solid waste management. For villagers solid waste may have no significance because they have enough empty space, but for townspeople it is just the opposite. The latter cannot manage their wastes on an individual basis, rather they have to do it collectively. But the problem is, most of the townspeople come from the village. They bring the villager's habit with them. None of the services is given for free. What is the linkage between the government step in solid waste handling with MDGs? I think one of the objectives of the MDGs is improvement of sanitation service. Presently we are preparing a National Action Plan. We have to translate MDGs into Indonesian condition. The MDGs objectives could be considered quantitative as it is also qualitative. All the wastes may be transported entirely, but if the transport is once a week or once in two weeks, qualitatively it is poor. Because solid waste must be transported once in three days at the longest, otherwise it will begin to decompose. Thus the level of service may be considered in quantitative as well as in qualitative manner. Can MDGs sanitation target particularly with respect to solid waste be achieved in 2015? If the standard is sanitary landfill like the developed countries, I doubt that we could make it. But we can translate it in terms of qualitative result. What is important is that we make improvement from the previous condition. That is why it is necessary to have a common agreement among the related government departments regarding our National Action Plan and how the targets would be achieved.
Percik August 2004
How do you look at the linkage between regional autonomy and solid waste? Actually, it has always been the responsibility of the kabupaten/kota governments. Pursuant to Law No. 22, Government Regulation No. 25, earlier there was a government regulation No. 18 year 1953 which stipulates that solid waste management is the responsibility of the kabupaten/kota government. Therefore, the responsibility rests with the regional government. Does it mean that the change towards regional autonomy a few years ago has no effect to the responsibility in solid waste management? I should say so. However we now expect the regions would improve their performance in handling their wastes. What was before not very clear, it now becomes more obvious. What about inter-regional solid waste handling that causes friction such as the cases in Bantar Gebang and Bojong? Problem surely arises in a metropolitan city. In smaller and medium sized cities they can find solution because space is still relatively easier to find. In a big city like Jakarta, the management becomes more complex. That is why the sanitary landfill must be built together with the other regions. Incinerator I think is too expensive both in terms of investment as well as operational costs. We have to be careful in evaluating the technical aspect. If our per capita income has reached USD5.000 we may then think about an incinerator. What is your opinion about the regional attention with respect to solid waste? Insufficient, I have to say. Why did we design Adipura? Because we thought that solid waste handling would be done well if there is a sufficient attention. I reckon that an investment for solid waste
handling would not be big as it for road building or drinking water installation. If the regional governments have the interest solid waste handling could be done in the right manner. What is the central government budget for solid waste handling? As I said earlier, the government only provides a stimulant. This Department provides basic infrastructures such as drinking water, waste water, solid waste, drainage, and roads. We do not only provide them with a guideline but also a stimulant. This is intended to build attention from within the regions
handling should be done with institutional approach? What I mean is this. An institution is something with a clear and definite responsibility. There must be an institution, but the community must be involved in a clear system. For instance RT/RW or a community group is responsible in accumulation. The institution will take care the transport from the transfer stations to the final disposal ground. Therefore the responsible institution must be clearly defined with a sufficient level of power. What is your expectation with our cities in the future?
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
Does it mean the budget is sufficient? Not enough. Still too small. And the required infrastructure is still insufficient. Is there any country with comparable condition that we can learn a lesson from? I think there is a need for a comparative study to other countries with a comparable condition. It is not a good idea to go to developed countries like Australia or Japan. Too far. We go to places nearer to us, such as a study to Kuching in Malaysia. We have done it already. From what you said, solid waste
Cleanliness and orderly condition must be established. Beauty is perhaps something of a luxury. Cleanliness is the base point. If you want to put something into order, cleanliness must go first. Bupati and the Mayor must give a bigger attention in this case. If there is a reward, I think it would be even better. What does the cooperation look like? Solid waste is a NIMBY (not in my backyard) phenomenon. Those who are affected must have a fair compensation. And the approach to the community is made in the proper manner. (mujiyanto)
Percik August 2004
Solid Waste as a Source of Energy:
A Challenge to the World of Solid Waste Management In Indonesia
everal technologies for elimination of solid waste have been tried for application in Indonesia. The most commonly used technology is sanitary landfill which is practiced in several big cities. A sanitary landfill is essentially a biological reactor in which solid waste undergoes anaerobic decomposition. One of the products from the anaerobic degradation is methane (CH4) gas which contains a relatively high caloric value. This could become a significant source of energy. Compost is not sufficiently utilized Compost produced from city waste cannot find a good market in Indonesia. Farmers, estate crop growers, and gardeners are not interested in using compost. This is perhaps because compost does not provide additional nutrition to plant and soil, nor does it provide a direct increase to plant produce. Besides, compost is not intended to take the role of chemical fertilizers. Compost is more useful for improvement of soil texture and increase water holding capacity of the soil so that water intake by plant roots increases. On the other side, the government does not sufficiently promote the community to use compost. In a number of compost production installations the production is below the optimum rate, to finally stop production for lack of sustaining customers. Source of energy It is deemed necessary to embark on a new concept for handling the problem of city solid waste. As an alternative, solid
Sandhi Eko Bramono *) waste can be processed into a new product with a higher market value and is needed by the community. Why? Because Indonesia is beginning to experience an energy crisis. Fuel oil is getting scarcer, oil reserve is limited, and the price of crude oil in the world market is increasing. There must be a renewable source of energy with less negative impact to the environment. This is where energy from solid waste can take an alternative place, and at the same time as a means for elimination of solid waste. In so doing it is hoped that the burning of
fossil fuel can be brought to a minimum, and reducing the exploitation rate of fossil fuel from the earth. The available technology Composting is basically an energy conversion process. But some of the existing energy is released and the material produced contains a lower caloric value. This is because the anaerobic composting process produces a new solid and simpler material and releases carbon dioxide (CO2) gas which is not readily used as an energy source. There are several other processes for converting energy from solid waste into new substance. The processes are among others:
SOURCE: FANY WEDAHUDITAMA
Percik August 2004
SOURCE: FANY WEDAHUDITAMA
high energy content. This product can be used as a biodiesel fuel (as an alternative or additive to solar fuel) which is now widely used. While a gasifikasi process produces high caloric gases. It is also worth considering as an alternative fuel. Incineration Process This process is relatively more costly than the processes mentioned above. Waste material with lowest moisture content can only produce not more that a natural temperature of 200°C. In the meantime the working temperature for this reduction process is between 600-800°C to form carcinogenic and furan compounds. Research conducted in several incinerators in the US has not produced a satisfactory result in the reduction process resulting these two compounds, though the process was made at a temperature well above 600-800°C. The process produces a high temperature that can be used to propel steam turbine for generating electricity. The extent of energy needed As an energy generating process, the amount of energy input - output must be calculated in a balance between mass and energy. The input energy must be kept as low as possible, and since the output of the process is also energy, the total energy output can be calculated. If the input is too big, it means the process is inefficient. Besides, it is still necessary to make further study about the energy extent that can be used, because each output of a process has an extent of use. In this case, energy use efficiency under a certain amount of energy produced from a certain amount of solid waste must also be taken into consideration. It should also be borne in mind that each process has a certain extent of benefit from the output product. In this way the benefit can be made as effective and efficient as possible.
As an energy generating process, the amount of energy input - output must be calculated in a balance between mass and energy. The input energy must be kept as low as possible, and since the output of the process is also energy, the total energy output can be calculated.
Anaerobic Process This process releases methane (CH4) gas, one with high calorie content. Sanitary landfill is essentially a large capacity anaerobic reactor. Several techniques have been tried to increase the methane gas production. Recycling of leachate is one of the techniques for increasing methane gas production and at the same time speed up the solid waste degradation process. However, a smaller capacity and specially designed anaerobic reactor is easier to monitor and the control in the methane gas production kinetics than it is with a sanitary landfill. The residue from the process can be used as compost, of which part of the energy has been taken in the form of high caloric methane gas. In comparison, in an aerobic process the decomposition only produces compost. If the anaerobic process is cut off up to the fermentation phase, i.e. before methane gas is produced, the result is alcohol which also contains a high energy content. The use of alcohol and its derivatives as an alternative fuel is also worthy of consideration. Gasifikasi and Pyrolitic Processes Both processes require an additional energy to raise temperature up to 600°C in substoichiometric oxygen or no oxygen at all. The pyrolitic process produces solid material (char) and liquid (tar) with
Postgraduate student of UNSW, Australia
Percik August 2004
Pre-Study on Solid Waste
Case Study: The City of Surabaya
eside the need for additional space, moderately acceptable infrastructures and facilities, population growth brings with it an additional quantity of solid waste (Tchobanoblous, 1977: 4). According to the regulation, solid waste must be collected to a transfer station, and later to be transported to the final disposal ground, separation is made between wet and dry solid wastes. Finally the wastes are processed with a number of different technologies, for instance sanitary landfill, composting, burning in an incinerator, ATAD (autogenous thermophilic aerobic digestion) technology, and so on. But in reality the process does not work in accordance with the environmental sanitation plan developed for the city government (Chiara, 1982:6). As a result, solid waste creates a complex problem, not only in the regions but also at the national level. Solid waste and the city of Surabaya The responsibility for collection, transport and processing of solid waste within the city is imposed on the city government (Law No. 22 Art. 11, verse 2; Cointreau, 1982:4) particularly the Dinas Kebersihan. The city of Surabaya is unable to cope with solid waste problem. There are many difficulties being faced, such as land procurement for the final disposal, the high costs involved in solid waste management while the routine development activities absorb most of the available fund. To solve the problem the city government tries to work together with private sector. But the cooperation is limited in buying and selling, therefore the city government still does not have the real experience in partnership with private sector in an overall solid waste management.
Fany Wedahuditama *)
Composition and processing technology Basically, a technology applied for solid waste processing must be able to solve the problem or at least minimizing the intensity of the problem (Ryding, 1994:71). In determining the type of technology to be applied consideration must be based on the composition of the solid waste (Cointreau, 1982:iv).
AVERAGE COMPOSITION OF SOLID WASTE (WET BASIS) Clasification Klasifikasi
• • • • • • • • • • • • Paper Textil Organic Wood/grass Plastic Leather/rubber Metal (Ferrous) Metal (Non Ferrous) Glass Stone ceramic Bones Others TOTAL
Rainy Musim Hujan 13.54 1.85 52.93 19.15 7.7 0.45 0.82 0.08 1.12 1.61 0.62 0.13
Dry Kemarau Musim season 4.37 2.03 55.59 15.72 7.51 0.03 0.74 0.16 0.68 4.46 0.74 0.07
posal ground (Moenir, 1983:33): 1. Open dumping method 2. Sanitary landfill 3. Baling method 4. Incineration/thermal converter 5. Composting 6. ATAD (Autogenous Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion) Each of the methods has its advantages as well as disadvantages. That is why, in order to prevent a wrong choice that would lead to failure in solid waste management it is necessary that each of the methods be thoroughly studied. Solid waste transport has its role in determining the success of the technology chosen. Transport schedule must be closely timed with the processing capacity of the final disposal site, overload must be prevented otherwise the process will be disturbed. Problem knots Based on the general description about the situation governing solid waste in the city of Surabaya, some knots can be identified. They are as the following: 1. The city has a limited capacity, in terms of technical, financial, and mostly in comprehensive and integrated planning for handling solid waste problems; 2. The existing system in solid waste management, beginning from transport, distribution, and use of transfer stations, final disposal ground, the processing facility and the leachate treatment, does not function properly; 3. The type of technology is cost intensive; 4. Land scarcity for final disposal ground, if the facility must move from its present location, there must a relatively large area in exchange. And besides, solid waste production level will not stay at 8.000 m3 a day, considering the high
Source: JICA Study, 1992
The relation between the type waste and the technology to be applied, has caused a difference in solid waste handling technologies between the industrialized and the developing nations. In the developing nations solid waste compactness is estimated 2-3 times more than that of the industrialized nations. The proportion of organic wastes mostly of plant material is estimated 3 times higher. Based on the composition the most common processing technologies are open dumping and sanitary landfill. There are several processing methods available for application in the final dis-
Percik August 2004
population growth rate. 5. There is only very limited or even lack of government knowledge and experience in cooperation with the private sector or other cities regarding solid waste management. Recommendation In reference to the description in this study, some recommendations presented here may serve as guidelines for the city of Surabaya in its effort to handling its solid waste problems: 1. Collaboration among the municipalities of Surabaya, Sidoarjo and Gresik Sooner or later, when an ever handy service has become a pressing public demand, collaboration among several city governments may become indispensable. One city cannot stand alone independent from the others. It thrives because there are other cities surrounding it. The collaboration is not limited in solid waste, but also in other issues. 2. Cooperation with the private sector in transport, processing. A motto that says city government does not only assume the role as facilitator but also as enabler must be taken as the background for cooperation with the private sector. There is basically a competition among the public enterprises to become a city government partner in the management of public service by reducing the cost of service. especially if it is to be used as a solid waste disposal ground. This is because the land can be used for other purposes that may increase the added value to the city's economic activity. This scarcity must not be allowed as a barrier. The city government has the right to ask for help from the province, in terms of funding, land space, or other necessities for the sake of good public service management. 4. The most suitable solid waste processing technology up to 10 years from now. With the mountain of solid waste piling in the disposal ground it must be eliminated immediately. At least, within one year, the volume of solid waste must be brought down to 30 percent of the present condition, including the new arrivals at the rate approximately 8.000 m3 a day. The most appropriate technology that can eliminate solid waste in a relatively short time is an incinerator/thermal converter. And in addition, this technology can generate electricity as byproduct. In connection with investment required for solid waste processing, as we know, almost all are capital intensive. This is because there has never been, up to now, consideration be taken about inclusion of local content. From observation one could find out that the combustion technology applies a similar principle with that being applied in coal burning for steam turbine. For ITB experts manufacturing a waste material combustion machine is not impossible. Almost all components for such a manufacture are available in Indonesia. Only some components may still have to be imported. Manufacturing a machinery with a large portion of local content can bring down investment costs and provides an opportunity for the city government solve the problem related to solid waste.
