Information Media for Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation Published by: Working Group for Water Supply and

Sanitation Advisor: Director General for Urban and Rural Development, Department of Public Works Board of Trustee: Director of Human Settlement and Housing, National Development Planning Agency Republic of Indonesia Director of Water and Sanitation, Ministry of Health Director of Urban and Rural Eastern Region, Department of Public Works Director of Natural Resources and Appropriate Technology, Director General on Village and Community Empowerment, Department of Home Affairs Director for Facilitation of Special Planning Environment Management, Department of Home Affairs Chief Editor: Oswar Mungkasa Board of Editor: Ismail, Johan Susmono, Indar Parawansa, Poedjastanto Editor: Maraita Listyasari, Rewang Budiyana, Rheidda Pramudhy, Joko Wartono, Essy Asiah, Mujiyanto, Andre Kuncoroyekti Graphics Design & Illustrator: Rudi Kosasih Production: Machrudin Distribution: Meiza Aprizya, Agus Syuhada Address: Jl. Cianjur No. 4, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat Phone/Fax.: 62-21-31904113 http://www.ampl.or.id e-mail: redaksipercik@yahoo.com redaksi@ampl.or.id oswar@bappenas.go.id

From The Editor Your Voice Main Report Sanitation Micro-credit for the Poor Lesson Learned from Micro-Credit Projects Across the World Experiences from Family Latrine Credit in Yogyakarta Insight Healthy Latrine and Strong Posyandu Solid Waste Management through Eco-cycle Society Community Participation to Support Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation of a Settlement Area Hygiene is an Investment Water Supply Services: The Present and Future Challenges Implementation of Capacity Building Concept in PDAM (Regional Drinking Water Enterprise) Flood and Landslide in the Wet and Drought in the Dry Season Telescope First Trial, Immediate Result Communal Work to Build Latrine They Only want a Closet Type Building Simple Latrine Reportage When the Elites Get Better Acquainted with Their Environment Interview Community Empowerment Through Posyandu Website Info Book Info CD Info Around WSES Around WASPOLA Bibliography Clinic IATPI Agenda

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Unsolicited article or opinion items are welcome. Please send to our address or e-mail. Don't forget to be brief and accompanied by identity. Cover by RUDI KOSASIH

This magazine is a translation of the official Bahasa version.

F R O M E D I TO R

Dear readers, there is a good news that we want share with you. Percik is getting more attention from the stakeholders of water and sanitation sector. We are frequently receiving many subscription enquiries for the magazine. Some of the readers also said that they use Percik as one of their references. These facts surely are pleasant things for us, the editorial team. It means that our goal to set Percik as one of references in water and sanitation sector is nearly to be achieved. Readers, this year is the year of micro finance. In this edition, Percik present main report on micro finance for sanitation, especially for latrines construction. We believe that this is an important issue, because micro finance scheme has not been directed to facilitate sanitation development. Whereas sanitation cannot be taken for granted, as it is very important for our health. In fact, there are many people in Indonesia that do not have any sanitation facilities, particularly latrines. They defecate in any place they can find. Until today, there is no formal form of micro finance scheme to facilitate them. We hope, this report will build a discourse and further motivates policy makers to give more attention for these people and provide a small portion of fund for latrine construction. For some communities, latrine construction is not obstructed by fund unavailability. It is more a matter of willingness and understanding. This is as proved during Community Led Total sanitation (CLTS) pilot project in Lumajang that we will present in Telescope column. At first, there are many doubts about this approach. The question that have been tickling in some minds is "how it's possible to build people's awareness without any financial intervention?". The result is unexpected. In a relatively short time, almost all villagers in pilot project locations built their own latrine without any financial

Percik reporter Mujiyanto and Andre K. (the first and the second from the left) with sanitarian and CLTS activists in Kertowono village, Lumajang, East Java.

support from the government. All that needed is a triggering. Readers, the Interview column in this edition is different from that of previous editions. We used to present an interview with a central government officer and the topic is related to the Main Report. For this edition, we interviewed a Lumajang District official to capture local perspective on water and sanitation development. There are some lessons that can be learned by central government and other district governments. For instance, Lumajang District has launched a program that named Lumajang Sehat 2007 (Healthy Lumajang 2007) that included in Gerbang Mas campaign. To achieve the program's goal, Posyandu (integrated service post)

are plotted as activity centers that not only include health services but also other activities such as community empowerment activities. We also present reportage on a community that has a great concern about environmental quality of their neighborhood. They are part of upper-middle class in Jakarta. We will take a close look on their efforts. Readers, all that we present here are not perfect. But surely we always make efforts to present you better information. We are looking forward for your valuable critics and suggestions. From the beginning, we are determining to make this magazine as a media for information exchange between stakeholders.

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M AIN REPORT

Sanitation Micro-credit

for the Poor

CARICATURE: WWW.RUDIKOZ.COM

People of Umbulmartani village are now relieved. Open defecation habit is drastically decreasing. This is because they now have family latrine.

he village that part of Ngemplak sub-district administration, Sleman District, Yogyakarta Province, is changed thanks to the help from World Bank facilitated by a NGO, [e] Foundation. The amount is not big. However, it is able to motivate the community to change their life and create a healthier living environment. The grant from World Bank was used

T

as revolving fund that can be borrowed by the community to build or improve their family latrines. The program then named "Kredit Jamban Sehat" (Healthy Latrine Credit). The amount of loan for each household was from Rp 750 thousands to Rp 1.275 thousands. The installment was paid monthly in 10 - 24 months period with 1,5% per month interest and the fine for late repayment is 5% of the interest. The loan cannot be used for other

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purpose. Mandated criteria of a healthy latrine as follows: Equipped with cover, ventilation and adequate water for hand washing and anal cleaning. Odorless Cemented floor The minimum distance form nearby water well is 10 meters. In August 2002 the grant already used to facilitate 12 family latrines construction and improvement. The number has reached 40 family latrines by February 2005. The village chief, Atok Triyudianta, explained that approximately there are still 30% of his people that do not have healthy latrines. If the only fund available is the World Bank grant, it will takes ten years to provide healthy latrines for all villagers. Therefore, the chief ask for help to PT. Ford Motor Indonesia (FMI) that has allocated fund for environmental preservation. FMI provided a grant that disbursed in stages started from May 2004. The amount of the grant is Rp 41 million. Up until February 2005, the total amount of disbursed fund has reached Rp 20,7 million. Because of this additional grant, the loan platform was increased up to Rp 1,5 million for each household. In May 2004, 11 new latrines were built and another 15 latrines built until February 2005. The interest that collected from the borrowers was also used for nutrition improvement program for under fiver year old children. This was done through additional food program in Posyandu (integrated health service post). "If healthy latrine program and nutrition improvement program are sustainable, our dream to achieve a healthy Umbulmartani can be realized

SOURCE: MUJIYANTO

People defecate on this river.

and thus lead us to a healthy Yogyakarta and further healthy Indonesia", said Heny Kushayati, a PPK (family educational program) activist and the wife of Atok Triyudianta. Indonesia Condition The Umbulmartani case is an illustration of urban and rural basic sanitation condition in Indonesia - it is not entirely representative though. By the end of 2002, the proportion of national population that have access to basic sanitation (equipped with latrine pit and septic tank) is 63,5%. In rural area the proportion is 52,5% while the urban proportion is 77,5%. These numbers regardless the quality of the facilities, thus they don't reflect the actual condition. The actual condition

is probably worse, many basic sanitation facilities are unusable anymore and don't meet health and environmental standards. Approximately, 73% of urban households have on-site sanitation but most of their septic tank facilities are not working properly. Besides, urban sewerage systems are not adequate and there are not enough domestic waste treatment plants. This condition leads to environmental degradation, particularly ground water and river pollution. Global Condition In September 2000, the world leaders declared Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), a set of targets to improve health and prosperity of the world population. On the fol-

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lowing two years, United Nation held a World Summit on Sustainable Development in Johannesburg, emphasized MDGs as a global commitment and added specific target for sanitation and hygiene. By the year 200, 2,4 billion people across the globe don't have adequate access to sanitation. Around 81 % of them are live in rural area. More than 1,1 billion people don't have sustainable access to safe drinking water and 86% of them are live in rural area. Inadequate access to safe drinking water and sanitation causes a variety of diseases including diarrhea. More than 250 million people suffer waterborne disease every year and 10 million of die from it. Sanitation condition in rural is worse than in urban. Approximately, 970 million people live in slums and urban population is growing rapidly. By the year 2015, the global population is predicted to reach 7 billion. Most of them will live in developing countries. This growth will increase the number of people without adequate access to basic sanitation to 3,4 billion. World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that every year there are 150 million more people who are need access to sanitation Will the target be achieved? This is both a question and a challenge. Sanitation development is not an easy task. There are several major problems such as financial unavailability, cultural obstacles and public unawareness. Open defecation is a common practice for certain communities in poor countries. There are also people that don't build sanitation facility because of financial problems. While some others think that sanitation issue is government's responsibility not theirs.

Diarrhoea in the world
1,8 million of people have died of diarrhoea and cholera. 90% of them are children under five years old, mostly live in developing countries. 88% of diarrhoea cases were caused by un-safe drinking water and poor sanitation Provision of safe drinking water can decrease death caused by diarrhoea up to 21%. Improved sanitation can decrease death caused by diarrhoea up to 37,5%. Hand washing practice can decrease diarrhoea cases up to 35%. Water quality improvement can decrease diarrhoea episodes up to 45%. With regard to this condition and limited financial capability of the government and community, MDGs targets can only be achieved by the year 2025. Without a strong political will and commitment, those targets will never be achieved. The main challenge for Indonesia is how to achieve the target with existing financial capacity. Micro-finance Financial challenge has overshadowed sanitation development globally. Up until now, US$ 14 million have

been spent for wastewater treatment each year. While there is still additional US$ 56 million required for MDGs to be reached. Population growth is much higher than basic sanitation development rate. There is a sanitation backlog. Therefore, a new approach to accelerate basic sanitation development must be implemented to meet growing demand. Classic financial schemes such as subsidy and grant to widen sanitation service coverage are not suitable anymore with current condition. Beside limited financial capacity of the government, subsidy scheme is facing three major problems: (i) the design for subsidy is difficult, because it requires detailed information for assessing community's ability and willingness to pay, finding best-suited delivery mechanism, defining social and health benefits; (ii) there are too many obstacles for subsidy delivery; (iii) Subsidy-based system is tend to be unsustainable. However, subsidy system is part of government responsibility, thus it cannot be completely eliminated from sanitation sector development. It can only be minimized. Some breakthroughs to develop alternative financing for basic sanitation have been made. Micro finance is one of them. This approach considered to be a reliable tool for poverty eradication and has gained international recognition. This recognition is reflected in the 53rd decree of UN General Assembly 1998 that proclaims the year 2005 as International Micro Finance Year. The decree then followed by the Launching International Year of Micro-credit 2005, by UN Secretary General in New York, 18 November 2004.

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This event is designed to endorse sustainable micro finance and micro enterprise empowerment program to eradicate poverty. UN Secretary General called upon all world leaders, financial institutions, and donor intuitions to use all their expertise in micro credit to help poor communities. In the event, all key speakers agreed that micro-finance is the most successful innovation in social and economic development and have a significant contribution to achieve Millennium Development Goals. To achieve the goal, there are several necessary factors that have been identified such as micro-credit promotion, micro-finance training and capacity building, private sector involvement and regulation improvement that will enable micro-finance development. President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono has proclaimed Indonesia Microfinance Year 2005, on 26th February 2005. This will bring accommodative atmosphere for microfinace institutions as key players in small-scale enterprise development. Financing sanitation for the poor is not as easy as water financing. While water serve as basic need and can be utilized for income generating activities, sanitation will not bring a direct result. Many literatures for water and sanitation financing give more focus on water sector. Using micro-finance to support sanitation has had impressive results. Several models have practiced in Lesotho, Honduras, Ghana, South Africa, India and Pakistan. In Indonesia, Yayasan Dian Desa has implemented sanitation microfinancing in Yogyakarta since 1993. An initiative by WaterAid and a local NGO in

SOURCE: RHEIDDA P

Open latrine, many villagers own this type of latrine.

