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Advisor: Director General for Urban and Rural Development, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Board of Head: Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Director of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, Ministry of Settlement and Regional Infrastructure Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Ministry of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Ministry of Home Affairs Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa Board of Editor: Hartoyo, Johan Susmono, Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto Design: Rudi Kosasih Production: Machrudin Distribution: Anggie Rifki Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 e-mail: email@example.com firstname.lastname@example.org email@example.com Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Don't forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. Photo cover : www.firstsmilesolution.com
From the Editor Your Voice Main Feature Drinking Water is Still a Dream Drinking Water Philosophy Enhances Improvement Within PDAM A Glimpse of Drinking Water and Sanitation Condition in Indonesia Looking Into MDGs Drinking Water Article Batam: Water Flows through the kiosks Water in Australia and Sustainable Development Privatization Strategy in Improving Community Awareness Telescope The Real Drinking Water CEO of PDAM Kota Bogor: It Can Be Expanded Further Reportage Between A need and A Pity Interview CEO of Perpamsi: We Need Water Management Agency Book Info Website Info CD Info WASPOLA About Revision of Draft Document of National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development Facilitation of Implementation of National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in the Regions WSS About World Water Monitoring Day It Takes a Firm Commitment to Handle Leakages World Habitat Day 2004 Seminar Workshop on National Action Plan (NAP); Drinking water, Wastewater, Solid Waste Presentation CLTS Concept National Workshop on Domestic Water Source Conservation Dissemination of Technical Guidelines for the Development of Infrastructures in Agropolitan Areas and Environmental Sanitation in the Western Regions Interim Consolidation of WSLIC-2 Project Socialization of the Manual for the Management of Village Level WSS Facility Handwashing Saves Lives WSS Monitoring Visit to Kabupaten Belitung National Seminar for Socialization of Law No. 8/2004 SANIMAS of Balong Asri, Mojokerto is Well Maintained Official Inauguration of WSLIC-2 Project in Kabupaten Kediri ProAir Project Planning and Evaluation Meeting Workshop for Improvement of Proposal for Sanitation Development Program in Indonesia Workshop for Formulation of WASPOLA Workplan 2005 Visit WSLIC-2 Has Changed Desa Pakel Into a Healthy Village WSS Bibliography Agenda Glossary
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F ROM EDITOR
Dear Readers, Percik is now coming back to greet you. Two months have past and it seems quite a long time. We hope this edition will ease your feeling of longing. If in the last edition Percik brought to you the solid waste issue, this time we present to you about drinking water. Why? Because this is very important. Water is a basic need for human life. Its position cannot be replaced by anything else. Are we aware of this? Unfortunately, our attention to drinking water is not up to what it should be. Almost all regions of Indonesia have a public drinking water company (PDAM), but almost all of them do not provide a service in accordance with the title it carries, i.e. a public company producing drinking water. What happens is, PDAM provides its consumers with clean water. This of course is a new challenge for PDAM. Considering that the majority of the PDAMs are in debt. A sizeable amount of debt. Several others are struggling within the mesh of inefficiency and mismanagement. On the side of the coin, the demand for an improved service is becoming inevitable especially due to the fact that Indonesia has committed itself to the fulfillment of the targets as declared in Johannesburg Summit 2002 document as a manifestation of the Millennium Development Goals. Somewhere in the document it is mentioned that by 2015 half of the world population currently are without access to safe drinking water must be relieved from the burden. Then, in 2025 all of the world population must have access to safe drinking water. To achieve these targets there must be a change in paradigm from clean water to drinking water. This change in philosophy will, according to Basah Hernowo, the Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas, have a significant impact not only on PDAM but also on the drinking water consumers. Then what position PDAM is in fulCARICATURE BY RUDI KOSASIH
Happy Eid Mubarak 1425 H
filling the above demand, Percik took effort to interview Ridwan Syahputra Musagani, Chairman of Persatuan Perusahaan Air Minum Seluruh Indonesia (Association of All Indonesian Drinking Water Companies, Perpamsi). Many things about PDAM were brought to light, including his ideas about subsidy for drinking water just like it is with fuel oil. Not less interesting is the experience of PDAM Tirta Pakuan of the city of Bogor, that has managed to develop a drinking water service in the real sense of the meaning. Its product meets the requirement to be taken as drinking water. It is in a small scale, though. However, it is a pioneer to a service the community demands. Dear readers, This time the perspective column does
not appear in the way it used to be. There is a rather long article about the Strategy in Improving Community Awareness. It discusses various different ways in how to incite community awareness for water resources conservation from various different angles and by different parties. We should also inform you that the WSS Working Group has a lot of things to do and this we accommodate in About WASPOLA column. Other information relates to article writing competition on drinking water and environmental sanitation management is now in evaluation stage. Announcement of winners will be made in November. Lastly, we hope Percik will continue as your reference in the subject of drinking water and environmental sanitation. Best regards.
Percik 1 Oktober 2004
Y OUR VOICE
Want to get Percik
Let me introduce myself. My name is Kesit Kanigoro and currently working for an NGO called World Vision International, Jakarta. I came to know about this magazine from a friend who attended a meeting with several institutions last September. I find it quite informative that may help me in broadening my views about sanitation. It happens that I am being assigned to deal with this program since recently, so that I have to learn a lot about drinking water and environmental sanitation. Please let me know how I may get this magazine. I have tried it through internet where I have found the website, but still I have difficulty in downloading it. Where can I get the CD or the printed copy of this magazine. Thanks in advance.
Kesit Kanigoro Jakarta
P E R C I K A R To o N
CARICATURE BY RUDI KOSASIH
yeah... AiD.. its FREE..
....but how the service to public? ....??!!!...?
Percik is obtainable at WSS Working Group Office or Percik Editorial Secretariat at Jl. Cianjur No. 4 Menteng Jakarta Pusat, every day during office hours. You may come in person or contact us through telephone. (Editor)
Want to get CD and Book
To improve the library of the Department of Environmental Engineering of the Technical Faculty, University of Diponegoro, Semarang and to broaden the students' views we would appreciate it if you could send us some CDs and books as the following: 1. Reducing Energy Cost in Municipal Water Supply Operations 2. Water Supply and Sanitation for Small Towns and Multivillage Schemes, Proceeding International Conference. 3. A manager's handbook for the management of city waste material (In Indonesian). Depkimpraswil, Directorate General for Urban and Rural Settlement Systems, 2003.
4. An executive and legislative handbook for the management of city waste material (In Indonesian). Depkimpraswil, Directorate General for Urban and Rural Settlement Systems, 2003. 5. Handbook for determining the standards for drinking water service. (In Indonesian). Depkimpraswil, Directorate General for Urban and Rural Settlement Systems, 2003. 6. Guidelines for the management of domestic solid and liquid wastes. (In Indonesian). Directorate General for Urban and Rural Settlement Systems, 2003. On behalf of the students and our department we would thank you in advance your kind attention and cooperation.
Ir. Syafrudin CES, MT. NIP 131 764 877 Dept. of Environmental Engineering For the Dean of Technical Faculty, UNDIP Semarang
The real topic of the day
Thank you very much for your kind attention by sending Percik of June edition to our office. This has served as a media for information sharing. As we went through it we must say that the magazine contains a rich variety of information. For improvement we would suggest that in the future editions, the referenced themes consist of those that will be or being our common concern such as on drought as it is presently and possibly also flood threat in a few months to come, all in relation to WSS service at that specific time.
firstname.lastname@example.org Bappeda Subang
We will do our best to help you according to the availability of the CDs and the books. (Editor)
Thank you for the suggestion. We will try our best to continuously improve the contents of Percik magazine. Various inputs from the stakeholders, are too precious for the progress of this magazine. We are even very pleased that the stakeholders all over the country are able to write some actual facts from their own places, including their experience related to WSS, for us to publish in Percik. (Editor)
Percik October 2004
M AIN REPORT
Drinking Water is Still a Dream
ater is life. The statement has an every deep connotation, yet most of us and the government level decision makers are not aware of it. As evidence, let's take a look at the list of basic human need. It says food, clothing, and housing. Water is not included. Let's be more specific. We use to say sembako (sembilan bahan pokok, nine basic materials) as life sustaining materials, nether does it make any mention about water. If we try to ponder a while, we will find out that the role of clean/drinking water is indispensable. If we don't have rice, we may eat cassava, maize or others. If we don't have frying oil we can do away without it. But if we don't have water, what can we do with the sembako we have? It will become useless. At this time we do indeed find water everywhere. But does it meet the standard quality for drinking/cooking? Wait a minute. If we use water unscrupulously, instead of getting healthy one may turn into sickness. In 1855 Dr. John Snow, an epidemiologist, found out that cholera spread out together with depraved water. There was a close linkage between contaminated drinking water with prevalence of cholera in England at that time. In 1880s Louis Pasteur developed the germ theory of disease that explained microbial infection of disease through water medium. A World Bank study (1992) revealed that diarrhoeal disease from taking water not worthy for dinking has caused the death of more than 3 million people a year, mostly children. This all shows us how important is water to health and life. Drinking water is a basic human need. The effort towards fulfillment the demand for drinking water service including achievement of MDGs targets is
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
inseparable from the role of drinking water company (PDAM). Even for urban areas PDAM is the backbone for drinking water service. For this case, the main feature of this edition will highlight the performance of PDAM. Background of PDAM Establishment The existence of PDAM is the conse-
quence of Article 5 verse 4 of Law No. 5/1962 on the Regional Government Owned Companies which stipulates "The main production branches that are of the most importance to the regions and that govern the life of the people of the respective region is managed by the regional government owned companies, the capital of which is a separate asset of the region".
Percik 3 October 2004
Total Number of PDAM Based on the latest data quoted from Perpamsi Directory 2000 there are 290 PDAMs all over the country. Besides, there are at this time 6 private companies in operation, PT. Palyja and PT. Thames Water Jaya which obtain a concession from PAM Jaya; PT. Tirta Adhi Mulia in Bali, a joint venture with PDAM of Kabupaten Badung providing services to Nusa Dua Bali area; PT. Aditia Tirta Batam, a joint venture between an Indonesian private firm with Biwater of England obtains a concession to provide service covering all Batam island from PT. Otorita Batam; PT. Dream in Ambon, is a joint venture between PDAM Ambon with Drente of the Netherlands to provide services to the city of Ambon. PDAM Service Coverage In urban areas the drinking water service is provided by PDAM, whereas in the rural areas this is handled mostly by the local community organization with varying form from one place to another. It is not surprising therefore, that the service coverage of the rural is currently only to approximately 5 percent, while in towns and cities the level is now at 51,7 percent (BPS, 2000). The total popula-
Drinking Water Terminology
rinking water is that with or without prior process meets health standard and can be taken directly for drinking (potable) water. (Minister of Health Decision No. 907 Year 2002)Clean water is water used for daily activity that meets health standard and can be taken for drinking after boiling. In academic term clean water refers to water that is produced from an engineering effort of human and animal waste water and of economic activity to make it worthy of recycling back into surface water.
tion with access to service is 56,6 millions, consisting of 4.748 million home connections and 85.700 public hydrants. However, there is only 20,3 percent of the total PDAM with a service coverage reaching 25 percent of the respective local population, of which 8,6 percent serves up to 50 percent while the remaining 79,7 percent provides service to less than 25 percent of the population.
P D A M S e r v i c e C o v e ra g e b y R e g i o n i n 2 0 0 0
Problems and Constraints One cannot deny that PDAM provide a significant contribution to water service, yet the water quality is still far below the expected standard. It is even mispronounced as Bathing Water Producing Company. PDAM effort to improve the quality of drinking water is very much constrained by the scarcity of acceptable source of raw water, both in terms of quality as well as quantity. Although the Indonesian water reserve comprises 6 percent of the total global water or 21 percent of Asia Pacific reserve (KLH, 2003), but water scarcity is getting more prominent from year to year. At the national level, water availability is sufficient but if we look into regions we can see that Java-Bali and Nusa Tenggara areas are suffering from water deficit especially during dry monsoon. A review on PDAM based on the number of customers reveals that many PDAM operates below the level of viable economic scale (approx. 10.000 subscribers). There are only 14 PDAMs book 50.000 customers, as compared to 168 companies each with a total of below 10.000 customers. With such a small number of customers it is unlikely for a PDAM to operate efficiently. One can be sure that the regional government has set aside a sizeable amount of subsidy to keep PDAM operating. Based on PDAMs financial situation, (i) only 18 percent of them run profitably; (ii) 22 percent operate at a negative equity; (iii) 44 percent set a tariff level below
PDAM Ready for drinking water
Based on the latest data there are at least 4 PDAMs which produce ready for drinking water in Indonesia, i.e. PDAM Buleleng, PDAM Malang City, PDAM Medan, and PDAM Bogor City. But the coverage is still limited.
Sumatera Lainnya Jawa - Bali Western Region Kalimantan Eastern Region Sulawesi INDONESIA
Source: Infrastruktur Indonesia, Bappenas 2003
Percik October 2004
M AIN REPORT
O&M costs; (iv) only 10 percent of the PDAMs are in a favourable financial condition. The total PDAMs debts amount to at least Rp5 trillion from a principal of Rp3 trillion. Only 89 PDAMs are free from debt. The principle that places drinking water as a basic human need has imposed upon PDAM a social burden from the government. As a result the tariff level is decided more from the social and political aspects rather than technical and financial. Revenue is negative because income from sales is lower than the production cost, the tariff does not reflect the principle of cost recovery. On the one hand the tariff is decided not to cover the production costs, but on the other any proposal for tariff increase is always strongly counteracted by the community as well as the legislative. It seems this denial is because of the indifference in the part of the community and the legislative members. This can be explained from (i) the average family expenditure for drinking water is only as low as 2 percent of the total expenditure, (ii) drinking water consumption which is one of basic human need is not sensitive to a change in tariff level. It can be summarized that the poor PDAM condition is the result of several factors, namely (i) bureaucracy and politician intervention in PDAM management; (ii) incompatible law and regulation; (iii) increasing difficulty in obtaining and more costly treatment of raw water; (v) high water loss rate; (vi) tariff level does not allow for covering production cost; (vii) lack of information to the customers and the legislative members regarding what the tariff should be like; (viii)lack of technical and managerial capacity. The combined problems and constraints have made PDAM unable to provide the best service. Never dream of provision of ready for drinking water (potable water).
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
The formulation of the National Policy for Institutionally Based Drinking Water Service Development which serves as an umbrella policy for PDAM management is in its final stage and is one part of the initial 100 day program of the Indonesia Bersatu Cabinet
Policy for the Future A decision on drinking water policy is not an easy thing to take. Why? Because this sector involves many stakeholders with many different interests. And as we know, sector egoism is so thick in Indonesian government structure. At this time the formulation of the National Policy for Institutionally Based Water
Supply & environmental sanitation Development which serves as an umbrella policy for PDAM management is in its final stage. However, as in a book entitled Infrastructures of Indonesia published by Bappenas in 2003, there are several relevant policies, namely (i) the need for a deregulation of laws in connection with drinking water. In this case there is a
Percik 5 October 2004
M AIN REPORT
need for an improvement of the laws in relation to technical, institutional, financial, cooperation with private sector or the community, hygiene standard and level of tariff. In addition, it is also necessary to improve the participation of business sector and the community in the development and management of drinking water service through establishment of a conducive business climate; (ii) not less important is improvement in water resources and environmental protection efforts. Water resources protection should be done through multi-sector involvement and inter-regional arrangement through the establishment of water board authority with members consisting of representatives of all the stakeholders. This effort has to be supported by a viable program in nature conservation, environment, and water resources to order to sustain the availability of raw water. From the water use point of view, the extraction and management
Big Rivers of Java Are Not Worthy of Raw Material for Drinking Water
ccording to the Environmental Control Office of the Province of West Jawa the rate of coli bacteria contamination in Cisadane, Ciliwung, Cileungsi, Citarum and
Cimanuk rivers have reached an apprehending level. Their water is no more worthy of a source for drinking water.
Source: Kompas, July 8, 2003
raw water is operated under the principle of optimum intake and most efficient use of watershed resource; (iii) with respect to restructuring on PDAM management it is considered necessary to make a regrouping of the agencies responsible for developing and managing drinking water service into a regional institution. Regulatory function must be clearly separated from operational function so that PDAM
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
management may have the freedom to run professionally without intervention from bureaucracy or the politician. As for the tariff, it must be reformatted to take into account the principles of investment and operational costs recovery, social equity, sustainable service, application of conservation cost and consideration about water as an economic good. Besides, management efficiency must also be made through minimizing technical as well as administrative leakages. In terms of investment it is necessary to consider alternative funding sources for drinking water development and management through an issuance of municipal bonds guaranteed by the regional government or through sale of part of PDAM share to the business sector and the community; (iv) other policy includes cost sharing between different levels of government in the development and expansion of drinking water services; (v) it should reminded our obligation to formulate an action plan and investment planning in order to achieve the 50 percent population who must have access to drinking water in accordance with MDGs target. Considering all the constraints, is PDAM capable to make the dream to produces the really potable water come true. It seems that for the time being it will remain a dream for all of us. (OM and MJ)
Percik October 2004
M AIN REPORT
Basah Hernowo, Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas
"Drinking Water Philosophy Enhances Improvement within PDAM"
rinking water is human being's basic need. And this has been there since the Dutch colonial time. But as we started with Pelita (Five Year Development Plan) I and II, when we incessantly developing drinking water facilities, the concept about drinking water gradually shifted as we put too much emphasis on physical aspect of the development. It is right, that in terms of physical development we are able to reach the expected target, but in terms of management we have failed to sustain the quality at drinking water standard. That was the time when the switch from drinking water to clean water took place. However, if we look back, the cost item differences between clean water and drinking water are not too significant. The difference may be in the management level, how to maintain drinking water quality and safely deliver it to users, e.g. through maintaining the pressure and prevent any loss during conveyance. Actually with the drinking water philosophy all parties are required to perform excellently both the PDAM and the users. For example, if there is a tariff increase, that means the actual cost must indeed be as much. Compare now with the clean water condition, sometimes it contains worm, dirt, etc., the customers are reluctant to accept any tatriff increase because the quality is poor. But if the quality is comparable with the costly bottled water, it won't be difficult for the user community to accept the tariff increase.
a users' supervision, PDAM will improve its performance. As of the present condition, the company has no counter actor. Thus the philosophical change is deemed quite necessary. Why? Because PDAM management is facing a dilemma. The former Coordination Minister has issued a strategy for improving PDAM condition, but still it did not work because too many interests are mingling in it. But now if we directly compel PDAM to serve its users with drinking water, every one will listen and care. With this compulsion
That is why it should be necessary to stress that water quality should be the end goal in a drinking water service. If we compare with the US, what is considered as clean water is water is good for flowing back into any main water body. That means it is free from any polluting agent. While safe drinking water is one which contains contaminating agents below the tolerable level for human consumption. Thus one is for admission to body of water and the other for human body. With a clearly defined standard the PDAM cannot play around anymore. The rate of leakage which is currently reaching 35 percent must be prevented, otherwise the users will claim: "You are selling drinking water to us, but why is it not drinkable?" The
PDAM will have to take a look into its internal condition, for example too many broken pipes, poor administrative condition, thus it becomes a necessity to call for an assistance from the central government to work out an improvement. Whether, for instance the central government would be willing to facilitate an additional budget request and improvement to the existing system. On the other hand the central government may also demand PDAM for an excellence in the level of conduct and management performance. The government will also speak to its owner, i.e. the regional government. Therefore, this can be considered as one of our efforts to solve the problems in drinking water service by PDAM. (MJ)
Percik 7 October 2004
M AIN REPORT
A Glimpse of Drinking Water and Sanitation Condition in Indonesia
uman Development Report 2004 collaboratively published by Bappenas, BPS and UNDP reveals a number of interesting facts related to drinking water and sanitation. In reference with BPS data contained in the book the drinking water and sanitation condition among different kabupatens/kota and provinces can be made. The goals set in the MDGs have been commonly agreed. One of them is drinking water and basic sanitation as Target #10 which states that half of the population proportion currently is without access to drinking water and basic sanitation shall have to be provided for with such services in the year 2015. As we know, pursuant to the MDGs document the target for drinking water for Indonesia is 70 percent while for sanitation 63,5 percent levels. It should always be reminded however, that the target is countrywide and a national average, while the responsibility for drinking water and sanitation services management is with the kabupaten/city governments. More attention should be focused to drinking water/sanitation condition of the kabupatens/cities. As an illustration, although Indonesia meets the prescribed targets but as we go deeper into the details we will find many of the kabupatens/cities with a poor drinking water/sanitation condition. Both from theoretical point of view as well as empirical observation quality improvement and availability of drinking water and sanitation facilities will increase welfare or in other words reducing poverty. This article will try to illustrate the drinking water and sanitation service in its relation with poverty at kabupaten/city level. The method applied will of course be the simplest but at least it will provide the regional picture. The method employs a
PRIORITY I Drinking water/sanitation condition below Indonesia average Poverty condition below Indonesia average
PRIORITY III Drinking water/sanitation condition above Indonesia average Poverty condition above Indonesia average
Poverty level above average
PRIORITY II Drinking water/sanitation condition below Indonesia average Poverty condition below Indonesia average
PRIORITY IV Drinking water/sanitation condition above Indonesia average Poverty condition above Indonesia average
Poverty level below average
Drinking water/sanitation condition below average
Drinking water/sanitation condition above average
classification of kabupaten/city and province into four quadrants as presented above. Through the above class distinction one can decide the priority order for handling, priorities one to four. The regions which need the most serious attention in terms of drinking water and sanitation development are classified as priority one. Based on the above classification, there are several prioritized areas for dinking water, sanitation and combination of both at provincial as well as kabu-
paten/city leves. There are 13 provinces which need serious attention in terms of water and sanitation but only eight of them are classified as priority one: NAD, South Sumatra, Bengkulu, NTB, NTT, Central Sulawesi, Gorontalo and Papua. The remaining four belong to those whose drinking water needs a serious attention but priority one is given to Lampung province. The are 6 provinces with poor sanitation condition, the first priority in four, namely Central Jawa, East Jawa, Southeast Sulawesi, and Maluku.