The relation between the type waste and the tecnology to be applied, has caused a difference in solid waste handling technologies between the industrialized and the developing nations.
3. Utilizing the provincial government land Land scarcity is always a problem
SOURCE: FANY WEDAHUDITAMA
Alumnus of Magister Environment Tehnique, ITB
Percik August 2004
Solid waste management in Makassar
o l i d w aste is a part of our daily life. In every activity, there must be some waste involved, however neat the activity is. Unfortunately, there are many who are indifferent about this. In most families--especially of the townssolid waste handling is done by housemaids. As a result, solid waste problem is considered done once the house is swept clean and the garbage put into the bin. This opinion is obviously misleading that must be straightened out. Today solid waste is a big headache for big cities in Indonesia, such as Jakarta, Surabaya, including also Makassar. In some cities, solid waste management involves several other neighbouring cities, as a result from lack of land space for final disposal ground. This paper intends to discuss solid waste problem in the city of Makassar, one of the major cities in Indonesia. The city encompasses an area of 175,77 sq. km with a total population of approx. 1,5 million. The city continues growing in line with the development in Makassar as a development centre for the eastern part on Indonesia. Solid waste management by the Dinas Kebersihan dan Keindahan Solid waste management in Makassar comprises three activities, namely collection, transport to the temporary dumping installation and final dumping into the final disposal. Collection is accomplished in two different methods: Individual door to door system, using a cart or other means of transport such a truck and is done by Dinas Kebersihan dan Keindahan or a private enterprise. Communal system, transport from the temporary dumping installation to the remote final disposal ground, and is
Nirman Niswan, ST. *) done by the Dinas Kebersihan dan Keindahan. The transport operation is scheduled in 2 shifts, morning and afternoon. The coverage area is classified into core area, support area and expansion area. Beside solid waste produced from domestic and commercial activities, the Dinas Kebersihan dan Keindahan also transports the litters collected from street and gutter cleaning within the service coverage area. The budget for Dinas Kebersihan dan Keindahan operation comes from local government budget (APBD) level I and APBD level II and the contribution collected from cleaning and septic tank The total manpower for the operation consists of 135 drivers and 225 collectors. The city of Makassar is currently using 7 final disposal grounds: Karuwisi, Sappabulo, Andi Tonro, Panampu, Kantisang, Tanjung Bunga, and Tamangapa. Improvement in final disposal ground must be done as a consequence to the growth in volume of wastes produced. A disposal ground which is not operated any more is also being used as an open dump. The Tamangapa ground applies semi sanitary landfill method. This method is
developed by adapting sanitary landfill into open dumping method. This is done because of budget shortage for a full sanitary landfill. In Tamangapa the solid waste is separated by scavengers to earn money by selling to used material collected and then recycled. Beside scavengers, cattle feeding the wastes helps in reducing the size of garbage pile to be dealt with. Problem areas Sanitary landfill method needs a lot of dirt soil for cover. This considerably adds a great deal of cost to the operational budget, especially if the dirt has to be hauled a long distance. For Tamangapa the dirt is taken from its surroundings. Another aspect relates to the need for a tight control in the installation of biogas relief from the garbage pile. Biogas will continue to be released for 50 years, probably longer, after the pile is buried. If the biogas is not adequately relieved it may explode that will make the whole pile scattered all over. The relief piping system of Tamangapa is installed one year after the pile is buried. This is quite regretful considering that the piping system design has been done since the very beginning. Rain water falling on the garbage pile is also problematic unless it is properly dealt with. In Tamangapa this is handled
SolidKondisi Pengelolaan Sampah Di Kotamadya Makassar waste management condition in the city of Makassar
Area of service Luas Layanan
175,77 km 1.300.000 person jiwa 3.535,20 m3 1.576,60 m3 1772,7 m3 2996,67 m3 84,8 %
Jumlah penduduk daerah layanan Total population
Estimated pile size - Domestic
Perkiraan Timbunan - Domestik - Komersial
Volume yang tertangani Volume untouched Tingkat pelayanan Level of service
Sumber : Dinas Kebersihan Kotamadya Ujung Pandang 1998 Source: Dinas Kebersihan, City of Ujung Pandang 1998
Percik August 2004
through photosynthetic method which is relatively inexpensive. The leachate produced from the decomposing material may spoil groundwater unless the pile is built on a waterproof layer. It may also spoil surface water if it flows down into a river, for instance. For the sake of the surrounding community attention must also be paid regarding the unpleasant smell. Based on site selection standard, a disposal ground may not be placed in the vicinity of a settlement area. But for the scavengers the opposite is what happens. Their waste is our waste The problems can actually be minimized through the application of an integrated management system between the city government and the community. Up to this time solid waste management is but an insignificant supplementary section both from the part of the community and from the government structure. On the contrary, the problem of solid waste should be given sufficient attention from both. The limited availability of both land and budget makes it imperative that an alternative solution be found. As is already known, solid waste management comprises three steps, namely collection, transportation and processing, of which burying is one method. Collection can be done by the community. The best way in the collection is separating the wastes so that the processing stage will be made easier. But this requires a high level of understanding from both the community and the field operators. It is at this stage that a 'zero waste' principle can be put into application, in which waste is reduced in such a way so that nothing is left to be buried. The application of regulation related to solid waste is insufficient so that the community never considers waste material is an important issue. As an example, in Jakarta with the fully used Bantar Gebang site the city government has had a
The problems can actually be minimized through the application of an integrated management system between the city government and the community.
big difficulty where to put its mountain of wastes. Though the problem is finally solved, but it is merely a temporary solution since the new site will be full in the near future. And somewhere a new piece of land must again be found. While a land which was used as a dumping ground can only be brought back to a productive land after several decades. Wastes can also be disposed of into an ex-mining excavation, but there are only a few cities with a mining activity. It can be seen how the problems keep coming one after another if they are not dealt with seriously. The community's way of thinking must be improved in order to consider that their waste is also our waste. It means a common responsibility. Imagine if the solid waste
production keeps growing from day to day a city like Jakarta or Makassar will be full of garbage piles. At this point in time we can only hope that solid waste management by the government is implemented properly, considering the effect of pollution can only be detected years afterwards. In the meantime, the source of the pollution cannot be detected any more. Actually, the regulation pertaining to environment of this country is well enough. What is lacking is the application and sanction to violators. It is our common responsibility to improve it.
Alumnus of Environment Technique Bandung Institute of Technology
Percik August 2004
Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Program Management and Future Challenges
achel Carson once indicated that man has to be made to understand that because of his activity the environment deteriorates although he considers it as a productive activity (Silent Spring Magazine, 1963). The environmental condition greatly influences the life and welfare of human being and other living creatures. Living creatures, human being, animal and also plants cannot survive without a favourable environment, especially without water. Water plays an indispensable role for life. At the present time readily available water sources are rain, spring, groundwater, lake, reservoir, and river. But the capacity of supply is not balanced with the increasing demand. The imbalances happen because of a) high rate of population growth, especially in urban areas, b) the growth of industrial areas has converted a massive land and water source utilization, c) widespread illegal logging, forest fire, mineral mining within forest areas without subsequent environmental conservation and rehabilitation, d) water pollution caused by industrial wastes, salt water intrusion, and mining wastes. WSS Program in the Era of Regional Autonomy WSS program is intended to improve health condition of low income community in villages and the fringes of urban settlements, and is implemented through a community participatory approach. It is operated through provision of easily accessible quality water supply and locally acceptable basic sanitation and complemented with hygiene behaviour education. Experience from 2 years implementation indicates that the AusAID and World
S. Budi Susilo *)
Bank funded WSS program has made a pleasing success. This is because the methodology applied conforms with the principles of regional autonomy, i.e. water supply and environmental sanitation development which starts from the grass root level based on local initiative, accommodating and taking into consideration the community aspiration and local socio-cultural characters. There is no pressure, uniformity, instruction and community mobilization. All is managed through a community empowerment process.
gram/project can be implemented well in correct, transparent and sustainable manner; 2. The community. This means the community must be made ready, willing, and capable to participate in the program/project implementation; 3. Natural resources. Natural resources potential, particularly water may contribute to economic development and community welfare, therefore these resources must be properly managed. Challenge in future The performance of WSS program which is coordinated by the WSS Working Group has made as pleasant improvement. It is not surprising that there are more and more regions are interested to join the program. Yet, there are technical hindrances. Aware of the condition, the responsibility and capacity of the central agencies that make up the Working Group have to include a) capable to formulate a general policy which serves as a guiding principle for the stakeholders to participate in the community based drinking water and sanitation development; b) capable of convincing the regional government and its agencies as well as other stakeholders that this program is one of the efforts to improve community welfare; c) capable of convincing the donor organizations, NGO and other third parties to participate; and d) capable of facilitating network development at the implementation level (kabupaten/kota) through motivating the related agencies and local NGOs to commit themselves in WSS development.
Staff of the Directorate of Regional Development; Member of WSS Working Group
The performance of WSS program which is coordinated by the WSS Working Group has made as pleasant improvement.