Nafadji proved that credit provision for sanitation could decrease prevalence of waterborne disease and improve drinking water quality. However, the use of micro-finance for sanitation provision remains a fairly new idea. There are lessons that can be learned from those successful projects. Key for Successful Implementation Financing service for the poor is not a priority for formal banking institutions. Their access to such service is low. This condition has hindered them to improve their life into a more productive and efficient one. Whereas there are some facts that low-income communities in Asia and Africa who

were facilitated with micro-credit have satisfying repayment records. Several common rules of microfinance for water and sanitation as follows: Local demand research to assess appropriate financial and accounting system and thorough understanding of the borrower and intermediary capabilities. Interest rate -- if any -- must be based on the cost of fund, administration and labor costs, loan loss allowances, margin for inflation and a return on capital. Cost recovery is central to the financing mechanisms as in this way a sustainable financial system is achieved. The aim of micro-finance organiza-

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tion needs to be clearly defined. Where credit is just a sideline to other activities there is a danger that financial rules won't be so strictly enforced. Loan administration and collection system need to be simple. It is necessary to link financial option to develop sanitation facility for low-income community with productive activities to ensure repayment sustainability. Inline with sanitation credit, they provided with another credit for income generating activities such as grocery store, farming, transportation service etc. A revolving fund scheme was tried to facilitate latrine construction in the 1990s. it was aimed to decrease nonperforming loan cases. The loan was given to groups of 5 - 9 persons. The group then took the responsibility of every loan made by members. The group served as bridging fund provider and pressure group for the borrowing members. Collected repayment used to facilitate other members or groups. In some cases, where all members already have sanitation facility, the loan used for another purpose. However, this scheme is deemed to be a failure by some micro-finance practitioners. Sanitation micro-finance program will be successful if the delivery and monitoring mechanism is well designed. Borrower's ability to repay and awareness of their sanitation demand are the perquisites. It is important for the borrower to understand the demand. Otherwise, there is a great risk that the loan will be misused. From the loan provider side, the product must be targeted for a wide range of purposes since the service cost for single targeted loan is too expen-

sive. The most successful microfinance product is that of BRI's KUPEDES which was targeted for various purposes. Cost recovery in sanitation project is possible and credit is one of many ways that can be used to achieve the goal. The scheme is quite flexible and can be combined with subsidy, grant or ownership contribution. Credit program is suitable as part of sanitation strategy that based on demand driven

approach. What if the person doesn't need the facility? If that is the case, necessary efforts to create demand must be taken. Public campaign to promote hygiene and pressure from other member of the community are some examples. Well--managed credit service can also motivate the community to utilize the loan for sanitation improvement. Credit providers must consider available options of sanitation facility

Sanitation micro-finance program will be successful if the delivery and monitoring mechanism is well designed. Borrower's ability to repay and awareness of their sanitation demand are the perquisites.
SOURCE: RHEIDDA P

Although they are poor, the villagers able to construct proper latrines.

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SOURCE: ANDRE K

types for households. Low-income households have various preferences. Some households prefer to have the cheapest simple latrine that suitable with their budget while some others prefer to build the complete one. Availability of resources for sanitation facility is also an important thing to be considered. All materials that needed for the construction must be available in local markets. This will include a variety of latrine types and models. Among other things, available technology options must be easily adoptable by households. Thus micro-finance is not a single independent entity but it need to be supported by other elements. Credit mechanism can be managed to minimize sanitation investment costs. With credit facility, the client will be able to purchase sanitation facility materials in bulk so the supplier can give discounts. Existing informal intermediaries are very useful to minimize service costs because they already familiar with client's character. Timescale Sanitation development for low--income communities must have a realistic timescale. The program will come into failure if it only focused to widen service coverage in a short period of time without supported by efforts to build community's commitment to repay and revolve the loan. Relationship between credit provider and client cannot be built overnight. It is a result of long-term relationship. This credit relationship should not be managed as one-off transaction that only targeted for single purpose. Trust and confidence are part of credit quality development. These can only be achieved through long-term relationship.

Every person want to have a clean and healthy latrine.

Financial institution can also provide support to increase bargaining position of low-income households in order to ensure that their rights and the quality of sanitation facility are fulfilled by the contractors. Conclusion Sanitation development is important not only because it benefits the owner but also it benefits the wider community as a whole. Good sanitation can significantly decrease the spreading of bad hygiene related diseases. A limited resource -- especially

financial resource -- is not a reason to neglect the sector. There are many alternatives to improve sanitation condition. It takes patience and determination. Any kind of fund that provided for sanitation development will not bring good result if there isn't behavioral change toward sanitation within the community. It is worth to consider mixing sanitation credit with another profitable credit types such as micro-enterprise credit and water service credit so that a cross subsidy mechanism can be developed. (MJ)

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M AIN REPORT
Lesson Learned from Micro-Credit Projects

Across the World

SOURCE: WWW.QTAWWA.ORG

Every country has its own method in sanitation development. Its experiences are valuable to be learned by another countries. The following are some lessons from micro-credit projects in several countries.

Lesotho

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he Lesotho project was initiated in 1980 as part of a wider urban development scheme. The program provided credit to households for investment in VIP latrines. The program was motivated by the household need for extended payment. In order to receive credit, households had to first dig a pit and provide a deposit of 30 - 40 per cent of the total cost. Loans were typically in the range US$ 50 300. Although the money came from the Lesotho government, the Lesotho Bank administered the loan since they had a better record on loan defaulters. In 1990, 600 loans had been approved in response to 4.500 enquiries, 252 latrines had been built and 81 per cent of individuals had paid up. Close to 1000 VIP latrines were actually built in the target area revealing that 80 per cent had actually been built through private initiatives highlights the success of promotion program and the availability of an affordable and acceptable sanitation option. A report written for the UNDP in 1994 identified several keys to the success of the project: Affordable and acceptable latrine design; Minimal direct grants or subsidies to householders; A comprehensive program of VIP latrine promotion, health and hygiene

One of latrines in Honduras.

education; Integration of the project into existing government structures; and Strong coordination in policy and planning between different departments promoting improved sanitation Looking at the credit scheme itself, repayment with interest was supposed to ensure that households accepted full responsibility for sanitation. However, administration costs for the loan were high compared to their size and additional costs like the promotion and management of the scheme were not charged to the borrower putting a question mark over its long-term sustainability. This case study reveals the need for clear aims and objectives. The project was successful at promoting sanitation but it did not create a sustainable microfinance institution.

Honduras
The Co-operative Housing Foundation (CHF) program is a national strategy to provide loans for housing improvements in Tegucigalpa the capital of Honduras. As of 1993, the shelter program had disbursed around US$4 million dollars to Honduran NGOs for on-lending to some 4000 households. Sanitation was identified as a niche in this market and a UNICEF grant of US$350,000 was provided to establish a revolving fund for sanitation improvements. The goal of the CHF program was to develop NGO capacity so that they would be able to develop their own credit lines from other government departments and eventually the private banking sector. This meant that they first had to establish a track record of making and recovering loans successfully. Loan agreements were made directly

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SOURCE: COMMONORGARDEN.BLOGS.COM

A public toilet in India.

were sometimes paid off early to be replaced by larger longer-term agreements for more substantial housing improvements. Provision of reliable technical advice and help in negotiating construction contracts was a key factor in attracting borrowers with plans to upgrade their sanitation facilities. Low income households often did not have information necessary to make an informed decision about sanitation provision. A prime function of the loan officer was to monitor construction quality for the customer and use the ability to refuse disbursement to keep contractors in line. A large subsidy is built into the loan program i.e. the technical support provided by the CHF but there is also provision in the financial planning for CHF to get sufficiently close-to-market rate from NGOs to preserve the value of the fund's asset base. When the NGO's take over the CHF function, the cost of expert staff will be much lower.

with the NGO. No collateral was required although the backgrounds of borrowers were closely investigated. Co-signers were used to guarantee payments. Typically the loan would have a duration of 3 years and be paid off in monthly installments. The average rate of interest was 15 per cent which was low compared with alternative sources of informal finance through money lenders or retail credit. The NGO's achieved a very high recovery rate 95 per cent in the early years. Some even developed alternative credit lines as planned. The prospects for integration with the formal sector therefore seem very encouraging. The success of this scheme can be related to the wide range of options in terms of the type of improvement made, the loan term and the quality of the improvement offered by lenders. Borrowers could tailor their lending package to their individual needs and hence the initiative

India

The success of this scheme can be related to the wide range of options in terms of the type of improvement made, the loan term and the quality of the improvement offered by lenders.

avoided the 'one size fits all' approach. It was discovered that household were often prepared to chose the high cost option if the incremental increase in property value was considered to be high. The flexibility of loan terms meant that borrower and lender could test the loan system at lower risk to them both. Smaller shorter-term loans for sanitation

Sulabh is an Indian NGO employing 20,000 people which was set up to market low-cost twin pit latrines in urban slum areas. 500,000 households have gained access to credit through both formal and informal mechanisms, the latter making use of agents who market loans and collect from purchasers on flexible terms. SULABH sets targets collection rates for these collectors, but doesn't burden them with formal book-keeping. Although SULABH has received grants, the extent of the latrine program indicates that it is financially viable and reaches the poor. The nontransparency of loan terms may reflect the use of truly informal systems based on price discrimination and minimal record keeping.
(MJ)

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M AIN REPORT
Experiences from Family Latrine Credit in Yogyakarta

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rban Yogyakarta is consisted of Yogyakarta Municipality plus several villages in Sleman District and Bantul District. For a glance, the city seems quite beautiful. Almost all people own good quality sanitation facilities. Nevertheless, there are many households that don't have family latrine. They defecate on rivers, rice fields and drainage channels during dawn and dusk. Based on a study, there are 79% of households in Urban Yogyakarta that have family latrine and 21% of them (approximately 31.500 households) don't have any sanitation facility (5,34% defecate in river; 3,09% defecate in public toilets built by government, private-owned public toilets and in their neighbor's toilets ; 14,53% defecate in river, ponds, backyards, etc). If every person generates 0,2 kg of feces per day, there will be 31,5 tons of feces discharged everyday directly to the environment by the community as a whole or roughly 945 tons of feces per month (equal to 250 trucks fully loaded with feces). Several reasons why people don't build family latrine: Main reasons: Financial difficulties There is no space available Other reasons: Not settle enough yet. Satisfied enough with current condition etc.

Reasons why the community don't have family latrine Reasons Financial difficulties There is no space available Not settle enough yet Satisfied enough with current condition Others
tor. This is for people who don't have anymore space in their house for sanitation facility. Well-planned and consistent campaign for hygiene. Sanitation Revolving Fund Program To solve limited fund problems, there is a need to develop a program to revolve soft loan within the community. The program must be designed to suit with local community condition. To tap fund from formal financial institution for the program is very complicated and difficult. Sanitation is categorized as consumption activity while loans are only available for productive activities. There is also a common assumption that the poor are unwilling to repay their loans. However, there is a fact that proves otherwise. A NGO, Yayasan Dian Desa (Dian Desa Foundation), using a small amount of fund from SDC, conducted a pilot project in 1995 - 1996. The program covered following activities: Soft loan provision, with 8% interest per month and 30 months repayment period. Free of charge technical assistance for the community. Design for underground construction. The design provided by Yayasan Dian Desa to ensure the quality of the construction. The design for upper ground construction wsa fully customized to satisfy household's preference.

Yogyakarta Sleman 17 57 37 10 23 4 11 15 12 14

Bantul 38 8 5 35 14

To solve limited fund problems, there is a need to develop a program to revolve soft loan within the community. The program must be designed to suit with local community condition.
There are 150 households that participated in the project, originated from Potorono, Tegalmanding and Condongcatur. The amount of each loan was ranging from Rp 350.000 - Rp 400.000 per latrine. Within 2 years, the result was satisfying enough : There are only 4,8% of non-performing loans, 87% of total loans were repaid as scheduled and a small proportions of loans were rescheduled. The maintenance of built facilities were far better than those of public facilities that built by government's loan. Some reasons that motivate the community to build latrines as follows: Economic reasons ((possibility of to open hostels, food stalls, etc.) Higher social status. Other There were various obstacles and difficulties during the project execution. But was better to start something than doing nothing. (Prianti Utami/MJ)

To solve this problem, there are three programs that can be developed: Revolving fund for sanitation facility provision. This program directed for those who have financial difficulties but already have available space for construction. Public toilets operated by private sec-

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I NSIGHT
Healthy Latrine and Strong Posyandu
n rural area, latrine provision is still a problem and cannot entirely solved. High population growth and low income complicate the problem. Beside, there are reasons why most of the community members don't own a family latrine: Unawareness. They think that all sanitation matters are bared upon the government. Cultural. For some people that live near riverbanks or irrigation channel, it is convenient enough for them to defecate on the river or irrigation channel or even on their own backyard. Although they have to walk as far as 500 to 1.000 meters from their house. Financial inability. To provide some money to construct a latrine is not easy. They don't get used to save money and their income is only enough for daily needs. Health service for children is also a problem. Most of local women institution such as Posyandu (integrated health service post) are not optimally functioning. Nevertheless, Posyandu roles are: Improving and maintaining community health. Improving social cohesion within the community. As a place to exchange information. Services that provided in Posyandu are: Nutrition improvement Family planning Diarrhoea and upper trachea infection prevention

I

By: Momon Hermansyah*

then Posyandus. One of possible ways is revolving fund program that designed together with the community to ensure its sustainability. Efforts and Results Revolving credit for latrine construction in Yogyakarta pioneered by Yayasan Dian Desa. They conducted a pilot project in 1993. the project provided loan for the community to construct latrine. The loan repaid within 12 months with 1% monthly interest. Within 4 years there were 400 latrines constructed in Potorono, Umbulmartani and Condongcatur. In 2002, [e] Foundation worked together with Coordination Body for Health Promotion and PKK (family health education) of Umbulmartani village to develop community based development concept that combined with community action plan concept. The cooperation was aimed to empower the community to construct their own latrine and to strengthen the Posyandu. Because of positive impact resulted from the program, in 2003 Ford Motor Conservation and Environment Grant provided additional fund to enlarge the coverage of the program. The main feature of the program was simple. Credit was provide for latrine construction with 24 months of repayment period. The interest is 1,5% per month that divided for three different allocations: 0,7% allocated to support Posyandu 0,3% allocated for administration cost,

Additional activities in Posyandu include: Water and sanitation construction promotion Children and infant development monitoring Communicable diseases abatement And other rural community health efforts

Community's inability to build latrine and poor performance of Posyandu will result in negative impacts. Thus, it is necessary to find some ways to empower the community and strengthen Posyandus.