Percik October 2004
M AIN REPORT
PRIORITY PROVINCES FOR DRINKING WATER
Lampung Riau, Jambi, West Java. Central Java, East Java, West Sumatra.
DKI Jakarta DI Yogyakarta East Kalimantan Riau Lampung North Sumatera West Jawa* North Sulawesi Jambi Bali South Kalimantan INDONESIA South Sumatera* NTT Banten** Central Kalimantan Central Jawa East Jawa North Maluku ** Bengkulu West Sumatera Nangroe Aceh West Kalimantan S.E.Sulawesi South Sulawesi Bangka Belitung** Maluku Central Sulawesi Gorontalo** Papua*** NTB Bali DKI Jakarta North Sulawesi East Jawa East Kalimantan DI Yogyakarta Central Jawa S.E. Sulawesi South Kalimantan North Sumatera West Sumatera East Maluku ** Maluku* INDONESIA Bengkulu South Sulawesi Lampung NTT Jambi Nangroe Aceh Bangka Belitung** NTB South Sumatera * West Jawa * Central Sulawesi Banten** Riau Papua*** Gorontalo Central Kalimantan West Kalimantan
Households with access to sanitation facility, by Province 2002
Households with access to drinking water facility, by Province 2002
PRIORITY PROVINCES FOR SANITATION
Central Java, East Java, SE Sulawesi, Maluku West Sumatra, North Maluku Lampung Riau, Jambi, West Java
NAD, South Sumatera, Bengkulu, NTB, NTT, Central Sulawesi, Gorontalo, Papua
Babel, Banten, West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, South Sulawesi
North Sumatera, DKI Jakarta, South Kalimantan, Kalsel, East Kalimantan, North Sulawesi
There are 8 provinces which are not in the top priority in terms of drinking water and sanitation problem. Drinking water condition of West Sumatra, Central Java and East Java are not in top priority, similarly with sanitation in the provinces of Lampung, Riau, Jambi and West Java. If we want to go into more details, we can use this classification method for kabupaten/city condition. The result is illustrated in the following table: PRIORITY KABUPATENS/CITIES FOR DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION
I Drinking water and sanitation 87 Drinking water 28 Sanitation 26 Total 141 PRIORITY II III IV 37 27 79 40 31 15 15 18 40 92 76 134
PRIORITY PROVINCES FOR DRINKING WATER AND SANITATION
Source: Indonesia Human Development Report 2004 Legend: * = Province which underwent a split ** = New province result from the split *** = Province with a new name
From the above table it can be seen that the total kabupatens/cities which
need a serious attention is more or less similar to those with a relatively acceptable drinkling water and sanitation condition. In general, we can say that there are 87 kabupatens/cities which belong to top priority in solving their drinking water and sanitation problem. There are 28 which call attention for drinking water only, similarly with 26 for sanitation only. However, the above priority ranking should not be literally translated in a way that once a region is not included in a priority is free from the obligation for
water supply and sanitation sector development. The above illustration is made as an attempt to provide a clearer picture about the real condition of drinking water and sanitation service in the regions of Indonesia and not as a national average . Hopefully this presentation will serve as an input for the the effort in achieving the MDGs target. The complete result of by kabupaten/city drinking water and sanitation in Indonesia is accessible in WSS website www.ampl.or.id (OM)
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M AIN REPORT
A Closer Look into MDGs Drinking Water
Why MDGs are so important? MDGs represent an agreement of the world leaders to engage in a common effort to solve the problems faced by the developing nations, such as poverty, illiteracy, hunger, high infant mortality rate, lack of education, lack of access to drinking water and sanitation service, and environmental degradation. The said problems cannot be solved without any assistance and cooperation among the nations of the world. This conscience becomes the basic principle underlying the declaration of MDGs with a hope to enable to unite the nations of the world in a war against the basic problems of human beings. Drinking Water Objective and Target in MDGs With 8 objectives and 18 targets of the MDGs Drinking Water and Sanitation is directly linked with Objective 7 namely ensure environmental sustainability and Target 10 Halve by 2015 the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water & basic sanitation. What are the indicators used in measuring the performance for achieving MDGs target? Each nation is given a flexibility to determine her own indicator for the target achievement. For Indonesia, and in accordance with "Progress Report on The Milliennium Development Goals" published in February 2004, the indicator consists of proportion of population with access to acceptable water supply facility. There are 2 conditions to meet the requirements for acceptable water supply, namely (i) water supplied through piping system; (ii) a protected water source which is located at least 10 metres from human waste disposal system (pit, septic tank, etc.). Therefore, an acceptable water supply system includes pipe conveyed water supply system, pumped up ground water, protected pit well, protected water source, rain water. How will the MDGs target achievement be measured? First we have to agree on the proportion of population with access to acceptable water supply system in 1990, that is approximately 40 percent. This means that the remaining 60 percent is the proportion without such a facility. So that in 2015, the additional proportion of population with such an access is 30 percent (or half of 60 percent). This gives us a total of 70 percent consisting of 40 percent from the initial number in 1990 plus additional 30 percent from the level that must be reached through 2015. A simple computation. What is our condition in terms of MDGs development goals in 2015? At national level at this time (2002) 50 percent of the population has the access to acceptable drinking water facility. This is still 20 percent to cover before we reached. Based on rough estimate, as stated in Infrastructures of Indonesia (Bappenas) the annual investment requirement may reach Rp4-5 trillion. The available fund is only Rp600 - 1.000 billion. To cover the balance it is therefore necessary to look for additional financial sources such as community contribution, private sector, grant and overseas loan funds. What needs a more serious attention is that pursuant to the existing laws the drinking water management responsibility has been relinquished to the regional government. Thus in reaching the target the participation of the regional government is definitely unavoidable. As we look more closely into drinking water service coverage of each kabupaten/city in Indonesia, we will find that many of them are lagging far behind. For example, there are 45 kabupatens/cities with service coverage of below 45 percent level. When in 2015 the average national we reach 70 percent coverage, we will ask about the possibility that there are still many regions are lagging far behind. It should be commendable that in achieving the 70 percent target the condition of each region be considered as far as possible, so that in 2015 when the national target is achieved there are at the same time less kabupatens/cities which are left too far behind. This complies with the spirit of togetherness and common agreement of MDGs. (OM)
Common misinterpretation re MDGs
nconsciously there have been a common misinterpretation in our attitude towards MDGs, among others (i) MDGs is considered merely as a set of goals to be achieved. Actually the targets set forth in MDGS should be seen as a means to mold togetherness and common agreement among the world leaders in ways to solve the basic problems of the developing nations. Togetherness and common agreement is the key; (ii) The drinking water and basic sanitation targets in MDGs are expressed in proportion rather than absolute number. This is purposely made in order to prevent any debate in connection with population estimate in 2015; (iii) the estimate is based on the condition of 1990. In the National Action Plan re Drinking Water the estimate is based on the data of 2000 as the year of reference; (iv) drinking water is not defined in accordance with that of Ministry of Health decision No 907 year 2000; each nation is given a freedom to define it in a more flexible manner. As it was mentioned earlier, the spirit of togetherness and common agreement comes first before anything else. (OM)
Percik October 2004
M AIN REPORT
Drinking Water Service Coverage Rating By Kabupaten/City 2002
No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 Kabupaten/City Coverage ( % ) 98,2 97,7 95,4 94,6 94,3 93,0 92,4 92,0 90,7 90,5 89,3 88,6 88,1 86,9 85,9 85,4 85,3 84,7 84,3 84,1 83,4 82,9 82,3 81,7 80,9 80,2 79,8 79,7 79,0 79,0 78,2 78,1 78,1 77,9 77,9 77,7 76,9 76,4 76,3 76,0 75,5 74,6 74,3 74,1 73,4 73,0 72,8 72,7 72,4 72,2 71,6 70,8 70,7 70,4 70,0 69,9 69,9 69,6 69,0 68,8 No. 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 Kabupaten/City Coverage ( % ) 68,6 68,5 68,2 68,1 67,7 67,6 67,3 66,9 66,7 66,7 66,6 66,1 66,0 65,9 65,8 65,6 65,6 65,6 65,3 65,3 65,3 65,0 64,8 64,7 64,6 64,1 63,6 63,4 63,4 63,1 63,1 62,9 62,6 62,4 62,3 62,1 62,0 62,0 61,8 61,8 61,6 61,6 61,6 61,5 61,3 61,3 61,3 60,7 60,5 60,4 60,3 60,2 60,1 60,1 60,0 59,9 59,9 59,8 59,5 59,3 No. 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 Kabupaten/City Coverage ( % ) Kota Surabaya Jakarta Utara Kota Banjarmasin Kota Pematang Siantar Kota Solok Kota Balikpapan Kota Sibolga Kota Ujung Pandang Kota Banda Aceh Kota Jayapura Kota Tegal Kota Salatiga Magetan Kota Bontang Kota Buleleng Kota Magelang Jakarta Pusat Gianyar Kota Samarinda Kota Tanjung Balai Kota Padang Panjang Jakarta Barat Kota Pasuruan Kota Bukit Tinggi Rembang Kota Kupang Kota Semarang Kota Medan Kota Manado Kota Sorong Kota Bitung Kota Payakumbuh Ngada Kota Cirebon Kota Ternate Kota Kendari Pati Sumba Timur Kulon Progo Sidoarjo Kota Ambon Kota Baru Kota Madiun Klungkung Kota Batam Batanghari Kota Sawah Lunto Kota Palembang Wonosobo Bangkalan Semarang Kota Jambi Badung Sampang Grobogan Aceh Utara Purbalingga Soppeng Jepara Blora Karanganyar Tabanan Ngawi Langkat Kota Sabang Nganjuk Kota Bandung Timur Tengah Utara Ponorogo Kota Denpasar Lamongan Kota Bandar Lampung Gunung Kidul Kota Padang Lampung Timur Muaro Jambi Karangasem Tabalong Kota Pangkalpinang Kota Surakarta Lumajang Kota Sukabumi Tulungagung Magelang Kota Pare-Pare Gresik Malang Pacitan Kendari Bekasi Kupang Pamekasan Kota Cilegon Minahasa Aceh Tenggara Banggai Kepulauan Solok Wonogiri Temanggung Kota Malang Lima Puluh Kota Bangli Maluku Tengah Trenggalek Asahan Karo Kerinci Jembrana Pasaman Sragen Purwakarta Bengkulu Rejang Lebong Blitar Sukoharjo Tanah Datar Kediri Sumenep Banyumas Siak Lampung Tengah 59.3 Kota Probolinggo 59.3 Kota Gorontalo 59.3 Kendal 59.0 Madiun 58.9 Tuban 58.9 Purworejo 58.6 Luwu 58.6 Kota Mojokerto 58.4 Mojokerto 58.2 Gowa 58.2 Nias 58.0 Pesisir Selatan 58.0 Bungo 58.0 Jombang 57.8 Bantul 57.7 Sleman 57.6 Kota Kediri 57.6 Sumedang 57.4 Probolinggo 57.1 Tapin 56.9 Pasir 56.8 Muna 56.8 Kota Yogyakarta 56.7 Banggai 56.5 Tana Toraja 56.5 Halmahera Pusat 56.5 Bengkayang 56.4 Kota Bekasi 56.1 Deli Serdang 56.0 Bolaang Mongondow 56.0 Pangkajene Kepulauan 55.8 Bengkulu Utara 55.7 Kota Banjar Baru 55.7 Jakarta Timur 55.4 Kota Mataram 55.4 Alor 55.2 Kota Binjai 54.9 Boyolali 54.3 Dompu 54.3 Cilacap 54.0 Sumbawa 54.0 Pandeglang 53.9 Kota Depok 53.8 Lampung Selatan 53.5 Kota Bogor 53.5 Jember 53.5 Buton 53.5 Enrekang 53.3 Pinrang 53.1 Ende 53.0 Poso 52.9 Tenggamus 52.8 Maluku Tenggara Barat 52.6 Aceh Tengah 52.4 Sanghite Talaud 52.4 Sinjai 52.1 Labuhan Batu 52.0 Maros 52.0 Simeuleu 51.8
Percik 11 October 2004
M AIN REPORT
No. 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 Kabupaten/City Demak Tebo Kota Metro Majalengka Pidie Wajo Klaten Simalungun Banjarnegara Kolaka Bima Kutai Kutai Timur Sindenreng Rappang Kampar Tulang Bawang Sukabumi Tanah Laut Bangka Pemalang Kota Tebing Tinggi Lampung Utara Kudus Lombok Tengah Merangin Brebes Bojonegoro Tangerang Hulu Sungai Utara Maluku Tenggara Morowali Kota Pekalongan Tapanuli Utara Pelalawan Luwu Utara Hulu Sungai Selatan Pasuruan Banyuwangi Agam Tegal Sikka Fak Fak Belitung Lembata Flores Timur Bone Kebumen Bireuen Kota Tangerang Ciamis Ogan Komering Ulu Kota Blitar Lombok Barat Musi Rawas Bogor Majene Bengkulu Selatan Kota Pekan Baru Karimun Belu Coverage ( % ) 51,8 51,3 51,3 51,2 50,9 50,6 50,5 50,3 50,3 50,3 50,2 50,2 50,2 50,1 49,9 49,9 49,9 49,9 49,6 49,6 49,4 49,3 49,3 49,3 49,0 48,7 48,5 48,5 48,4 48,4 48,3 47,9 47,7 47,7 47,7 47,5 47,3 47,2 47,0 46,8 46,5 46,5 46,3 46,3 46,3 46,1 45,9 45,6 45,2 44,9 44,8 44,8 44,6 44,1 44,1 44,1 43,9 43,8 43,6 43,6 No. 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 Kabupaten/City Coverage ( % ) 43,4 43,2 43,0 43,0 42,9 42,8 42,5 42,2 42,1 42,1 42,0 42,0 42,0 41,9 41,9 41,8 41,8 41,7 41,3 41,1 41,0 40,8 40,8 40,8 40,7 40,4 40,3 40,3 40,2 40,2 40,1 40,0 39,8 39,7 39,4 39,4 39,3 39,0 38,9 38,8 38,8 38,8 38,6 38,6 38,4 38,3 38,1 37,7 37,7 36,5 36,4 36,2 36,0 35,9 35,7 35,1 35,0 34,8 34,6 32,8 No. 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 Kabupaten/City Coverage ( % ) 32,6 32,4 32,4 31,7 30,9 30,7 30,6 30,6 30,5 30,1 29,6 29,2 29,1 29,1 28,5 28,1 27,9 27,8 27,4 26,9 26,8 26,0 25,9 25,2 24,7 23,6 22,1 21,1 19,6 19,4 19,2 14,5 13,5 13,3 11,8 10,4 9,1 7,7 7,6 4,3 1,1 55,2 Kotawaringin Barat Bulukumba Cirebon Toli-Toli Paniai Polewali Mamasa Indramayu Sorong Soralangun Cianjur Padang Pariaman Bondowoso Mamuju Lombok Timur Berau Jakarta Selatan Situbondo Subang Sumba Barat Lahat Musi Banyuasin Dairi Garut Pekalongan Hulu Sungai Tengah Natuna Manggarai Buoi Batang Kota Palangkaraya Tapanuli Tengah Kuningan Buru Jayapura Aceh Timur Kepulauan Riau Maluku Utara Sawah Lunto / Sijunjung Kuantan Sengingi Rokan Hilir Bandung Banjar Muara Enim (Liot) Barru Jayawijaya Indragiri Hulu Timur Tengah Selatan Ogan Komering Hilir Donggala Kota Tarakan Tasikmalaya Gorontalo Kota Palu Bantaeng Kotawaringin Timur Takalar Nunukan Lebak Karawang Barito Selatan Kota Dumai Aceh Selatan Aceh Barat Serang Way Kanan Ketapang Bulungan Mimika Aceh Besar Toba Samosir Jeneponto Bengkalis Aceh Singkil Puncak Jaya Tapanuli Selatan Mandailing Natal Lampung Barat Rokan Hulu Barito Kuala Kapuas Tanjung Jabung Barat Kutai Barat Boalemo Biak Numfor Sintang Barito Utara Sanggau Merauke Kapuas Hulu Landak Selayar Kota Pontianak Sambas Manokwari Kepulauan Mentawai Yapen Maropen Malinau Pontianak Nabire Indragiri Hilir Tanjung Jabung Timur
Source: Human Development Report 2004, Bappenas -- BPS -- UNDP * Kota = city
Percik October 2004
BATAM: Water Flows Through the Kiosks
By Tri Dewi Virgiyanti
n Batam, water is not a simple affair. An island located to the east of Sumatra, Batam has a very limited natural water source. There is no river to fulfill water need for its 600 thousand inhabitants. This natural condition which enhances the Authority of Batam to make 6 man-made lakes to capture rainwater. PT. Adhya Tirta Batam (ATB), a private company, processes the rainwater into raw water to fulfill the need of the population. PT. ATB is a joint venture between a British company, Cascal, and local business firms Bangun Cipta Kontraktor and Syabata Cemerlang, operating water supply service to the costumers' homes. Not all of the population may have access to water service, however. A local regulation prohibits ATB to provide home connections to illegal squatters, known locally as ruli or rumah liar. A new problem instantly arises. It is because not less than 80 thousand people who live as illegal squatters need water as anyone else. Actually the ruli dwellers have tried to solve their water requirement problem through construction of rain water catchers and buy water from water lorries. Unfortunately, the water quality is inferior and cannot be used as drinking water. This is because the lorries take their water from the drainage canal. As a result, water stealing activities came into reality. The ruli dwellers make illegal connections or puncture holes to the pipes in order to get water. This activity causes ATB a considerable financial loss because after a short while the amount of non revenue water (NRW) reached a level of more than 30 percent. Production costs cannot be covered from the customers' payment because a considerable amount of water is lost. In the meantime, the water stealing is potential to bringing an additional cost to the ordinary customers. Imagine
for instance if the missing production cost is imposed upon the customers. Besides, water quality and its pressure tends to drop because of the pipe leakages. Realizing the above problem, ATB and Batam Authority worked together to find its solution. Minimizing NRW is not the only consideration. It also includes clean water requirement of the ruli dwellers. Though the live in an area illegally they are also contributing to Batam economy. They mainly profess as labourers, security personnel, are in a sense having a relatively high purchasing power. Their average monthly income varies between Rp. 600 thousand to Rp. 1,5 million. On the one hand they have to serve the water requirement of the ruli dwellers -because this is the best solution to the water stealing- on the other there is a regulation to prevent provision of water to the ruli areas. Finally ATB and Batam
Authority decided to establish water kiosks in the vicinity of ruli areas. In the beginning there are 8 kiosks built. The kiosks were given to certain parties to manage. Of this is not arbitrarily given to any one. At least one must meet 2 qualifications for water kiosk management. First, it must be legal institution, such as a cooperative, so that the institution can be a regular ATB subscriber. Secondly, the management must have a support from the surrounding ruli dwellers. The management personnel are elected from within the community. This is to prevent any future conflict and to guarantee that the community will buy water from the kiosk. Water kiosks are made from used containers and are connected to ATB water conveyance system. These kiosks are equipped with water meter and a regulating tap. The kiosks are made portable, to be
Percik 13 October 2004
easily movable to other location if necessary. An agreement is made between ATB and the management that binds both parties. It contains among others, the management obligation to maintain the kiosk and make a regular payment to ATB. The management is also made responsible for water distribution to the local community. Only the surrounding community is entitled to buy water from a kiosk. This is to prevent any sale to outsiders such as to water lorries. In terms of tariff, the water kiosks are charged with the lowest tariff level by ATB. But the management may sell at a higher price. However, the kiosks cannot arbitrarily ask any price they like. The price must be previously agreed between the management and ruli community. Unfortunately, the standard is based on the price set by water lorry, which notwithstanding is expensive, than the kiosk water sale price is higher comparison to the ATB price. This condition may cause inequity in profit distribution, because the management may collect a relatively big profit from the sale. Their monthly turnover may reach Rp. 90-95 million. The kiosk is charged at Rp. 3.000 per m3 by ATB and the kiosk sells it at Rp. 12.500 - 25.000 to the community. The average family expenditure for water varies between Rp. 15.000 to Rp. 250.000 a month. Therefore, establishment of such water kiosks needs a further study, whether it is beneficial to ATP and both the communities, the ruli dwellers and the ordinary customer community. It should be noted that, with the kiosk establishment there are protests voiced out from the ordinary customer community, especially with regard the minimum tariff. Besides, there is a complaint that the kiosk implies an acknowledgement for the existence of the illegal settlements, a nagging headache for Batam Authority. On the other hand, the majority of ruli community welcomes the kiosks with satisfaction. They are happy because with the establishment they can get quality water at a more reasonable price. With this their health condition improves and life is more comfortable, and as a result the number of settlers is growing. There are less skin and abdominal diseases now than there were before. Of course there are several other factors to be monitored in the management of the kiosks so that the continuity of the kiosks in the future would indeed provide access to an acceptable clean water service to all Batam population and the Authority could find the best solution to the problem of the illegal settlement problem. The existence of the water kiosks and the profit collected for water sale can be used for ruli community empowerment program to live legally and improve their welfare. If the water kiosk is proven successful, other towns and cities in Indonesia with a similar problem may learn from Batam how to provide access to water for illegal squatters of city slum dwellers.