In accordance with its role and function, the central and provincial governments act as facilitator, while the kabupaten/kota government is expected to be able to coordinate and integrate regional development and strengthen its community. To this end there are several aspects to note by all concerned, from the central to regional level, so that the program could lead to success: 1. The existence of a policy, at the national, regional and local. This means that the central, and regional must prepare the law and regulation, guidelines, standard and others in order to provide direction so that WSS pro-
Percik August 2004
The problem with water supply and environmental sanitation in Kabupaten Kebumen
Alma Arief 1) dan Budiono 2) WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION (WSS) FACILITY IN KEBUMEN
Type of technology Number of village 9 19 11 4 3 1 1 6 Good condition 6 8 10 1 3 6 Functioning institution 6 6 10 3 5
n drinking water and sanitation development Kabupaten Kebumen has a specific character of note. The detail WSS development program has been included in its Strategic Planning for the period 2000-05 (integrated in Local Government Regulation No 18 Year 2002). The Regional Government is also responsive to the WASPOLA Working Group when the latter intended to disseminate National Policy for Community Based WSS Development to the local community. The government was even willing to contribute some fund for the said activity. The regional government allocates fund not only from Special Fund Allocation (DAK) sources but also from its regular annual budget, and that has been done. For FY 2005 not less than 5 villages will get a budget allocation of Rp100 million each for WSS development. This proposal was concluded from a Jaring Asmara (short for Jaring Aspirasi Masyarakat, Community Aspiration Net) mechanism, which is a pick up mechanism through the formation of a specific task force for this purpose. Beside the proposals derived from the Jaring Asmara the local sector agencies also put up their own plans. In the same FY the Public Works agency put aside an amount of Rp120 million for WSS development in 7 villages. Up to this time most of the facilities in place are well maintained. The facilities built in 1980-90s are still in operation, though some are wearing out. From the above table it can be seen that WSS facilities in Kabupaten Kebumen are sufficiently well kept (read: sustainable). However, behind the data
Gravitational piping Piping PSA Pit well Bored well Rain collector Pit well and rain collector Mixed
there are some intricacies concealed. Kebumen is in command of an abundant water source -- though a specific technology is needed to enable to take benefit from it-during the dry season it suffers from a serious water shortage. During such a season the regional government has to operate a fleet of water trucks, buys drinking water from PDAM and distributes it for free to the most suffering villages. At least there are 80 villages are always in such a problem and in need for relief. Environmental problem Water shortage during the dry season happens because of forest felling in the upper watershed areas by Perhutani. It is said that the conversion of heterogenous forest stand into single species plantation (pine tree) is the main reason for the decrease in water holding capacity and frequent landslides. Take for instance the reservoir at Adiwarno village was washed down in a landslide and the drop of water table in Sempor dam -- main water source for Kab. Kebumen. Although the government agencies do not specifically indicate that the drought is caused by the conversion of the forest function, the water shortage phenomenon did begin to happen after the conversion took place. Institutional condition The community took part in the WSS
development, especially in piping technology. In the village Banyumudal, as an example, each family was obliged to contribute Rp100.000. The regulation is detailed covering procedure for requesting for connection to Household, amount of payment, fine for delay in payment, amount of contribution, management team and water users' organization. In the beginning the community around Banyumudal spring did not have any problem with water service but later after the network was extended to include 3 hamlets downstream, the community around the stream have had water shortage during the dry season. Finally they opted to take down the collector structure at the intake point in order to get back their water. As a result, water supply to the downstream hamlets becomes uneven. From then on, the standardized contribution system ceased to apply. The management also refuses to handle it. Technological The technology choice is generally piping network, gravitational or pumping propelled by electric power. Some villager dug pit wells, deep well, and rain collectors. None of the institutions in the pit well and rain collector areas are functioning. The rain collector technology is not used any more because the size
Percik August 2004
SOURCE: ALMA ARIEF
is too small and water supply runs out as soon as it fills. Drinking water supply using bored well are also used in several villages, one of them is built in a fish auction outfit. As far as technology choice is concerned the community is involved since the beginning of the planning. The community also contributed in cash, labour and material. As an example, the village of Pakuran collected an amount of fund to cover the balance needed for the purchase of a genset and some pipes. At that time the government subsidized Rp34 million whilst the actual cost was Rp50 million. Since the technology was relatively new to the Pakuran community, some of them were trained in genset O&M and how to maintain piping network. The operational cost is born by the community. In the village of Tugu, Kecamatan Buayan, the community hires a motor vehicle to carry water from a water source in the valley to their village in a plateau up in the hill. Water supply from the government comes only once a week. During the dry season, most of the areas in Kabupaten Kebumen suffer from water shortage because water discharge in the source drops sharply. To overcome this problem, the regional government provides the community in 80 villages with drinking water for free. The government has to buy the water from PDAM. Socio-cultural The community of Kebumen is cooperative and has a high self reliant characteristic. They are easily organized to solve a common problem and pose no objection to contribute in cash, labour and material. That is why, Kebumen is very conducive for a self reliant WSS development, and this is seemingly a general condition in the province of Jawa Tengah. Not only in Kebumen, similar situation is also found in Banyumas and Semarang. WSS development, actually does not have to reach the household with
a home connection. Many of the families will by a long hose, up to a hundred metre long. In the village of Klesem, one man put up a 2.500 m long hose from a water source at an approximate cost of Rp1,5 million. If the community believes that water is a valuable commodity, which is evidenced from willingness to spend a considerable amount of money, they are easy to bring into an organization to solve their common problem. This is eventually will relate to organizational and institutional development, including the appropriate approach that is most pleasant to them. Financial From a discussion with a kecamatan staff at the office of Bappeda it was revealed that the willingness to pay monthly contribution does not depend on the welfare class one family belongs. In Kecamatan Ayah, for example, there is a village with a relatively poor population in comparison with other villages, but they are willing to pay their dues regularly. From the above table (though without any further study made) it is also obvious that the management institution greatly influences the functioning of the facility. A functioning institution has a
positive correlation with the collection of monthly contribution. Conclusion Kebumen has an abundance of water reserve, but many of its population are in want of drinking water service. This is because of the difficult natural condition and the recently developing harmful tendency in environmental changes. Form socio-cultural aspect, the community of Kebumen is very cooperative and for WSS development the people are willing to contribute in the form of cash, labour and material. This of course is greatly in favour for establishment of institutional and organizational framework to benefit from the existing resources in finding solution to their common problem. In Kebumen, there are many potential water sources that can be explored for development. But because in some areas the natural condition is indeed difficult to handle, some specific technology is needed. The problem is, what technology is most appropriate for application and at the same time accessible to the village community.
A WASPOLA Consultant Staff of Regional Development Planning Agency of Kebumen
Percik August 2004
Domestic Wastewater Processing System In the City of Tangerang
SOURCE: BAMBANG PURWANTO
he city of Tangerang was officially inaugurated in 1993 and commanding an area of 177 sq. km including the Soekarno-Hatta Airport at Cengkareng. This city is one the fast growing urban with annual population growth at 4,9% and this year has a total population of 1,4 million. Tangerang city is one of Jakarta's buffer areas. Many of Jakarta's office workers live here. Manufacturing industries are growing in number and creating a wide range of employment opportunity. The fast population growth has compelled it to make available facility and infrastructure, such as electricity, telephone lines, solid waste management, drinking water, and domestic wastewater processing at a relatively comparable quantity. Of all the facilities and infrastructures, services in drinking water and domestic wastewater management are lagging behind. From the environmental aspect the quantity of domestic waste water drained into the city environment amounts to 1,4 million people 100 litres per person equals 140.000 m3 a day. It will be too much for nature to carry this burden of pollution unless there is management intervention by man. That is why, wise efforts to help nature in individual, communal and city scale domestic waste water processing is highly endorsed. One of the efforts made by the government of Tangerang city in neutralizing water pollution from domestic wastewater is the construction of Wastewater Processing Installation (WPI) at Tanah Tinggi and Oxidation
Pond in 8 locations and Sludge Processing Installation at Karawaci. Present Condition A brief discussion about the aspects related to domestic wastewater management in Tangerang is given here: 1. Technical aspect At present the city of Tangerang operates two types of domestic wastewater processing system: a) on-site system, pumping out septic tanks from individual homes by trucks and transported to WWI at Karawaci for processing. The system includes: Septic tanks 205.572 units (61%) Public latrine 111.624 units (33%) Drainage/River/ Open area 21.360 families (6%) b) off-site system, using piping network at Kelurahans Babakan and Su-
kasari, the only Carousel Type WPI in Indonesia. This WPI was built in early 1982 and was put to trial in 1985 and began operation in 1992. The WPI was built from the assistance from the Dutch. DHV Cons. Eng. was named the engineering consultant and Hans Koning the planning engineer. The WPI was designed to cover 3.000 home connections or equivalent to 15.000 population serving the kelurahans Sukasari and Babakan. Beside the Tanah Tinggi WPI the city of Tangerang also built 8 units of oxidation ponds with a total area of 44,5 ha located in Perumnas I to serve 7.932 home connections or equivalent to 31.728 people. Technological aspect Offsite system, the WPI at Tanah Tinggi is to serve the community in two kelurahans, Babakan and Sukasari. This includes all type of wastewater, bath-
Percik August 2004
room, toilet and kitchen, which is pumped and naturally decomposed in a Carousel processor. Onsite system, serves the household that are beyond the reach of the offsite system, through pumping out the sludge from individual septic tanks to be processed in Karawaci installation. Financial aspect Since September 2002 a five year contract was signed between the city government and a private company to run the management of the onsite system with an obligation to pay the government an amount of Rp470 million for 5 years, payable in year one Rp40 million, year two Rp50 million, year three Rp100 million, year four Rp130 million and year five Rp150 million. A request for pumping out a septic tank is charged an amount of Rp70.000, while a third party truck depositing sludge water into the facility is charged at Rp5-10.000 per truck. The installation at Karawaci employs 30 workers consisting of drivers and management personnel, with an average salary of Rp600.000 per month. The fleet consists of 7 trucks. The Karawaci installation also acts as an offsite system for 60 families who flush their waste directly into the system. As for the offsite system at Tanah Tinggi it is still fully subsidized by the city government. An amount of Rp56 million is made available every year. No attempt has been made to collect contribution from the users. Challenge, Barrier and Opportunity The challenge is to fulfill the need for wastewater treatment, either through offsite or onsite system, all the wastewater produced by the households in order to protect the environment especially from pollution to body of water. The handicap is the delay in conducting of extensive socialization of WPI Tanah Tinggi ma-
SOURCE: BAMBANG PURWANTO
The fast population growth has compelled it to make available facility and infrastructure, such as electricity, telephone lines, solid waste management, drinking water, and domestic wastewater processing at a relatively comparable quantity.
nagement so that up to now community contribution could not be collected. The opportunity is the fact that there are many families who have no access to domestic wastewater treatment, while the installations both at Tanah Tinggi and Karawaci are still open for further expansion. Conclusion and Recommendation WPI at Tanah Tinggi is sufficiently effective in handling environmental pollution from domestic wastewater (kitchen, toilet and bathroom). What is needed is an expansion of its service coverage. Since an investment for WPI construction is considerably costly it takes the city government a special effort to allocate a special budget if similar installation is to be built in other location of the city. Similarly, its O&M cost is also high because it consumes a lot of electricity. A serious effort must be taken to start with a
contribution for the home connections in the kelurahans Babakan and Sukasari in order to cover the O&M costs so that the WPI can sustain operation at an optimum rate. It is also necessary to establish a professional and permanent management institution, it can be in the form of Regional Technical Management Unit or some other format (cooperation with private sector). It is equally important to conduct an extensive socialization program to inform the community about the development and management of domestic waste water treatment covering all aspects from technical, environmental, financial, and institutional.
Staff of Directorate for TPTP, Ministry of Settlement & Regional Infrastructure
Percik August 2004
Solid waste brings a blessing to the village of Temesi, Kabupaten Gianyar, Bali
olid waste brings a blessing? There may be many who understand what solid waste really means and what added value it contains. But there is only very few who care and take full benefit from solid waste. Solid waste and final disposal ground may be familiar to the ears and mind of most city dwellers. In almost all cities complains are often heard from the community living near a garbage disposal area. In some cities there are even physical frictions and temporary closure of the facility. The one at Temesi village is no exception. The Temesi disposal ground has been in operation since 1993. Commanding an area of 5 ha all the solid waste from Kabupaten Gianyar, Ubud, Sukawati, Tampaksiring and the surrounding areas, is dumped here. Initially the site was a gentle slope, but over the years the dumping has made the area flat. And over the years, just like any other open dumping ground, stinking smell and flies swarming over areas within a radius of 2 km. In wet season the truck carrying solid waste are reluctant to enter the area for fear they might got mired in the middle of garbage heap. This may cost the driver with broken axle or other serious damages. The solid waste from Ubud and its surroundings ends in Banjar Intaran, Pejeng village, Tampaksiring upon the request from the community to fill in the bank of a small river which used to be washed by the current. The process lasted for 6 years. The side effect is, community health is threatened. Air and groundwater is polluted, unpleasant smell and not healthy. Since 2001, Bali Fokus invited several interested parties to take action and find
Yuyun Ismawati dan Noka Destalina the best solution for all. Starting from the idea to replicate the solid waste separation in Jimbaran village, a new idea sprang out to build similar facility in Temesi to handle solid waste of Gianyar. Through a careful planning and preparation, and the application of socialization Solid waste minimizing and separation at the Temesi Solid Waste Separation Facility, Gianyar, Bali
100% solid waste enter to fasilitation 100 ton/day or 40 m2/day
30% inorganic waste
50% organic fraction 5 ton/day
20% residual 2 ton/day
25% animal feed 2,5 ton/day (10m3/day)
25% compost 2,5 ton/day (10m3/day)
Source: Temesi Facility Feasibility Study Report BaliFokus, July 2004
and community participatory approaches the Solid Waste Separation Facility was built at the Temesi Solid Waste Disposal Site. The 400 sq.m separation facility which is the first of its kind in Indonesia, began construction in March 2004 and was officiated by the Bupati of Gianyar on 25 July 2004. The construction was facilitated with material contribution from USAID/OTI at an amount Rp380 million, Swiss Development Cooperation Rp110
million, Rotary Bali Ubud, RC Hamburg and RC Atlanta Rp60 million, and BaliFokus-BORDA Rp50 million. Total construction costs is Rp600 million. Land is obtained for free from the regional government of Gianyar. The planned capacity is 30% of the total solid waste managed by Dinas Kebersihan dan Pertamanan, or approximately 80 m3 or 20 trucks/day (the total waste deposited by Gianyar city and is surroundings is approximately 260 m3 day). The purpose of the installation is to separate the solid waste and increase the economic value and recycle potential as an alternative to incineration. The Temesi initiative is probably the first city solid waste processing project in Indonesia which applies a positive synergic effort from several parties: - Rotary Club Bali Ubud (RCBU) through Community Service Program, acts as fund raising coordinator (USAID/OTI, Rotary Club International, SDC, and so on). - BaliFokus-BORDA, through Solid Waste Processing Program, assumes the role as technical assistance provider, community empowerment, and operational management counterpart for the next 5 years. - Gianyar regional government, in this case Dinas Kebersihan dan Pertamanan, assumes the role as solid waste "supplier" and land space provider. - The Temesi Village Solid Waste Management Team, assumes the responsibility for management of the facility in collaboration with BaliFokus (joint operation management). During the preparatory and construction stage, this project made an active
Percik August 2004
effort to invite community involvement though regular meetings and field discussions. Bali Fokus took the responsibility to facilitate in the formation of Temesi Solid Waste Management Team (SWMT) which will assume the operational management of the facility in the future. Beside community empowerment at the managerial level this facility also provides new employment to 6o workers, all hired from Temesi locals. The village Temesi consists of 3 banjars, namely Banjar Peteluan, Banjar Pegesangan and Banjar Temesi, and is populated with approximately 650 families. During the initial stage of operation till 2005 SWMT will operate at half capacity, approximately 40 m3 will be processed daily. This is intended to as a learning stage for all of the operational components of the facility. For the first 5 years Bali Fokus will assume the responsibility as the management backup to put the overall system into the path towards sustainability. The benefits from the Temesi initiative are among others: - Introduction to a feasible and worthy of application alternative for solid waste material processing system without using an incinerator. - Application of an environmentally friendly and locally available technology for solid waste processing. - Multipartite solid waste management can be put to reality though a coordination and synergic effort. - The problem related to Final Disposal Site which contains an implication to surrounding community can be solved through a win-win principle. Taking the example from Temesi, the community based Final Disposal Site monitoring and its compensation can be made well structured. - Compost production made from organic waste is supported by organic farming policy of Kabupaten Gianyar. - Animal feed produced is sold to cat-
Land Area Requirement
No. 1. 1. 2. 2. 3. 3. 4. 4.