It is a shame that most of these activities and services are not available anymore in Posyandus. Some services, due to limited supporting facility and fund, only available for weight measurement and vitamins provision for children. Community's inability to build latrine and poor performance of Posyandu will result in negative impacts. Thus, it is necessary to find some ways to empower the community and streng-

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and 0,5% allocated to increase the capital for the revolving loan. Lessons learned Some lessons learned from the program: transparent partnership among all parties that involved in the program. Direct involvement of women through local institution in neighbourhood health improvement. Lower investment cost for latrine construction. Conclusion To achieve those positive results, trust and respect must be given to the poor. It is based on perspective that the poor aren't " the have not" but rather they are "the have little". Their little potentials as individuals can be united and used as an effective tool to solve their own problems. At the point where community able to solve their problems and develop synergic and sustainable way of life, community participation in development is achieved. The government doesn't need to interfere any kind matters that can be handle by the community themselves. This is the real principle of development. The question is "are we willing and brave enough to do it?".
*) Head of quality control division of Assosiasi Konsultan Pembangunan Permukiman Indonesia Cab. DIY dan Staf pada Badan Koordinasi Promosi Kesehatan - Dinas Kesehatan DIY

Latrine Construction and Posyandu Strengthening Concept
[e] Foundation PKK with the Village Chief select eligible debtors and administering credits

Revolving fund

Star-up money

Monitoring & evaluation

Repayment

1. Latrine construction and development 2. Strengthening Posyandu with subsidy from repayment interest

target group

PARTNER INSTITUTION BKPK [e]Foundation Umbulmartani's PKK

FIRST BATCH 12 units of latrines Rp 1.250.000,each

BUILT LATRINE UNTIL 2004
41 units of latrines were built, and another 29 units of latrines were still under construction

AMOUNT OF SUBSIDY FOR POSYANDU
51 Posyandus that received Rp 50.000 each. The fund was used to buy new equipments and for Additional Food Program

Ford Motor Company [e]Foundation Umbulmartani's PKK

15 units of latrines Rp 1.500.000,each

28 units of latrines were built, and another 11 units of latrines were still under construction

10 Posyandus that received Rp 75.000 each. The fund was used to buy new equipments and for Additional Food Program

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Solid Waste management through Eco-cycle Society

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here are many ways of By: Yuni Erni Agustin solid waste management. All of them have their own unique characteristics. There is a model of Produk Product solid waste management that worth to try in Indonesia. This model is used in southern Sweden. The model was developed by SYSAV, a company owned Bahan Residu Raw Residue by 9 municipalities in southBaku material ern Sweden. The company serves 500.000 citizens. Every municipality is responsible for collecting solid waste from households and industries, while SYSAV is responsible for further handling and disposal of collected solid Natural waste. Final Sumberdaya Pembuangan The model is called EcoAlam Akhir resources disposal Cycle Society, a concept of regional closed-loop solid waste management. The model is intended to conserve energy and materials within the community. The philosophy is to The model was developed by reduce solid waste generation by reuse, SYSAV, a company owned by recycling and recovery activities. At the picture above, can be 9 municipalities in southern described that generated solid waste Sweden. The company serves can be: 500.000 citizens. reused as the same original product (i.e.; reused bottles) biologically stabilized through recycled as raw materials for composting process or digestion another products (i.e.: paper and feed back to nature. waste) disposed safety for long term enviused as fuel to reduce un-renewronmental protection. able fossil fuel consumption

Based on eco-cycle philosophy, SYSAV built various regional solid waste facilities, which are: Waste to Energy Plant at Malmo Around 25 ton solid waste converted into heat every hour. The plant connected to heat generator plant in Malmo and Burlov, generates 600 GWh heat every year. Integrated landfill Spillepeng's at Malmo The facility equipped with separator, composteHousehold Solid Waste Recycle Centre There are 9 recycle centres, one in each municipality. The recycle centre only take recyclable solid waste such as paper, bottles, electronics, households tools and hazardous household waste (batteries, neon lamps, etc) Lund Transfer Station The station built to achieve efficient solid waste transport from the source to the final disposal or handling sites. The model should be implemented in Indonesia. Even more, regarding the WJEMP (Western Java Environmental Management Project), an aid from World Bank, which one of its program is to form Jabodetabek Waste Management Corporation (JWMC).

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Community Participation to Support Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation of a Settlement Area
uring the New Order regime there were many public facilities built all over the country. From water supply facility, MCK (bathing, washing and latrine facility), hand pump, rural road, garbage bin, and so on. But at present most of those facilities are not functioning. Even, the facilities built by Directorate General of Cipta Karya, especially those for water supply and sanitation services are nicknamed "Cipta Karya Monument" because they are standing there alone and out of function. A lot of money has been spent. Most of it came from foreign loan. Similar case happens with physical construction projects implemented by NGOs. Project or program failure is caused by inappropriateness (unsuitable technology) and lack of community participation. In the future water supply and evironmental sanitation development projects must take into consideration the active participation of the community Community Participation Community paricipatio is defined as involvement of the respective in the planning, construction and project operation. This includes community imvolvement in: Determining project objective; Accumulation of resources; Benefit of the project; Assessments whether the project has achieved its objective(s); Sustainable project management based on the community resources. Community participation will not grow by itself, because the community has never had any experience in planning a project. Most of the times there is a lack of awareness in the part of the community itself. They never realize that what

D

By: Erik Armundito*)
Winner Third Place Article Writing Competition

they drink is water that does not meet the qualification of drinking water. Similarly with other hygiene facility they use daily. It is, therefore, necessary to motivate and push the community to actively participate in every project offered to them. They will assume a responsibility because they belong to it. This makes the role of a facilitator very important. A facilitator acts as liaison between the project provider with the community. The facilitator interprets the objective and purpose of the project provider to the community and conversely between the community aspiration to the project provider.

Community participation will not grow by itself, because the community has never had any experience in planning a project. Most of the times there is a lack of awareness in the part of the community itself.
We will also see how sucessful the development and operation of AG Tank in Malang that was tinitiated by Agus Gunarto. One man initiator is what is needed to persuade the whole community to participate in developing an environmental sanitation facility of a settlemeent area. Because it is fully supported by the local community the AG tank is still functioning up to the present.

Service Priority Not all of the localities had the pleasure of project subsidized water supply and environmental sanitation facility. It is limited to certain areas. It is therefore necessary to determine the priority of service delivery for a project subsidy. The steps to be taken consist of: Design a set of objective criteria to determine the priority community. What must always be borne in mind is the availability of reliable data and information about the area and community condition so that the criteria could be applied objectively and accurately. Coordinate with the government and NGOs for site or community selection. This is intended to avoid overlapping of projects in a given area. Recruitment and training of facilitator to help in community education and participatory processes. The facilitator recruitment should also take into consideration the track record or experience of the candidates. Priority should be given to the most needy greedy area. There must be a definitive criteria, for instance the poor families, rural areas or other prioritized group. Example: Unproductive area where income source is wanting; Areas where facility needs improvement; Areas with endemic diseases; Areas where water is scarce and lack of health service facility; Areas with poor hygiene behaviour. For areas with middle and rich families the awarenes to hygiene and environmental sanitation is generally more favourable. For water supply and environmental sanitation they won't hesitate to

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spend some money to build a private or public facility. They have left behind all the habit that is detrimental to health. Promoting Participation If the performance of water supply and environmental sanitation in a settlement area is unsatisfactory, mistargeted or non-sustaining, we have to find out the root causes. There are several possible reasons that must be taken into consideration, they are (i) difference in opinion between the community and the project planner pertaining to the particular facility; (ii) the focus is set on subsidy rather than sustainable benefit; (iii) lack of support assistance to the community, especially after the construction. It is necessary to identify the factors that may trigger an active participation. In general, demand and urgency may stimulate active community participation in subsidy based projects. Take for instance demand for water supply. Water ia a basic need for human to live and it must be available every day. The community demands access to drinking water supply and this will generate an awareness to help in any way possible to have a water supply facility developed. Similarly with environmental sanitation. For instance, with the outbreak of contagious disease because of poor habit, the community demand for sanitation facility is growing significantly. These are the conditions that must be taken into consideration by project provider when planning a project for the community. Sustainability of Project and Facility A hamlet or a vllage has managed to build an improved sanitation facility. Water supply for drinking, washing, bathing and sanitation as well as improvement of their dwelling. But what about their use. Whether they satisfy the people? Can they manage it sustainably to

SOURCE: RHEIDDA P

the future? It is therefore, important to make sure about the project sustainability. Are we going to end with physical facility or do we want it to be used sustainably and serves as an example to other places? After project construction and the details for reporting and publication are completed the facility is usually transferred directly to the community for operation. Problems will soon arise pertaining to the use and management as to what institution is to do the job, amount O&M cost, how to operate the equipment, up to the requirement for spare parts. From the beginning the community should be involved in organizing the responsible institution or organization to run the facility. Whether it is the village administration, youth group, the local neighbourhood level administration (RT),

or a new management team. In here a common responsibility will be nurtured. After the formation of the management organization the community must also be involved in contribution for O&M cost. The awareness and responsibility that has been growing will make the contribution collection easier. Before the physical construction is completed the community should be given the knowledge on how to operate the machinery such as hand pump, eletric pump, septic tank, latrine, etc. The community will later on operate those things by themselves. The role of facilitator in determining the priority is to help in filling the gap between the community and the project management. His job is to bring the community into the direction of the project planning because the success will signifi-

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cantly depend on the effectiveness of partner's job. For machineries that are used continuously will naturally breakdown and spare parts must be made available. The facility to get the spare parts must be taken into consideration. Selection of Facilitator Project planners usually speak with the community through the local leaders who is considered as representing the community. Male and female facilitators could work with female and male individuals or in group depending on the type of job that brings him or her to a planning process. Selection of a facilitator can be done through an open advertisement like an employment opportunity in a newspaper, or through a direct individual recruitment process. Or through a recommendation from the local community leader, government or NGO. A facilitator may be recruited from the local community members or from the neighbouring areas. The most important thing is that he or she must know the area, and is acceptable by the community. In areas where the community is deeply religious the facilitator can be hired from religious leader, religious teacher, or a mosque youth activist. For a community who is fanatical to a certain political party the facilitator can be hired from party functionaries. For other areas with specific dominant tendecy the facilitator whill have to be adjusted with it. A facilitator must be able to become a good listener within the community and motivate the community to express their opinion. A long experience and nice character will be quite beneficial in making water supply and environmental sanitation development project especially in settlement area a success. List of Organization Potentials The success of water supply and envi-

ronmental sanitation project assistance must be supported by the locally existing organization. The possible linkage between the organization to the project is as an active partner and collaborator in the project implementation, both in terms of financing and in moral support. On the contrary, the organization may also act as the main opponent. Therefore, before starting with a project it is necessary to make a preliminary assesment on the existing organizations within the project site and its vicinity. With a better knowledge of the organizations a big potential for project implementation is in hand. What could be expected from the partner organizations may be (i) take preliminary activity for local committee

If an organization opposes a plan it doesn't always mean it is entirely against the project. It may be that there were in the past similar projects that were misoriented and unsustained

its members to actively participate in project assistance. Whereas for organization that opposes the project (i) opposes the project by organizing contradiction in meeting forum and debates that could hamper the project implementation; and (ii) provoke the community to deny the project assistance. The attitude to be taken towards the opposing organization should be to accommodate the aspiration they bring forward. An honest opposition can be useful to test the proposal. Such a denial may serve a strong instrument to identify the weakness in planning, approach as well as implementation. If an organization opposes a plan it doesn't always mean it is entirely against the project. It may be that there were in the past similar projects that were misoriented and unsustained. The resources generated from within the community were spent in vain. This should be considered as a valuable input to improve the existing weakness. It is up to the project provider to make approaches to the opposing organizations in order to convince the value of the incoming project and will not repeat the mistakes made by the earlier projects. Conclusion From the above discussion one could conclude that the success of a regional level project subsidy, particularly water supply and environmental sanitation in settlement areas, is grossly determined by the active participation and support of the local community. Also by the specific issues that become the characteristic of a given locality or community. Although the project is intended for the community, its sustainable use and management also demands the respective community participation. There is a need for coordination between the sudsidy provder, the government, the village level government, the community and the existing organization therein.