Staff, Directorate of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas and Member, WSS Working Group
Therefore, establishment of such water kiosks needs a further study, whether it is beneficial to ATP and both the communities, the ruli dwellers and the ordinary customer community.
Percik October 2004
Water in Australia and Sustainable Development
ater is an endless topic of discussion. This is because water is a vital and irreplaceable need for human life. Every nation has its own experience regarding water management. Some are successful, while others meet with a certain level of failure. One of those which is sufficiently successful is Australia, our neighbouring nation. There are several differences between Australia and Indonesia. First, is in drinking water distribution. Like other developing nations, it is easy to get drinking water in Australia. Domestic drinking water facility is guaranteed potable, drinkable directly from the faucet. The same with public facilities such as park, school, office building and other public facilities are supplied with drinking water facility. Water taps are located everywhere, all provides potable water. This is why most people, including tourists and international students, always bring with them water bottle anywhere they go. These bottles are refilled with drinking water from the public faucets. From environmental point of view, this is quite commendable because there will be less bottles to be dumped into the surroundings. This means a less burden to the community or the regional government in solid wastes recycling work. And seen from the customers' point of view, this represents a significant saving for drinking water expenditure. As we all know, the expenditure for drinking water is never small. Even, at an equal volume, the price for water is higher than that of petrol. However, one cannot deny that the investment for the construction of drinking water facility, its distribution system, and maintenance of up to potable water quality in Indonesia will need a big amount of money. Indeed, it seems that this nation will have to dream for a long
By Iwan Juwana
time to get drinking water directly from the tap. The biggest financial demand is for pipe network and its maintenance, because in reality most PDAMs and other drinking water companies in Indonesia have met the standard drinking water requirement as set forth by ministry of health and WHO. One of the closest examples, there was once an Indonesian TV coverage featuring a drinking water company on the island of Batam, PT. Adhya Tirta Batam (ATB). It was shown in the feature, several employees of the company took a drink directly from the tap. However, one can be sure that none of ATB customers would dare to do the same in their own homes, especially those which are located far from the processing facility. Because, the farther is the home from the processing facility the longer is the pipe network through which the water flows, in some location may pass a rusty pipe.
There are several differences between Australia and Indonesia. First, is in drinking water distribution. Like other developing nations, it is easy to get drinking water in Australia. Domestic drinking water facility is guaranteed potable, drinkable directly from the faucet.
The second significant difference relates to water restriction that is in effect during certain period in almost all over Australia. In facing a long dry season which is evidenced from the drop in water level at the reservoirs, the main water source of Australia, the national and
regional governments alike put into effect restriction in the use of water. This restriction obligation is binding and is supported by a number of reliable support instruments. The support instruments consist of among others a control system and law enforcement effort. As an example, a prohibition to using of tap water for car washing during daytime. When the said regulation is in effect, during daytime control officers are moving around the area to see to it that no one is running against the regulation. If someone is caught running against the regulation the control officer would undoubtedly take a fine from him at an amount in accordance with the regulation. There is no compromise, or bargaining for any misconduct. And also the mass media, when water restriction is effect, the television, radio, newspapers are providing a widespread announcement to the community at large. There is no reason for anyone to be uninformed about the regulation in effect. At a certain stage, the awareness of the importance of function of water within the community, government and other actors in Australia has reached such a high standard, especially when compared to Indonesia. Then what is the underlying principle for the awareness action? From the author's observation, the basic reason for the growth of awareness of the importance of water resources is the sustainable development concept. The federal government of Australia has exerted a sufficient effort to explain the sustainable development into five pillars or five principles. The first principle is known as precautionary principle. This principle emphasizes that if an activity is to produce an environmental impact, then there must be an immediate precautionary plan to prevent the impact to happen without waiting for any scientific cer-
Percik 15 October 2004
tainty. In water management, for example, if it is known that the main water source is a reservoir and its condition is going down, then one of precautionary measures is water restriction to activities that needs a large quantity of water. This measure is necessary although there is no specific study to explain the direct relation between watering plants to decrease in water level in reservoirs. The second principle, intragenerational equity. It means that it is necessary to build an awareness that aside from we ourselves who need water there at the same time 6 billion human beings who are in need for water. If the water wasting habit for secondary even tertiary need is let loose it is obvious that it will adversely affect water availability of the 6 billion people. Implanting of such awareness and empathy to the equals will greatly affect someone in using water. The third principle, intergenerational equity. It has been frequently mentioned in conference, seminar and scientific discussions about the paradigm that has to be kept in mind: the environment is not inherited by the grand parents and it is entrusted by our grandchildren, the coming generations. In water use, it is not allowed to fulfill the present generation only, but must also consider what will happen with the next generations. In sustainable development concept, the next generation shall have to receive at the same natural resources as do the present generation. It is not wise if we inherit an environment that is inferior than its present condition. The fourth, biodiversity conservation. As it relates to water source management, it should always be borne in mind that water is not only need by human species, but at the same time also it is also vital for the life of flora and fauna. The final principle is environmental economic internalization. Up to this time there have been many cases when buying a product, the environmental impact
In water use, it is not allowed to fulfill the present generation only, but must also consider what will happen with the next generations.
caused by the production activity was not calculated into the price. For instance, when we buy a car, the pollution caused by the car is not included in the price. The price of a car is determined by the spare parts, costs for experts, mechanics, and marketing as well as other variables, but never an environmental impact variable. Another example, when we buy bottled water, the price does not include the damage to the water source, nor taking into account the flora and fauna that are dis-
turbed by the water taking activity. Well, with the principles compiled by various elements of the community and also applied systematically with a strict control has so far produced a significant impact to the environmental quality improvement in Australia. What about Indonesia?
Graduate of Environmental Management Program, NSW Univ., Australia. Currently a teaching staff at the Environmental Engineering Dept., National Institute of Technology, Bandung
Percik October 2004
n the early literature of development economics, the economists always see the state as the good doer and a unification agent, all of its activities are directed towards social objectives. The state is considered as having the capacity to get information and is equipped with knowledge and sufficient policy instrument, capable of inferring the market and enhancing economic growth. The above opinion has been spoiled with the fact that government intervention (in the developed as well as the developing nations) is even ended in an adverse effect. Of course, government failure in most cases indicates worse effect than that of market failure. This makes government intervention especially in many State/Regional Government Owned Companies in various business undertakings are considered to produce a negative impact to the national economy. This condition becomes a fertile ground for the opinion that government must minimize its interference in business through State/Regional Government Owned Companies. At last privatization of such companies is seen as one effective means to bring down the interference. Although it is evidenced later on that privatization is not solely due to government intervention. However, eventually privatization becomes a common indication anywhere in the world today. However, it should be borne in mind that privatization does not always be the best alternative. Privatization is not a panacea. There are empirical evidences to prove that. Therefore, privatization or not depends on the objectives of a public company. For as long as an alternative is good to the public a dichotomy between private sector and government becomes irrelevant. However a more valid question to be asked presently is at what point is privatization indicate a favourable performance, and how to create such a condition, and what precondition should be met. This article attempts to present the answer to
Part I of Two Articles
By Oswar Mungkasa*) the question collected from various sources, beginning from providing explanation to privatization, from the definition, benefit, constraint, experience from other nations, and precondition to privatization. Several Empirical Evidences about the Performance of State Owned Companies Studies made by Savas (1974,1977) and Stevens (1978) in US, Hamer in Germany, Hartley and Huby in England came to a similar conclusion that on average the production costs of public sector is higher by 20-40 percent than the private sector. In England the production costs of public sector is 30 percent higher, in the US 40 percent, in Germany close to 50 percent higher. All three studies came to a conclusion that the private sector is more efficient than the public sector (Pirie, 1988). Ayub and Hegstad in Research Observer magazine Vol. 2 No.1 January 1987 conducted a research to 500 big companies, all of which are non American companies. The conclusion indicates that none of the government owned companies has a better performance than the private companies (Simarmata, 1991). Boardman and Vinning who made a study to 500 biggest and non monopolistic companies outside US came to a similar conclusion that in terms of profit and efficiency private companies are in a better position than the state owned companies. What about drinking water and sanitation sector? In a comparative study made to 50 drinking water providers in the developing countries of Asia and the Pacific it was found that private companies are more efficient (Estache, 1999). In the developed countries, assuming that public companies are relatively more efficient it is expected that private sector participation becomes less significant. But, the real fact indicates otherwise. Economists from Trent University made a close research to 3 studies conducted in the US in 1970s. The first study on 112 water service providers indicates that the productivity of public companies is only at 60 percent of that of the private companies. When a public company becomes a private company, the output per employee increases by 25 percent, and when the reverse happens the output per employee decreases by 40 percent. The second study was done on 143 water supply providers, it was found that the costs in a public company is 15 percent higher. The third study concluded that a public company is 20 percent more expensive (Brubaker, 2001). The Reason Foundation has repeatedly found that a US private company is more efficient than a public sector company. In a study made in 1992 it was concluded that a third party service can reduce operational cost by 50 percent. As an example is waste water processing facilities of New Orleans and New York. Besides, in a comparative study between 10 public companies in the State of California and 3 biggest private companies also from the same state, The Reason Foundation found that the average annual operational costs per connection of the private company is lower, the public company higher, more employees, and spend three times as much money from the operational budget for salary. Next, the public companies spent twice as much maintenance cost in order to produce the same amount of product (Brubaker, 2001). The abovementioned findings do not automatically lead to a conclusion that private sector is more efficient than public sector. Several empirical findings prove otherwise. A study conducted by Caus and Christensen (1980) comparing two Canadian railway companies, the Canadian National (public company) and Canadian Pacific (private). It was reve-
Percik 17 Oktober 2004
aled that the two companies indicate Productive Efficiency Performance have non significant difference. A bibliographical study for his dissertation Siahaan (2000) who came a conclusion that public companies spend a higher level of cost than the private companies is quite vague, because the comparison was between monopolistic public companies and the private companies which are competitive for winning project contracts (Stevens 1978, Savas 1974, 1977, and Ahebrand 1973). Therefore several researchers (Meyer 1975, Pescutrice and Trapani, 1980 in electrical; Teeples and Glyer, 1987 in water supply) compared the equally monopolistic public and private companies, and the result indicates that cost differences between the two are non-significant, sometimes even the reverse. But, what is not sufficiently noticed is that public companies in comparison to monopolistic private entities which are bound with regulation (such as in pricing), so that the implication of property rights by a private company is equally vague. Alkinsen and Halvosen (1986) made a cost efficiency calculation on a sample of 30 electricity generating monopolistic public companies and 123 monopolistic private firms who found out that there is no significant difference between them except that both group of samples indicated a higher cost level than usual. In drinking water sector the same thing prevails. A comparison between Swedish government owned and a comparable size private English drinking water companies indicates that the cost for provision of drinking water by a private company is higher. Management contract in Puerto Rico, Trinidad, and Budapest indicate that the involvement of private sector does not bring a meaningful change (PSI, 2000). In France, the comparison of private firms and public companies indicates that private firms put a tariff at a level 13 percent higher (Hall, 2001). In an overall survey on 24 studies comparing the performance of public and private sector companies doing business in the field of infrastructure for the last 30 years it turns out that half of the studies indicate the performance of the private sector companies is significantly better, seven of them indicate a non-significant difference, but there are five which indicate public companies are better than the private firms (Shirley, 2000). Another interesting thing is that a mixed enterprise (cooperation with public company) is not better than a public company. But the study made by Jones (1992) in Malaysia denies the statement. A partially privatized public company is not worse than the one entirely privatized. If it is based on property rights, then the result from a study by Vikers and Yarrow (1988), Boardman and Vinning (1989) explains that the influence of a business firm's property rights does not dominate the competitiveness and the regulation a company must undergo (Siahaan, 2000). While Siahaan's dissertation (2000) on the technical efficiency of public companies in Indonesia indicate that (i) public companies are less efficient than the private forms; (ii) large scale public company and doing business in domestic market is relatively less efficient as compared to privat firms with similar characteristics; (iii) difference in efficiency between small scale public and private companies is non-significant. Based on the survey result, the comparison of performance between the public companies and private firms and the impact of privatization of public companies in various countries, the result evidently as the following (i) private sector companies perform better than public companies, and the reverse; (ii) changes in government have no effect to company performance (public and private); (iii) privatization may increase manpower productivity and total factor, and otherwise has no significant effect; (iv) changes in ownership produces minor impact; (v) public companies with a competitive market perform better (Pollit, 1999). Several research conclusion as mentioned above lead us to the fact that (i) efficiency is not solely dominated by the private sector, but in general the private firms are more efficient than the public companies; (ii) it is difficult to make comparison between public companies and private firms because they are not playing on an equal playing field; (iii) the performance of a company, public or private, depends to a great extent on the economic characteristics where they are doing their business, especially competitive and regulation characteristics. Definition In the beginning privatization u s e d to refer to transfer of ownership and control from the public to the private sector especially as sale of asset. This includes partial or total transfer, which means reducing the government role and increasing that of the private sector, in asset related activity or ownership (Savas, 1987). As time progresses the privatization is not always limited to sale of asset. Its conceptual base extends to also include a more diversified structural changes covering one or more combinations of transfer of government function to the private sector in terms of ownership, financing, production activity. One may also say that privatization as an introduction process for market power discipline (Ramandham, 1989), including a market concept which enhances the abolition of monopolistic practice or minimizing directly or indirectly barriers in access to market (UNO, 1989) Another opinion relates privatization as a means to provide public company and the private sector to have an equal behaviour and opportunity. As Mar'ie (1996) put it more clearly, privatization is not limited to selling a public company to pri-
Percik October 2004
vate sector but it must also include (i) creating an opportunity for the private sector to be the main actor in business; (ii) making public company behave like an entrepreneur; (iii) public company can behave like a private firm. The definition and the meaning of privatization can vary greatly such as discussed above, but in general it can be summarized as the following, (i) Changes of business format from "state owned" into a limited share company; (ii) partial or total divestiture of shares from a state owned company to the private sector, it could be through private placement or through public offering; (divestiture of the rights or state owned asset or a company whose shares belong to the state to the private sector, be a permanent divestiture (sale, grant or barter) or temporary divestiture (including Build-OperateTransfer scheme); (iv) provision of opportunity to the private sector operate in a specific business activity which previously is monopolised by the government; (v) establishment of a joint venture or cooperation in a different format taking benefit from government asset; (vi) creation and improvement of health competition in business sector (Soebagyo, 1996). Privatization Concept Reason for Privatization and its Objectives Based on surveys conducted in several countries regarding the reasons for privatization, there 5 main reasons for privatization, namely (i) developing market economy or improving business efficiency; (ii) reducing the burden of state activity, (iii) reducing state debt or reducing budget deficit; (iv) obtaining fund for other purpose; (v) expansion of domestic capital market. In a developing nation especially there are a number of specific reasons, such as (i) obtaining business opportunity with international community, with an expectation for enhancing foreign capital investment and transfer of Privatization Method Based on privatization experience in England, according to Pirie (1988) privatization methods can be categorized as the following: (i) Transfer of property in the form of (a) total sale to the private sector directly and through capital market; (b) partial sale to the public, employees, or joint venture; property transfer can take place an auction, negotiated sale, tender. (ii) Transfer of management control, such as (a) partial transfer, consisting of separation of management from ownership, joint venture, total change in management; (b) management sub-contract, the government hires a private firm to run the management of a public company; (c) leasing, a private firm leases the management rights from the government; (d) Build-Own-Operate and Transfer (BOO and BOT). The construction costs come from a private firm, it is then given a long term management rights, at the end of the contract the whole asset goes back to the state. (iii) Market freedom. Public company management is given free hand from government control through a greater autonomy, freedom to set a price, investment policy, financing and recruitment of manpower. In drinking water and sanitation sector there are only 6 main options which are frequently applicable, i.e. service contract, lease, Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT), concession, and divestiture. In practice, privatization is frequently based on the combination of the available options. For instance, provision of water in combination with management contract for distribution system operation. (To be continued)
The performance of a company, public or private, depends to a great extent on the economic characteristics where they are doing their business, especially competitive and regulation characteristics.
technology; (ii) creation of new job vacancies as a consequence of foreign capital investment and expansion of business activity; (iii) to obtain managerial knowledge to replace bureaucrats in the management of public companies with professional managers (Sumarlin, 1996). Gouri (1991) classified the reasons for privatization into 4 categories, namely (i) financial pressure, such as budget deficit, balance of payment; (ii) economic pressure, public company inefficiency; (iii) non-economic pressure, equity of income, increase manager's motivation; (iv) external pressure from donor institutes such as IMF, World Bank, Asian Development Bank (Siahaan, 2000).