5. U T I L I AT I O N KebutuhanZ Lahan/Area Receiving areaarea atau ruang penerimaan sampah Receiving Belt conveyor (BC) (BC) atau ban berjalan Belt Conveyer Temporary collector for inorganic waste sampah an-organik Area penampungan sementara Collector for residual wasteresidu sampah Area penampungan Collector for inorganic sampah an-organik sebelum dijual ke Area penyimpanan waste ready for sale bandar lapak Composting area Area pengomposan Animal feed processing pakan ternak Area pembuatan T o t a lluas area Total A R E A Luas (m2) ( M 2 ) REQUIRED
50 50 150 Disposal TPA Lahan area 250 400 200 1,100
6. 6. 7. 7.
tle raining farmers, it helps the farmers in food supply and feed diversification, especially during the dry season. - It motivates the community's creativity to producing goods and handicrafts from recycling used materials. - Additional employment to 60-100
workers. - Production: used material for resale, compost and animal feed will guarantee the sustainability of the facility.
FINAL DISPOSAL SITE, TEMESI
RECYCABLES (GLASS, PLASTIC, PAPER, DUSTPAN, ETC)
INORGANIC WASTE ON BELT CONVEYOR SORTED
RESIDUAL SORTED ON BELT CONVEYOR
RECYCLE FACTORY ORGANIS WASTE CUTTING
WASTE WATER INSTALATION
Percik August 2004
Mrs. Bambang "Solid Waste" Wahono's role play
Manages Solid Waste, Makes Banjarsari Green
oft wind blows gently, caressing green leaves to sway lazily at a dreamy interval. Colourful blooms seem to appear from behind the lush green foliage. Flower pots stand in rows along the roadside that also serves as front yard. This represents a glimpse of condition in the alleys of Kampung Banjarsari, Kelurahan West Cilandak, Jakarta. This is almost entirely opposite to the general condition of Jakarta. We usually think that Jakarta is always hot, barren, filthy, and messy. Therefore, it is unsurprising that the portrait of Banjarsari can be considered as the miniature of pleasantly cool, green and environmentally sensitive Jakarta city of the future. The changes occurring at Banjarsari, an RW located within the neighbourhood of Fatmawati Hospital with 1.500 people in 218 families is inseparable from the
caring hands of Mrs. Harini Bambang Wahono and her husband. The 73 year old grandma has been perseveringly arousing the awareness of her neighbours to take keen interest to the environment. One of them is what to do with the domestic solid waste. "Ever since I moved into this neighbourhood I have been dreaming of a green and lush surrounding like my home town. Is it possible, I wonder?" said Mrs. Bambang one afternoon while relaxing in a corner of her house which now turns into a training place in a variety of skills related to environmental management. Luckily, when my husband and I moved into Banjarsari in 1982 Mr. Bambang was elected as an RT chairman. From this time she started to develop intimacy with the community. "I began to approach the community members one by one. At that time 12 members of the
community were illiterate. I voluntarily taught them to read and write. Gradually we became close to each other and intimacy began to develop", said the teachers' training graduate. Based on the intimacy Mrs Bambang offered them with medicinal herb seedlings for them to grow for themselves. Then, one day the plant growing skill was organized into a contest. Evaluation was based on the healthiest growing plant. "I bought the prizes from own pocket", said the active woman. Approach to the community did stop up there. Together with several other women she organized an "arisan" . The arisan did not function as collecting money and winning it, but it was rather as a means to establish a close brotherhood. Mrs. Bambang believes in a principle, man will be followed if one has won the sympathy from the others. And sympathy is developed from close brotherhood. Her activity became more intense when Mr. Bambang was elected as the Head of RW and she herself the Chairwoman of PKK program within the RW. She made the best use of her new position. She tried her best to apply all the PKK 10 Components, especially component number 9 "environmental sustainability". Step by step the members of community of all 8 RTs are developed. There is up and down in the activity. There is a challenge and a constraint. But all those do not discourage the woman who dreams of a beautiful green environment. She held an inter RT environment competition. Community enthusiasm started growing. The active woman organized 'Dahlia' farmers group in 1992. The farmers
Percik August 2004
group was given a subsidy from the agricultural extension service. The face of Banjarsari started to change. She became a PKK committee at Kelurahan (village) and kecamatan levels. She knows no fatigue in her effort to making Bajarsari lush, green and beautiful. The active role of Mrs. Bambang draws the attention of UNESCO, a UN body responsible for education. In 1996 the UN body offered her participation in a solid waste management training. "I was very pleased," said she, smiling. From this training she obtains a UNESCO certificate qualifying her as a solid waste management trainer. She then taught the community how to make solid waste valuable instead of polluting the environment. She changed one corner of her simple house at Jl. Banjarsari XIV/4A into a classroom. Batch after batch of "solid waste" cadres was born here. Domestic waste is mana ged right from the very source of origin. Bins are placed in front of every family house. There are three bins with different colours. Red for plastic, yellow for cans and bottles, and green for organic waste. Waste materials from red and yellow bins may be collected by the previously trained scavengers and cleaning men -there are 20 of them. While the organic waste is to be processed -individually if possible- into compost. For those who are unable to process it, the waste will be collected for an RT or RW compost processing facility. The compost produced is used for plant manure by the community or sold for cash. "There is a big demand for compost. We are almost unable to satisfy it," says Mrs. Bambang. The customers are mainly the visitors. The achievement has attracted many community groups from everywhere visiting Banjarsari to take a lesson from. And in the meantime the awareness of Banjarsari community is also growing continuously. As a result, in 2000 Banjarsari won the national level prize in green-
Jakarta produces approximately 6 thousand tons of solid waste every day. Almost half of it is of domestic origin. If all the community is aware and takes a good care of it, there is only 50% of solid waste left for Jakarta city to take care of, and condition will not be as bad as it is now.
ing and environmental conservation competition. And the pioneer, Mrs. Bambang was awarded the Kalpataru award in the same year for environmental guardian category. The achievement of Banjarsari has made the place named a tourist destination spot by the South Jakarta Agency for Tourism. The community takes this an opportunity and welcomes it with a number of creativity. Today, there is a rooftop park and is open for visitors, there is a
green corner, specially serving and teaching how to prepare organic food and food recycle, there is also a senior citizens corner, a sea corner, and an education corner. They are all in the houses of the families. It is unsurprising that there are many visitors, including foreigners. Some for comparative study, some specially come to learn something. This year Banjarsari is named the best RW in Jakarta. As a result, Mrs. Bambang and her cadres, 30 women and 25 environmentally concerned youth, are given a task to build and inspire the same development for other areas of Jakarta. He is also requested to speak in many seminars. Now she is nicknamed "Mrs. Bambang Solid Waste" In spite of success after success have been achieved, this does not mean Banjarsari is free from solid waste problem. Mrs. Bambang reveals that there is only 60-70% of the community who is fully aware. "The rest is still in the learning stage. In terms of cleanliness it has been 100% achieved." One difficulty is, there are outsiders (meaning not Banjarsari citizens) who irresponsibly dump their waste into the area. "Sometimes I feel so distressed and irritated," she expresses herself.
Percik August 2004
Solid waste and awareness Solid waste handling, according to Mrs. Bambang, is a systematized effort. Its problem will never be thoroughly solved if its solely done by the government. "It is the community who produces waste, why don't let the community get involved in its solution?" she puts it. Therefore, community education about the importance of solid waste management right from the very source of origin is something indispensable. But, community education is not an easy thing. It takes time, because it involves changes in way of thinking, habit and tradition. "This is where we have to work hard and never lose hope. If somebody dislikes our message, let it be his own right," continues Mrs. Bambang. Most people, she adds further, are indifferent what future consequences will happen from his habit in unscrupulous dumping their wastes. "Man never lets himself think where the She cites as an example, that Jakarta produces approximately 6 thousand tons of solid waste daily. Almost half of it is of domestic origin. If all the community is aware and takes a good care of it, there is only 50% of solid waste left for Jakarta city to take care of, and condition will not be as bad as it is now. The community can take an active role in processing organic waste into compost, recycle food leftover, and reduce the use of plastic bags. There are 4 underlying principles, i.e. reduce, reuse, recycle and replant. "Imagine if one family can reduce the use of up to plastic bags in a month, we can considerable reduce land and sea pollution." Therefore it is quite natural that Mrs. Bambang still has a dream how to make the community aware to care about solid waste. Because without a common awareness, solid waste related problem can never be solved. (mujiyanto)
The community can take an active role in processing organic waste into compost, recycle food leftover, and reduce the use of plastic bag.
waste will move into," she says. Resistant wastes will pollute rivers and the sea. Then the danger of intermittent floods and contamination of diseases to follow suit. "Therefore, each source of waste must be dealt with," she concludes decisively.
"Many Who Says Difficult"
A Waste Cleaner Named Udin
is name is Udin. About 35 years old. His job is waste cleaning man. Every day he runs around and collects solid waste from Banjarsari households. He serves 30-40 families. "Each family pays me Rp30.000 every month," he says timidly. Udin has been doing his present job since 1994. He and his family rent a house in the vicinity. Everyday he pulls his cart to empty garbage bins from each of his customers. The cart consists of a compartment and a burly bag tied to it.
Non organic waste, such as plastic material, bottle, can and paper, is
separated and put into the bag. The waste in the bag will not be dumped into the local garbage bin, but he does it for sale. "Not bad, as an additional income," he says while taking a rest in a street corner. Udin says that there are still many of Banjarsari citizens who do not separate their solid waste. "If it has been separated it is easier to collect, no need to separate it again," he added. When asked why the people still do the way they do, he answers, "They say it is difficult."
Percik August 2004
MA N N E R
Solid Waste Management Technology Miscellany
hoice of technology represents one of the most important determining factors in a city solid waste management In principle, there are only three basic technologies applied in solid waste management, namely incinerator, bio-degradation (composting) and landfill burying. Each technology produces a different impact and subsequently a different cost of handling. What technology to choose depends on the intensity of local solid waste related problem, solid waste composition, amount of waste produced daily, technical risk, amount of budget available, et cetera. A technology chosen in discordant with several of these factors will only add to the problems. The requirements for technology selection relate to among others that it is environmentally friendly and it must also highly effective. Besides, the technology must be able to solve the problem or at least minimize the weight of the existing problem (Ryding, 1994:71). There are several technologies for final disposal processing purposes (Moenir, 1983: 33): Open dumping method With this method, solid waste is dumped into a land depression, covered in an open area without compaction or just left uncovered. Dumping continues until the depression levels off. Sanitary landfill method With this method the waste is dumped into a trench, depression or slope. It is then covered with dirt soil and compacted. This method is subdivided into trench, area and depression. Baling method In this method the waste consisting
of some specific composition (especially plastic waste) is put under a high pressure machine, up to 2.000 PSI to form a solid bloc that can be used as filler in road building or a controlled valley filling work. Incineration In this method the waste material is burnt in an incinerator. This method produces residue from burning and emission of several gases. The weigh and volume of the residue are much less than the initial waste. Composting Compost is the result of bio-degradation process of organic compounds of the solid waste and is capable of improving soil characteristic. ATAD (Autogenous Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion) method This method employs aerobic bacteria which are responsive to certain temperature to process organic waste into solid pellets and liquid substance. This technique is used in wastewater treatment.