(interviewing, project promotion, fundraising, etc); (ii) fundraising for publicity, consultancy, etc.; (iii) permission for using its organization name as sponsor, joining one or more program for the project; (iv) preparing a definite and clear notice about the project in meetings or leaflets and distribution of education materials as means for membership education; (v) conducting discussion in a meeting about the project; (vi) organizing

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Hygiene is an Investment

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e may often hear a slogan hat reads "Hygiene is an Investment." The statement contains a persuasion to the community to always keep the environment hygienic, and the connotation of which is mostly related to waste material dumping. But so far, there is no clear formula, what kind of hygiene quality is to be achieved in order to stimulate an investment initiative, how big is the investment value in terms of currency that may be generated as a result of a hygiene parameter, or conversely how big is the real social investment building up within the society as a consequence of hygiene? Parameter of Hygiene Quality It may not be quite clear and easily comprehensible, what kind of hygiene quality is expected to be satisfied in an urban environmental management. The number of available domestic waste baskets, number of roadside garbage bins, frequency collection and transport of waste material, capacity of collection and transport all of the waste material produced, up to cleanliness of a river that flows past an area are measureable parameters to quantify hygiene level. However, each area or city, has a limitation in its waste material management capacity to support the intended hygiene level. The main limitation must be based on availabiliy of fund for its waste material management system. How far is the capacity of the community and willingness to pay waste management fee at a level of the intended hygiene quality, it is the duty of the government to formulate the quantifiable level of hygiene as the community desire. This can be done through a calculation based on an ideal situation, the size of investment needed to reach the intended waste material management. The availability of fund is the yardstick to measure the level of hygiene quality to be achieved, in terms of the

By : Sandhi Eko Bramono, S.T., MEnvEngSc.*)
ideal situation. The number garbage bins must be adjusted, frequency of collection and transport is reduced in accordance with community payment capacity, waste material collection and transport will have to be adjusted with the availability of cartmen and trucks that the community can pay, up to the quality of cleanliness of river that could be maintained at a level commensurate with community payment

This confusion and difficulty can be overcome through creating an ideal situation of a good waste material system and formulation of hygiene quality classification of a city based on its community contribution capacity.

capacity. We may say that City A is cleaner that City B. The question is how much is communty contribution in order to reach the same level of hygiene quality? A different level of contribution, followed with limited government budget to provide subsidy, as well as community willingness to accept a certain level of hygiene quality as a service from the government, is a relative characteristic from city to city. A possible simplification is assuming that each city has the same level of contribution capacity both from the government and the community, and the community has an equal taste in producing hygiene quality. This confusion and difficulty can be overcome through creating an ideal situation of a good waste material system and formulation of hygiene quality classification of a city based on its community contribution capacity. In this manner, we will not blame anyone if City A is more hygienic than City B. This is because the paying capacity of city B community is lower than that of city A. On the other hand the community of city B does not have to be jealous with hygiene quality of city A because the community of city B is comfortable with the hygiene condition of
SOURCE: WORKING GROUP

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its city. Thus, the hygiene quality classification of a city should be determined as it will become the standard criterion. On the other hand the central government must also determine the standard minimum cost for waste material management system for every city in Indonesia, one which sets a minimum hygiene quality standard of a sanitary and hygienic community and environment. Investment Entry On the other hand, the entry of outside investment that may propel the economic gear of one particular area or a city, is also determined by the level of its environmental hygiene. A strategically located city having a sufficiently good airand seaport, convenient access to transport facility, and availability of good service delivery system, can be adversely affected by the level of its hygiene condition. As a consequence of poor waste material management, it is not impossible, that a city with such a favourable facility is less attractive to the eyes of investors. On the contrary, a city with good waste material management system, a well maintained and clean waterway, well collected and daily transported of the entire waste material produced, not located in a strategic located, without a sufficiently good sea- nor airport, and lack of excellent service delivery system, may also discourage investor to come in. In this case, it is necessary to make a detailed cost analysis to determine the level of investment and O&M costs of a waste material management system to guarantee that investor would put up his capital there. Each city does not need the same cost because each has its specific characteristics. It does not to expect that the hygiene quality of city C is equal to that of city D. With a specific cost and difference between the two cities, a city must be able to provide investment expected to happen in it, and not happe-

The entry of outside investment that may propel the economic gear of one particular area or a city, is also determined by the level of its environmental hygiene

unscrupoulous dumping of wastes, such as the case in the Integratated Waste Material Disposal Site at Bojong in Jakarta and the Lewigajah Disposal Site in Bandung, will never happen again. This means that the community does not have to pay for a social cost arising from unrest or disaster caused by waste material. Limitation of Investment The size of fund to be made available by the community and the government to subsidize a waste material management system depends on three factors, namely community contribution capacity, government subsidy, and the willingness of the community to obtain the intended hygiene quality. The government must determine the minimum standard cost for waste material management that minimizes the negative effect of the hygiene quality of the community and its environment. Ech regional government must have determined the intended hygiene quality for its respective area, taking into consideration the above mentioned factors. Therefore, the central government must determine the limit of minimun cost and hygiene quality to be applied in the regions. The basic and simplest milestone is how much is the investment cost and O&M cost of waste material management system that is being planned that is capable of providing a minimum standard hygiene quality of the sanitary and hygienic community and the environment. In so doing, the slogan that reads "Hygiene is an Investment" can be formulated and spelled out in a comprehensible and quantifiable manner.

ning somewhere else. This will eventually eases the community burden as the waste material producers in paying contribution, and reduces the amount of waste material management subsidy by the regional government. Social Investment The hygiene level of a city would certainly affect the health and quality of environment of the surrounding community. The government must be able to calculate the extent of social investment within the community as a result of an acceptable waste material management system. As an example, with an acceptable waste material management system there will a reduced epidemy from flies and rats contaminated diseases, a reduction in infection on the upper respiratory tract, increasing of recreational facilities, more business from within the community, and even lessons learned and awareness of the luxury and importance of hygienic environment. These conditions represent parameters that are quantifiable in terms of currency unit. Money that was used to pay for health care because of illness caused by unscropolous dumping of waste material, will be substituted as a cost to buy more nutritious foodstuff. Social friction caused by

*) Graduate from School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UNSW, Australia. Member of InSWA (Indonesian Solid Waste Association) and member of IATPI, currently UNDP Technical Consultant for Waste Management in Maluku and North Maluku Recovery Programme.

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Water Supply Service: The Present and Future Challenges

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ater is a basic need of human being. On the other side, water supply is continuously decreasing as a consequence of environmental degradation. The quantity and quality of water resources in Indonesia is apprehensively foreboding from day to day. Consequently water crisis is beginning to strike areas such Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara Barat (NTB), Sulawesi Selatan and other development centres, especially during the dry season. The availability of clean water is getting scarcer, even in several big cities clean water is sold as commercial goods. Law No. 7/2004 on Water Resources stipulates that commercial business of water is limited to compensation of water treatment cost to make it worthy of use. The government owned utility companies are obedient and submissive to the application of the Law. How about the general community? Bottled drinking water produced by private companies are sold freely in the market. Is there any yardstick about the acceptable price considered as compensation cost for treatment of raw water into drinking water? Challenges in Water Supply Service Water supply management in a development centre should begin from change in community attitude in utilization of the surrounding environment. It is necessary to build community awareness about the importance of maintaining the balance between nature and human environment. Hutomo indicates that there is something remiss in the spatial planning policy in Indonesia, especially in connection to spatial planning of development centres. Suitability and submission to spatial planning has not been firmly institutionalized within Indonesian community. Hutomo further indicates that water resources potential in Indonesia in 2005 is estimated at 15.000 cu. m/capita per

By: Herry Suhermanto
annum, more than the average of world water supply potential which is only 8.000 m3/capita per annum. However, the water supply potential tends to decrease. The potential of Java, for example, in 1930 is calculated at 4.700 m3/capita per annum, at present it has dropped to one third, i.e. approximately 1.500 m3/capita per annum. Out of this potential 35 percent is feasible for exploration commercially. With the actual potential of 400 m3/capita per annum, the population on Java must economize its water resources. The potential is far below the UN standard at 1.100 m3/capita per annum. Based on the UN standard and the projection of Indonesian population in 2015 at 248,2 million, it is necessary to increase water resources potential up to 273 billion m3 in 2015. In the meantime, the growth in clean water consumption in Indonesia between 2000-15 is at 6,7 percent a year. Assuming that 50 percent of the water resources potetial is economically feasible for exploration, by 2015 there must be at least 136,5 billion m3 raw water reserve. While with 6.7 percent annual growth in consumption the demand for clean water in 2015 (asumming 400 l/capita per day) is estimated at 61,3 billion m3. Beside for clean water, the water potential is also used for agriculture and other types of industry. In NTB, 62,5 percent of raw water is used in agriculture. If in terms of national average only 60 percent of water is used for agriculture and other industries, the remaining raw water for clean water purpose would only be 54,6 billion m3. In this case, are we able to protect and make available water resources potential to satisfy the clean water consumption of 2015?

As of today, 70 percent of the demand for clean water of the urban and rural communities is taken from groundwater. The problem is, 90 percent of raw water for industry is also supplied from ground water reserves. Excessive groundwater exploration is detrimental to the environment, and an indication of weakness in water supply service in Indonesia. Therefore, the management must take into account the social, environmental, and economical aspect of water resources. In the era of regional autonomy today, it is necessary for the regional government to strengthen inter-regional coordination in response to water resources management. Without mutual awareness about the importance of forest (in terms regulating water regime, erosion control, protection of germ plasm and biodiversity, as well as oxygen supply it might be possible that the water resources of a watershed will soon be depleted. The spatial planning policy should accommodate an integrated watershed development planning taking into consideration the various different interests. The challenge is how to satisfy the demand for raw water in a sustainable manner. The jargons such as integrated, holistic, comprehensive within raw water supply based on "one river, one plan, and one management system" approach must be made into reality. Alternative Technologies Technology is a determining element in the provision of clean water that meets hygiene standard. Dr. Bismo who conducted the first year RKDM program in 2004-05 studied clean water provision technology development based on several approaches, i.e. membrane, ozon, and zeolit technologies. As for the recommendable technology, in his study Bismo specifically discusses a natural zeolit clinophtilolit. The

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first zeolit that was found in nature was stilbit in 1756 that is used as molecular filtration. At present there are some 45 natural zeolit have been identified, and engineering has produced more than 150 derivatives. The porous micro structure makes it beneficial for filtration, absorption, ion exchange, and molecular catalyst. Zeolit is directly useful to solve wastewater problem and for water treatment to produce potable water. The potential of natural zeolit clinophtilolit in Indonesia is sufficiently large, and in Lampung we even can find a source at more than 75 percent purity. Membrane technology is another version of filtering and diffusion of fluid absoption. This technology is more superior to evaporation and destillation technique because change in phase is not needed (creating no latent heat). It may even lead to endogenized process such as thickening, fractioning, and purification of a product. This technology is applied throughout the water treatment process, from the primary till the advanced stage of filtration, such as nanofiltration and ion separation (water desalination). Just like membrane technology, ozone technology has a wide range of application. Ozone is an unstable O3 compound, short lived (5-30 minutes) and must be produced in situ. Ozone has a wide variety of benefit, among others cleaning pollutant in water and air, or colour separation, and kills bacteria (lysis process), virus, and protozoa. Application of appropriate technology in an area is subject to regional preparedness in water treatment (availability of raw water at certain quality and quantity) including the infrastructure network to support it. Technically, Bismo recommends

ozone technology combined with natural zeolit catalyst, since as desinfectant this method is six times more effective and producing less residual material than chlorine method. Besides, this technology does not require too much energy, and is modifiable and capable of being produced in Indonesia. Its weakness is, ozone technology requires a relatively more qualified human resources capacity, careful handling, and relatively high investment cost.