Staff, Directorate of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas, and Member, WSS Working Group.
Percik 19 October 2004
Leakage Handling in PDAM Makassar
eakage or sometimes also called water loss is a common problem in PDAM all over Indonesia. At national average the total loss has reached at 30 percent level. While the loss in PDAM Makassar was at 46 percent (July 2004). What is interesting is the technical leakage refers to water leak while non technical leakage is water loss. Although there has been no agreement in relation to water leakage classification but PDAM Makassar classifies the causes for leakage as the following: (i) Technical represents natural causes such as new installation, opening and closing, pipe washing, own use, free gift, problem with water meter, illegal connection;
The Fact in PDAM Makassar (2004)
Installed capacity 2.340 l/sec, water production 2.147 l/sec, average consumption 1.138 l/sec Length of distribution pipe 2.861 km, increased 6.4% from 2000 Service coverage 71,46% (838 thousand people) increased 39% from 2000 Total active customers 121.128 Ratio employees/customers 1:182 Non-commercial customers 93,55%, commercial 6,45% Revenue from non-commercial 72,95%, commercial 27,05% Collection efficiency 92,86% increased as compared to 62,32% in 2000 Average on-going tariff Rp 2.256/m3 from the approved Rp2.750.
(ii) Non techniWATER LOSS SCORE cal represents "reExperiment Zona Sub Z17 Blok 2 mote reading", date September 16-17, 2004 entry error, and illegal arrangement. Technical leaTotal inlet 297 m3 100 % kage amounts to Water use (297 customers) 163 m3 55,1 % 27% while non technical at 19%. Water loss 133 m3 44,9 % Water loss by natural causes is Minimum nighttime primarily caused by poor pipe conditiflow of technical on. The tower is alwater loss (3,36 m3/hour) 80 m3 27,1 % ready 80 years old, many of the pipes Non technical water loss 53 m3 17,8 % are buried 3 metres deep. As a result Average pressure 0,26 Atm many leakages are undetected. In 2004 Source: R&D PDAM Makassar there are 2.212 leakage points detected. Other significant reason is problem entry verification against the actual bills with water meters. Based on July 2004 may result in data discrepancy. data there are 5.884 meters are problemSeeing this condition the PDAM of atic, of 5% of the total. The main probMakassar city plans to take several lems are dead meters, blurred meter face, counter actions. In short term the and broken meters. steps are (i) acceleration in leakage Other problems may come in the handling; (ii) contract to a third party forms of meter gets lost, abnormal meter, for meter replacement; (iii) actively meter buried under, wrong installation, hunting for illegal connections and seal meter submerged, meter detached. them; (iv) improve the quality of techDuring 2004 there were 19 illegal connical employees;(v) increase supervisonections found. ry activity;(vi) increase monitoring Non technical water loss is mostly due meeting. The middle term steps are (i) to the quality of the employees and their minimize rate of water loss; (ii) reintegrity, such as determining water use arrangement of network; (iii) reby a customer through guesswork without arrangement of service zone. The long directly reading his water meter. Besides, term action consists of (i) establishin many cases, the employee agrees with ment of a unit for handling water leahouse tenants to pay only a small portion kage problemt; (ii) reinvestment of netof the bill. In the end the accumulated work and water meter based on zoning balance of unpaid bills has to be charged pattern. (OM) to the landlord. And, in absence of data
Percik October 2004
Strategy for Community Awareness Improvement
(With special reference to: "Community Care Campaign for Water Conservation in Asia Pacific Region" - Under the coordination of UN-ESCAP)
Introduction n an effort to formulate a workable development strategy or Water Conservation Care (WCC), the first important thing to do is for the government is to commit itself in developing a national strategy for water conservation. Several countries in the Asia and Pacific region have done the same. As an example, in fiscal year 1995 the Philippine government has inaugurated a National Committee on Water Conservation and Demand Management. The tasks of the Committee include the following: (1) Preparation of a national conservation plan; (2) Implementation of a national campaign to build care for water conservation; (3) Enhance the participation of private sector in water conservation activity; and (4) Organize funding sources for the campaign. These tasks have been studied and elaborated by 5 Sub-Committees which also play monitoring function upon the feedback from the stakeholders. This Committee then started with the formulation of the national plan for water conservation. Some time ago the Indonesian government has also conducted a series of studies to formulate a water conservation strategy based on the result of cross sector surveys upon 134 watersheds through comparing a number of parameters including availability of water sources, water use, hydrology, land use planning and social economic condition. The studies concluded that 41 watersheds are in extremely critical condition and therefore are classified as the first priority for water resources conservation. Most of the said watersheds are located in the vicinity of major big cities such as Jakarta, Bandung and Surabaya. As stipulated in Art. 14(h) of Law No. 7/2004 on Water Resources the Government of Indonesia is mandated to
Part I of Two Articles
By: A. Hafied A. Gany, PhD*)
form National Water Resources Council, Inter-provincial River Region Water Resources Council, and National Strategic River Region Water Resources Council, all for purpose of water resources management Then in Chapter III, it also stipulates a special mandate regarding Water Resources Conservation with its related implementation strategy, but it is still awaiting for implementation regulation to prepared by the government. In the Islamic Republic of Iran, the government has obliged Water Resources Management Organization to implement several important water conservation policies including among others community awareness, instruction of waste water reuse and ground water replenishment, wastewater disposal control, establishment of water source protection areas, and establishment of water users' associ-
ation and water treatment and protection companies. The People's Democratic Republic of Laos has established Water Resources Coordination Committee in 1999 for national water use activity. The priority program includes community education on the importance of water as one of the natural resources, with an initial target group consisting of government employees working in water sector. In the Republic of Taiwan through a speech by President Chen Sui-Bian in the official opening of one of international seminars on Water Resources and Irrigation on 11 November 2003, he stated a political commitment to support a sustainable water resources and irrigation development through the following steps: (1) persuasive cooperation between Irrigation Association with water users' units; (2) commitment to build 3 big dams for promotion of water tourism & raw water supply in 5 years time; (3) initiative to prepare and enhance revision of Water Resources and Irrigation Law for the empowerment of the Irrigation Association; (4) large scale commitment in: a) improvement of irrigation infrastructure; b) beautification of irrigation and drainage canals; and c) revitalization of agricultural lands of Taiwan rural areas. Eleven Strategic Steps From various experiences in conducting campaign for water conservation awareness in the Asia Pacific Regions coordinated by WSP-EAP, an interim conclusion could be drawn into a strategy for preparing a program to improve the community awareness consisting of 11 steps which need be adjusted into specific institution, social condition, and social economic as well as the cultural condition of the target areas/countries.
Percik 21 October 2004
First Step: Formation of a Management Commission 1. Expertise Needed and the General Structure The management for improving WCC needs an additional expertise beside the disciplines usually needed in water resources of water supply projects. The management Commission must involve personnel with expertise and experience in socialization, public relations, education, mass media and communication. One advantage, if several expertise in general and media socialization has been applied in the related functional fields such as environmental management, public health and irrigation, the Commission (in accordance with the local condition) can be authorized to be either a Advisory Committee or as Management Body. (a) Advisory Committee. This format is most suitable if a government ministry or department is the main sponsor and is fully responsible for the whole program, provision of funding, and management of payments. Each member of the Advisory Committee provides opinion and shares the experience of the organization he represents. In order to prevent the Committee from being over expanded it is recommended that the number of members not exceeding 12. (b) Management Body. If it is authorized as a Body, the members of Commission has a personal as well as common responsibility in the achievement of objectives and in financial management. In terms of cost this is more efficient and effective, as long it gets confidence from the funding agency. As individual a member of Management Body could be authorized to deliver a special component in the WCC improvement strategy. Based on experience, the Management Body can be
Project Team is to report to the Management Commission. Second Step: Identification of Stakeholders The success of WCC development can be increased through inviting partnership with complementary stakeholders with similar objectives. The Management Commission must first identify WCC stakeholders. In this regard, stakeholders are those that intend to become a partner in the development of WCC (including those who are presently suffering because they don't care a bit about conservation), and having a target group in accepting WCC message. For this purpose, The Commission must make a selection to all the prospective stakeholders.
A suitable formal procedure will produce a more specific local condition. An increasing burden to water sources makes it necessary to national legislation in order to create an efficient management, and a balanced water allocation.
actively functioning if the total members is 6-10 persons. 2. Objective, Intention and Operational Procedure Whatever structure or commission being used, the objectives and intention of the commission must be clearly determined and a definite operational procedure must be made in order to delineate the responsibilities. A clear delineation of responsibilities is needed in the daily implementation of program strategy direction. A two-stage approach can be applied where the Management Commission is responsible for the overall program strategy and direction, and the
Third Step: Analysis of Policy Issues The next task of the Management Commission includes detailed study on policy issues related to WCC strategy development. The terms of reference as prepared by the Commission may have to be reviewed into order to reach the core issues to be delivered or communicated. The policy issues may cover the following: (i) reason for local and seasonal water scarcity; (ii) strengths and weaknesses of water resources and water supply institution; (iii) level of coverage, especially to the poor families and the size of political commitment for providing water supply service to all segments of the community; (iv) level of awareness within each segment of the community about the overall cost related to a service; and (v) the existing tariff format and community willingness to pay, either through economic or social consideration.
Percik October 2004
Fourth Step: Study on Local Factors 1. Analysis about local condition In an effort to develop WCC strategy the local condition must always be taken into consideration. A closer look into the local condition must be undertaken in order to understand the local condition and decide where the WCC development strategy is to be implemented. Many aspects may join in determining the local characteristics: political, social, community health, gender, cultural, geographical, climatic changes, coordination. For analysis, several methods can be applied, but mostly a SWOT (strength, weakness, opportunity, threat) analysis in a group discussion. Recently a group discussion through 'Multi Stakeholder Process' (MSP) as part of a dialogue known as 'Dialogue on Water Foof and Environment' (DWFE) is frequently applied. 2. Operating under a Formal Procedure A suitable formal procedure will produce a more specific local condition. An increasing burden to water sources makes it necessary to national legislation in order to create an efficient management, and a balanced water allocation. If the formal procedure is weak, one of tasks of the strategy is to enhance the stipulation of water conservation law. New law from several countries including Law No. 7/1994 on Water Resources in Indonesia, includes a requirement for sustainable water resources development. Through this law there is a specific emphasis on the effort for WCC development. In many countries there is also a law on size of pipe and other regional regulations for stipulating the use of efficient water device in individual homes. Fifth Step: Identification of Target Groups Identification of the main target
Since the decision makers influence everyone then water related issues will become an important binder for building alliance between the government and the people.
groups to whom the message is delivered and to be convinced about the benefit from WCC development, is the initial step. They will then in due time introduce the WCC to the general community. WCC messages must be adjusted and delivered to each group in accordance with the individual group characteristics. The main target groups are: (i) policy makers; (ii) water resources experts; (iii) water supply and sanitation experts; (iv) government employees and community leaders; (v) NGO; (vi) teachers and educators; (vii) paramedics; (viii mass media; (ix) artists and art workers; and (x) religious leaders. 1. Policy Makers The most important function of the Implementation Commission is obtaining an extensive support and guidance from the policy makers. The ministers and politicians, senior government officials, economic and development planners, and decision makers in water resources sector are those who belong to the group of national policy makers in care for conservation strategy. The methods in obtaining their support include the following activities: (i) the politicians will gain significant votes if they indicate keen understanding on the importance of water conservation as an effort to improve social welfare and reduce poverty; (ii) since the decision makers influence everyone then water related issues will become an important binder for building alliance between the
government and the people; (iii) Water management will realize that an improvement on water conservation care represents an important element for developing an integrated water resources management; (iv) care for water conservation will also help in increasing personal responsibility in social development. 2. Water Resources Experts The attention and support from those who are working in water resources division of a government institution or department is highly commendable to help in the water conservation care promotion, through a better understanding in the twin-channeled water conservation approach: Water resources conservation, by way of water storage in a dam, river regulation, integrated river region and aquifer management and efficient water allocation which is the priority for all nations. This is quite important especially for countries with a common river cutting across their borders. Clean water supply conservation, by way of operation and management of water supply system and community water distribution and efficient use of water by the consumers. The conservation message becomes very important to watershed management officers, especially to those watersheds that cut across administrative boundaries or autonomous regions. 3. Water Supply and Sanitation Experts Another target group includes the experts in water supply and sanitation, senior experts working in water supply companies. Beside the managerial and planning staff, the target also includes non technical personnel such as public relations who have an important role in conveying message to water consumers. (To be continued)
Principal Trainer, Ministry of Public work
Percik 23 October 2004
Prime Drinking Water Zone of PDAM Bogor
The Real Drinking Water
ts name is Regional Drinking Water Company, but why the water is undrinkable? That's the question frequently asked within the community. But that was before. Today, several PDAMs have fulfilled their function as supplier of potable water. One of them is PDAM Tirta Pakuan, Bogor City. Almost a year now the PDAM has had a potable water service zone. This zone is called Zona Air Minum Prima (ZAMP, Prime Drinking Water Zone). Except for a slight modification ZAMP distribution system is precisely the same with the ordinary drinking (read: clean) water distribution network. The difference is in the quality of water in which ZAMP has met the requirements set forth in the Decision of Health Minister No. 907/Menkes/SK/VII/2002. ZAMP is located in Pakuan Housing complex, Tajur, Bogor. There are 400 customers in the complex. They are not new customers when ZAMP started operation. The network was already in place since 1993. The modification made to the network consists of additional wash out, gate valve for flow isolation in case of network disruption, and a special device for monitoring of residual chlorine content. The Technical Director of PDAM Tirta Pakuan, Ir. Syaban Maulana, Dipl. SE explained that there are 3 aspects to be taken into mind when developing ZAMP, namely technical, management, and social-communication. The technical aspect includes among others (i) quality of pipes and network installation; (ii) 24hour service; (iii) availability of alternative supply; (iv) sufficient pressure and low leakage level; (v) using relatively new pipes; (vi) clear and regularly updated network map; (vii) sufficient water supply; (viii) water quality meets drinking water standard; (ix) flow can be isolated; (x) functioning repair and emergency program; (xi) availability of Standard
SOURCE: PDAM BOGOR CITY
Operation Procedure (SOP). The managerial aspect consists of (i) performance, capacity of company, its vision and mission, and manpower capacity; (ii) QQC principle, i.e. quality, quantity and continuity; (iii) full cost recovery, capability for customers to pay more, reasonable service tariff, reasonable O&M cost, and profitable to company and beneficial for the consumer community; (iv) absence of legal barrier with the area of operation. Social and communication includes internal management tools and services such as availability of service SOP, service point, favourable relation with stakeholders and mass media, and external condition such as users' level of income, relatively big amount of water use, low complain frequency, relatively high education level, in support of innovation by PDAM, and existence of users' forum. "With all the above criteria in consideration we choose Pakuan Housing as
the present ZAMP", said Syaban who is also called Ade. Moreover, the Housing is located at the tail end of the PDAM Tirta Pakuan network system. "If the tail end is readily drinkable, the more so head end would be," said he firmly. Although it has almost one year since this project was started, ZAMP was only formally declared last August. This is because we wanted to make sure that water quality meets the standard requirement. We wanted to avoid a problem suddenly occur and we fail to provide the expected standard of service. Monitoring is done continuously everyday at PDAM laboratory. The result is, the water is indeed drinkable. Although the water is drinkable, it is not easy to change community habit to drink the water directly from the tap. Based on a survey conducted by PDAM Tirta Pakuan, the users do not have any doubt about the quality nor the tariff, but when it comes to the question of whether they are ready to drink it right away, the respondents say they have to think first. That is why PDAM Tirta Pakuan is continuously conducting socialization through various ways such the "arisan" and inviting the mayor and other public leaders to join a water drinking demonstration in the ZAMP service area. The existence of ZAMP is indeed beneficial to the community. The tariff is not too far different from that of the ordinary clean water. For example, a household which consumes 25 m3 of clean water per month is charged Rp. 47.000, while the same amount of drinking water consumption in the ZAMP area is charged at Rp. 56.400. This price is also very much cheaper than bottled drinking water. A four-gallon container (19 litres) of bottled water costs Rp. 8.500 whereas the same amount of ZAMP water is only Rp. 43. Wow. (mujiyanto)
Percik October 2004
Helmi Soetikno, CEO, PDAM Tirta Pakuan
"It Can Be Expanded Wider"
water. We hope that the community would not hesitate any more. We guarantee, that the water is safe for drinking. No complain whatsoever? There was one about chlorine smell. We explained that chlorine is needed to kill bacteria in water. But it is safe for ingestion. Therefore when the consumers feel that their water smells chlorine this is a good sign that the water is safeguarded against dangerous germs and is good for drinking. For those who feel unpleasant with the smell, we explain to them how to overcome it. That is through filling into a clean and sterile tumbler. Let it stand for a while and the chlorine smell will become less as the gas escapes into the atmosphere. So far our customers have been satisfied. Up to this time is there any leakages in the pipe network? Up to this time there is no complaint. For the city of Bogor as a whole the leakage level is at 30 percent. But repairs to the pipe network of this zone were done in 2003. This network is equipped with wash out and gate valves. Also chlorine monitoring device. In case of leaks we can detect easily and take the necessary action. The leaked spot is then isolated. We hope the present condition can sustain. But anyhow, we are ready around the clock in case of leaks. We have SOP for follow and a gang of workers ready for 24 hours every day. That is why we need a support from the consumers' community such as important information regarding water and network condition to our field worker of directly to our office. How much was the investment for ZAMP development? Approximately Rp. 200 million. USAID through Perpamsi provided an assistance in the purchase of monitoring
Could you tell the history of ZAMP development? We were appointed by Perpamsi (Association of Indonesian Drinking Water Companies) to join a project with USAID. There were three city PDAMs to join, Medan, Malang and Bogor. We were supposed to produce drinking water in the real sense of the meaning, i.e. which is readily drinkable. Thus we developed a zone which meet technical, managerial and social-communication requirements. Perpamsi and USAID provided assistance with monitoring device through CATNIP (Certification and Training for Network Improvement Project). Through this project it is expected to produce a PDAM development pattern for application in Indonesia, so that in the long run all PDAMs are able to serve their customers with potable water. Why PDAM of the City of Bogor was chosen? This is up to Perpamsi to answer. Actually, in terms of management we meet the prescribed criteria. For your information, we are one of the few PDAMs with sufficiently good performance. And what is certain is that we are ready because we have been producing water that meets standard quality for drinking. But we had never declared it. What is the opinion of the consumers' community opinion regarding this project? Positive. The community is pleased about it. This is evidenced from a survey we conducted. But as for water consumption, the majority of the consumers still reserve some doubt for drinking it right away. Probably because of the image left by PAM water up to this time. But we are continuously trying to convince them. At the launching event last August we invited the mayor of Bogor to take a sip of the water directly in front of the community. Water was directly taken from the tap. No specific engineering. We also asked the public leaders who were also present during the occasion to taste the