From the above processing technologies, open dumping method -- apparently widely used by the cities all over Indonesia- is no longer viable considering the limited availability of land space. Besides, the method is ineffective for a city scale operation. Composting is the cheapest method with the least technical risk, but it takes some time for one batch to complete. On the other hand, solid waste keeps on piling from day to day, so that it takes a thorough consideration before adopting this method. While with ATAD method it needs a relatively shorter period and a low technical risk, but the investment cost is relatively high. A wrong technology choice will result in technical risk such as damage in equipment used due to capacity overload so that process is delayed and solid waste mounting up all over the place. (Ryding, 1994: 287). Then because of the delay, the processing system turns back into open dumping, which is quite unexpected because this means we have to start all over again. In general, technical; risk is oftentimes caused by government and private sector interest to apply the latest techno-
Percik August 2004
logy with unfavourable history (Cointreau, 1982). Unexpected problems often arise when a certain technology is introduced into a country or a region for the first time because there were locally specific problems previously untouched (Ryding, 1994:187). This technical risk must be allocated to the private sector. Below is a table indicating the advantages and disadvantages of solid waste processing technologies and their respective technical risk. In the above table is quite obvious that open dumping is the least preferred solid waste processing technology and is most applicable for a joint operation between the government and the private sector. For sanitary landfill, the advantage is the relatively low investment cost, but with unpleasant impact such as methane gas emission and the vulnerability to turn back into open dumping. While in baling method, investment cost is relatively high as also its O&M cost. And besides, the method does not specify what to do with the liquid produced during the baling process Incineration can completely burn solid waste down, but the machinery is expensive, similarly is the O&M cost. Besides, the method may produce air pollution. Composting and ATAD are the most beneficial methods if applied in a collaborative framework. The difference between the two relates with time and investment cost. If composting needs a relatively long time to complete a process, in ATAD method the time is shorter due the help from aerobic bacteria. And as far as investment is concerned ATAD is by far the most expensive facility, and additionally ATAD technology has never been tried in Indonesia. All in all, technical risk from each of the technologies can be brought down through application of well proven technologies, such as composting and ATAD, which is supplied and supported by suppliers with reputation. Performance history and problem solving represents an important factor in selecting technology supplier. Involvement of the supplier as partner is a factor in reduction technical risk. (FW)
TYPE OF TECHNOLOGY Open dumping
PROCESSING MECHANISM Waste is dumped into a valley or depression without any further treatment Waste is dumped into a trench, valley or slope, then is covered with soil layer, and compacted. This method is divided into three categories: area, trench, and depression Several types of waste are collected and put under a pressure up to 2.000 PSI to form blocs Waste is burnt at a very high temperature
ADVANTAGES No processing cost is necessary - Relatively inexpensive - Low investment cost - No waste separation-
DISADVANTAGES Waste material will continue adding up and not decomposed properly. - Need a large area, not viable for big cities - Must strictly follow standard operation procedure - Dangerous methane gas emission - High investment cost - If not used for filler the bales still will remain as solid waste - High investment cost - Use machinery strictly within manual guideline (never exceed capacity) - Waste containing too much liquid may damage the machinery - Minimum temperature for a complete incineration often cannot be reached so that the process produces air pollution It takes time to complete a process
TECHNICAL RISK Waste material will keep on piling up causing air, water and soil pollution. Without a periodic maintenance it will turn back into open dumping
Waste can be used as road filler or controlled valley filler Waste is eliminated
Leachate produced during baling process may cause soil pollution. High risk to air pollution
Compost is the result of biochemical degradation of organic substances; it can improve soil characteristic. The degradation process is caused by microorganism and the type of microflora at he same temperature with the temperature of the waste Using aerobic bacteria which are responsive at a certain temperature to breakdown solid waste into solid (pellet) and liquid manure. This technology is designed for waste water management
It is a zero waste processing method and at the same time also producing compost
Because of the long process solid waste has to wait; this may cause polluition
ATAD (Autogenous Thermohilic Aerobic Digestion
It is a zero waste processing method and at the same time also a leachate treatment
High investment cost, needs prior test because it has never been applied in Indonesia
Percik August 2004
A Model for Long Term Solid Waste Storage
Solid Waste Capsule
Ready to recovering Small and round Clean and no smell
raditional solid waste handling may sometimes cause problems such as air, water and soil pollution; continuous loss of important resources; decreasing life standard; decreasing economic value of a property near solid waste station; and cost increase due growing volume of solid waste. A number of efforts have been tried all over the world to cope with these problems. Recycling industries are developed. But the result is still below expectation. There is presently a new breakthrough, a technology to store solid waste and is named solid waste capsule, also known as solid waste bales. This kind of packaging is said to increase efficiency and safety rating. With this technology solid waste can be kept for a long time -it can be yearswithout disturbing the environment. Moreover, this method of handling can improve the environmental condition and is more acceptable to the surrounding community. With this technology waste material can be stored while an incinerator, compost plant or sanitary landfill is being prepared. When the facility is ready, the capsules can be easily be sent to final treatment, thus optimizing the
FACT OF BAL BAL No detected by bird No air inside
Closed of all
final process. The capsules can be supplied at any time of the year regardless of climatic condition, what it needs is only a cheap storage station.
Packaging Process Domestic solid waste is collected and filled into airtight capsules. This packaging is made from chlorine free polythene plastic and is recyclable or burnt in an incinerator without adverse effect. Then the capsules are compressed at a certain pressure to eliminate air pockets in the packaging and to bring biological process -aerobic as well as anaerobic- to a halt. It this way a spontaneous fire from emission of natural gas is also eliminated. The packaging process lasts for 3-4 minutes. The packages can be stored in an open or covered floor, and can be piled. When the proceeding facility is ready, the capsule can then be opened easily. MJ
Solid Waste Pickup Service, Why Not?
o l i d w aste material can turn into money? You don't believe it? The scavengers have proven it. They live from solid waste, though what they can scrape is only very limited. The regional government also collects contribution for cleaning service. This means that solid waste is also a source of income. Today there is a breakthrough made by an NGO in Tangerang. Using a motorcycle this NGO offers a door to door solid waste pickup service. For a bag of waste
weighing 1,5 kg a customer is charged Rp400. The service is available on Mondays through Saturdays at 06.00 - 17.00 hrs. A three-wheeled motorcycle will come to collect your waste as soon as you dial the NGO's office (MJ)
Percik August 2004
Bandung Municipal Cleaners, Inc.
Withstand in the midst of wants
his is one of the few Municipal Cleaners that remains in operation in Indonesia today. Some other cities which used to have the same entity have turned their city cleaning service from a public company to an agency run entity. Bandung Municipal Cleaners Inc. is relatively old. This company was incorporated in 1985 through a Regional Government Regulation No. 2/1985. The establishment of the company was facilitated by the Directorate General of Cipta Karya, Ministry of Public Works (now Kimpraswil) under the Bandung Urban Development Project (BUDP). This company is responsible for environmental sustainability particularly in maintaining and improving city cleanliness in the broad sense of the meaning. Pursuant to the Mayor's letter of decision, the Bandung Municipal Cleaners Inc. is given a responsibility for policy formulation, management, conducting research and developing management of city solid waste. The company's service covers an area of 1629 ha with 2,2 million population in 26 kecamatans (139 kelurahans). The city produces approximately 6.500 7.500 m3 of solid daily, but the company's capacity is only up to 65% of the total. The management system includes community involvement, in this case RT/RW. The RW officials are authorized to decide the tariff for domestic waste cleaning service from individual thrash bin to the transfer station. From there on, it is the responsibility of the Cleaners Inc. In terms of roadside litters, market waste, and commercial/public facilities is treated slightly differently from the domestic waste. The Cleaners Inc. assumes a direct responsibility. The company sweeps, collects, and puts the waste into a container. For this purpose the
company hires 617 and 235 workers for street and market sweeping operation, respectively. Estimate waste production is reflected in the following table:
No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Source of Origin Settlement area Market place Road Industrial Plant Commercial area Public facility Volume (m3/day) 3.978 613 449 787 312 361
The waste is then transported to the final disposal. There are two final disposal sites, one in Leuwigajah (17,5 ha) and another one in Jelekong (9,7 ha). The method used is open dumping. The tariff for service is decided by the Mayor. The amount depends on the type of waste. The tariff based on Mayor's letter of decision No. 644/2002 is presented in the table below. With such a tariff Cleaners Inc. makes an annual income of approximately Rp17 billion. This income comes from the community and cleaning service from the regional government. This amount is far below the required operational budget. It is unsurprising that each year this company with 1.642 personnel is losing
money. Last year, the deficit amounted to Rp3,8 billion plus. Awan Gumelar, the CEO of Bandung Municipal Cleaners, Inc. admits this fact. However, according to him, in terms of budget, the municipality has made considerable efficiency. He revealed that during the last 16 years the municipality has provided only Rp34 billion or an average of Rp2,1 billion a year. This figure is too far below the cleaning budget of other cities in Indonesia, such Jakarta (373 billion a year), Surabaya (Rp51 billion/year), Semarang (Rp27 billion/year), and Yogyakarta (Rp8 billion/year). Although the cleaning budget is relatively low, the community participation is sufficiently high. Last year, an amount of Rp13 billion of community contribution was collected, or 72% of the total income. Subsidy from municipal budget was only Rp5 billion. The income from community contribution is the highest among major cities in Indonesia. The above financial situation is of course not a favourable condition for project activity. A number of efforts are now being done to improve company performance through human resources development and community education. (MJ)
DOMESTIC AND PUBLIC FACILITY TARIFF
Class I II III IV V VI Power (Watt) >6600 >3600-6600 >2200-3600 >1300-2200 > 900-1300 450 Indirect
7.500/month 6.000/month 5.000/month 4.000/month 3.000/month 2.000/month
20.000/month 17.500/month 15.000/month 10.000/month 7.500/month 5.000/month
7.500/month 6.000/month 5.000/month 4.000/month 3.000/month 2.000/month
Non commercial Rp12.500/day; commercial Rp15.000/day; city transport Rp500/day; bus Rp1.000/day
Percik August 2004
Awan Gumelar, CEO Bandung Municipal Cleaners, Inc.
"Make the People Hygiene Conscious"
ould you explain the background of the establishment of Cleaners Inc.? The Municipal Cleaners Inc. was established based on the Regional Government Regulation No.2/1985, which was revised by Regulation No. 15/1993 (on capitalization), and the most recently by Regulation No. 27/2001. The public company is 19 years old now. It was initially a cleaning agency of the municipal government. Why changed it into a public company? To optimize solid waste management in the city of Bandung. The cleaning agency has no capacity to undertake service improvement. And besides, being a company it is easier to recruit manpower and make procurement for the necessary facility and infrastructure. The most important of all, being a legal entity it is easier to win acknowledgement from funding agency.
What about the financial issue? We will strengthen the contribution collection force from all available potentials and an increased budget from local government budget (APBD). We also propose the city government to plot a subsidy for cleaning works from the APBD. We need an adequate amount of fund to provide a minimum level of service. We also propose the city government for a restructuring of the company's capital which presently has turned into red. Or the city government takes over part or whole of company's liabilities and considers it as a share capital. On the other side, we also have to make a tight budgeting. What are the factors influencing a city's cleanliness? If we want to move forward the first thing to do is make the community clean conscious through solid waste management at their own surrounding. 3R (reduce, reuse, recycle) principle must consistently apply. That is what we disseminate to the community. With this we hope a commitment will grow, otherwise solution will be a long way off. What breakthrough could you take to improve solid waste management? This year in cooperation with Min. of Environment and private sector started with a composting project. What is your plan to make Bandung clean? There is presently a municipal strategic plan No. 36 year 2004. It contains a clean, prosperous, pious, friendly Bandung. Clean relates to garbage and litters. In 2008 we have to be utterly clean. Solid Waste must be properly managed. Through application of 3R is quite sufficient. In year 2005 there must be an improvement, though still in a limited scale. (MJ)
Whether it is not contradictory between interest and service? I don't think there is a contradiction. Our position is similar to PT Kereta Api and Damri. They try to make profit from the service they provide, don't they? What is its performance status today? Our performance, Praise to God, in spite of shortage and limitation we are still capable to operate and provide service to the community. From the very beginning we are in short of facility and infrastructure. We hope improvement would come in the future. What is the level of service today? We are only able to serve up to approximately 65% of the total solid waste produced. This is because of the limitation. How is the relationship between Cleaners Inc. and the line agency? We maintain coordination. With the camats we schedule a 3-monthly meeting. The essence we want their help,
because we are not their superior. Coordination is ever feasible, isn't it? So the relationship is partnership. Not superior subordinate. We also establish coordination with agency for park management to determine the placement of solid waste transfer stations. The main purpose is to achieve the city mayor's vision. We have to be skillful to manage our company but remains tied within the rules of the government. It is quite different from a private company. Its activity and action is different from the government structure because it has its own authority. What is your effort to improve performance? In the future we are planning to be an entrepreneur. We will strengthen the position of our assets. We will establish sister companies. We cannot do it now because we are still in wants. Salary is also quite limited. But, Praise to God, we can maintain a high work ethos. Besides, we are trying to improve our operation standard so that we can increase coverage from the presently 65% to 80%, improve human resources quality, and through a cooperation with third party introduce new solid waste processing technology. In the long run we hope we can to apply corporate governance in this company.