Based on the above discussion, water resources potential is no longer capable of satisfying the demand. The 2015 challenge has actually been felt today with the inadequate clean water provision capacity for the community which so far has covered only 30 percent of the population.
Satisfying the Demand for Water Based on the above discussion, water resources potential is no longer capable of satisfying the demand. The 2015 challenge has actually been felt today with the inadequate clean water provision capacity for the community which so far has covered only 30 percent of the population. The problem is propped on lack of water resources management capacity and shortage in raw water availability. The solution cannot be dealt with through sectoral approach, it requires a comprehensive and integrated approach supported by innovative technical and appropriate water treatment technology. Appropriate technology containing

local content is needed for water supply facility of the regions that so far are without access to water supply service network. The effort in satisfying the demand for clean water must be viewed from both demand and supply sides. Water supply according to Public Works version is based on time, space, quantity and quality concept. From the demand side, the effort is oriented to reducing unnecessary and excessive use of water, in other words directed to effective and efficient use of water. Through demand management approach water use efficiency is conducted right from its source -including protection of water spring - efficiency at the distribution network, and water efficiency by the users -utilization of water faucet, toilet and use of marginal water (water recycle). Conclusion and Recommendation In general, the community is always waiting for a practical and implementable step from the government agency for the provision of water supply service. Exploitation of groundwater is a practical way of doing it, yet it is not the best solution. In the exploitation of subsurface water we have to take into consideration the adverse effect to the environment. While the supply of raw water from surface water must also consider spatial planning aspect that may guarantee recharged area of a river basin. It is expected that spatial planning will serve as the key to problem solving related to source of raw water to overcome clean water crisis. A publicly legitimized spatial planning must be strengthened by a social commitment from within the community, especially with regard restoration of forest function for watershed protection. To this end it is necessary to exert an effort to save watershed so that raw water is always available sustainably.
*)

A Staff of Bappenas

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Implementation of Capacity Building Concept within PDAM

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he promulgation of Regional Autonomy Laws No. 22/1999 and 25/1999 was intended to accelerate development access by the regions. In principle, each regional administration may decide on its organizational structure and is entitled to manage the available human resources. The funding funnel from the central government has undergone a basic change and is now more transparent, i.e. through the mechanism called General Allocation. Each regional government may decide on the types of expenditure in accordance to its needs and priorities The regional level government process has changed to comply with the decentralization principles in almost every development sectors except politic, security and national education. In practice, decentralization is intended to give the regional government more public service responsibility through responding to the actual need of the locality, involving community participation in decision making and cutting bureaucratic chain in service delivery. Within the context of infrastructure development, there has been a change in paradigm of drinking water service management system. Consequently, it is compulsory to apply a comprehensive approach in order to have an improved drinking water service management and capable of meeting the expectation of the community and the stakeholders effectively and efficiently. The comprehensive approach is nothing else than the application of organizational capacity building concept as an effort to improve performance, particularly as it relates to Regional Utility Company/Drinking Water. A Glance at "Capacity Building" GTZ (German Technical Cooperation)

By: Abdul Gani*)
in its publication entitled "Capacity Building Needs Assessments in the Region -Process Guideline", 2000, capacity building is translated as a process which improves the capacity of individuals, organization or system to reconcile the benefit and the objective of an organization.

developed by UNDP (1991) capacity building consists of four components: 1. Policy and legal framework; 2. Institutional development; 3. Human resources development; 4. Arrangement for a sustainable funding. Implementation of Capacity Building Approach A. Policy and Legal Framework Based on observation on the present PDAM condition in Indonesia, the initial steps to be taken for capacity building within the company should cover 3 main aspects: 1. General review of the entire legal framework consisting of Law, Government Regulation, Minister's Decision, President Instruction and Regional Regulation that are in effect today, and see the relevance to the changing demand of today and in the future. The expected outcome would be a law on Regional Public Company, a conducive climate, and an implementation guidance for Law on Water Resources; 2. Conducting assessments of the overall government policies to see if they are in favour of the improvement of PDAM performance; 3. The executive and legislative elements to work in synergy involving the community in formulation of implementation guidelines of Law No. 7/2004 on Water Resources. This is important considering its implication to the water supply and sanitation development as a whole. In view of the shifting of development paradigm it is timely to re-study the entire legal framework related to "drinking water supply system", particularly i)

Within the context of infrastructure development, there has been a change in paradigm of drinking water service management system. Consequently, it is compulsory to apply a comprehensive approach in order to have an improved drinking water service management.

In more detail, capacity building can be defined as a process that impoves the capacity of individual, group, organization or community to: (i) analyse the environment; (ii) identify the problem/issue, need, discourse, demand and opportunity; (iii) formulate a strategy to identify the most relevant problem/issue, need, discourse, demand and opportunity; (iv) design an action plan; (v) utilization of the resources effectively and sustainably for application, monitoring and evaluation against action plan. Based on the concept and studies

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SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE

Guidelines for cooperation between Regional Public Company with the Third Party (Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation No. 4/1999), ii) Regional Government Lending Mechanism (Government Regulation No. 107/2000), iii) Guideline for Tariff of Drinking Water (Ministry of Ho-me Affairs Regulation No. 2/1998), iv) Guideline for PDAM Performance Evaluation (Ministry of Home Affairs Regulation No. 4/1999), and other legal products that should be changed/ improved, in order to make PDAM operational management capable to responding to the customer as well as stakeholder expectation. B. Institutional Development To achieve the objective of new development paradigm in relation to quality drinking water supply, the basic underlying principle is a management for value creation of the product for delivery to the community. This can be achieved through "learning organization" process. The strategy for PDAM's capacity building must refer to multi-dimensional approach, covering a good understanding of (i) vision and mission; (ii) strategy; (iii) work ethics; (iv) information source; (v) human resources; (vi) financial; and (vii) collaborative leadership. Organizational strategy is no less important for PDAM to undertake is an intensive interaction model that is supported with accurate data and information, to be used as the basic capital for communication with stakeholders and customers taking in consideration their respective expectation. This can be done through several formal and informal communication channels. With such a communication strategy, it is expected that PDAM could catch the customer expection and translate it into its daily operational activity. The support from institutional development of drinking water sector infrastructure, such as Water Resource Lague

Organizational strategy is no less important for PDAM to undertake is an intensive interaction model that is supported with accurate data and information, to be used as the basic capital for communication with stakeholders and customers taking in consideration their respective expectation.

(as stipulated in Water Resources Law) which in its operation is capable of undertaking "Water Resources Management", one of the effect would be an opportunity for a secure and sustainable raw water supply for PDAM operation. The membership of the League should represent all components involved water resource management executive, legislative and judicative and representative from the community. The formal coordination mechanism in water supply system development particularly at the regional level, is an important issue that must be taken into serious consideration by the chief of regional administration. As an example, the formulation of "PDAM Corporate Plan" should be developed in reference to the respective provincial/kabupaten/kota drink-

ing water supply development master plan. C. Human Resources Development To create a bunch of professionally qualified PDAM personnel that are capable of facing the complexity and dynamic challenges of the future the old bureaucratic tinted human resources development paradigm (such as employee performance evaluation using Performance Evaluation List) must be discarded and replaced with performance appraisal system based on a set of definite, measureable and objective criteria. In order to obtain a dependable future PDAM leadership with capacity in management of a corporate enterprise, PDAM Board of Executive should not be appoited and dismissed by the Head of Regional

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Administration, but rather they should be selected through fit and proper test. Leadership type that can bring a change to PDAM is one that is not bureaucratic, he should be colaborative, innovative and is willing to respond and understand the environmental changes that may influence PDAM sustainability. The future PDAM personnel development shall cease to be instructional, rather it should be empowerment and problem solution through a teamwork activity (teamwork building), rather than relying solely on individual capacity. In 5 10 years from now changes taking place in PDAM, externally as well as internally, will be relatively faster and is difficult to predict. D. Sustainable Operation and Funding Sources Drinking water inffrastructure development and expansion is inseparable from sustainable financial resources management. Taking a closer look at the regional finacial structure after the regional autonomy, one could sum up that financial subsidy from the central government

The future PDAM personnel development shall cease to be instructional, rather it should be empowerment and problem solution through a teamwork activity (teamwork building), rather than relying solely on individual capacity.
for drinking water supply is becoming scarcer. It is about time for PDAM to be given full authority and support in managing the service through a set of policy/regional regulations, especially in relation to financial resources management mechanism. PDAM performance and business sustainability is highly dependent on the level of tariff. Determining tariff in absence of entrepreneurship and neglecting the priciples of business economics will cause PDAM service unable to respond

customers' expection and the demand of the environment. It is therefore necessary to have a policy reform in determining water tariff in dynamic manner so as to respond the accelerated internal and external PDAM changes, and the operational management can proceed and reach the objectives as expected by the stakeholders. Beside tariff policy, there are other things that must be taken into consideration if PDAM is to strengthen and sustain its financial resources: Regional government legal product/policy that stipulates investment system and procedure in relation o drinking water siply service. Regulation that stipulates tax/fee for taking raw water. Regulation about PDAM contribution to regional revenue. Management guidilne pertaining to PDAM asset. It should always be borne in mind the synergy between regional government policy pertaining to PDAM financial resources capacity development with the PDAM corporate plan in the development of full cost recovery oriented drinking water service development. To strengthen PDAM finacial performance it shopuld also be kept in mind to develop a clear, tranparent and accountable regulation pertaining to private public partnership. The overall partnership between PDAM and private sector should be supported with central and regional government policies which are free from overlapping and both policies provide favourable opportunity for investment in drinking water sector. PDAM = Perusahaan Daerah Air Minum, Regional Drinking Water Enterprise
Team Leader, Benchmarking System, PERPAMSI; Consultant PT. IHE (Infrastruktur, Hidro & Ekologi, Indonesia)

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Flood and Landslide in the Wet and Drought in the Dry Season
(Dilemma for Drinking Water Program for Rural Community)

T

he Indonesian government has determined to bring the number of population without access to drinking water service down to a half of the present status. This determination represents an effort to put one of the international agreements (Johannesburg Summit, 2002) which is summarized in Millennium Development Goasls (MDGs), into reality. To guide the target achievement, the government has formulated a national policy with the general purpose being to improve community welfare through the development of water supply and environmental sanitation, while the specific purpose is to create a condition wherein the constructed facility is sustained and effectively used. At this point in time, a national policy for community based water supply and environmental sanitation has been formulated and put into operation in seven provinces and seven kabupatens, including Kabupaten Kebumen and the province of Jawa Tengah. This article is focused to problem issues of the said province, with implication that they might be valid in others too. The Present Condition In Indonesia today, 100 million people out of the entire population are without access to claean water supply. This amount is equal to 5 times the total population of Malaysia or Australia. Most of those who have no access to clean water live in villages, on Java as well as in the outer islands. In general, the welfare condition of those without access to clean water service is poor. This symptom is parallel with the type of diseases commonly suffered by the community, namely diarrhoea, skin diseases, diseases of the upper respiratory track, etc.

By: Alma Arief *)
The government has undertaken several intervention programs to solve the water access problem. The investment beside grant funds from foreign institutions- has been quite big, and was done through several government departments, Home Affairs, Health, and Public Works. But, the various facilities, built involving various technologies like gravity flow piping system, pumping, shallow well, deep well pumping system, rainwater catcher, and so on mostly do not last long. There is a number that reads 64 percent of coverage, but this is considered too high.

In many studies the five variables do not always clearly appear together as variables that determine sustainability, rather they appear in case by case basis. In Jawa Tengah, environment is the dominant and even it is the focal problem in relation to degradation of water source and ground water table.
Constraints to Sustainability There are several factors that govern the sustainability of the facility. The most obvious ones are whether or not water user's management institution, contibution collection for operation and management and repair of damages are functioning. In general, the users contribute for maintenance or small repairs, or even no contribution at all because the management system does not work. Contribution to expansion coverage area, let alone

cost recovery, is out of question. Sustainability of service is generally governed by 5 major variables. The interaction among the variables is visualized in water supply sustainability pentagon. In each angle of the pentagon is variable determinant while the sustainability is in the centre. The variables are institutional, financial (contribution), environmental, socio-cultural, and technology. In many studies the five variables do not always clearly appear together as variables that determine sustainability, rather they appear in case by case basis. In Jawa Tengah, environment is the dominant and even it is the focal problem in relation to degradation of water source and ground water table. In Kabupaten Sumba Timur, on the other hand, sociocultural factor taking its root from the strict application of caste system is the dominant variable. While technolgy particularly easy handling and appropriateness with the local environmental condition are influential variables that are commonly found in many places. Environmental Factor In Jawa Tengah generally, environmental variable is quite dominant. This was revealed in the final workshop--involving all the stakeholders--after the National Policy for WSES Development was put into field operation for 6 months. In Jawa Tengah, particularly Kebumen, one of the strategic issues which is also the top priority as it relates to environmental degradation of water catchment area. The strategic program recommended by the workshop is to promote a National Movement for Environmental Rehabilitation, focussing on regreening of denuded forests. The effect of environmental factor read ecosystem degradation of water