equipment at a cost of more or less Rp. 60 million. The balance was from our own source. From the amount, what is the biggest cost item? Monitoring. Of distribution pipes, and of water quality, through testing equipment. Plus additionally the training cost for our laboratory personnel to enable them to properly issue a certification. We also have to design an SOP. Monitoring is a continuous activity even up to now. It should never stop. Along with it we are conducting socialization to the user community. Do you think other PDAMs are capable of initiating a similar project? I think it depends on the performance of each of the PDAMs. I don't think everyone is, considering there are only a few of the PDAMs are really in a good condition. Probably there are only a small number. One of the problems is that it needs capital investment, while most of the PDAMs are heavily in debt. This is the constraint. Do you have any intention to expand the present ZAMP zone? Certainly. It is still under discussion. The present ZAMP is located in the area of elites where tariff is not a problem. The Mayor's office is contemplating assuming this zone is located in the lower middle strata. Our expectation is, ZAMP can survive in such an area because it will help to reduce family's expenditure from boiling water. It is potential, isn't it? Does it mean this project can be expanded into a larger scale service? Affirmative. Why not. In reality there are no major changes to the network. Some modification, yes. And we can always work in cooperation with private sector. It is there already in Tangerang. Raw water is supplied by PDAM, and let the private sector take care of the network and everything else. (MJ)
Percik 25 October 2004
A Small Portrait of Water Service in Thickly Populated Area
Water Peddler Between a Need and a Pity
neighbour. Onih consumes 7 pikuls of water (14 cans = Rp. 7.000), while Kasmani 5 pikuls. Both say that this price is more expensive than PAM subscription tariff. Mrs. Muamanah, the water seller, does not say anything about how much money she earns every day including why water keeps on flowing in her house while in all her neighbours' stop. "I am here just to help them, it is quite a pity if they have no water at all," she says. But from behind the wall of the house there is a hissing sound of a jet pump. It is not clear whether the pump is sucking water from PAM network. What may be certain is that it is impossible to pump up water from underground because the water is salty. Within this are and its neighbourhood, purchasing water directly to a seller is quite seldom. Mostly the sellers are peddling their water directly to customers at home. They are pushing a cart with water cans. Sometimes 20 cans full of water. Sugeng, water peddler in the neighbourhood of Rawa Badakis able to sell on average 200 cans (100 pikuls) of water a day. One pikul costs one thousand rupiahs. While he buys water from a 'public hydrant' -that is what he calls it- one thousand rupiahs for 5 pikuls. In one he can collect Rp. 80 thousand. "But that is when is in order. Sometimes the flow is dead, then we cannot do anything," says Sugeng in his thick Javanese dialect. With such an income he can hold for 20 years selling water. "I have a number of steady customers. All are not far from here. The farthest is 200 metres. Mostly households. Some are PAM subscribers
any are unaware that water is a basic need of human being. Because of its being basic, drinking water is indispensable. It is no surprise, therefore, that efforts and money are spent in order to get water. Even the price is no limiting factor when the condition presses for it. The community around the port of Tanjung Priok for instance. They do not hesitate to pay one thousand rupiahs for one pikul (2 cans each of 35 l of water carried on shoulder with a pole) of water. "If you do not buy, where else can you get water? Impossible to take it from a well. Salty," says Onih, a mother of five children who lives in the area of Rawa Cabe, Cilincing, Jakarta Utara. Onih is actually a PAM Jaya, public drinking water company, customer. But it has been a year not single drop of water comes to her home, though she has to pay
regularly a monthly subscription fee of Rp. 10.400. "But for the last four months I purposely do not pay it. Let it be! What good it'd be, if water does not flow at all," says the woman in her thick Betawi dialect. Similar condition is with Kasmani. A father of three children he admits that for the last 4 months he does not have any water from PAM. "Not a single drop," says he and immediately explained that the same situation is also experienced by most families within the neighbourhood. "Strange is, several families in the neighbourhood have their PAM water flows nicely. This is quite strange, indeed. We have reported this case, but nothing happens," he further says. Both Onih and Kasmani have to push a cart carrying water cans. Kasmani's cart has 8 cans, Onih's six. Both of them buy water from Mrs. Muamanah, their
Percik October 2004
but water does not flow into their homes, he continues while inserting a hose into his can. Similar experience is expressed by Zaenal Mubarok, a middle aged man has been in this profession for the last 20 years. Everyday he pushes a cart with 12 cans which he rents from his employer. "The rent is Rp. 2.000 a day, he explains. Besides renting a cart for his employer he together with 4 roommates stay at his employer's dwelling. He says that he has a number of steady customers. Most of his customers, according to him, are not PAM subscribers. Mostly they live in a rented house. Water consumption varies, some at 2 pikuls others up to 5 pikuls. "It depends on the family," he adds, and further he tells us that every 6 weeks he returns to his hometown in Tasikmalaya for 2 weeks. Similarly with Sugeng, Zaenal does not have to go too far to peddle his water. The water peddlers get their water from a public hydrant. Some of the hydrants are marked with: Pilot Public Hydrant. But how the public hydrant comes into being within the thickly populated area, the lurah (equal to village headman for an urban area) admits that he has no idea. According to him the hydrant has been there since a long time ago. Many might fancy a hydrant as a building with water taps around it. The public hydrant of this place is entirely different. This is a close walled building. Inside there is a reservoir constructed below ground surface. The dimension varies. At the top of cover there is an electric pump to move the water up. Not to the community, but to the peddlers. It is said this hydran does not belong to the community any more. It belongs to an individual. Karno, a watchman supervising a public hydrant admits that besides supplying the water peddlers his hydrant is also for
the good of the surrounding community. There is an MCK built nearby. But he admits further that the community contribution is far smaller than that of the peddlers. His daily average income ranges between Rp. 60-70 thousand. "As the amount is collected, it is directly handed over to the boss," he says. He does not know how much water is used per month and how much money is paid to PAM. "That is all for the boss to know," says the man who has been supervising the hydrant since the last four years. What he knows for certain is that water for the hydrant comes from PAM because a water meter is there. Based on a field observation by Percik, not all of the hydrants are legitimate. Percik found some hydrants are entirely illegal. They punch a hole in a water pipe passing at the roadside, and from there water is made to continuously flow directly into a reservoir. As a deception, a piece of a zinc plate is covered on top of a gutter that was supposedly a water meter housing. The hose connecting the PAM pipe to the reservoir passes through beneath the zinc covered gutter. There is no meter or something of that sort but even the water peddlers say there is a meter under the
cover. The water flows excellently, but less than 100 m from the hydrant the PAM users' community have no water at all. What is the portion of PAM water that goes into this kind of hydrant business? No one can tell and apparently needs a closer investigation. Apart from the abovementioned fact the demand for drinking water service in the thickly populated areas such as Tanjung Priok is real and cannot wait any longer. They are willing to make a relatively big contribution in order to get the service. Unfortunately the contribution is now only for the benefit of water peddlers and hydrant owners. There is no intention to prohibit water peddling, though. Water peddlers are needed by the members of the community who have no home connection from PAM. But one question must be asked, whether all this time the PAM users' community has been given the proper service they deserve. It should be considered to avoid any deviation of water appropriation from the decent customers to irresponsible individuals who care for nothing except their own business taking benefit from the existence of the peddlers. If this is true, it is a big pity indeed. Water belongs to all of us. (MJ)
Percik 27 October 2004
H. Ridwan Syahputra Musagani, CEO, Perpamsi
"We Need a Water Management Agency"
Clean water, especially drinking water is a human being basic need. However, the present management does not indicate a serious attention. There is no umbrella institution especially responsible for clean water, especially drinking water management. Clean water management does not single itself in the treatment of the existing water but it also includes conservation efforts for sustainable sources of raw water. And the responsibility for these efforts cannot be imposed solely upon PDAMs. That is a part of the opinion of Ir. Ridwan Syahputra Musagani, CEO of Perpamsi in an interview with Percik some time ago in Jakarta. The excerpts are as the following: How far is PDAM service to the community? At national average, our capacity to serve the community is only up to 20 percent. The remaining 80 percent is beyond the reach of PDAM all over the country. If we try to compare other public services obviously we are lagging too far behind. There are many factors responsible for such a condition. A comprehensive knowledge of problems and their solution. We have to handle these problems seriously in the future. What are the constraints? The most responsible institution for the provision water supply service to the community is PDAM. But there are many hindrances that make PDAM unable to satisfactorily fulfill its mission in a way such as Telkom (state owned telecommunication company) and other public service companies do. This is caused by several assumptions, first, from the external side it is extremely difficult to apply cost
recovery principle, considering there are so many intricacies involved. Take for instance, a facility with a coverage capacity of 25-30 percent, it is quite difficult to increase its capacity. For an increment of 1 litre/sec will need an investment up Rp.50-75 million. To increase 100 litres/sec we will need Rp. 5 billion, excluding distribution network. Actually there many aspects that have missed our attention in view of our commitment that clean water is a basic need for our daily life. It is unfortunate indeed that this has not been widely discussed among the stakeholders. On the other side, without looking back into the bitter past, many PDAMs are being faced major loan problem. As many as 168 PDAMs are facing this problem, and it is extremely difficult to pay back the money. This matter calls for the attention from many parties in order to enable PDAMs pay back their loans. What step does PDAM take to overcome these issues? Perpamsi and our colleagues from the PDAMs have taken various efforts and suggestions, but so far there has never
been any response from ministry of Finance. The Directorate level has not taken any action to process the loan to PDAM, in spite of approval from the Legislative Assembly (DPR) through Commission IX. What seem very strange, the ministry of Finance seems to have such a big difficulty in finding a way out for this case. At present we have a debt amounted to Rp, 5,3 trillion, in all. Why the BLBI that amounts to Rp. 144 trillion was so easy to solve, why is it so difficult with PDAM? We understand that all of the national asset must be saved and safeguarded. But the government policy must truly beneficial to the community, especially if it relates to basic need of the population. Clean water is a basic need for our life. It seems there a handful of people in Dept. of Finace who don't understand this. We don't asked to be spoiled, we don't ask for forgiveness, but under the prevailing condition how can we provide services to the community. With regard government budget, what does it look like? The government has not given an appropriate budget allocation to drinking water. This year it is only Rp. 300 billion. If we want to achieve MDGs target we need Rp. 50 trillion of investment. Since it is 10 years from the deadline, we need a budget of Rp 5 trillion a year. The reality is Rp 300 billion, what can we do? But we can understand. There is another source, i.e. loan. This can be reviewed and discussed since it relates to drinking water. But as I see it, the way ministry of finance handles PDAM loans is quite rigid, conservative and traditional. They cannot see that one day PDAM service of a certain region may collapse and unable to provide any serve to the area. If it happens, who is to blame? We have proposed a number of alternative solutions to Directorate General level in ministry of
Percik October 2004
finance and it was acceptable. But as it goes down to the subordinate level officials they were making it a problem again. We are quite disappointed about it. What about tariff? This is our third constraint. Many would say that PDAM is not professionally managed so that it continuously in red in spite of it is monopolistic. This is all right. We are indeed monopolistic in the sense that the public utility company is responsible to provide sufficient drinking water to the community. This represents a social function, i.e. providing public services equally and equitably. The service is not limited to the rich only. Suppose the basic tariff or break even price is so much, we set a price lower than that. That's what we call subsidized price. While for business customers we apply a progressive price. That where we get some profit. The problem now is what power does the PDAM have in applying tariff in a professional manner? None, we have none. As we try increase the tariff, the community starts yelling. Stakeholders all disagree. Fine. Then we ask what about the subsidy? In area A for instance, the cost of production of 1 litre/sec is Rp 2,5 or Rp. 3 but to a specific community group we have only to charge Rp. 1 for the same amount of water, this means a subsidy is given. By whom? By PDAM. Whereas PDAM is in short of capital, investment and is burdened with loans, etc. It seems that PDAM is like a poor but pretends himself as being rich. It's queer that everybody is closing his eyes. How could we make any improvement? It is obviously not fair. Fertilizers and many others have specific government policy, why not with PDAM? Regarding price, why not make the same treatment as with Pertamina (state-owned oil company)? Why the money does not come from the government? The subsidized money actually should come from the government, just like in Thailand. This is obviously there is a arrogance from those who do not like improvement in water supply service. I disagree if some says that the present PDAM condition is due to lack of professionalism within PDAM. We should be thankful since PDAM still survive under such a condition. Fourth issue, control over raw water. The present raw water condition is entirely different from it was 20 years ago. To day many rivers are no more recommendable for source of raw water. Whose responsibility is this? In the condition when the four factors are let loose, while service capacity is like being choked, now source of raw water is getting drier, who shall take the blame? Whether this is solely management inefficiency? That is not always the case! We have to be fair in cases like this. If we are unable to open our mind and eyes about the national clean water issues we shouldn't be surprised if we become a nation that is incapable of managing our natural resources for the interest of the people. Fifth factor, it might be that this country lacks an institution that takes care clean water supply service. That is why there is that Water Resources Law, which in spite of some weaknesses it is generally a good law. But something is more advanced beyond the PDAM development, the institution which has been managing water supply service. In order to prevent that someone or institution says that one is capable of managing water supply without PDAM. No way. If one wants to change, just change the name. The asset shall remain as PDAM's. So far there is no one taking care of water supply service. The only one is at central government level, at ministry of public work, the Sub-directorate of Clean Water. What is going on now? With the stipulation of the Law it has been mandated an establishment of a water management agency. With the establishment of the new agency then clean water issue crops up to surface and is becoming a topic at the department and cabinet level discussion. With the existence of such an agency there will be sort of moral suggestion that government interest to national water service management is improving. It is expected that this agency will cover all the aspects which constitute the main problem in water supply service in Indonesia.
If we are unable to open our mind and eyes about the national clean water issues we shouldn't be surprised if we become a nation that is incapable of managing our natural resources for the interest of the people.
Does it mean that PDAM need a specific government policy? We need a serious and honest policy. We have to be friendly and observe veracity and candor. We have to avoid statements that might cause distortion and erratic conclusion. We heard that 5 years ago there was a six formula concept for treating sickly PDAM. This could not be applied unless the condition is made stable. Changing PDAM into PT (limited company) does not touch the real issue. The policy regarding PDAM should be treatment equally as it is for any ordinary business company. As an example, with Pertamina there is a subsidized price. What about PDAM? Other constraints?
Percik 29 October 2004
From loan, financing, raw water, and others. What makes PDAM survive? Spirit. We optimize what we have as we go. There are several regions with limited condition are capable to expand. But there are also that sink. Therefore PDAM, Perpamsi, and later Water Management Agency shall have to work closely together to enhance the national clean water development in accordance with our MDGs target. Thus internally PDAM is difficult to expand? Internal factor is quite closely related to external factor. This is a sort of pressure, and even an intervention to internal affairs. Therefore, 5-10 changes in management the situation remains the same. If we say that PDAM belongs to the region, whether the central government is entirely free from any responsibility? Whereas, speaking of water supply is speaking about national interest. What about target for 2015? I am of the opinion that we have to achieve that. In 2002 the president together with other world leaders signed the Johannesburg Convention about the commitment of all the nations of the world to reach 80 percent drinking water coverage in 2015. If the target is reached we might not need the water management agency any more. Can the target 2015 be achieved under the present condition? I think we can. Because we only need up to Rp. 50 trillion investment to have our facility complete by that year. Each year we need Rp. 5 trillion. I think the government is capable. As you see, if for writing off the BLBI problematic loans the government were willing to spend Rp. 15 trillion last year, why not for us. What is your expectation with the new government?
If the new cabinet is inaugurated, we will ask the cabinet member in charge of the office for water supply, whatever the name might be, to as soon as possible establish the previously mentioned agency. Do not wait any longer. In its establishment we would request that the institutions presently active in dealing with clean water be included in its formulation. Because they are the ones who know exactly the implementation of clean water service. Let us do away with our sector egoism. It is not possible that PDAM be left out just like that. Let us be together for the sake achieving MDGs 2015 targets. When do you think the service will reach the whole population? In 10 years we can do it, provided all institutions are moving together to the same direction. What we are expecting is a positive thinking about clean water management. Do you think PDAM would be ready if the demand were fulfilled by the government?
Definitely. Because there many who fail because they do not know what issue they are dealing with. With PDAM, we know exactly what we are up to. What strategy does PDAM has after MDGs? MDG is only a new load. A load must be adjusted with the existing vehicle. Why should we prepare a big vehicle if there is very little or no load at all. But we know what we are going to do. What support does PDAM expect from the community? The community is subject but at the same time also object. They can determine PDAM service through tariff contribution. But as it progresses the capacity of PDAM to fulfill the demand is decreasing. This makes the community's confidence becomes lesser and lesser. They can have a sufficiently good quality water at any time if the quality, quantity and continuity is well maintained. If the principle applies, the community will have no problem in paying some amount. (mujiyanto)
Percik October 2004
B OOK INFO
Changing Paradigm in Relation to Water
Rethinking Water Management Innovative Approaches to Contemporary Issues
Editor: Caroline M. Figueres, Cecilia Tortajada, and Johan Rockstrom Publisher: Earthscan Publication Ltd., London Pages : xiii = 242 pp Title: mismanagement decreases water quality locally as well as regionally. Many government administrations, national institutes, and experts are beginning to concentrate their attention to design a new agenda in water management, since the care towards water crisis is greatly weakening. This book is a compilation of articles from new generation experts from various parts of the world who present many new ideas on water management from various view points. The discussions consist of among other about rain water and surface water, recycling and reusing of water, water rights, cross boundary access, and financing in water management. The authors propose new perspectives important for application; management and conservation of fresh water, qualitatively as well as quantitatively, for the population, agricultural, and industrial sector; and how to build a new paradigm for application in water management of the future. (MJ)
t the beginning of the 21st century the world is in water management crisis. According to the report of World Water League for the 21st century (2000s) the available renewable raw water sources cannot fulfill the need for industries, population consumption, and agriculture in 2020. This is because there are many water sources are polluted, population growth, urbanization, and mismanagement. Many countries have been in water crisis, especially those in arid and semi arid regions. New generation water management with a new con-
cept is in great demand these days. They are expected to develop and apply innovative policy and working method. In short, water management in 21st century must change. Water management in the future--in global, regional or local scale--calls for common care and attention of the professionals, policy makers, and the general public. This is because of the tendency that indicates water shortages will continue and threaten 50 percent of the world population including the following generation. Besides, the prevailing water
Looking Deeper Into Flood Issues of Jabotabek
akarta is definitely a host of annual flooding. The flood scale may be classified as ordinary, or large as it was in the beginning of 2002. Many efforts have been done, but the result is always below expectation. This is because flood involves a complexity of issues that makes it very difficult to trace what mistakes have been done in the past and who should bear the responsibilities. The attention towards flood is never constant. At the time of floods, all stakeholders seem to try to solve the problem. But the flood recede, the attention fades out. This is apparently incomparable with the sadness and sufferings of those victimized by flood. On the other side, there are many who make estimates that sometimes are too far from the reality,
Title : Membenahi Tata Air Jabotabek, Seratus Tahun dari Bandjir Kanaal hingga Ciliwung Floodway (Rearranging Water System of Jabotabek One Hundred Years from Bandjir Kanaal to Ciliwung Floodway) Author: A.R. Soehoed Publisher : Djambatan Pages: x + 238 pp
such as next year flood will not be as bad as the present, and so on. Suddenly one get startled when an unusually big flood is coming in. Everyone is stunned.