Percik August 2004
B OOK INFO
Development Report Indonesian Human 2004
Title: Indonesia Human Development Report 2004 The Economics of Democracy Financing Human Development in Indonesia Publisher: Central Bureau of Statistic BAPPENAS United Nation for Development Program (UNDP) Pages: xii+205 pp
public service. The question is whether it is possible given the present economic condition, for Indonesia to provide a bigger budget for public service which reaches the level of 3-6 percent of GNP. This report further estimates the level of cost required, and indicates that the amount is still within the capacity for Indonesia to provide. In general, this report also reveals the present status of human development in Indonesia. Some of data recorded are Human Development Index (HDI) which is declining in 1996 to 1999 and climbing again in 2002. One of the factors attributing to the increase is the decrease in infant mortality and poverty rate. However, the overall condition the increase is still far from pleasing. Beside HDI there are other indicators used in this report Gender-related Development Index (GDI) and Human Poverty Index (HPI-1). (OM)
his report is published as a collaborative effort between Bappenas, Bureau of Statistic and UNDP/Indonesia. If the report for 2001 the focus was on "why", the present issue deals with "how" and "how much". Within this spirit the message to be conveyed is that Indonesia needs a larger human resources investment not only to fulfill the
basic human need but also as a background for pursuing economic growth and to ensure democratic continuity into the future. This report emphasizes that in the future that income of the poor will not increase fast enough. This implies that the government must set aside a relatively big amount of money for the necessary
Clean Development Mechanism
uman hands are slow but surely they have made a change to the world climate. This is triggered by burning fossil fuel and activities that convert land utilization. Those activities have produced gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxides which serve as a glass film that lets in the short wave radiation from the sun but absorbs and reflects long radiation from the earth. Consequently the atmospheric temperature rises and thus global warming phenomenon and changes in world climate. The major contributors to global warming are of course the industrialized nations. To reduce the rate of warming, an international congress attended by 10.000 delegates agreed to issue a protocol -later known as Kyoto Protocol. The protocol was formu-
Implementation Upon the Developing NationsAuthorDaniel Author : Daniel Murdiyarso Publisher : Kompas Publishing Inc. Pages: xx + 200 pp
lated to put a quantitative target and time schedule for reduction of emission rate by the developed nations. The protocol becomes very important to be understood by all, whether the community, government agents, members of legisla-
tive bodies, NGO, business world, and politician. A knowledge about the protocol can broaden one's mind why there are so many catastrophes occurring in the world. This book explicitly describes everything about the protocol including the winding roads the controversies involved in its formulation. The author also describes what can be done by the developing nations -including Indonesia- that ratify the protocol. There is within the Kyoto Protocol an applicable mechanism, that is Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The ratification of Kyoto Protocol can stimulate the government and community to take the necessary steps to make the involved agencies well prepared to participate in CDM projects. MJ
Percik August 2004
C D INFO
WSS Interactive CD
news clipping, and the articles published in since August 2003 through 2004, there is also a newsletter clipping. This interactive CD contains all including website (offline), clipping (news and articles), weekly newsletter, national policy for community based WSS development, Percik magazine all edition, and WSS related publications. With CD format, it is expected that information dissemination will be made easier, cheaper, and more efficient. The CD is obtainable from the Secretariat of WSS Working Group Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Tel. 021-31904113. (MJ)
ince 2003 the WSS Working Group launched a website, www.ampl.or.id. It contains important information and articles related to drinking water and environmental sanitation that are already published by national mass media, national policy, choice of technology, bibliography, data, agenda of activities, and the latest information about WSS development. There is also weekly Newsletter. In the same year the Working Group also publishes Percik magazine. The magazine which specializes in drinking water and environmental sanitation information has published 4 editions. This magazine is distributed free of charge to all stakeholders in
Indonesia. The Working Group documents what is in the website as a clipping. There is
WASPOLA Publication and Communication
ater Supply and Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action Planning (WASPOLA) phase I has completed implementation. The five year program focused itself in policy formulation, improvement of service and learning process as well as information. The main focus is to facilitate the provision of drinking water and environmental sanitation of small and medium scale settlement areas.
WASPOLA is a collaborative program between the government of Indonesia, for this case the National Development Planning Agency (BAPPENAS) with Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID), and World Bank/Water and Sanitation Program for East Asia and the Pacific (WSP-EAP). It might be possible that many who are not yet aware of this program, although this program has been ongoing since 1998 providing facilitation to the Indonesian government in the formulation of National Policy for Community Based Water Supply and Sanitation Development.
This CD tries to explain broadly what has been done by WASPOLA up to this time. The contents comprise: (i) the process in formulation of the National Policy for Community Based Water Supply and Sanitation Development; (ii) the initial proces of formulation of National Policy for Institutionally Based Water Supply and Sanitation Development; (iii) workshop activities; (iv) field trials and case studies; (v) publication; (vi) project management. The CD is distributed free of charge. Those interested please contact WASPOLA secretariat Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Tel. 021-3142046. (MJ)
Collection of Solid Waste Resources
PA has launched a CD entitled "A collection of Solid Waste Resources". This CD contains more than 300 publications on dangerous as well as safe waste material. The documents contained therein can be searched and data are arranged in alphabetical order, some of them are presented in Spanish.
The publication cover a wide range of topics including recycle and reuse, management of dangerous wastes, composting, and use of engine fuel. The CD is purposely devoted to a wide range of users, especially young people. The cover of the CD was designed by the winner of children's contest aged 7-12.
The topics contained are among others: Climatic Change and Waste, Oil and Gas, Waste Material Management in Cities, Pollution Control, Management of Dangerous Wastes, Environmental Education, Landfilling, and Composting. (MJ)
Percik August 2004
National Solid Waste Management Network
erhaps this is the only website in Indonesia which is specifically dedicated to solid waste management. This website is relatively very simple. There are only a few menus: profile, activity, gallery and link. This website is a means for communication by the National Solid Waste Management Network of "Garbage Network" consisting of 29 NGOs interested in solid waste management from 25 cities in Indonesia. Garbage Network is part of Global Anti Incinerator of Alliance/Global Alliance for Incinerator Alternatives. It is not surprising that one its articles
-in activity menu- is entitled "Waste to Energy Project, Public Natural Resources Exploitation Project, by Gopal Khrisna which describes that incinerator produces poisonous gases. Other interesting articles are among others Environmental Education in Waste Material Handling, and the Development of Biodegradable Plastic Material from Tropical Starch Substances. It is also interesting to note this website provides information about the prices of used material from potable water container, glass bottles, iron, copper, paper and plastic material.
Solid Waste and Environmental Protection
the various existing programs related to solid waste.
Regional Waste Management System of Spokane
http://www.solidwaste.org/ This website contains many things about solid wastes including waste as source of energy, transfer stations, dangerous waste, reducing waste, learning about waste, and waste recycle. The management system is what is specially applied in Spokane, one of the cities in US.
o l i d w aste is not a simple problem. The website of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) describes in detail various waste problems and their solutions. Beginning from domestic waste till industrial waste in its varieties. There is also various cooperation formats that can be done and
International Solid Waste Association (ISWA)
http://www.iswa.org/ his website is maintained by International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) which has 1.100 members from 70 countries. Its content is complete, from definition of waste till policy and action from each country of the world. It also contains important articles and news about wastes. In the forthcoming 17-21 October this independent organization will hold a congress in Rome, Italy.
Percik August 2004
WASPOLA Program Dissemination in the Province of Gorontalo
ASPOLA program dissemination was carried out in Gorontalo on 7 July last. This effort was intended to provide an input to the regional government in formulation future development strategies given the fact that the present drinking water service coverage is too low, i.e. below 50 percent. The event which took place in the office of the Provincial Bappeda and was opened by its Chairman. Present from among the provincial level agencies were Bappeda, Health, PDAM, Village Community Development (PMD), Social Affairs (Dinas Sosial), Office of Environmental Affairs (Kantor Lingkungan Hidup), NGOs, University, representatives from legislative body. Description about WASPOLA program was presented by Rheidda Pramudhy from WSS Working Group. Aside from introduction about the National Policy for Community Based WSS development and WASPOLA program, the event was also filled with group discussion in the portrait of WSS development before and after the formation of the province, and finally a formulation of action plan by the participants. The problems and issues related to drinking water and sanitation in the province that consists of 3 kabupatens (Kota Gorontalo, Kab. Gorontalo, and Kab. Boalemo) are as the following: Inequity in WSS development WSS development does not comply with community demand Limited PDAM service, especially in cities
SOURCE: RHEIDDA PRAMUDHY
The event was also filled with group discussion in the portrait of WSS development and finally a formulation of action plan by the participants.
High pollution rate from disposal of mercury containing substances into open waters by gold mining industry. Under exploitation of water sources from lakes and reservoirs. Frequent prevalence of diarrhoeal diseases due to disregard to hygiene behaviour. Regional government is more oriented to revenue than public service especially in drinking water. The dissemination process also
produced a follow-up action and an agreement to form a WSS Working Team at the provincial level. The Bappeda is elected as the Chairman and the involved agencies as the members. To support the activity, the Working Team has proposed a budget from the provincial annual budget for FY 2004 and 2005 as counterpart to a fund provided for by WASPOLA at the region. (Rheidda Pramudhy)
Percik August 2004
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
t is like the moon falls into our lap," as brought up by community members of Pringga Jurang village, Kec. Montong Gading, Lombok Timur, NTB, when commenting about WSLIC-2 project in their village. The community has been waiting for a water supply facility. The community has a very low income. Almost 73 percent of its population belongs to the poor class. It is not surprising that the villagers who live barely 12 km from the Lombok Timur capital city are in poor hygiene condition. Nearly 85% of the population defecates in the open, 93% dispose their waste anywhere they please, 95% never wash hands after defecating, and 64% drink water directly without first boiling it. No wonder, that diarrhoeal diseases visit here very often. Thanks to WSLIC-2 the village now has a functioning drinking water and sanitation facility. A gravitational piping system serves 887 people. The project
also built 4 school toilets. The school children are also able to get a hygienic
drinking water through SODIS method. For household toilet, the construction was arranged in a rolling fund system. The construction budget which was decided at a ceiling of Rp200 million for each village, 20 percent came from community contribution. The WSS facility is managed by Himpunan Penduduk Pemakai Air Minum/HIPPAM (drinking water users' association). At a public hydrant the management is undertaken by water users' group. Monthly contribution is Rp1.000 per family. But the monthly contribution does not fully apply for reason they were just spending a large amount for WSLIC-2 contribution. From a field observation it was found that one of the public tap is broken. Similar damage was also found in other projects such as RWSS. This is because it is very difficult to get a replacement or it takes a large amount of money to purchase one than the price of the tap. (OM)
Producing Hygienic Water with Sunshine
he material needed consists only of a 1,5 litre transparent bottle (potable water container may do). Half of the body is painted black, lengthwise. Then it is filled with water to the top and sealed. The bottle is put under the sun with the painted part at the bottom. Let it under the sun for 4-5 hours on sunny days or 6-7 hours if it is cloudy, or 2 consecutive days if it is rainy followed by a clear weather. Now the water is good enough to be taken directly for drinking.