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SOURCE: SUTOTO

catchment area- is quite obvious and easily understood by everyone. Sempor Dam in Kebumen, for example, is undergoing a rapid siltation because the incoming water carries a heavy load of sediment with it. Water supply facility, a reservoir, was washed away by a landslide. Besides, water sources are drying up during dry season, a phenomenon that never happened in the past. Information from Bappeda and Public Works of Kebumen revealed that the number of villages suffering from drought is expanding from time to time. In 2004 there were 84 villages, four villages more than the previous year which was 80. Ten years ago there were only 70 villages suffering the hardship. What is more horrifying is the case in rainy season, flood and landslide pose a menacing threat everywhere, because raindrops fall directly to the gound surface, mostly turn to runoff, only a smaller fraction seeps down into the ground. The degradation to water catchment areas is a common phenomenon in a number of kabupatens in Jawa Tengah. The degradation happens for two main reasons, extensive forest felling on the mountain slope which should have been covered with permanent vegetation, a

protection forest for land and water resources conservation purposes, and the replacement of heterogenous forest with a single tree crop plantation (pine tree). In order to get more money in a relatively short time, Perhutani cleared down the heterogenous forest stand and replaced it with single crop industrial tree (pine). It has been commonly understood that the needleshaped pine leaves are unable to retain rain water. Raindrops from the sky fall down directly producing an impact to the earth surface, directly turns into runoff because the soil around the pine root has a smaller infiltration rate. Although pine tree plantation has a higher economic value, it is detrimental to the ecosystem and the surrounding communities. In Kebumen a study was once made along the line, conducted in 4 villages using trend analysis. From the study in the villages of Ginadong, Glontor, Kajoran, and Kabakalan, it was concluded that replacement of heterogenous forest with single tree woodland is indeed influential to the drying up of water sources of the sourrounding villages. In another village, i.e. Kalireja village, Kecamatan Karanggayam, the impact was even more serious because it directly re-

lates to the life of the community. In dry season the village becomes very dry. In the past, the diameter of water spout, the community water source, was the size of a glass tumbler, nowadays it is no more than a pencil (information from village headman and verified by the author's personal observation). The shrinking of the water source happens to coincide with the degradation of the ecosystem. In the past the community of Kalireja could make two crops a year, nowadays it is only one. Tobacco crop which grows well in the more fertile soil, but due to lack of water the quality drops and consequently is the sales price. And fodder grass is scarce during dry season. They have to sell some goats, hire a truck and together with neighbours go as far as Kabupaten Cilacap to collect grass for their cattle. Not less important is that 15 years ago there was a water spout and a relatively big drainage canal flowing. At the upper part near the canal there was a fish pond. All of it is now history and memory of the past. The drain has no water and the pond is a filled with partly decomposing dry leaves. Now, during the dry season the village of Kalireja receives drinking water supply 7 trucks once a week. Some measures have been taken to overcome the difficulty. Especially in the rainy season. A project from Department of Health, WSLIC, has dug pit wells in the village. Now there are 40 wells in operation. But the even wells get dry during the dry season. Why Community Based WSES? If we ignore the normative consideration, whether it were a national legal product or an international agreement, community based WSES development is the most relevant type of development approach to be introduced. In addition to sustainable facility and effective use, community based drinking water development significantly improves commu-

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nity welfare. Community based WSES development places the community in central position throughout the development process. Through this approach the community plays the role of decision maker since the planning stage, then construction, monitoring and system maintenance. Placing the community in this position imparts a tremendous psychological effect, since they feel that the whole process and the entire system belong to them. As a consequence, they are willing to heartily support with all they have, labour, material and also money. Community based WSES development puts the community members at equal level, no distinction between richpoor, man-woman, political affiliation, etnic group, and so on. All at equal position therefore deviation can be avoided, and therefore even the poor would have access to the facility. In the past, the poor who should have been the focus of a program, were neglected. Speaking of the benefit for the poor, there is a wide variety of answers. As far as evaluation is concerned, from a series of experience since 1988, in Java and in the outer islands (Gorontalo, Laranktuka, Sikka, Ende, Lampung) the benefit of the facility always exeeds the risk by a big margin. In Gorontalo for instance, the village of Luono in a relatively short time could improve the welfare of its community. A disease that is locally nicknamed "arrive-depart", because when it comes to somebody he will certainly die from it, disappeared entirely. The community, because of more leisure hours, could earn additional income from weaving Gorontalo specific cloth. In the community of Wonda village, Ende (NTT) was once infested with cholera which scores of its inhabitants died, and was suffering from a locally called "melodi" disease, -skin disease that makes the patient frequently rubbing his belly and hip, a movement like strumming a

SOURCE: SUTOTO

The correlation with welfare, especially income is also significant. In Kabupaten Sikka (NTT) there is a village which turned a vegetable supplier for the town of Maumere, only after the community built a water supply facility.
guitar- after the construction of a water supply facility (gravity flow piping system) all the water borne disease were disappearing. There are still many examples about the correlation between water availability with health condition. The correlation with welfare, especially income is also significant. In Kabupaten Sikka (NTT) there is a village which turned a vegetable supplier for the town of Maumere, only after the community built a water supply facility. Also they could build concrete house, because water is available to mold clay for brick baking and to prepare cement mixture for construction. Similar situation with fisherman community in the village of Nglawe, Pacitan. The fishermen are now using a relatively sophisticated technology, motor vehicles moving in and out of the village

to transport fish catch to market, the village is becoming busier. All this phenomenon was unthinkable in the past, because their time was wasted to take water for the family. The population of Nglawe used to suffering from skin scabies, now their skin is smooth and shiny. Concluding Remark The community based water supply and environmental sanitation development in several areas especially Jawa Tengah and more specifically in Kebumen, is facing a serious environmental problem. Forest clearing through illegal logging and replacement of heterogenous forest with pine tree plantation by Perhutani has contributed to the major damage to the ecosystem of the catchment areas. On the other hand, water supply and environmental sanitation developemnt is potential for community welfare improvement, especially the village poor. If the damage to the ecosystem is not taken care of, the damage will continue, then the WSES development will be endangered.
WASPOLA Consultant for Kabupaten Kebumen and Province of Jawa Tengah; researcher Science and Technology Res. Centre, Univ. Indonesia

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CLTS Field Trial in Lumajang District, East Java

First Trial, Immediate Result
This concept is sufficiently good because triggering does not involve any cost at all. However, this concept must be tested in the field considering that cultural background of India and Bangladesh may be quite different from Indonesia. In this connection, WSES Working Group together with WASPOLA conducted a field test at Kabupaten Lumajang. As an integral part of the series of trials, a training was designed for CLTS core team consisting of representives from the central and regional levels as well as the community also held in Lumajang on 2-5 May 2005. The trainer was Karmal Kar himself, a CLTS expert from Bangladesh. Four villages, Kenongo, Tanggung, Kertowono, and Kalisemut were selected as the sites for the trial. According to Budi Purwanto CLTS facilitator of Kabupaken Lumajang the selection of these villages was based on the consideration of the socio-cultural characteristic and the existence of on-going WSSLIC project in the locality. "We want to know how CLTS performs in a variety of conditions," said Budi who had himself seen the CLTS application in India and Bangladesh. In the beginning of the trial there were many, at the central as well as

C

ommunity-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) is a new concept in Indonesia. It is introduced from India and Bangladesh where the concept was first implemented by several representatives from Indonesia who visited the two contries at the end of 2004. CLTS embraces three main purposes, (i) to change community behaviour and improve hygiene awareness; (ii) community empowerment; (iii) minimizing the habit of defecation in the open. Based on the experience from the two countries, CLTS is instrumental in changing the behaviour of the population and improve community awareness within a relatively short time compared to other concepts. In short, the process starts from identification of facts and condition about health (especially in relation to defecation in the open) of the program area. Then the community is asked to enter into discussion about the fact and condition as they relate to health, natural beauty, and so on. During the course of the time the community is directly faced with problems. This process is intended to make the community aware that all this this time they have been living in poor hygiene and health condition and begin to ask how this condition be improved. The community awareness is then followed up through provision of simple information of what can be done by the community to solve the problem they are facing.

SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE

I

t should be born in mind that what is achieved through CLTS approach is by no means an end result of the effort towards the overall community health development and environmental protection. Most of the latrines constitute of pits covered with bamboo plaits or concrete slab. The wall of the pit is not reinforced with waterproof layer (such as concrete), so that liquid wastewater may penetrate the surrounding soil and finally pollutes groundwater. Therefore, the triggering conducted through CLTS approach must be followed up with efforts to prevent pollution of surface and groundwater such as through sludge water treatment and promotion of technically, hygienically and environmentally more feasible technology. In the Kecamatan Gucialit, Kab. Lumajang, this is especially important because this area is located in the hilly areas which nota bene is in a water catchment area. (AK)

regional levels, who were skeptic that the model would work. But as time progresses it tells us something different. Within one month the first result came into view. The field trial villages indicated a significant change. Some even have 100 percent households with a latrine. Hariyanto, sanitarian of the Puskesmas in Kecamatan Gucialit, admits that the concept is good indeed. "The government will never be able to build so many latrines within such a short time," says the sanitarian whose job makes him travel from village to village day after day. Therefore, he will apply this approach in the seven WSSLIC villages he is assigned to. "I'll CLTS all those villages," he says convincingly. The key to the application success lies with existence of a capable motivator/natural leader who can motivate and maintain the spirit of his community, the maintenance of a continuous attention to the community, and an incentive, such as a pride for those who are motivated. In terms of motivational aspect, this approach is sufficiently successful. Of course this approach is not intended to built a pit for the feces only, there are still many things that are related to environmental sanitation. CLTS may be applicable to some of these things, besides the feces pit. It may be worth trying. (MJ)

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Margodadi Hamlet, Kenongo Village, Gucialit Sub-District

Communal Work to Build Latrine

argodadi hamlet is located 10 km south of the city of Lumajang. It is inhabited by 105 hoseholds and represents the centre of Kenongo village. Only 30 percent of its inhabitants have acceptable private latrine. The rest mostly constitute of a pit of about 1 metre in diameter and on which two logs are placed parallel to each other for crouching while defecating, - or else, defecating in the open such as in the garden or the river. The main source of livelihood consists of coffee growing, wood planting and labourers in the industrial crop plantation. On average they live in a relatively well built concrete house. Only few with a house made of bamboo. The houses are built nicely along the country road, but who knows that they have no toilet. Mrs. Suparti, a natural leader of CLTS from the hamlet, who is also the village headman's wife, described this condition as the consequence of low education. "Actually they have enough land space and the money. What is lacking is way of thinking," she says when speaking in the community hall. Last early May this hamlet was selected as a site for field practice by the participants of CLTS training that was conducted in Lumajang. The inhabitants were invited to assemble. They were asked to discuss sanitation condition of the hamlet including a community mapping in relation to private latrine ownership. Triggering process took place. From there a natural leader emerged and CLTS organization in Kenongo village consisiting of Mrs. Suparti as chairwoman, Joko Winarno vice chairman, Mrs. Nurul Latifah (village midwife) secretary, Mrs. Suwarni treasurer, and Satuk all the PKK (Family Health Education) officers as supervisors. It was this bunch of people, especially the women, who moved around to talk to the hamlet inhabitants. "We made door to door visits," says Mrs. Suparti accompanied by Mrs. Nurul and Mrs. Suwarni. We targeted everyone indiscrimately. Whoever is

M

SOURCE: MUJIYANTO

Village headman, Mrs, Suparti and and CLTS motivators of Kenongo Village

at home he was triggered. "We consider everyone as member of our own family. We are conviced that this activity has a noble objective," she described further. The wife of village headman put more emphasis on health issues when she motivated the inhabitants to build private latrine. For example, about the process disease contamination in relation to having a private latrine. "I keep telling the people that being sick is quite expensive," said Mrs. Suparti. She never forgets to inform the people about the available choices of hygienically acceptable latrine. The triggering activity did not only involve the CLTS activists but also the village administration personnel. Besides door to door visits, the triggering effort was also done through weekly religious meetings, Posyandu and at the primary school. The efforts were fruitful. The community was enthusiastic in building a latrine according to individual choice. About 60 percent of the community prefered to build a new latrine. The rest made improvement to the old ones. According to Mrs. Suparti who is also a school teacher, the nearest time difference between the triggering with the beginnig of construction was 2 days. Sometimes the CLTS team members lent their hands to help in the construc-

tion. This was done through collecting coffee beans from the community, one can per family. This coffee was sold at a market price, bought a sack of cement for Rp 23.000. The cement plus the excess money was returned to the owner to build his latrine. Other members of the community were subsidized with sand. "The main essence is that we work together hand in hand, it would be to hard to work alone," she further described. Several other members of the community also built a latrine by communal work, both in terms of construction materials and labour. Within one month-from a target 6 months-one hundred percent of the community has a private latrine. Some are closet type, some are dry type, while others are merely a pit with cover. In terms of money the construction varies from Rp 60.000 for improvement work, up to Rp 125 to 250.000 for new construction. The echo of this success was heard by the neighbouring hamlet. The inhabitants of this hamlet hope that a similar process would work in their place. "We are determined that the whole village will have a private latrine," says Sugito, village headman of Kenongo, who is amenable by his wife. The CLTS activists are convinced that this determination will come into reality. (MJ/AK)

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Ploso Hamlet, Tanggung Village, Padang Sub-District

They Only Want A Closet Type

T

he hamlet of Ploso is located relatively far from Lumajang. Something like 15 km southwest of the city. It is inhabited by 133 households. 50 households have a private latrine, while 73 have none. Most of those who have no latrine went to the river or a ditch to defecate, while the rest to the garden or rice field. From the economic point of view this hamlet is slightly better off than Margodadi. The main livelihood consists of farming, roof tile baking, and labourers. Roof tile baking industries are standing in rows along the main road that runs across the hamlet. Most of the dwelling houses are made of concrete material. According to Drs Masduki, the pioneer in toilet development in the hamlet, wo said that community habit is the main barrier. The inhabitants feel quite comfortable with defecating in a waterway and it has proven that it does not cause any disease. "They used to say that since generations ago we are always healthy," said the primary school teacher. Last May 2005, 8 representatives from the village were selected to attend CLTS training in the city of Lumajang. They are the ones who get triggered and become movitators for the hamlet community. Some of them who had had no latrine, immediately built one. They later assembled the community to be triggered to build a private latrine. The community became enthusiastic in joining the activity. They could even map out who among the inhabitants have a latrine and who have none. In addition to Masduki the prime motivators consist of Laseri (Chairman of RT/Neighborhood level administration), and Mrs. Ummi (religious leader), and Umar (member of village council/LKMD). Since that time each of them moved in line with their own specific capacity. Mrs.