This book tries to invite the readers to broaden ones perspective and delve deeper into the flood related issues which is more appropriately called water system issues of Jakarta and its surroundings, a coverage area of over 6.000 sq. km. According to the author, these problems cannot be solved by one or two technical agencies. Many agencies must be involved. Besides, the management is multiphased and must obtain active community participation in order to be sustainable. A number of historic data and policy documents are presented in a very interesting format. Including Jabotabek water system maps from various different times. There are also the opinions of Dutch hydrology experts with regards water management of Batavia. (MJ)
Percik 31 October 2004
W EBSITE INFO
Surface Water and Drinking Water
ly developed to provide info about safe and quality drinking water. The sites also provide information regarding contaminants in drinking water and how it should treated in order to avoid from ingestion into human body. Besides, this website invites its visitors to choose the most appropriate water purification means for the body, whether filtration, distillation, bottled water, and so on. caused by contaminated water, and training materials for efforts in obtain standard quality drinking water.
International Water NGO
his website, maintained by the United States Environmental Protection Agency, contains a lot of information about drinking water and surface water. Its menu consists of many things such as water quality in various different states complete with maps, protection to water sources, standard requirements of safe drinking water, community based drinking water system, and control over ground water pumping. Further interesting thing is, this website also provides menu specially intended for children. It's called Drinking Water Kids' Stuff. In it there are children games that lead to knowledge about water. There is also about drinking water that is safe for children consumption complete with its standard. In this part there is also teaching material for classical education program consisting of guidance, posters, and experiment technique for children.
aterAid is an international NGO focusing on drinking water for domestic consumption, sanitation, and health education for the poor communities of the world. As you enter this website, a world map is open before you. Then the visitors will be informed about what the organization has done, on-going activity and planned to do in a specific country.
International Water Association
We may say this website is sufficiently complete because it is also provided with a link to the government, environmental organization, water industries and their facilities, universities conducting studies in this field, and mass media.
his website is maintained by international water association. This organization represents a global network of professionals in various fields related to water. Its members are scattered in the Asia-Pacific. The site provides information about the activities of the organization and the publications it has produced. Including the statement made by John Briscoe when speaking before the IWA conference in Marrakech that sustainable economic growth is the basic ground for reduction of poverty and improvement to water supply and sanitation.
WEBSITES RELATED TO DRINKING WATER: World Water Federation: www.wef.org The World's Water: www.worldwater.org World Water Assessment Programme : www.unesco.org/water/wwap World Water Cooperation Forum: www.gwpforum.org
Drinking Water Quality
www.who.int/water_ sanitation_ health/dwq/en/
About Drinking Water
ask. That is the introductory note of this blue background website as you open it. This Drinking Water Resources is special-
ou might wish to know about drinking water but do not know where to
his website, maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), provides information about drinking water quality in its relation to health. Contaminated dinking water is responsible for the prevalence of many diseases in the developing and poor nations of the world. Through this website WHO provides guidance about drinking water quality, information of dangerous chemicals dissolved in drinking water, diseases
Percik October 2004
C D INFO
Private Infrastructure for the Poor
he governments all over the world are trying to make the private sector as part of a reform with an intention to create efficiency in service, invite investment, and reduce financial burden of the public sector. The must be a guarantee for a benefit for the poor from this reform. Besides, the price and tariff must be designed cautiously. Experience indicates that the success of a reform to the poor is determined by the inclusion of alternative suppliers, regulation mechanism which guarantees improved service for small groups, and subsidy scheme targeted to the poor families. It is important to keep that the process must always be accountable. Why such a reform must consider the
poor people? Because most of them are public service users and beneficiaries of subsidy system. In the framework of the participation of private sector beneficial for the poor the policy makers must be
cautious in designing contract and institutional regulation and organization. It is to the government interest to have a reform friendly to the poor. The quality and coverage of electricity, water, sanitation, telecommunication and transportation services is to a great extent influences the standard of living and economic growth -factors that influence political stability. Water supply and sanitation service is also directly influential to health condition. This CD provides guidance for private sector participation in provision of infrastructures and poverty reduction. There are several methods presented on how reform and transaction can be designed and put into implementation. (MJ)
ne of the negative impacts of urbanization for big towns relates to sanitation especially in the thickly populated areas. In such a place lack of clean water, inappropriate sanitation, garbage littering all over the place are the common daily routines. This situation leads to degradation of health in the densely populated settlement. They are trying to improve this situation themselves. But because of their limitation, this effort is futile. Therefore, without any outside help especially the local government it is difficult for them to improve their sanitation condition. Bina Sosial Ekonomi Terpadu (BEST), literally means Integrated Social Economic Development, in Tangerang and Surabaya are trying to offer an alternative solution through participatory approaches. Therefore, to build a sanitation facility must be preceded with discussions with the respective community. The format is a community meeting. The people are facilitated to discuss about the ways in solving their problem based on
the experience they have or through implementable choice of alternatives. Once an agreement is reached then a toilet, a bathroom, washing floor, and a drinking water facility can be built. This building is called MCK Plus Plus Plus. It is called MCK because it is built based on the concept of combining bathroom, washing floor, and toilet with biological domestic waste water
treatment system. The advantages of this system are among others low operational cost, applying no hi-tech device, and its capability to reduce wastewater contents up to 70-90 percent, so that the effluent meets the standard environmental requirement. In addition to that, this facility does not pollute groundwater because of the waterproof and airtight design and it also produces biogas for domestic use. The time for sludge water cleaning is relatively long, once in 2-3 years. Therefore the technology is quite appropriate for application in densely populated quarters of a city. The community participation is not limited during the development phase but must continue for as long as the facility in operation. This is bit about the success BEST has made in facilitating urban communities to solve their sanitation problem. This CD can serve as a comparative material for stakeholders in environmental sanitation. (MJ)
Percik 33 October 2004
W ASPOLA ABOUT
Revision of Draft Document of National Policy for Institutionally-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Development
SOURCES: DORMARINGAN HS
he activities related to the formulation of the National Policy for Institutionally-Based WSS Development is presently on-going. It is expected this job will get done before the end of this year. The final draft is then submitted and ready for discussion in the Project Coordinating Committee (PCC) meeting. The completion process is considered an important momentum, because it will reflect consistence and decisive character of the overal WSS development policy framework. To this end, the WASPOLA Working Group organized 4 working teams, namely Drinking Water Team, Wastewater Team, Solid Waste Team, and Drainage Team. All these work teams make up the core team for the institutionally based policy formulation. These teams are supported by several sub-teams each responsible for environmental, financial, institutional, and social aspects. The responsibility in the draft revision is not limited only to revising the existing draft (draft #1) but also to go deeper into and enrich it with environmental sanitation aspect so that the final policy is not dominated solely by Drinking Water. Illustration of the Activity The team have been conducting regular meetings and focussed discussions. Each work team initiates a sector specific development issue and its related policy, the result is presented in the work team plenum meeting. The draft #2 formulation was already made in a workshop held in Bogor on 1-2 September 2004. The central work team, representatives from WSS service providers (PDAM, PDAL, PD Kebersihan, Palyja) from several regions, the regional governments, NGOs, universities, professional associations, private
sector, and donor agencies were among the participants of this workshop. The result produced from the workshop will used as valuable inputs for policy formulation which is now in the stage of final write-up and editing process. Forthcoming Activity At this point in time the final write-up and editing process is on-going. Draft #2 of the policy document is expected to complete in early Octber 2004 which is then ready for distribution to the members of Central WSS Working Group and other sector practitioners for their further comments and suggestions. Then comes the final revision and editing process for submission to a review and discussion process in a workshop scheduled for early December. This process also involves the work team through a series of regular review meetings. The second workshop will be focused on the formulation of policy implementation strategy and review of general and sector policy formulation of draft #2.
SOURCES: DORMARINGAN HS
This activity will involve various sector practitioners. It is hoped that through the hard work of all those involved the formulation of the National Policy for Institutionally Based WSS Development will be done by the end of 2004. (DHS)
Percik October 2004
Facilitation of National Policy for Community Based WSS Development Implementation at the Regional Level
he purpose of implementation of Policy for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSS) operational facilitation at the regional level is in general to assist the regional government to develop its own policy for WSS sector development and action plan. The activities that have taken place include: Review of the National Policy for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation at the regional level. Identification of regional specific problems and issues related to WSS sector development. Study on the factors related to sustainable WSS development in the regions. Policy dialogues to generate stakeholders' attention and care to solution to WSS development related problems and issues. Formulation of action plans for regional WSS sector development. Up to this moment all the participating provinces and kabupatens have conducted review of the national policy through regional level workshops involving a wide range of stakeholders and have managed to bridge a common perception about each of the POLICY principles, the challenges and the necessary steps to be taken. Field visits were also made to successful projects as well as those which met with failures in order to learn a lesson about regionally specific factors governing sustainable WSS development and analyse the reasons behind them. Regional Level Workshop I and Its Result Provincial as well as kabupaten level workshops have taken place in weeks
between 2-25 September. An important result generated from the workshop is a common perception about the substance of the national Policy for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation among the stakeholders especially the workshop participants. At the provincial level the discussions
the provincial governments of Central Java and South Sulawesi to invite all their kabupatens respectively. In Central Java and South Sulawesi sustainable WSS development is taken as a common issue. Lack of community participation and the deteriorating environment that
WORKSHOP I PROVINCE
1. Common understanding about policy principles 2. List of problems and issues related to sustainable WSS development Awarenes of the impor3. tance of an effort to find solution to problems associated to WSS service 4. Inputs in relation to the role and function of the working team 5. Understanding the role of Provincial government in operational facilitation in the national policy implementation at the regional level in 2005. Initial commitment to include policy opera6. tional activity into local government budget (APBD) 2005 plan. Detail of activities is subject to further discussion. 7. Socialization/dissemination plan to kabupatens and result of problems encountered in WSS development: In West Sumatera to 3 Kabupatens: Pesisir, Pasaman and Sijunjung Babel to all kabupatens Banten to all kabupatens Central Java to all kabupatens which are grouped into 3 clusters in accordance with cross sectoral coordination zone. South Sulawesi to all kabupatens, phased NTB to all kabupatens Gorontalo to all kabupatens.
1. Common understanding about policy principles and several regional specific policy priorities. 2. Awareness of the importance of an effort to find solution to problems associated to WSS service 3. Inputs in relation to the role and function of the working team 4. It is understood that facilitation is to assist the regions in action planning and policy formulation in WSS sector development. 5. Regional understanding about the importance of having a clear and thorough plan for WSS sector development. 6. A field study plan to sharpen the lessons learned from the analysis of problems and issues governing sustainable WSS sector development 7. Plan for policy dialogues to obtain input and recommendation in the implementation of sustainable WSS development.
and workshops have produced an agreement for a socialization/dissemination program in the kabupatens and targeted to a wider range of stakeholders, while the kabupaten workshops the focus is laid on identification of problems/issues related to WSS development. Several important outcomes from the implementation of regional level worshops during September 2004 include: There is an intention in the part of
leads to water scarcity constitute the main reasons for sutainable WSS development failure. The implementation of national Policy for Development of Community-Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation is understood in many different ways. There is a strong indication that the essential and objectives of facilitation has been clearly understood, that it is
Percik 35 October 2004
meant to assist the regions to develop their respective WSS development policy and action plan. The involvement of mass media in policy dissemination has gained a positive response and made the process run more smoothly. In Bangka Belitung and Semarang the media are actively involved in the dissemination of the workshop results to the community at large. Workshop II and III in Kabupatens and Workshop II in Provinces are scheduled from now till the end on November which the following expected outcomes:
Activity Workshop II Province 1. A mutually agreed operational strategy in facilitating the kabupaten level policy implementation by the province. 2. Work Plan of Facilitation Acticity in Kabupaten. -
fund in spite of the effort to convince the authorities during the additional budget deliberation. To overcome this problem and in terms of conducting workshops the provincial governments requested each agencies and the kabupatens to pay for their own travels. In South Sulawesi this action was made clear through the issuance of letter from the Governor . There is a more obvious commitment in the part of the regions to continue with the policy implementation in 2005. Compared to the situation as reported in previous period, in SeptemKabupaten 1. List of problems and issues governing WSS development based on field study result 2. Mutually agreed priority problems for solution to enable the region start with the sustainable WSS development 1. Formulation of the objectives of regional level WSS development. 2. Formulation of strategic program in relation to regional WSS development. 3. Formulation of regional policy and strategy for a sustainable WSS development. 4. Short and Medium Terms Regional Action Plans.
Regional Budget Allocation Regional budget is short of expectation. For reason of time constraint some regions underwent revisions from the original proposal. But in general, the activity can proceed. In Central Java and South Sulawesi, NTB and Banten the counterpart fund for POLICY facilitation is channeled through sector budget. The provinces which made allocations for counterpart fund are Gorontalo, Bangka Belitung and West Sumatra. Several Important Issues From a series of coordination meetings and regional workshops several issues are worthy of note: Confirmation about unavailability of
ber it has developed into a concrete plan. In the provinces of NTB, C. Java and S. Sulawesi, it has been put as an item in the agenda that the WSS related issues in the regions must be identified more clearly and socialization of the policy must reach a wider range of stakeholders. There is a growing notion in C. Java to undertake a policy dissemination event specially for the members of DPRD (legislative). This is especially important considering the implementation of the national policy will have to get an appoval from the DPRD especially when it comes to planning and budgeting. There is a need to develop a common perception about the role of central, provincial, and kabupaten governments in the policy implementation. It is understood that as far as facilitation to the kabupaten is concerned the provincial government is the extension of the hands of central government, it must however be made clear whether said responsibility is correspondingly followed with a budget allocation. There is a demand from the regional government for a confirmation about follow-up technical assistance for 2005 implementaSOURCE: DORMARINGAN HS tion, one who should be available by December 2004 in order to give enough time for the regions to prepare themselves, especially in terms of funding. The minimum support required consists of official information about policy implementation plan for 2005, and an illustrative budget the regions need to prepare. (DHS)
Percik October 2004
WSS ABOUT World Water Monitoring Day
Commemorated Through Water Quality and Conservation Education
series of agendas were conducted in the World Water Monitoring Day commemorated in Jakarta on 18 October. The commemoration was initiated and implemented by Forum Komunikasi Pengelolaan Kualitas Air Minum Indonesia (FORKAMI, Indonesian Forum for Drinking Water Quality Management Communication) in cooperation PT Thames PAM Jaya (TPJ). The commemoration was held twice. First was in Cibubur lake on 26 September 2004 and was attended by the community and school boys and girls of SLTP 147 Cibubur. The second on 3 October 2004 was held at the TPJ Water Treatment Facility at Buaran, Jakarta Timur. The event was attended by the surrounding community and the pupils of SLTP 252 Jakarta Timur. This kind of activity is intended to disseminate an awareness of the importance of water source protection to the community at large and the young generation. Dr. Hening Darpito, one of FORKAMI chairmen in Cibubur explained that water resources is presently in limited quantity and to replenish it and recover its quality takes a considerable amount of cost and effort. For this case, water source protection effort must be done by everyone from children, the community, water related professionals, private sector, NGO, and the government. Drs. Abdullah Muthalib, MM, CEO of FORKAMI, in Kalimalang sincerely hoped that this kind of event could bring a common awareness of the importance of water source protection effort and later work together to increase the availability and quality of water source, for the sake of our life, now and the future generations. Rhamses Simanjuntak, TPJ External
Relations and Communication Director, expressed that TPJ is proud with the cooperation with FORKAMI and is willing to help the Forum in the socialization effort of the water quality management aspects to the community with a hope that it can gradually improve the community habit to water resources management and maintenance. Since the very beginning, he said, TPJ reserves a commitment to continuously work on community education, of course with an expectation that in the future our natural resources condition could improve and is capable of helping the community to improve the quality of life. "World Water Monitoring Day could be regarded as the first step for the young generation to take part in the effort to protect water resources," he concluded.
The commemoration activities consisted of film show about water conservation, competition on banner design and petition by children containing messages related to water. The community and the children were given opportunity to tour the water treatment facility. The tour guide explained the water treatment process beginning from raw water till it is ready distribution to customers. The participation of these schoolchildren and local community members means they are now joining with thousands of volunteers all over the world in analyzing the quality of water sources around them. The result of this analysis will be reported to World Water Monitoring and can be accessed through www.worldwatermonitoringday.org after 18 December 2004. (MJ)
Percik 37 October 2004
Metropolitan PDAM Meeting in Makassar City
It Takes a Firm Commitment to Handle Leakages
irectorate Metropolitan of the Directorate General for TPTP Dept. Kimpraswil in collaboration with PDAM Makassar facilitated a Metropolitan PDAM meeting held in Makassar on 23-24 October 2004. The agenda of the meeting is focusing on the issues related to leakages in PDAM. Present in the meeting were Basah Hernowo, Director of Human Settlement and Housing , Bappenas, representatives from 8 PDAMs, namely from the kabupaten Tangerang, kabupaten/city of Bekasi, the cities of Bogor, Palembang, Denpasar, Bandung, Semarang, and the host Makassar. Basah Hernowo took the opportunity to explain the National Policy for Community Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Development and the draft of National Policy for Institutionally Based Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Development. While the Director of PDAM Makassar explained the issues related to leakages in PDAM Makassar. To overcome the leakage problem PDAM Makassar has taken the counter measures. One of them is through operating a control unit called Water Loss Prevention Unit (Unit Penanggulangan Kehilangan Air, UPTKA). From the discussion during the course of the meeting, there were a number of issues came forward, namely (i) there is no mutually agreed formula to determine the size of a leakage, and who should be responsible to develop the formula; (ii) several jobs, such as water meter reading, and data entry, are being contracted to a third party. It raises a question now, how effective is the contract. According to the experience from PDAM Semarang meter reading directly by PDAM employees is more effective, and the sanction to any error is more applicable; (iii) from the technical viewpoint there is approximate-
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
ly 5 percent bias, because of time difference between the reading of the main water meter and of the meters in the users' homes; (iv) old meters and questionable accuracy. Experience from PDAM Bogor indicates that after 5 years 45 percent of the meters are beginning to run faulty. PDAM Bekasi replaces water meters that are more than 5 years old and enable to reduce the level of leakages up to more than 10 percent.; (v) there are so many varieties of water meters being, this raises difficulties in maintenance; (vi) it demands a firm commitment from top executives and supervising commission in order to be able to overcome the leakage problems. This is because of the big amount of fund involved to run the program. Experience from PDAM Tangerang indicates that for each zone (300 families) there are 9 employees needed. PDAM Bekasi establishes a non structural unit with 100 members. This is to make sure that no leakage is happening. PDAM Bekasi says that such commitment is
implemented in the form of regular weekly meeting to discuss the problem. It is expected it will give birth to a leakage prevention movement PDAM Palembang builds an internal commitment through morning call. The emphasis is put on the fact that for every one (1) percent of water saved the company income raises at Rp 130 million. Thus if 5 percent of the loss is recovered it is equal to a total of one month payroll of the employees. Increase of income from recovered water loss is reinvested to the locality. In addition, based on income proportion, revenues from commercial sector (hotel, sea- and airports, etc.) is 30 percent more compared to its share which is only 10 percent of the total subscribers. For this reason, commercial customers are prioritized in putting things into order. As an illustration, if a water meter in a big hotel is indicating faulty performance, a calibration is made as soon as possible. As a result, revenue from said customer rises again. This balance of income is used to handle leakages of the household sector. For customers who have for a long time in arrears are given incentive by cutting down some of the amount. The community head (RT) is also requested for his cooperation. Aside from discussion about leakages, the participants were invited to visit one of the branches of PDAM Makassar. The branching system is intended to enable the PDAM to "pick a ball" in order to reduce the amount of arrears and improve the service quality. A branch is responsible for several service zones. The service format is quite similar to that of PLN (state-owned electricity company), such as subscribers' complaint, payment of claim, etc. The participant group also visited the deputy mayor, Herry Iskandar, who emphasized his commitment to reduce the level of leakages from PDAM
Percik October 2004
WS S A B O U T
World Habitat Day 2004 Seminar
n commemoration World Habitat Day 2004, the Indonesian government organized Habitat Day Seminar held in Yogyakarta 4 October 2004. The seminar was attended by academicians, practitioners, from the universities, government agencies, and NGOs. The seminar was entitled "Improvement of Equity in Development Between Urban and Rural Through Secondary Towns Development" carrying 3 main issues, namely environment, social economic development, and secondary town management. The working papers presented were among others International support to urban and rural expansion in the future; Settlement and Environmental Management; Social, Economic Development and Poverty Alleviation; Town-Village Relationship: the Case of Yogyakarta;
Governance & International Cooperation; Good Governance & Information Technology; The role of Indonesian community that cares for Housing and Settlements in the Application of Good Governance; Community Based Drinking Water Provision; Result of a Pre-Seminar (Student Workshop) held in Bandung. It was revealed from the seminar that the effort to make good governance into reality in order to make a balanced urban and rural development should start from the national level. In addition, in the framework to seek a balance, equity and just in urban and rural development it is necessary to review whether it is feasible to develop a concept of a coordination forum which up to this time has been thought over and duly agreed to include "urban and rural expansion". There is a need for law and legislation reform in order to provide a firm background for
institutionalizing the function and responsibility in urban and rural expansion into a ministry and central level interagency coordination institution. The community's care to provision of housing is important because of the sustainable demand for appropriate housing and settlements which meet the technical, ecological, socio-economical requirements beside safety, welfare and justice. An increased community care in housing and settlement provision is manifested in the establishment of MP3I (Masyarakat Peduli Perumahan and Pemukiman Indonesia, the Indonesia Community that Cares for Housing and Settlements) as a forum to contain the community care, with members coming from central and regional government stakeholders, business sector, banking, professionals, universities, and community organizations. (ML)
Workshop on National Action Plan (NAP): Drinking Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste
he workshop on National Action Plan about drinking water, waste water and solid waste was held in 13 October 2004 in Jakarta. This workshop was intended to improve the existing drinking water, waste water and solid waste NAP in order to be acceptable to all the stakeholders. This event was attended by approximately 80 participants coming from various government agencies and community members. The workshop was opened by Dr. Patana Rantetoding, Director General for Tata Perkotaan and Tata Perdesaan, Dept. Kimpraswil, who emphasized his expectation that this NAP would eventually be acceptable to all the stakeholders.