Percik August 2004
A BOUT WASPOLA
The Implementation of National Policy for Community Based WSS Development at the Regional Level
mplementation facilitation of National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in seven provinces has been on-going since June 2004. The regions were selected based on the letter of interest and regional commitment as a follow-up from a national workshop held in 10-12 March 2004 in Yogyakarta. Up to July 2004 the activities that took place in the regions were: facilitator mobilization, coordination in the preparation of policy implementation, and presentation of general program at provincial level. The above activities were facilitated by 7 facilitators assigned to the regions and in performing their tasks they were supported by WASPOLA Secretariat and WSS Working Group in Jakarta. Coordination The preparation for program implementation was initiated from a coordination approach with regional level chiefs of the involved agencies -Bappeda, Kimpraswil, Community Empowerment Agency- for the purpose of introducing and explaining the program planning. In general, all the regions responded splendidly and immediately make preparation for the facilitator facility. The facilitators are housed in the office of Bappeda, except in Kab. Lombok Barat where they are housed in the office of Kimpraswil (Public Works). Beside the above support the regional governments also allocate an amount of budget in support of the activity. However, for most of the regions, the allocation is still in the process of annual budget proposal. The regions ready with the budget are Kabupatens Kebumen, Sijunjung,
SOURCE: ALMA ARIEF
Gorontalo, Bangka Selatan and Lombok Barat. Stakeholder Mapping To get a clear picture who among the different components of the community are the potential parties for program implementation within a specific area, the facilitators identified the government agencies and other parties who are interested in WSS sector development, especially the NGOs. This identification produced names to be proposed for participation in TOT MPA and Program Implementation which was held by WSS Working Group at Cisarua, Bogor, 13-16 July 2004. WSS Data Collection Regional level facilitators and stakeholders have collected data on the existing WSS facility. The data are used in the regional level workshops for the formulation WSS development work plan. All of the regions are aware of the issues related
data insufficiency. That is why data preparation should be given enough time. Program Presentation The agenda for program presentation comprises: (i) the general illustration about policy formulation program; (ii) the policy principles governing the community based WSS development; (iii) the facilitation process for the policy implementation at the regional level; (iv) discussion and clarification; and (v) agreement to a short term action plan. In general the regions respond favourably to the policy implementation plan and agreeable to the idea that sustainable WSS service is an important issue that must be dealt with seriously. The short term agenda (action plan) comprises among others: preparation of working team, selection of participants to a training for trainers (TOT) in MPA and Policy Implementation. Other matters that must be dealt with by the facilitators are:
Percik August 2004
A BOUT WASPOLA
An expectation that this program will be followed with a physical project. This notion develops from a tradition that each program coming from the central is identical with a subsidized physical development project. The absence of participants representing legislative body (DPRD). Whereas, they play an important role in providing support and follow-up WSS program implementation. Uncertainty of fund allocation in several regions such as in Jawa Tengah, Sumatra Barat, NTB, Gorontalo, and South Sulawesi. Training Orientation and Program Implementation All of the regions invited to the training did send their participants, and even Banten sent one and Gorontalo two additional participants they were initially asked to. Two participants, each from Bangka Belitung and Bangka Selatan failed to show up because of transport difficulty. In general, all the participants were enthusiastic in attending the training. They have developed a work plan for the policy implementation for further discussion in their respective places. Based on evaluation, 80 percent felt very satisfied and satisfied, 2 participants said ineffective and too highly theoretical, and the rest felt just so-so. Several Important Findings Based on the result of coordination meetings and activities undertaken up to July 2004, there are several findings that deserve follow-up and attention from the central level WSS Working Group. Those are: There are changes in staffing and contact persons in the regions. There are differences in interest among regional agencies because of the wrong persons were instructed to attend the initial workshop in Yogyakarta. - There is a need for more advanced MPA training and field application and a training in formulation of WSS sector strategic planning. - Enthusiasm from other regions to join in TOT MPA and policy implementation. Regional Work Plans Regional level work plans are directed towards policy implementation with the following steps: Kabupaten 1. Information seminar about the national policy for community based WSS development and socialization of the policy to a wide range of stakeholders. 2. Mapping of issues and problems related to WSS development through WS II and then followed by studies in problems and issues vis-à-vis sustainable WSS development and a working team meeting to discuss result of the studies and decide on priority action. 3. WS for formulation of regional level policy framework for WSS sector development which is then followed by formulation regional policy and action plans. 4. Post facilitation policy and action plans implementation. Province 1. Information seminar about the national policy for community based WSS development and socialization of the policy to a wide range of stakeholders. 2. Monitoring/supervision and learning process of policy implementation in selected pilot areas. 3. Workshop for development of facilitation strategies in policy implementation then followed by provincial level policy formulation and action plans. 4. Post facilitation policy and action plans implementation.
In general, all the participants were enthusiastic in attending the training. They have developed a work plan for the policy implementation for further discussion in their respective places.
Commitment to budget allocation. Although formally the regions declared their preparedness to make available the necessary budget for program implementation, the latest progress in the field indicates that mostly they are still fighting to convince the DPRD. This matter needs be taken into consideration that in future the time allowance for program confirmation is made longer. Positive responses at provincial level are found in: - Jawa Tengah will invite 14 kabupatens as an initial step in program socialization; - Sumatra Barat invited additional kabupatens, namely Pasaman Barat and Pesisir Selatan in the initial presentation. The two regions are interested to join the program in 2005. - South Sulawesi has scheduled the socialization to all kabupatens. - Bangka Belitung and Jawa Tengah question about the selection criteria and expect if there were opportunity for additional kabupatens to join in.
Percik August 2004
A BOUT WASPOLA
WASPOLA Working Group Workshop
s an evaluation of WASPOLA 2004 Workplan implementation and to highlight the rationale of works still yet unfinished the WASPOLA Working Group held a three day workshop on 6-8 July 2004 at the Novus Hotel, Puncak, West Java. The workshop was also intended to integrate Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) into WASPOLA Workplan. The workshop was attended by several of the Working Group members and was opened by Basah Hernowo, Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas. In his opening speech he stressed the need for the completion of National Policy Document for Institutionally Based WSS Development by the end of 2004. It is now considered as the best momentum, the completion of this document could erase the notion that WASPOLA is identical to community based approach. He also underscored the matters to be done, i.e. (i) an agreement on the WSS development policy structure and framework, (ii) preparation of WASPOLA-2 general Workplan up to December 2004. (iii) coordinated schedule with WSS Working Group activities. (iv) formulating the activities for coordinated data management, (v) determining the topic of field trials and case studies related to the policy. The workshop was also used an opportunity for the presentation of Project Design Document (PDD) by Oswar Mungkasa, Office of Housing and Settlement, Bappenas, who elaborated the PDD formulation process involving all the partnership parties, Indonesian government, AusAID and WSP-EAP. It also describes the objectives and comparison of components between WASPOLA-1 and WASPOLA-2. WASPOLA 2004 program review session was chaired by Sofyan Iskandar, WASPOLA Project Coordinator. According to him some items of the program
WASPOLA-1 1. Policy Reform 2. Service Improvement 3. Learning Process & Communication 4. Project Management
WASPOLA-2 1. Policy Implementation 2. Policy Reform 3. Knowledge Management (Information) 4. Coordination & Project Management
have been completed, some in progress and there are items which have not taken place. The participants came to a conclusion that the program was too optimistic, considering the imbalanced ratio between the number to items and the available manpower both in the WASPOLA working group and in the secretariat. Moreover, the program is implemented during the government transition. That is why the participants suggested to rationalize it based on an in-depth analysis and rescheduling of some of the work program. Finally it was agreed to revise the
Work Program 2004. In the meantime, in terms of MDGs the workshop came to the following conclusion, (i) the baseline data to be used are those produced by SUSENAS of the Central Bureau of Statistic; (ii) the scope of water supply sector consists of drinking water and environmental sanitation covering wastewater and solid waste; (iii) MDGs sector targets is adjusted with the Indonesian progress report in MDGs achievement. An agreement was also reached regarding the MDGs program of activities for 2004. (OM)
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
Percik August 2004
A BOUT WASPOLA
WASPOLA Central Project Committee Meeting
ASPOLA-2 Central Project Committee (CPC) meeting was held on 11 August 2004 at Four Seasons Hotel, Jakarta. The meeting was attended by Suyono Dikun, Deputy for Facilities and Infrastructures, Bappenas), Robin Davis and Zabeta Moutafis of the Australian Embassy, and the officials of the involved agencies. The meeting was preceded with signing Subsidiary Agreement document between the Indonesian government represented by Deputy for Facilities and Infrastructures, Bappenas with the Australian government; official hand over of WASPOLA-1 result to Bappenas as the executing agency, and presentation of
SOURCE: DORMARINGAN S.
WASPOLA-2 progress report for the period of January-June 2004 and work plan for July-December 2004. The Committee consists of echelon 1
officials of the involved government agencies Bappenas, Ministry of Home Affairs, Dept. Finance, Ministry of Health, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructures, and representatives from the Australian government and the World Bank. Until December 2004 WASPOLA-2 activity is focused on the completion of National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development and the Implementation of the National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in 7 provinces and 7 kabupatens. (OM)
Workshop for the Formulation of National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development
workshop for the formulation of national policy for institutionally based WSS development was held on 1-2 September in Bogor, West Java. This workshop is a part of WASPOLA-2 program implementation. A series of similar workshops will be held in the future. Approximately 60 participants from various associated parties, central government officials, representatives from regional governments, PDAM, professional associations (PERPAMSI, FORKAMI), private sector (PT. Palyja, PT Wira Gufindo Sarana), universities, and donor agency were present. The
workshop was applying participatory approach in which each participant is a valuable resource person. The discussion was proceeding in a relaxed atmosphere without underestimating seriousness. At the end of the workshop the participants agreed to a number of inputs and revisions to the existing policy.
The result will be accommodated into the previous draft. The next workshop is scheduled for 1 October 2004. (OM)
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
Percik August 2004
A BOUT WSS
Methodology for Participatory Assessments (MPA)/PHAST Orientation Training
for Regional Level WSS Working Group
s the National Policy for Community Based WSS Development final document was mutually agreed by the national level stakeholders, it now comes the time to put the policy into operation at the regional level. In 2004 the implementation is limited in selected 7 provinces and 7 kabupatens, namely Kab. Sawahlunto Sijunjung and Province of West Sumatra, Kab. South Bangka and the Prov. of Bangka Belitung, Kab. Lebak and Prov. Banten, Kab. Kebumen and Prov. Central Jawa, Kab. West Lombok and Prov. NTB, Kab. Pangkep and Prov. South Sulawesi, and Kab. Gorontalo and Prov. Gorontalo. One of the supporting activities of the implementation is formation of regional level Working Groups followed up with strengthening the capacity of their members. As an initial step it is considered necessary to introduce the MPA principles as one of the main tools in WSS development implementation as well as in the formulation of the national policy up to the present. The MPA/PHAST orientation training was conducted on 12-16 July 2004 at Hotel Pratama, Cisarua, Bogor and was organized by the Directorate General for Rural Community Development, Dep. Home Affairs, in its capacity as one of the Central Working Group members. Seventy participants attended the training consisting of members of working groups from various constituents, namely Village Community Development Agency/Body (PMD), Bappeda, Settlement and Regional Infrastructures Agency, Health Agency, Education Agency, Regional Environmental Control.
In general, the purpose of the orientation is to make the regional Working Group members understand the national policy for community based WSS development, understand the MPA/PHAST basic principles, understand the principles of facilitation; have a good knowledge on the participatory approach in policy formulation process. Besides, it is expected that this meeting will facilitate the participants in formulating the regional working group work plan.
One of the supporting activities of the implementation is formation of regional level Working Groups followed up with strengthening the capacity of their members.
Basah Hernowo, Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas in his presentation about WASPOLA explained about the apprehensive condition of drinking water and environmental sanitation service in Indonesia. Access to drinking water supply is still below 50% and of sanitation is 63,5% but it is questionable if the basic sanitation meets the acceptable quality. It is even estimated that many of the sanitation facilities that make up the 63.5% level are not functioning any more. One of the indicators is the high rate of ground water pollution in big cities; for Jakarta this rate has reached 84%. WASPOLA, a grant funded project from the Australian government and managed by WSP-EAP of the World Bank
is designed to improve water supply and environmental sanitation condition in Indonesia through policy reform has been completed in WASPOLA-1 in March 2003, and one of its main outcomes is the National Policy for Community Based WSS Development. It was later agreed to continue the activities to WASPOLA phase 2 till December 2008. WASPOLA2 is focused on regional implementation of the community based policy, and continues with WSS policy reform in formulation of national policy for institutionally based WSS development. The National Policy for the Development of Community Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSS) consists of 11 basic policies, they are (i) water is a social good and an economic good; (ii) informed choice as a basis for demand responsive approach; (iii) environmentally friendly development; (iv) hygiene behaviour education; (v) poverty sensitive development; (vi) role of women in decision making; (vii) accountability in development process; (viii) role of government as facilitator; (ix) active participation of community; (x) optimum service to the right target; and (xi) application of cost recovery principle. Basah Hernowo also explained briefly about Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) for drinking water and sanitation for 2015, reducing the proportion of population without access to drinking water and basic sanitation services. This agreement was signed by 193 world leaders. The strategy to achieve the target is presently being formulated by the WSS Working Group. OM
Percik August 2004
A BOUT WSS
WSS Working Group Took Part in Nusantara Water 2004
SOURCE: DORMARINGAN S.