Ummi was active in discussing the importance of latrine in religious lessons to woman group. While Masduki together with Umar made house visits. "I love social activity," says Masduki who is presently active as a member Village Representative (BPD). Masduki admitted that it was difficult for him to persude his neighbours to built private latrine. The community already knew that CLTS program is sponsored by the World Bank. "They used to say, 'Do they give money or no?' How come World helps us without money. Isn't Bank a place of money?' he says. Therefore, the triggering process takes time and patience. This situation did not make the CLTS motivators lose hope. They explained that human waste dumped in an open can go back to the house, even to the dining table. "have you ever imagined that your faeces goes back to you via flies and cows?" that's how Masduki reminded the
SOURCE: MUJIYANTO

Masduki indicates the drainage ditch that was often used to defecate by the local population

people. Whilst for the request for financial subsidy he used to answer it, "this toilet is for your own use, why must you wait for the government." Indeed, community care varies. Some immediately responses even with the least trigger. But some others are stubborn. "Keep visiting them and make them understand," he added that some were visited up to four times. "Let them feel embarassed because of the visits." On average the hamlet dwellers started with the construction one week after the convincing process. Muhammad Ali, a hamlet inhabitant, says that the inhabitants actually were willing to build the latrine. "But our people here do not want a perfunctory latrine. Better wait and do it well. With pit latrine anyone can build it. Rather than a simple latrine, better build a closet that will last a lifetime,' says the security hand of a private company. Besides, the scarcity of skilled worker is also a problem. The motivators also pushed the community leaders who still had no latrine to build one because they are exemplary figures. The hamlet headman and RT chairman were stimulated. Within one month only 29 out of 73 households were the remaining families without a private latrine. Most of these 29 families live along the river and they belong to the poor class. Masduki cs are convinced that they will change in the near future. "What is important is we give them our sincere concern." He and the motivators of Ploso will find a way that all households in the hamlet have a private latrine. Nearly all of the new latrines are closet type. The construction cost is approximately Rp 250.000 and is paid entirely from own sources. Communal work is getting rare. "Today, communal work is fading out," says Masduki. (MJ/AK)

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Sidomakmur Hamlet, Kertowono Village, Gucialit Sub-District

Building Simple Latrine
SOURCE: ANDRE K

Sidomakmur hamlet is located far away in the mountain. About one hour travel from the city of Lumajang. Because of the climbing dirt road this hamlet can only be reached on 4WD utility vehicle. The hamlet consists of two RWs (community units), and named Poli 1 and Poli 2 respectively. Poli 1 has 120 households and Poli 2 has 123. The livelihood of the population consists of coffee and food crops growing, animal raising, and plantation worker. Income level is relatively sufficient. This is indicated from the dwelling houses, they are mostly large and made of concrete wall and ceramic tiles. Some of them have a private concrete floor for drying coffee nuts. This hamlet used to have water supply difficulty. To get water the people had to walk for an hour to a water source. But today the difficulty has been solved since the introduction of WSSLIC project. All of the population has access to piped water supply system. Based on the available record, toilet ownership before CLTS was introduced is as the following:

Mujiono and his neighbours with the newly constructed latrine

Type of latrine Covered Uncovered Do not have

RW1 16 74 30

RW2 13 94 16

The existing latrines were mostly made of a pit on which is placed 2 logs or a simple bamboo plait. For those who didn't have any they went to the garden or a ditch to defecate. This condition has changed entirely since a training was conduted here on 16 May 2005. At that time the population was assembled and triggering was conducted by CLTS facilitator from the

Health Agency of Lumajang District. Out of this activity some informal community leaders came into view. They were Mujiono (BPD member), Prayit (hamlet headman), Sumardi and Pak Cip. According to Mujiono, within one month all the households have built a covered latrine. Not all of them built one from the beginning. Just add a cover to the old ones. They do not make the cover from concrete slab, instead they use finely plaited bamboo, one layer over another and in this way it can minimize unpleasant odour. The main reason why the community is reluctant to build a more proper toilet, according to Mujiono, is lack of kowledge. "They used to say, 'All this time I have been defecating in such a place (an open pit or ditch) but I have never been sick'," said Mujiono. He and the CLTS team of the hamlet triggered the population on the importance of hygiene and beauty. "We ask for instance, which one looks better an open pit or a covered latrine?" he said. The team also explained the connection between an open pit latrine with contamination of diseases and how to make a latrine that

meets hygiene requirement. In the beginning it was difficult to embrace all of the hamlet dwellers. Some of them were hard headed. "There were some whom I had to visit twice, yet still wouldn't listen. Finally we used a third party, i.e. his relative to change his opinion and it worked," Mujiono revealed. Besides, there were also who considerd that CLTS is a project and thus they were expecting for subsidy. "I said, you work to earn your living you do not expect any charity, why for defecating you ask for a subsidy," again Mujiono said. One of the key to the triggering success was the visit following it. "If we do not vist them, they may be influenced by others. The other get discouraged because there is no attention," he told his story. The triggered person usualy promises that within a certain time he will finish his latrine. What is interesting is, CLTS triggering was overlapping with WSSLIC toilet rolling program. During 2003-04 WSSLIC target was to build 24 latrines. The fact is there were only 9 participants took the opportunity. With the introduction of CLTS the WSSLIC toilet program has to stop. The population is no more interested to borrow for building his latrine. The CLTS program has made the Poli population happy. Mari who said that she had reached the age over 100 years says that her garden in now free from stenching odour and much less flies swarming around. "It is now more comfortable," says one who have a pit latrine with concrete cover. One day he will build a better toilet, a closet type. (MJ/AK)

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R EPORTAGE
A story in the heart of the capital city

When the Elites Get Better Acquainted with Their Environment

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SOURCE: MUJIYANTO

he rythm of the daily life and the drive to satisfy the need in life have compelled the citizens of Jakarta work hard and use their time efficiently. They start from home early in the morning and come back late at night. That is their daily routine. Let alone thinking of the environment, thinking about one's own self seems they have no time. This routine seems have governed the citizens of RT (Neighboorhood group) 003, 004 and 08 of RW (Comunity group) 03 of Kelurahan Melawai. They belong to the elites of this metropolitan city, each of them may never bother themselves to think about the environment they live in. Whether in relation to social life or one that is connected to nature. They are always very busy. A park which should add to the beauty of their surrounding is now being used as waste disposal. Piles of debris are turning into hills in several corners of the 780 sq. m. park. But the picture is now over, things have changed before year 2000. Little by little the debris was removed. Waste material is given more attention than it used to be. This is because there was a new family moving into the neighbourhood and "provoked" the citizens to turn the park back into its original function. "Our neighbours felt so sorry seeing the park as a garbage dump," says Wiyono Pontjowinoto recalling the situation. Together with several neigbours who care to environment took an initiative to have a neighbourhood gathering. It was not an easy start, indeed. "What we had in mind was to get them together" he says. This effort was supported by chiefs of RT 03 and 04. The result was the com-

munity agreed to build a gate and guardhouse. The option was taken based on the common interest of the families living in the neighbourhood. Then the neighbours were invited to gather during specific events, such as 17 August commemoration, general assembly of 2004, halal bi halal (lebaran festive). The program was growing. The community gets together more often. At least twice a year. It turned out later on that the neighbours wish to have the gathering more often. Based on proposal from several members, they held "Sabar" (short for Sarapan Bareng, Breakfast Together). "At least we meet once in two months," says Wiyono further. The neighbours were helping each other in the preparation of the event. Everything was put into order. Whereas, one gathering may cost up to Rp 10 million. And what is mo-

re improtant is, all the activities were centered in the park. The park that used to have no name now it is named Sega (short for Segi Tiga, triangle) because of its ground plan, but it may also mean children playground. "Our intention has been to bring the park back to its initial function,"says Wiyono, a senior official of Department of Public Works. It is expected that this park will really become a children playgraound, a sport centre for the surrounding community, a place for relaxing, a meeting place, and a means for groundwater conservation. A special design plan for this has been made. It is planned that the park will become an example of one that is built and maintained by the community. But so far it is still an idea. What is certain is that, the effort

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R EPORTAGE
towards that direction is steadily progressing. Some families have started planting flowers and fruit trees and tending them regularly. The community meeting within the Sabar framework has developed further beyond just for fun. They begin to ask everyone for new ideas related to environmental safekeeping. Invitation was extended to those who are competent in this field. "Elites must be able become example in environmental maintenance. It is not only those who live in the slums who must take care for their environment," says Wiyono further. In the third Sabar meeting on 8 January 2005, the community invited Ms. Rina Agustin Indriani from Dept. of Public Works to speak on "Rainwater Infiltration Pit Well: Minimizing Water Crisis in a Metropolitan City." A large crowd from the community came to attend and were enthusiastic in following the explanation. Some of the guests were members from the neighbouring communities. From the short lecture that was delivered over chicken porridge and morning coffee, the community came to realize that infiltration pit is easy to build and does not involve too high a cost. One pit costs not more than Rp 750 thousand. "The community agrees to build sample infiltration pits in the park for the public to see. In the Sabar meeting on 19 January 2005 it was the turn of Mrs. Bambang "Waste" Wahono was invited as speaker. The grandma who has been for years struggling with waste material problem was presenting a subject matter on recycling of waste materials. The topic was selected because it is the actual daily problem faced by the community. Garbage dsposal site is becoming more and more difficult to find. What was dicussed by Mrs. Bambang was quite interesting to this community. They agree to build a waste material recycling facility in Taman Sega. While the infiltration pit is being built in the park, some of the inhabitants are also building one in their homes. Some made a unique garbage bin, one that is movable so that it can be used for common event in the neighbourhood. "If it is spoken by an expert, the neighbourhood would easily believe," adds Wiyono. Currently a number of efforts are continuously being made to put the dream park into reality. They wrote a proposal to DKI Jakarta regional government and private sector for their assistance. In the proposal the community wishes the park design is made by the community and the funding will come from private donor(s). The construction will be implemented and funded step by step by the Jakarta government, private sector and the community. The use, control of use, and maintenance will be taken care of by the community in coordination with Jakarta regional government. The total cost is estimated at Rp 150 million payable in three installments. Dinas Pertamanan dan Keindahan of DKI Jakarta has orally promised to prepare an in kind contribution such as flower plants, stools, and fence. The community has been accumulating fund. Rp 2 million has been collected. Mrs. Farida Arifin, Chief of RT003/03 is pleased with the communiy care. "We will turn this area into a pleasant surrounding," she says. However, she admits that it would take time to increase the community care yo optimum level. She is aware that most of her neighbours are busy people. "The most important thing is we start with examples," she says further. She believes that if every component of the community takes part, a park that will become the pride of DKI Jakarta will come into reality, an example of a sustainable utilization of a green open space of the city. The initiative of these elites is actually implementable in any community group regardless of social and economic classiffication. (MJ)

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Elite Quarter in South Jakarta

aman Sege is located in the kelurahan Melawai, South Jakarta, a walking distance from Blok M business centre. The park is bordered by Jl Panglima Polim II, Jl. Wijaya XIV, Jl. Wijaya V and Jl. Wijaya XVII. The place is a resindential area comparable to Menteng area in Central Jakarta. It has big houses. Most of its inhabitants are professionals, government officials, or retired big shots. Several names could be recorded here are Agum Gumelar, Ret. Marshall Cheppy Hakim (former Air Force Commander),