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
He does not want to see what happened to water supply and sanitation infrastructure development of the past to happen again. All the stakeholders must take his share of responsibility so that the facility can be
maintained in a sustainable manner. The main agenda of the workshop was presentation by the drinking water, waste water and solid waste group; acting as moderator for this session was Mr. Basah Hernowo, Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas. As expected, the workshop was to accommodate inputs from the various stakeholders. The session was officially closed by Ir. Bambang Goeritno, Director of Bina Teknik, Directorat General for urban and rural. He emphasized the importance of NAP for adoption and implementation by the regional governments. (FW)
Percik 39 October 2004
W SS ABOUT
Presentation of Concept
Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS)
n information seminar on the concept underlying the Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) was held in Bappenas office last September 15. The sole agenda was a presentation by Mr. Kamal Kar, a CLTS methodology specialist. The seminar was opened by Mr. Basah Hernowo, Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas. The success of CLTS in several countries, according to him, is a good reason for Indonesia to take a lesson in the framework of achieving MDGs targets. A welcome speech was delivered by Ms. Nilanjana Mukherjee from the World Bank. She says that health development in Indonesia emphasizes more on the physical aspect. The pattern must change. CLTS concept is an alternative. In his presentation Mr. Kamal Kar explained that CLTS concept has three purposes: (i) changing behaviour and improve community awareness to health; (ii) community empowerment; (iii) reduce the habit of defecating in the open. In its application, according to him, CLTS is apparently capable to change community behaviour in a relatively shorter time compared to other concepts. The initial process starts from identification of the condition and facts about health condition (especially in relation to defecating in the open) in the surrounding area. Then the community is persuaded to discuss the condition and fact. During this discussion the community is directly oriented with the problem. The objective of the process is to make the community start to be conscious that up to this time they don't live hygienically. Then the community will start to ask how the present condition can be changed. It means that with CLTS the behavioural change process starts from the very bottom and in a relatively short time. The community awareness in then
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
CLTS is apparently capable to change community behaviour in a relatively shorter time compared to other concepts.
followed-up with simple information about something the community can do by itself to improve health condition of the area. The information is about building "emergency" toilets. At this stage the target is to make the community design its own toilet. In application in several countries, at this stage the community is apparently quite enthusiastic in
building its own toilet. The building is funded entirely from the community itself without any outside subsidy. Though the toilet is very simple, but what is important is that at this time such a toilet is what the community needs and is capable to build. From this process, actually the second and third objectives are already achieved. Other positive results from the CLTS concept relates to the members of community start to impose sanction among themselves should anyone of them defecate in the open and at the same time also monitoring those who haven't built their own toilet. In Indonesia context, this concept is applicable because Indonesia has many similarities with other countries which have put it into operation. The advantage with Indonesian community is its interest level is sufficiently higher that makes it easier to apply it. However, there is no single concept that is applicable right away. Some adjustments due natural and community conditions must be done first. (FW)
Percik October 2004
W SS ABOUT
National Workshop on Domestic Water Source Conservation
national workshop on domestic water source conservation was held on 13 October at the Bina Pembangunan Daerah building, Ministry of Home Affairs. This activity was intended to summarize various lessons learned from domestic scale water source management for use as input for drinking water and sanitation development activity. There were 30 participants attending the workshop. The workshop was opened by the Director General for Bina Pembangunan Daerah (Regional Development), Ministry Home Affairs. He emphasized the importance of water source conservation in its relation to water scarcity and water rights conflict due to administrative boundary. The workshop brought forward 3 speakers from 3 different institutions, Depkimpraswil (PU), ministry of environmental (KLH) and Regional Government of Kabupaten Lumajang. Dr, Hafied Gany (Kimpraswil) presented his paper on the perspective of small scale water resources conservation in the con-
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
text of scarcity, water rights and management. He describes about water use, inter-regional water management and integrated approach in small scale water resources management. Edy Nugroho Santoso (KLH) presented water quality management and water
pollution control. While the speaker from Lumajang accompanied by WSLIC-2 coordination team explained about the region's experience in water source management. Such as communal use pattern of one single source by several village communities. (FW)
Dissemination of Technical Guidelines for the Development of Infrastructures in Agropolitan Areas and Environmental Sanitation in the Western Regions
irectorate of urban and rural for western region of the Directorate General of urban and rural, Dekimpraswil held a dissemination of technical guidelines by inviting the related agencies from the island of Sumatra on 6-7 October 2004 in Jakarta. The dissemination activity was officially opened by the Director of urban & rural for western region. The activity was intended to disseminate several technical guidelines such as National Action Plan
for Waste Water, and Solid Wastes; Guidelines for Waste Water, Garbage Handling and Drainage Management; and Technical Guidelines for the Development of Kimpraswil Infrastructures in Support of Agropolitan . In this opportunity, Basah Hernowo, Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas discussed about the National Policy for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Development. Several WSS activists like Harini Bambang
Wahono, Anton Sudjarwo (Dian Desa) and Hamzah Harun Al Rasyid (BEST) took the opportunity to convey their experiences in the management of community based urban/rural infrastructures. At the conclusion of the event the participants made a visit to Banjarsari (Jakarta Selatan) to see for themselves garbage handling from community initiative . (Report about Mrs. Bambang's activity was published in Percik August 2003 edition). (OM)
Percik 41 October 2004
W SS ABOUT
Preparation of Project Management Report (PMR)
Interim Consolidation of WSLIC-2 Project
meeting for the preparation of Project Management Report (PMR) was held in Mataram on 25-29 August 2004. This session was attended by the representatives from all WSLIC-2 project sites covering 7 provinces and 32 kabupatens. The meeting was officially opened by Deputy of Agency for Health (Dinas Kesehatan) Province NTB. Hening Darpito, Director of water and sanitation, Ministry of Health, discussed the progress of WSLIC-2 project implementation. WSLIC-2 project accounts for 27,38 percent of national achievement. This means still below the national target which is 40 percent. The regions with achievement of above the national target are Provinces of East Jawa (50%) and NTB (42%). While the provinces of West Sumatra (31%), Bangka Belitung (26%) and South Sumatra (24%) are below target. The provinces of West Jawa and South Sulawesi are still in the stage of preparation of community work plan. Based on the project performance audit report 2003 all project management aspects have been performing sufficiently well. Most of the findings (80%) are due to to the shortcomings in the part of District Project Management Unit (D/PMU), consultant, and CFT. On the other side, the finding due to the negligence in the part of Community Implementation Team and the community is only 20 percent of the total findings. Besides, based on supervision, project performance is rated satisfactory with a recommendation for improvement on Component 2 (health and behaviour change), procurement, and management Information System/Monitoring and Evaluation (MIS/Monev) implementation. The main issues being faced are among others: (i) in five provinces actual community level implementation was
only started in April 2002 while in the remaining two in September 2004; (ii) a project with community participatory approach is considered a new practice so that it takes a relatively process of learning; (iii) workload is not balanced with the availability of community facilitators. One of the reasons is because the locations are spread too far. In the same event Basah Hernowo, Director of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas, took the opportunity to discuss the target of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). MDGs target achievement demands serious effort and hard work. One of the efforts is national policy reform in water supply and sanitation development through WASPOLA (Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Policy Formulation and Action Planning) project implementation. One of the policy reform products is the National Policy for CommunityBased Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSS) Development. The Policy has been approved by six (6) echelon I officials from the related government agencies. At the end of the year a National Policy for the Development of Institutionally-Based Water Supply and Environmental Santation will also be completed. The implementation of WSS development in Indonesia will adopt the policy principles contained in the two documents. WSLIC-2 project is one of the projects that have already adopted the principles. The change in paradigm introduced by policy will hopefully lead to sustainability and increased effectiveness of WSS development. In addition to policy reform, other important steps taken by the Indonesian government in the attempt to reach the MDGs target include (i) preparation of MDG Indonesia report by Bappenas and
UNICEF; (ii) preparation of action plan achievement indicators by WSS Working Group; (iii) preparation of National Action Plan for drinking water, wastewater and solid waste by the Dept. of Public Works; (iv) socialization of MDG through an information media "Percik", website (www.ampl.or.id), pamphlets, booklets by WSS Working Group; (v) WSS data baseline management by WSS Working Group. In the meantime, Taufik Hanafi of the office of the Directorate of Health and Community Nutrition, Bappenas, made an explanation on Health Development Planning and Budget Policy. According to him, there has been a considerable change in the development budgeting system in Indonesia. This began from the stipulation of Law No. 17/2003 on State Finance. The Law brought a basic change in state budget system, particularly in (i) budget includes an estimate of fund requirement for the following year; (ii) budget is classified into function/subfunction, (iii) unified budget system; and (iv) performance based budget formulation. In relation to health sector development, Indonesia is the lowest in per capita health budget ratio in SE Asia. It is not surprising therefore, that the level of health and nutrition condition is relatively low in comparison to other SE Asian countries. The budget for health development indicates an increasing tendency after a drop in 2002. In 2005 the budget for health development proportion has reached the level of approximately 8,9 percent of the total development budget. On the other side, the proportion of foreign loan for health development budget tends to decrease. Currently the proportion is only 21,7 percent of the health sector development budget. (OM)
Percik Oktober 2004
WS S A B O U T
Socialization of the Manual for the Management of Village Level Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSS) Facility
or the purpose of capacity improvement in the management of village level WSS facility the Directorate of Natural Resources and Applied Technology of the Directorate General for Village and Community Empowerment, Dept. of Home Affairs conducted a socialization of the Manual for the Management of Village Level Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSS) Facility in Surabaya on 6-9 October 2004. This event represents one of WSS Working Group activities. The participants consisted of representatives from Bappeda, Dinas Kesehatan, and Kabupaten level Agency for Community Development of the provinces of West Sumatra and East Jawa which are participating in WSLIC-2 project.
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
The event was officially opened by Syamsul Arif, Director of Natural Resources and Applied Technology. He stressed that community based development has become a compulsory. At the same occasion the WSS Working Group took time to explained the
National Policy for WSS Development to the participants. In a discussion session several issues were unearthed, (i) community based WSS development policy is focused on the lower end, while the policy related to raw water is not explicitly contained in the policy. Therefore, it is necessary that a comprehensive policy, covering the overall issue, from the upper end to the lower end, be formulated; (ii) it is necessary to also involve other agencies such the Dept. of National Education and Dept. of Forestry; (iii) the manual only covers administrative and financial aspects; other aspects such as technical, social and environmental be added so that sustainability could be guaranteed. (OM)
Workshop on Global Practices Forum Health in Your Hands: Critical Importance of Hygiene Improvement for Health, Water and Sanitation Program in Indonesia.
Handwashing: Soap Saves Lives!
here only very few who wash their hands. From those who should wash their hands only about 20 percent who actually do so. This statement was made by Val Curtis, PhD (London School of Tropical Medicine) in a workshop entitled "Global Practices Forum Health in Your Hands: Critical Importance of Hygiene Improvement for Health, Water and Sanitation Program in Indonesia" held in Bappenas on 8 September 2004.
The meeting was opened by Suyono Dikun, Deputy for Infrastructures, Bappenas, and was attended by approximately 60 participants from various circles. According to Val, motivation to wash their hands varies considerably, among others (i) status, it is man's desire to be acceptable in his society; (ii) nurture - a desire to take care and protect his children; (iii) prevent from diseases - the desire to avoid contamination or smell in order to avoid sickness.
What must be done in Indonesia? According to Val Curtis, Indonesia must (i) decide the responsible agency for the program; (ii) identify the community motivation and habit; (iii) develop partnership program; (iv) conduct a public campaign program and decide the responsible institution to do it. The countries that have participated in the program are Ghana, Peru, Senegal, Nepal, So. Africa, Madagascar, and the next is Indonesia (OM)
Percik 43 October 2004
W SS ABOUT
WSLIC-2 Monitoring Visit to Kabupaten Belitung, Province of Bangka Belitung
he project started implementation in 2001, and step by step it was to cover 28 villages in total. But in reality the project could only lift off the ground in 2002 in five villages. Then in 2003-2004 twelve more villages joined in. It is planned in 2005 the remaining 11 villages will be joining in. The selection of villages for the visit was based on water supply and environmental sanitation data availability of each of the villages. These data was collected through an information management system developed by PMU (Project Management Unit). Apparently on the first day the data were not available, so it was decided to just visit one of the villages selected by DPMU namely Desa Kacang Botor, in Kecamatan Padau. On the second day the data were already available and it was agreed to take a look into a village with a relatively low accessibility rate for water supply and environmental sanitation for all three welfare categories of the community (rich, middle, poor). The village was Desa Terong, Kecamatan Sijuk. In the discussion it was revealed that, (i) the ceiling fund should not be fixed at Rp. 200 million. Condition in the field indicates that the size of community and the condition of access to water supply and environmental sanitation vary considerably; (ii) if it is not possible to increase the ceiling it is recommended that WSLIC-2 implementation in a single village be prolonged up to 2 consecutive years; (iii) management information system cannot be applied so that data cannot be made available properly. Lessons learned Several lessons
On 26-30 September 2004 the World Bank conducted a monitoring activity for WSLIC-2 project in the provinces of West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Bangka Belitung, West Jawa, East Jawa, South Sulawesi, and NTB. Included to the WSLIC-2 project monitoring activity were WSS Working Group and the Dept. of National Education. The following article is travel report for participating in the monitoring activity in Kab. Belitung. Province Bangka Belitung on 28-30 September 2004.