SS Working Group and WASPOLA took part in Nusantara Water Exhibition 2004 held at Jakarta Convention Center on 19-20 August 2004. The stand displayed posters, books, leaflets and various other products of the Working Group as well as of WASPOLA. The posters that were introduced were among others "100 million on Indonesian population are without access to drinking water and sanitation", "National Policy for Community Based WSS Development", "Hygiene Behaviour", and posters produced by WSLIC and SANIMAS. The Working Group and WASPOLA also distributed the book on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development,
Percik magazine, and various leaflets free of charge to the visitors. More than 200 visitors came to visit the blue-grey stand. Many of them were impressed with what WASPOLA and the Working Group have been doing. There are visitors who are
interested in having their place as a site for implementing the national policy for community based WSS development which is currently on-going. There are others who are interested to subscribe the Percik magazine even if they had to pay. There were about 40 participants from the government, PDAM, private sector, university, and professional association took place in the exhibition. The Nusantara Water 2004 agenda included a seminar and conference. This event was organized by PERPAMSI (Persatuan Perusahaan Air Minum Seluruh Indonesia, Indonesian Association of Drinking Water Companies). (MJ)
ProAir Project Planning and Evaluation
roAir Project Planning and Evaluation meeting was held at Denpasar, Bali on 28-29 August 2004. The purpose of the meeting was to make work plan for 2005 and at the same time also as a means for evaluation of implementation in 2004. This meeting was attended by Central and Regional Technical Teams and the consultants. Also present were the KfW Review Mission who presented their findings and recommendations. The findings were discussed between the KfW and Indonesian government in Jakarta on 6 September 2004. The regional governments revealed a number of constraints they are facing, (i) the general election; (ii) the legislative bodies do not have sufficient knowledge
about community participatory approach; (iii) implementation phasing is too long; (iv) counterpart fund from the government cannot be utilized that negatively influences their performance. However, the government of Timor Tengah Selatan agrees with KfW that investment fund is not influenced with FY. But the government of Sumba Barat made it compulsory for the regional government to return the fund to regional treasury office it it can be used. KfW Mission Review Findings and Recommendation The mission reveals a number of findings, (i) ProAir implementation delay because of mistakes in estimating the time needed for project preparation, some ambi-
guity from several involved parties, difficulty in mobilization of non investment contribution from the regional government; (ii) there are not many locations where gravitational system can be applied because of distance from water source, thus investment fund increases; (iv) guidelines are not available; (v) collection of contribution is delayed because low community capacity. Recommendation proposed, (i) in two kabupatens, i.e. Alor and Ende the ProAir implementation is postponed till mid of 2005; (ii) take the necessary action to make the guidelines ready as soon as possible; (iii) it is necessary to conduct socialization program to the legislative bodies; (iv) it is required that the tender process for contracting to observe the regulation of the donor agency. (OM)
Percik August 2004
A BOUT WSS
Appropriate Technology Seminar Waste Water Processing
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
aste Water Technology Centre in cooperation with JICA, JBIC, WSP-EAP/World Bank, and WSS Working Group organized a seminar entitled "Appropriate technology Waste Water Processing. It is Time to Move" held in Yogyakarta on 24-25 August 2004. The purpose of the seminar is to share information about the progress in waste water processing technology and inter-governmental information coordination pattern. Approximately 200 participants representing the bureaucracies, practitioners, universities, consultants, donor agencies, and NGOs attended the seminar. Basah Hernowo, Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas, described the general condition of waste water management in Indonesia. According to him, (i) waste water management is not a priority either to government, legislative nor the private sector. This is evidenced from government budget allocation during the decade 19922002 was a mere Rp1,5 billion vs. Rp2 trillion for drinking water supply; (ii) lack of awareness in the part of the community. In dealing with waste water management the community strictly applies the NIMBY (not in my backyard) principle; (iii) waste water management is not properly coordinated; (iv) sanitation service coverage is still insufficient (74%) and the coverage for waste water management system is extremely low (2%); (v) the cost for waste water management is becoming more expensive as the surface water becomes more heavily polluted; (vi) the challenges in the future relate to the achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and national policy reform. He also suggested several solutions, such as the application of good governance and the principle of polluter pays, development of partnership with
the private sector, development of funding mechanism, community care, integration of drinking water development with sanitation/waste water management. In conformance with the title of the seminar, all the solutions must be put into action now. It is action that is needed, not just a plan. This seminar also invited several researchers with interesting working
papers, namely Dr. Tjandra Setiadi (ITB) "Production of Biodegradable Plastic from Waste Water", S. Uemura, Assistant Professor Kiazarazu Institute of Technology, Japan "The Performance of Downflown Hanging Sponge (DHS) Biotower in Karnak, India" and Prof. Dr. Azis Djajadiningrat (ITB) "Waste Water Processing Without Chemicals." (OM)
A Glimpse of Waste Water Technology Centre
aste Water Technology Centre is a cooperation program bet-
tives include the following, (i) provision of facility and infrastructure for waste water management; (ii) appropriate technology development and field testing; (iii) human resources development; (iv) networking. in 2004. This program started in 2001 and will end
ween Dian Desa Foundation and Asian People's Exchange (APEX-Japan) with support from JICA Partnership Program (JPP). The purpose of the program is to improve the environmental condition in Indonesia. The objec-
Percik August 2004
A BOUT WSS Preparation for ProAir Project in Kabupaten Alor
he ProAir Project preparatory meeting took place at the office of GTZ in Mataram, NTB on August 2004 last. The purpose of the meeting was know what preparation has been made in two new Kabupatens, i.e. Alor and Ende, and the implementation progress of ProAir Project in the 3 old kabupatens, namely Timor Tengah Selatan (TTS), Sumba Barat and Sumba Timur. Several important matters were revealed in the meeting among others it was known that ProAir is supported with investment assistance from KfW and non investment from GTZ. The amount investment assistance planned for kabupatens Alor and Ende is Rp18 billion, mainly for construction purpose. The amount has been committed. GTZ fund for community preparation is not yet confirmed. It is said, GTZ has a financial difficulty. With this difficulty the project implementation cannot start simultaneously. Kabupaten Ende will start first for the following reasons: 1. The regional government is better committed 2. There are more water sources available 3. In terms of geographical condition and accessibility the area is easier to deal with. 4. Availability of water quality testing facility. 5. Availability of community facilitator weho has been trained by GTZPROMISE Project. As for kabupatens TTS, Sumba Barat and Sumba Timur project implementation has reached the stage of tendering for construction work. Construction is expected to start in October. There is a problem in Sumba Timur, the facilitator
cannot work full time because he is government employee. TTS is doing excellently. In this kabupaten the facilitator moves around in his motorcycle. TTS is able to move at par with Kabupatens Sumba Timur and Sumba Barat, each with 3 locations.
ProAir is supported with investment assistance from KfW and non investment from GTZ.
ProAir meeting was also held in the office of Bappeda Kab. Alor on 14 August. The meeting was chaired by the Chairman of Bappeda and attended by
the involved agencies consisting of Kimpraswil, Office of Community Development (PMD), and Health (Dinkes). Drinking water coverage has reached 60%. This year the regional government allocates Rp1,4 billion for development of drinking water facility especially deep well pump from an average ground water table 70 m below the surface There are two activities that GTZ is involved in, namely PROMISE Project for the purpose if improving rural community income, and Siskes Project to improve community health condition. Both projects are currently on-going. Another water supply development project is the WSLIC-1. But the facilities are not functioning anymore because the community level management team does not function as expected. This is because the community does not pay contribution. Some of the community members suggest that the management but placed under a government agency, in this way the community would be more obedient. (Rheidda Pramudy)
Percik August 2004
W WS BIBLIOGRAPHY
WATER FOR URBAN AREAS Challenges and Prospective Author : Juha I Uitto & Asit K. Bis was Published by: United Nations University Press RUBBISH! The Archaeology of Garbage Author : William Rahje & Cullen Murphy Published by: The University of Arizona Press AREA PROFILE Kabupatens and Cities Author : Kompas Team Published by: Kompas Press WATER POLITIC Foreign Control Through Loan Author : P. Raja Siregar Published by : WALHI & KAU WATER RESOURCES CONSERVATION THROUGH ARTIFICIAL MARSH TECHNOLOGY Author : Maulida Khiatuddin Published by : Gadjah Mada University Press WASTE WATER TREATMENT In Order To Control Pollution Author : Ir. S. Hindarko Published by : Esha
Kota-Kota Popular Magazine about towns and Cities. Edition 1, 2004 Air Minum (Drinking Water) Published by Perpamsi. Edition 101, March 2004 Synergi Desa Kota (Village Town Synergy) Rural and Urban Community Development Magazine. Edition 1 January 2004
Wastewater Treatment in Latin America. Old and New Option. Subsidy of Self Respect? Participatory Total Community Sanitation in Bangladesh.
Guideline for City Wastewater Treatment. For Government Executive and Legislative. Edition 1, Fanuary 2004
Asset Management For Hydraulic Infrastructure. Towards sustain-
ability in Flood Protection, Irrigation, and Dam. Directorat for Water Resources and Irrigation, national Development Planning Agency/Bappenas.
Percik August 2004
Month Activity August Preparatory Meeting Re Nusantara water 2004 and Dissemination of Information about National Policy for Community Based WSS Development 3 August Drinking Water Sub-team meeting - National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development Solid Waste Sub-team meeting - National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development 4 August WASPOLA Pre-Project Coordination (PPC) Meeting WSS Working Group Regular Meeting 5 August WSS Working Group Regular Meeting Solid Waste Sub-team meeting - National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development 6 August Preparatory Meeting Re PDAM Water Sampling Method 9 August WWS Working Group Regular Meeting - National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development 10 August Solid Waste Sub-team meeting - National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development ProAir Project Coordination Meeting 10-11 August Sumatra Barat Provincial Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development 11 August WASPOLA PCC Meeting Kick Off Meeting ADB, Appraisal Meeting for CSWH Project 11-12 August Kabupaten Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Pangkep 12-14 August ProAir Project advocacy with the regional government of Kab. Alor 13 August WWS Working Group Regular Meeting 16 August Meeting Re Formulation of National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development 18 August Coordination Meeting Re Planning for National Policy for Flood Control 19 August Water Sanitation Discussion Forum - Using Wind Power for Water Supply and Irrigation 19-20 August Nusantara Water 2004 Exhibition 24 August Meeting for Revised Draft of National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development Preparatory Meeting, Planning and Evaluation for ProAir Project in Denpasar 24-25 August International Seminar - Appropriate Technology in Waste Water Processing. Provincial Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development Bangka Belitung 26-27 August ProAir Project Coordination Meeting in Bali Provincial Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Central Jawa Provincial Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Gorontalo Kabupaten Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Lebak 30 August Presentation Meeting on WASPOLA Progress Report 1-2 September Workshop on National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development 2-3 September Kabupaten Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in South Bangka 6 September Wrap-up Meeting of KfW Review Mission on ProAir WSS Working Group Meeting on Sanitation Grant Fund from the Netherlands WSS Working Group Meeting on Discussion about Hygiene Improvement in Indonesia 6-7 September Kabupaten Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Sijunjung Kabupaten Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Kebumen Kabupaten Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Gorontalo 8 September Workshop entitled: "Global Practices Forum Health in Your Hands; Critical Importance of Hygiene Improvement for Health, Water and Sanitation Program in Indonesia" 15 September WSLIC-2 Central Committee Meeting Workshop on Community Led Total Sanitation WASPOLA meeting - re WASPOLA progress 15-16 September Provincial Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Banten 16 September WWS Working Group Regular Meeting 17-18 September Provincial Workshop on National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in South Sulawesi 21 September WWS Working Group Regular Meeting 22 September Kick of Meeting - WSLIC-2 Supervision Meeting 22 Sep till 8 Oct WSLIC-2 Supervision Mission 4 October Commemoration of Habitat Day in Yogyakarta Date 2
Percik 51 August 2004
Aeration Aerator Aquifer Backwater : : : : adding oxygen into waste water a device used for adding oxygen into waste water underground water containing sand layer a flow unparallel with the bottom of pipe, usually is caused by blocking at the downstream end of the pipe Anaerobic Bacteria : Black Water Capacity Building : : bacteria that live in an oxygen free condition waste water from the toilet, is made up of human waste improvement of the capacity of an institution, by way of training etc. Community Based: a program which involves the community Effluent Grey Water Hygienic Inlet Hard Water Coagulant : : : : : : processed waste water spilling over from a Waste water Processing Facility waste water from bathroom, wash basin, kitchen (not containing human waste) clean, healthy and not detrimental to health in flow water containing high concentrate of bicarbonates, cannot cleanse soap off the skin a chemical substance that causes particles in a suspension pulls together into bigger particles and subside Sedimentation Pond : Manhole Off-site On-site Permeability Purification : : : : : a pond to make the mud from waste water to settle down a hole used for regular control (Pipeline or other construction) waste water treatment centralized at a location away from the settlement area waste water treatment within the settlement area. capacity of soil layer to permeates water through the soil pores, stated in cm/day to re-purify waste water from the influence of polluting substance survey about the real demand of the community cover solid waste with dirt soil or mud, as a means to control environmental pollution piping network to contain waste water and is equipped with treatment installation a ground excavation having permeable walls to let water penetrates into lower ground layer a tank discovered by Imhoff, used to digest sludge water a truck with a tank and pump affixed to it to pump off sludge water out of a septic tank
Real Demand Survey: Sanitary Landfill Sewerage Percolation pit Imhoff tank Waste water truck : : : : :
Summarized from " Mengolah Air Limbah, Supaya Tidak Mencemari Orang Lain” (Waste Water Treatment, an Effort to Control Pollution) by S. Hindarko
Percik August 2004