WSLIC-2 implementation in Kab. Belitung are: The community agrees that contribution is the soul to sustain the constructed facility. However, there seems to be no indication for collecting the contribution yet. Even some of the community members are still reluctant to fulfill their commitment for paying the contribution. Provision of facility for washing hands in schools has not met the expectation. The facility consists of a small basin without any dipper, so the primary school children directly dip their hands into the basin. This situation may even provide easier way for disease contamination than if they do not wash their hands. Handwashing practice should follow the guidance given by a Community Faerlita for Team (CFT). It might be there is no competent CFT around Primary school teachers are seemingly
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
Percik October 2004
reluctant to enhance hygiene behaviour education. This is evidenced from unattended toilet built in the school. Their involvement including that of the schoolmaster is wanting. Knowledge about hygiene behaviour is relatively sufficient, but motivation still remains untouched. The specific function of TKM (Tim Koordinasi Masyarakat, community coordination team) should be reoriented. The investment for human resources development that was allocated for TKM education may not produce an optimum result if TKM is solely responsible only for post construction facility management. It should be recommendable that TKM be merged into Community Empowerment Institute as, for instance, Drinking Water and Environmental Sanitation unit with an overall responsibility for water supply and environmental sector management in the respective village rather than just limited to WSLIC-2 facility. The cost for a facility such as toilet is too expensive so that expansion of access is considerably retarded. An addition, it is a private belonging so that provision of a toilet that costs Rp. 1,6 million each is considered too expensive. If community contribution is at 20 percent level this means an approximately Rp. 1.3 million is granted to each beneficiary family. Such a costly toilet would not affordable by the poor families. This is evidenced from the fact most of the beneficiary families belong to the middle class while many more poor families who need one. It is recommended that the cost of each toilet is not more than Rp. 200 thousand, with a simple design but meet the standard hygiene requirements. It seems the toilet development leads to 'mistargeted'. In one of the villages, all the TKM personnel get toilet or a pit well, even a TKM chairman gets both a toilet and a pit well. Although there no regulation that prohibits TKM personnel be project beneficiaries, but based on observation it is obvious that they do not belong to the poor class who should be prioritized. Many of the rich and middle class families are the project beneficiaries, while many of the poor miss the opportunity. There is a need, therefore, to as soon as possible conduct an evaluation how big is the proportion of project beneficiaries are from the rich and middle segments of the community. From our observation, this tendency is noticeable in all the areas and not limited only in Kabupaten Belitung, Province Bangka Belitung. In this context, it should be previously decided what proportion is considered tolerable because targeting solely to the poor families is also impractical. The TKM chairman who concurrently is BPD Chairman will not produce a desirable impact, because BPD holds a supervisory function while TKM a management. The supervisory function will be neglected. (OM)
National Seminar for Socialization of Law No. 7/2004
seminar was held collaboratively by the Directorate General for Water Resources Development (Dept. Kimpraswil) and Directorate of Water Resouces and Irrigation (Bappenas) for the socialization of Law No. 7/2004 on Water Resources. The seminar which was held in Yogyakarta on 5 October 2004 was opened by Suyono Dikun, Deputy for Infrastructures (Bappenas) and was attended by representatives from the central, provincial, kabupaten/kota governments, NGO and Farm Water Users' Association. It was revealed from the seminar that water resources management under the cultural approach has been there since the beginning of human history because water is a basic need for human life and its role is irreplaceable. But today, culture which is reflected through community behaviour,
transcendental culture began to emerge and grow and tends to cause domination of exploitative behaviour. This is enhanced with the growth on new technologies. It is estimated that the action will enlarge the gap between supply and demand in water resources. He demand for water, qualitatively as well as quantitatively will continue to grow along with the population increase and the growth in quality of community consumption. But on the supply side the quantity of water availability is getting scarcer due degradation of water sources and declining water quality as a result of pollution. Besides, government effort to increase supply capacity becomes insignificant because of the limited government investment and the complexity of issues involved in water resources development. It becomes necessary to take various
alternative efforts with sufficient capital support in water resources management. Since monetary resources is also getting scarcer and the relatively low labour force absorption rate in the formal sector it is necessary to mobilize social capital. Historically Indonesia has a strong social capital potential which is reflected from the presence of: transaction pattern, non-monetary and monetary with high level of risk; broad based participation combined with broad based control, placing balance and harmony before anything else; resources mobilization; resource based approach; prioritizing the use of internally owned resources; more conservative in nature; coverage is generally limited with a specific community. To anticipate the problems it is necessary to revitalize the social capital. (ML)
Percik 45 October 2004
SANIMAS of Balong Asri, Mojokerto is well maintained
n between the sessions of the Socialization of the Manual for the Management of Village Level Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation (WSS) Facility in Surabaya on 7 October 2004, the Working Group took the opportunity to visit a SANIMAS project site at Baloncok, Kecamatan Balongsari, city of Mojokerto. In the visit the Working Group team was accompanied by BEST Surabaya as SANIMAS project implementer for the area. This impromptu visit was intended to see what the facility looks like after about 5 months in operation. The facility consists of public MCK built over a wastewater treatment installation. The facility serves the need of 60 families, plus individual users about 10 persons on average
every day. The public MCK consists of 4 closet toilets, 2 bathrooms, and 3 water taps for washing. Only 3 closet toilets are being used, one is kept as a reserve. The fact indicates that the MCK is in prime condition. Two workers clean it twice a day. Besides, the community behaviour has changed. Before this there were found many children defecate in a ditch in front of the houses and the adults relieved their waste in the rice field or in an open space wrapped the feces in a plastic wrapping then hurled it somewhere (flying SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA toilet). This has changed now. In the meantime, the WSS Working Group for two days (29-30 October) also visited SANIMAS project sites in the city of Denpasar (Bali) and Province of East Jawa (Kediri, Pasuruan, Blitar, Mojokerto and Pa-
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
mekasan). The interesting findings revealed from the visits include: community preparation plays an important role in project sustainability, direct supplier introduction into a community can reduce the community's access to market, the status of project land should be granted a formal legal rights from the government, and SANIMAS project can be replicated by the regional government through participatory approach to the community. (OM)
WSLIC-2 Province and Kabupaten Level Coordination Team Meeting
rovince and kabupaten level coordination teams of WSLIC-2 project held a meeting to review 2004 implementation in Pasuruan, 11-14 October 2004. This meeting was opened by Hening Darpito, Director of water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health. The meeting was attended by representatives from coordination teams from 7 provinces and 34 kabupatens that participate in WSLIC-2 project. The individual representatives may come from either Dinas Kesehatan (Agency for Health) kabupaten and province,
Bappeda kabupaten and province. The purpose of this meeting was to enhance WSLIC-2 project implementation through stronger and closely coordinated provincial and kabupaten teams. During the course of the meeting, Taufik Hanafi (Directorate of Health and Community Nutrition, Bappenas) made an effort to explain the national policy for health sector development, while Oswar Mungkasa (Directorate of Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas), discussed the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), especially the part pertaining to
drinking water and sanitation. A number of facts were unveiled in the meeting: among the Asean countries drinking water service coverage in Indonesia is below that of Vietnam, while for sanitation Indonesia is only slightly better than Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. When comparing the status of service coverage among WSLIC-2 provinces, in terms of drinking water only East Java and West Sumatra are above the national average, and for sanitation only West Java is above national average. (OM)
Percik October 2004
W SS ABOUT
Official Inauguration of WSLIC-2 Project in Kabupaten Kediri
n 14 September the Minsitry of Health officially inaugurated WSLIC-2 project in Kabupaten Kediri, Jawa Timur. The ceremony was concentrated in the village of Siman, Kecamatan Kepung. Present in the ceremony were representatives from Central Cordination Committee (CCC), provincial and kabupaten coordination teams, legislative member of Kabupaten Kediri, members of community coordination team, CPMU, DPMU, consultants and facilitator team. In Kabupaten Kediri there are 8 villages participating the WSLIC-2 project, namely Desa Siman (Kec, Kepung), Desa Banacu, Bukur, Jerukgulung, Medowo, Mlancu (Kec. Kandangan), Desa manggis (Kec. Puncu), and Desa Surat (Kec. Mojo). This project spent approximately Rp 1,7 billion, consisting of foreign assis-
tance (70 percent), GOI (10 percent) and community contribution (20 percent). The formal inauguration was symbolically marked with transfer of the asset and plant seedlings to the community. This reflects that WSLIC-2 project especially this one in Kabupaten Kediri is highly sensitive to environmental conservation as a means for protection of raw water source for drinking purpose. After the ceremony the CCC, accompanied by CPMU, DPMU, consultants, facilitators, and community coordination team set off to visit Desa Mlancu, Kecamatan Kandangan. The water source was damaged in landslide so that the intake structure and some piping system were out of function. The landslide reoccurred after the intake structure was repaired. During the visit the system has
been repaired and water is running again, but the place is vulnerable to damages due to landslide particularly during rainy season. The recurring disaster happens because of forest cutting in the water catchment area. In response to the situation, the Director of Human Settlement & Housing, Bappenas suggested to set aside fund allocation to anticipate in case similar disaster happens again. This is in consideration of the pressing demand of the facility and that the community has made a lot of contribution for the sake of the drinking water facility. Finally, it should be developed a coordinative effort with other related agencies in relation to conservation of forest and natural in order to sustain the availability raw water reserve for the community. (ML)
ProAir Project Planning and Evaluation Meeting
he meeting for ProAir Project Planning and Evaluation was held in Denpasar last August 25th. The meeting was attended by the involved central government agencies and the regions participating in the project. From the meeting it was revealed that the implementation of the project in NTT was delayed. This is evidenced from the lack of community contribution although the project was started since 2002. The reason for the delay relates to time adjustments in funding procedure and in the amount of time required for community preparation activity The regional government made it known that its capacity to provide counterpart funding is very limited. Therefore, they are expecting the central government to help them with fund especially to the regions with very limited
financial sources. In response to that, the Director for Human Settlement and Housing, Bappenas indicates that the government is currently not in a position to provide any financial assistance as requested. Based on an audit report prepared by BPKP the government of Sumba Timur proposed that a Circular letter be issued by the Dept. of Finance to make it compulsory for any unused fund from the regional government budget be returned to regional treasurer's office. All this time the repayment is very difficult to do because the monies from the government and from KfW are mixed in one single account. The regional government made mention that the community has difficulty in accumulating 4 percent contribution in cash, it takes a considerable long time to
have the money available. The regional government suggested to decrease the in cash contribution and provide a subsidy for the community. This is denied by the consultants because the 4 percent value is determined from a series of studies in various countries which concludes that this is the lowest value the community should contribute in order to create sense of belongingness to the constructed facility so that sustainability would eventually be achieved. Currently a general guideline has been prepared by the Dept. of Health. But from the discussion it was found there are items that need some improvement. In the meantime, due to shortage in consultant availability, the community preparation activity in Kabupatens Alor and Ende will start in the middle of 2005. (ML)
Percik 47 October 2004
Workshop for Improvement of Proposal for Sanitation Development Program in Indonesia
n 18 October 2004 the WSS Working Group (Pokja) held a workshop for the Improvement of the Proposal for Sanitation Development in Indonesia. The purpose of the workshop was to make an improvement to a proposal for a Netherlands government funded program. The workshop which was held in Jakarta was attended by about 40 participants from various inter sector agencies (Pokja), WSP-EAP, and WASPOLA. The grant funded program will be known as Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development Program (ISSDP) and is intended to assist the government of Indonesia in developing and implementing an institutional strategy and capacity improvement as well as strengthening of sector investment for Sanitation Sector Development in Indonesia. The proposal will consist of four (4) main components, (i) Policy formulation, strategy development and institutional
coordination framework; (ii) Public campaign for building community awareness; (iii) Development of model and its implementation for big cities with focus on the poor settlement areas; (iv) Development of an integrated monitoring which will provide sanitation information covering action, policy and progress including MDGs. Janelle Plumer (WSP-EAP) discussed about proposal rationalization and components in general. While Oswar Mungkasa (Bappenas) explained two important issues namely the linkage between WASPOLA and ISSDP and the details of each of the components. An explanation by Djoko Wartono (Directorate General for PPM-PL, Dept. Health) about alternatives in funding mechanism concluded the presentation. During the course of the session there were many comments and suggestions, such as the need for a component dealing with site selection preparation; the need
for a well prepared exit strategy; economic indicator; and formal campaign through school children. From the discussion it was agreed to select 8 cities as pilot projects, four of them are the ones with a sewerage system and the other four are the ones with none. In his opening speech, Basah Hernowo, Director of Human Settlement and Housing (Bappenas) explained the condition and challenges faced by sanitation development in Indonesia. According to him, compared to other developing nations sanitation sector in Indonesia is lagging far behind. In this connection the sector must be given special attention. He reminds the audience to take into consideration that the Dutch government assisten program should be designed in such a way so as to be synergic with the existing policies, because the assistance is intended to develop a national platform for sanitation sector development in Indonesia. (FW)
Workshop for Formulation of WASPOLA Workplan 2005
ASPOLA secretariat together with Pokja held a workshop for Formulation of WASPOLA Workplan 2005, in Jakarta on 19-20 October 2004. There were approximately 40 participants attending the workshop. The purpose of the workshop was to prepare a work plan for implementation in 2005 and putting the activities of 2004 that have not take place yet. The event was opened by Chief of Sub-directorate of Environment, Oswar Mungkasa. He
explained what WASPOLA has achieved this year and the barriers being faced and a few other things that miss implementation. According to him, the activities for next year must focused on dissemination of community and institutionally based policy as one package. This workshop was filled with a group discussion cosnsisting of three group: 1. Component dealing with community based policy implementation at the regional level; 2. Component dealing with Policy Reform;
3. Knowledge Management Component. The discussion proceeded actively. In the beginning it seemed pessimistic that the workshop would produce a work plan. But later it proved otherwise. On the second day the work plan began to take shape, though it was still separated in components. The workshop result will be further discussed by the Pokja and WASPOLA. The session was concluded with an agreement that the result of the workshop be integrated into a one whole workplan. (FW)
Percik October 2004
WSLIC-2 Has Changed Desa Pakel Into a Healthy Village
hen WSS Working Group came to visit Desa Pakel, Kecamatan Guci Alit, Kabupaten Lumajang, Jawa Timur, an unusual scenery greet them. The village looks clean and impressive so that it is no wonder the village was the winner in a healthy village competition. It is true that a project such WSLIC-2 has induced such a change? The village is located about 15 km from the kabupaten capital city or about 4o minute ride. Located at the foot of Mt. Tengger so that the air is cool and crispy. Islam is the religion of fifty percent of the population and the rest is Hindu. Most of its population did not finish primary school and many of them cannot converse in bahasa Indonesia. WSLIC-2 project was able to cover 300 families, and there are 75 poor families that still remain to be served. Although the proportion of Islam and of Hindu followers is almost equal it does not cause any difficulty in village development implementation. The harmony between the two different followers is reflected in a motto that sounds IHIPA MANUNGGAL which stands for Islam Hindu Pada Manunggal (Islam Hindu In Union). The motto is clearly seen in many strategic locations. Before the introduction of WSLIC-2 project the community had to take water from a source about 1 km away and it takes 2 hours to secure 4 cans of water. (1 can contains approx. 4 gallons of water). With water available nearby it gives the
SOURCE: OSWAR MUNGKASA
community spare time, such as visiting posyandu (health service unit). Therefore, the posyandu is now becoming more frequently visited. The community has agreed to do the following arrangements, (i) the management of the facility is conferred to an institution established by the community and is called GALAK SABER SIANTAN MAS which stands for Institution for Finance Management of Clean Water, Sanitation, and Community Hygiene Facility. The contribution for water use is combined with that of community health fund. The monthly contribution for water use is Rp. 1.000 and for health fund is also Rp. 1.000; (ii) implementation of procedure for settlement of conflict and WSS related issue. As an illustration, if there is an act of water stealing in a village the community must report it to the authority. The actor is punished and is compelled to pay an amount of fine; (iii) Water sources are located in two locations only with a total discharge about 2 l/sec, while the users are scattered in 2 kecamatans. The community held a meeting to decide the procedure how to
take benefit from the water sources. It was then agreed that the village where the water sources are located is compensated with a public hydrant. In addition, water users are required to plant a tree for conservation purpose. It is also interesting to note that, before the project there were only 13 toilets that meet basic sanitation requirement but as the project began implementation the number increased sharply up to 155 units. Most of the new toilets were built on the own. The success was partly due to the introduction of low cost toilet--only Rp 130.000 each-- therefore it is affordable. Other reason is a healthy competition which included toilet ownership as item in selecting a winner. Apart from the fact that welfare classification process using MPAS/PHAST approach, based on observation, the category does not seem to reflect the actual condition, As an illustration, one community member admits that he was included in the middle class (not rich but not poor). But based on the real fact he who owns 21 goats, a house made of concrete , should be included in the rich category. It should be considered to conduct clarification to the result of classification by members of the community. However, the face of the village is becoming more beautiful and impressive, the number of toilets has increased, readily available drinking water, school with toilets and wash stands, are the footprints left by WSLIC-2 in Desa Pakel, Kecamatan Guci Alit, Kab. Lumajang. (OM)
Percik 49 October 2004
WS S B I B L I O G R A P H Y
Fighting Against Wastes. Dinas Kebersihan dan Pertamanan of the City of Depok Recycling. Tony Hare. PT Rosda Jayaputra, Jakarta The Impact of Water on the Poor. Summary of Impact Evaluation Study of Selected ADB Water Supply and Sanitation Projects. ADB Water Awareness Program. Bringing Water to the POOr. Selected ADB Case Studies. ADB Water Awareness Program. Municipalities & Community Participation. A Sourcebook for Ca[pacity Building. Janelle Plummer. Earthscan Publication Ltd., London.
Manual for Village Level Water Supply and Sanitation Facility Management. Directorate General for Village Development and Community Empowerment, Dept. Home Affairs, 2004
R E G U L AT I O N
Laws and Regulations on Housing and Settlement Systems. Drs. Marsono. Djambatan Publishing Company.
Company Profile PDAM of the city of Makassar A Glimpse of PDAM Solo Wastewater Treatment. Integrated Wastewater Treatment Unit of the city of Banjarmasin SINERGI Desa Kota (Village Town Synergism). Second Edition 2004 DRINKING WATER. October 2004 Edition WSLIC-2 Project Newsletter. Third Edition, 2004
D I C T I O N A RY
Dictionary of Technical terms and Foreign Abbreviations in Environmental and Sanitation Engineering. University of Trisakti Press.
Percik October 2004
Working Group meeting: Discussion re materials for talkshow Working Group meeting: Discussion re improvement of draft of Institutional Policy - Result of Bogor workshop World Habitat Day in Yogyakarta ProAir technical Training Policy dialogue on WSS related strategic issues in Kab. Kebumen. Dissemination of Guidelines for Wastewater, Drainage and Solid Waste Management in Cities and Socialization of Rural Growth Centre Development of the Western Regions Socialization of Manual for Rural Level WSS Facility Management Discussion on Method in Calculation of Drinking water Tariff WSS Working Group Regular Meeting Wrap Up Meeting of WSLIC-2 Supervision Meeting WSS Working Meeting: Review of NAP on Wastewater Workshop on Conservation of Domestic water Source Policy Dialogue on National WSS Development Program in Prov. of Central Java Workshop "National Action Plan Drinking Water, Wastewater and Solid Waste" Preparation for Workshop to Review ISSDP (Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development Program) Workshop for Preparation of WASPOLA Workplan 2005 WASPOLA Communication Network Development with NGO WSS Working Group Regular Meeting Meeting to Review Draft Government Regulation and Draft CSWH Loan Agreement Workshop Mid Term Review and Technical Audit of WSLIC-2 Project Workshop II National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Kab. Bangka Selatan WSS Working Group Regular Meeting Explanatory Meeting on the Medium Term WSS Development Program Synchronization of WSS Sector Development Policy Meeting Monitoring of SANIMAS Project CWSH Project Pre-negotiation Meeting Meeting to review Interim Report on Preparation of Module for Small Scale Wastewater Treatment System and WSS Database Preparation Solid Waste Team Meeting Policy Dialogue on National WSS Development Program in Prov. Jawa Tengah Synchronization of WSS Sector Development Policy Meeting Policy Dialogue on National WSS Development Program in Kab. Lombok Barat Policy Dialogue on National WSS Development Program in Provinces NTB and Bangka Belitung CWSH Project Negotiation Review of WSLIC-2 technical Guidelines Workshop II National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Kab. Lombok Barat Preparatory Meeting for visit to CLTS Bangladesh Policy Dialogue on National WSS Development Program in Kab. Kebumen Workshop II National Policy for Community Based WSS Development in Kab. Sijunjung and in Kab. Gorontalo Policy dissemination by province to kabupaten, in Prov. of South Sulawesi Dissemination of National WSS Development Policy and Press Conference in Jakarta Policy dissemination by province to kabupaten, in Prov. of West Sumatra CLTS Visit to Bangladesh Workshop on Communication Strategy Study on sustainability WSS development in Kab. Sijunjung
4 5-12 6-7
6-9 7 8 11 12 12-13 13 14 19-20 21 22 25 25-26 26-27 27 28 29 29-30 1 4
October October October October October October October October October October October October October October October October October October November November
5 6 9 9-10 Week 4 24 25 24-25 24-27 25-26 26-27 29 Nov.-7 Des 30 Week 5
November November November November November November November November November November November November November
Percik 51 October 2004
ACP (Asbestos Cement Pipe)
Pipes that are made of material consisting of asbestos fibres mixed with cement. It is recommendable only for drainage pipes or domestic waste water disposal system. It has a spigot socket connection mounted in line with the flow direction.
ALOS (Aggregate Level of Service) Aqueduct
An approach to estimate the amount of sanitation facility that may be needed in a service area. It is also called water bridge or water chute. A structure that serves as water conveyance from one location to another across a water body or a road.
Aqua privies Aquifer
One of the toilet types with a simple septic tank. Consist of a single compartment in which the sludge and the flush water are mixed and processed in the same chamber. Permeable geologic formation as underground water storage, it serves as replenishment of ground water system that has undergone some changes. For instance due to exploitation of comsumption.
Artesian well Backflow
Water source with sufficient hydraulic pressure potential that can make water spurt above ground surface. The pressure potential is caused by the load from the ground layers above it. Reverse flow to due a barrier in front of the flow, for example because of immediate damming or closing of the flow or drop of pressure due to dead pump.
Barn sewage Bedding
Sufficiently stabilized wastewater from animal droppings A concrete structure that envelopes pipe trunk buried underground which serves as protection or support
A kind of clay used as an auxiliary material in water treatment. It can increase particle density and average weight of water pollutant thus it makes it easier to coagulate. It also has a capacity of absorbing organic compounds
BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) Cleanwater Clear Well
The amount of oxygen required by bacteria to oxidize almost all of dissolved and a part of suspended organic matter in water The amount of oxygen required to oxidize organic matter. The amount reflects the contamination level by organic matter that can be naturally oxidized through microbial processes. Water that meets quality standard for drinking purpose after boiling. One of the structures in a water treatment facility that functions a temporary reservoir for the treated water. In some installation this unit is also used for mixing the disinfectant.
Dead end (distribution) system Disposal
It is also called Tree System. One of the methods/systems in placing clean water distribution in branching pattern, thus it is possible to determine the hierarchy of a specific branch: primary, secondary, tertiary, etc. Dumping of solid/liquid waste to an environmentally safe location
Pipe network, conveyance and its appurtenances as a means to drain house(s) and its surrounding yard
DWF (Dry Weather Flow)
Combined discharge of domestic and industrial wastewater (without rain)
Quoted from Dictionary of Technical Terms and Foreign Abbreviations in Teknik Penyehatan dan Lingkungan (Environmental and Sanitation Engineering) Univ. Trisakti Press, Jakarta
Percik October 2004
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