Police Comm Gen. Sujitno Landung. There are also top officials in banking business and big companies.
(MJ)

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I NTERVIEW
dr. Koeswandono, Mkes. Head of Health Agency District Lumajang, East Java

Community Empowerment through Posyandu*)

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his year Kabupaten Lumajang won the first place in the National Posyandu Competition. Several regional as well as national medals have been won by the re-

gion that is located in the eastern corner of Jawa Timur. Innovation and breakthrough in this sector is continuously being tried. WSLIC and CLTS are also put to practice in this region. Both produced a pleasing result. To get a glimpse of how this region is progressing, the following is an interview with dr. Koeswondo, Head of Health Agency Kabupaten Lumajang:

Could you describe in general the health situation of the communities of District Lumajang? The condition is sufficiently satisfactory, it means that the most widely publisized cases such as malnutrition is well under control. More specifacally, malnutrition is there but not to the extent of marasmus kwarshiorkor. We managed to put it under control with Posyandu as the central point. With Posyandu we move, including sanitation and eradication of contagious diseases. It is for this purpose that since 10 January 2005 the Bupati suggested that Posyandu be made a community health education centre. This idea came out after reading a book entitled 'The Poor May Not Get Sck'. This idea was then digested into intersectoral plan and coordination by Bapekab. The Gerbang Mas (literally means Golden Gate) idea was born, a movement to build healthy community. The Bupati wants us to do everything to achieve Lumajang Sehat (Healthy Lumajang) 2007. This means to achieve Indonesia Sehat (Healthy Indonesia) 2010 which also includes Lumajang, the direction of which will be definite since 2007. Gerbang Mas was then made official by the Governor of Jawa Timur on 3 March 2005. Before the Presiden and Minister of Home Affairs instructed us to reactivate Posyandu, we

have done ahead of it. Since that tme we have been consistently moving in the steps of Gerbang Mas. What is Gerbang Mas? The basic principle is Gerbang Mas is the centre of activities, beginning from first, a health service centre that has been on-going all this time; second, hygiene behaviour education centre; third, community motivation centre for environment safekeeping; fourth, community education centre, be it through PADU (early age children education) or KF (functional literacy education); fifth, improvement of production economy; and finally, family mental health centre. The objective is certainly the Posyandu, i.e. 150 families. Why do we do it? Because this is nothing else than revitalization of Posyandu, consisting of empowerment, education, and service. Up to this time Posyandu has been focused to service only, now we are expanding it. What are the activities? The first is training. For communiy members, cadres, and community leaders around a Posyandu. After the training they start with collection of baseline data. Then the data are plotted into a map. Followed by problem analysis and identification. This will be brought to a com-

munity meeting to determine what kind of action to be taken and what intervention is needed. This procedure is repeated once in three months. Once an agreement is reached, soon it will be followed with the real movement. In this year this acivity is tried in 34 Posyandus scattered in 21 kecamatans (sub district). If it turns out promising, the following year it will be expanded to 500 Posyandus. Currently it is in data collection stage, to be followed with analysis and problem identification, then community meeting. Our team will deployed to see that process moves in the right direction. The engine propelling Gerbang Mas is with PKK (Family Health Education) while the coordinating function is in the hands of Bapekab. The immediate objective of Healthy Lumajang 2007, the indicator comprise the six activity items as mentioned earlier. For this purpose each Posyandu is subsidized at amount of Rp 10 million. Out of this amount 4 million is budgeted for operational cost and 6 million for intervention. The 4 million operational cost is divided into 1,5 million for honorarium of the cadres doing the operation and 2,5 million for activity cost. This program is genuinely Lumajang origin. In general this is an integrated activity. The impact of Gerbang Mas is the growth of support activities. Through data collection the problem issues encumbering a certain Posyandu are revealed. For instance about toilet ownership. This problem is dealt with through CLTS field trial in 4 villages of 2 kecamatans. Through CLTS, which was doubted in the beginning, because of its connection with the local socio-cultural character, it turned out a success. There is a hamlet that manages to have a toilet within 2 weeks. Now it is spreading to the surrounding villages. This is indeed quite pleasing and we will integrate it to Gerbang Mas. With the introduction of WSSLIC project we are quite thankful since
*)

Integrated Health Service Post

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Lumajang used to be a region with water shortages. At this time there 18 villages with water supply facilities. And the impact is quite significant not only for individual sanitation, but also for improving per capita income. Those who used to be busy taking water now they can use their spare time to improve their family income. For instance for home industry such as kripik (crispy chips) for sale, etc. What constraints do you meet in solving health problems in District Lumajang? The main constraint is low education and socio-cultural factor. It should be mentioned that Lumajang populaton is made up of 50 percent Javanese and 50 percent Madurese. This mixture may sometimes cause barrier in health matters. For instance CLTS which intends to make people get embarassed. But for a certain ethnic group it means pride, self respect. We have to be extremely careful. Also regarding income level of the poor. We have 200 thousand poor out of 1,1 million population. This is another constraint. In principle we have to make socialization, this kind of health promotion is prioritized. The spearhead of health development is with promotion, using billboard, religious gathering, informal meeting, and that's exactly what we are encouraging. The Posyandu that was developed is unique. Is it a genuine initiative or a copy from somewhere? God Willing, none of it is a copy from anywhere. Our genuine initiative. It is a long story, though. It started in 2001 when the regional autonomy was in its early beginning we tried a breakthrough by building a new Posyandu concept that we named Posyandu Centre. One village for every kecamatan. This early Posyandu was considered as the prototype. Each Posyandu Centre was given a subsidy by the regional government and was fun-

neled through Health Agency. The Rp 9 million subsidy was treated as a stimulant and the community is stimulated to contribute Rp 6 million to build the Rp 15 millon Posyandu Centre. That's how the Posyandy Centre was developed. In 2004 there were 83 such Posyandus in operation. Since 2003 we tried to implement PADU so that Posyandu has more activities. The PADU is done three times a week.

community meeting to decide on an intervention. It becomes funny if Puskesmas does not accompany, the Lumajang Sehat 2007 may divert somewhere else and production economy will become more conspicuous. You mentioned fund intervention. What does Regional Government budget look like? Imagine from 34 Posyandus each one 10 million the total budget is 340 million. For training another 210 million. The total comes to 550 million. This fund is managed by Bapekab and PKK, though. But basically it is for health development. It has helped a lot. And the budget for health is moderately sufficient, an example, the budget for medicine is Rp 1,2 billion. And that is enough. This year we are building sport health centre and metabolic syndrome prevention centre which is not found in any other kabupaten. The basic idea is quite simple, diabetes and hypetension are no more the sickness of townspeople, they can come to villagers, thus we must promote the preventive measures. Metabolic syndrome can be the result of excessive nutrient as it can be undernourished. It is here the centre will be located. God Willing, November will be the official inauguration. Whether the region is capable of overcoming health problem without intervention from the central government? In terms of policy the central intervention is indispensable, but as far as local detail is concerned we can do it by ourselves. Our experience since 2001 has indicated that we are capable of developing regional specific programs. As an example, we can develop Puskesmas with specialization, that means there is a certain Puskesmas with USG equipment. That is for gynaecology. Another Puskesmas with facility for cataract operation. Therefore the Puskesmas is capable of

The spearhead of health development is with promotion, using billboard, religious gathering, informal meeting, and that's exactly what we are encouraging

Thus we have run PADU program in Posyandu before the governmeny instructed it.Based on the PADU program we then thought of improving the Posyandu, and Gerbang Mas idea appeared. But the development process, beginning from training, data collection, community meeting, and so on we have to be frank that we apply the PKMD (Village Level Community Health Education) system that was introduced in 1980's. We did not maka it public, though, because the present Posyandu is an integrated and crosssectoral activity. What is the relationship between Posyandu and Puskesmas (Community Health Centre)? Puskesmas is very much benefited with the existence of such Posyandu. Therefore Puskesmas acts as guardian and counterpart. For instance in data recording and problem analysis. Including

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I NTERVIEW
operation for built in lense. And another Puskesmas with ECG for radiology. Even through the regional autonomy we have established a laboratory for local health which was later upgraded into regional health laboratory. With the central government projects, what influence do they make to the region? I think they are neceesary. Because there are cases where we are in short of money for certain big spending. What we can make available is counterpart budget. The WSLIC for instance, we still need it because there are still villages that are without water supply facility while the water source is located far away. With the counterpart method, we can do it. With the counterpart the sense of belongingness is growing within the region. Not just receivimg what is supplied from above. WSLIC is quite suitable for us in Lumajang because it is indeed empowering the community. Everythis is done by the community themselves, and that is good. That is exactly the development pattern that must be applied within this era of regional autonomy On community empowerment, take CLTS or WSLIC for instance, whether the community is indeed empowered? In general the community is receptive. Though there is always some constraint especially in relation to level of education. But as I see it, basically if one is entrusted with responsibility one is capable. He is motivated to prove that he is capable. And that really happened. Actually in this era of regional autonomy all this could happen because all this time everything seems to be directed from above. The central just provide us with guidance, we will do the rest. This means giving more trust to the regional community. What is the key to success in empowerment, besides trust? First the support from stakeholders. In this case the Bupati, DPRD. The role of a head of an Agency is to motivate the stakeholders, each in their respective sectors. The second is coordination, both among programs and also intersectoral. The third is give the communiy the trust they deserve. Whether the target Lumajang Sehat (Healthy Lumajang) 2010 can be achieved considering the present situation? I hope it will be achieved. Why I am so optimistic, it is because up to this time it was quite seldom the region did anything with definite indicator. The Gerbang Mas contains those indicators. Up to this time we know what has been achieved and to what extent. That is why we made an advocation to the Bupati why Posyandu instead of pilot area. This is because the target is small and concentrated as it is institutionalized. Whereas an area such as a village is too large and extensive. Through Posyandu we eventually reach a village level. Therefore in 2006 it should be more than 34 villages. In 2006 we will cover 500 posyandus. In 2007 the remainder. That means all the villages. According to our record there are in all 1257 posyandus Besides functioning PKK, is there any other institution involved? We have built partnership with women organization and NGO. The model, what does it look like? Posyandu has a problem, they have asset, such as money and materials. The may join and work together for a certain purpose. Posyandu may act as foster child in terms of assistance but not being owned and not imposed with specific interest, political or otherwise. But it must be within the corridor from, by and for the community. What is the trick in attracting stakeholders' attention? I have to act like a jamu (traditional herbal medicine) seller. I have to show them that this one is successful, this is what we need. All this must be supported with reliable data. We cannot make advocacy to the stakeholders without pertinent data. We have data since 2001, including Posyandu mentioned earlier. Specifically with CLTS and WSLIC, whether there is replication without central intervention? Not directly, but indirectly the Bupati has mentioned that this project is what we need. WSLIC has no meaningful barrier that imposes a burden to the Bupati. It should be mentioned, that indeed there is still no big budget available to expand WSLIC program because our budget for health development is less than 15 percent. For CLTS? We are developing it but we have to be most careful because of the difference in cultural background. I have tipped our coleagues, look for a homogenous community. In which CLTS could possibly be applied. Is there any criticism regarding to WSLIC? Not criticism at all, it is just a small comment, since I wonder why fund flow has been slow lately. I don't know where the barrier is. What becomes obvious is, it is now not as smooth it used to be in the first, second and third years. Such a delay will of course hinder a lot of village level processes. It has been a practice that before the fund is ready in hand, the socialization activities have been conducted. The community gets so highly excited, but fund is hanging in the cloud, and the spirit goes down again. When later the fund is ready there is a need to make an extra effort to pump up the spirit again.
(Mujiyanto)

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Micro Credit for Sanitation
Http://www.eldis.org/static/DOC6371 viation that was common to Latin American cities. The program started with sending volunteers to Caracas, ACCION nowadays has become an organization that operates in world level micro financing network covering Latin America, United States, and Africa. Within almost four decades this NGO has been able to develop innovations in solving poverty problems. The mission of this NGO is to provide tools for the poor so that they can get out of the poverty, through providing a relatively micro credit to start anew the business they have already had. In this way it is expected they can change in a dignified manner and full of self reliance. Finally they can earn an income thay make them capable of satisfying their basic need such as water supply, better food, and children education. This NGO records around 3 billion people who live on less than 2 US dollars a day (appr. Rp 18.000). Therefore, the donation they could provide will not be enough to cover all the needs. And therefore, ACCION develops a sustainable anti-poverty strategy that is applicable in a self reliant manner.

Micro Financing in Bangladesh
http://www.beesbd.org/micro_credit.htm

ithin the framework of reducing poverty and improving income of the poor, micro credit and micro financing programs have been developed extensively since the last 20 years. This website presents us all the reports of the institutions and organization that have been successful in developing micro financing system. The key to the success of the system lies with the informal support of micro entrepreneurship developing within the regions where the micro financing scheme is exercised. The micro financing system is applicable to drinking water and saniation services in order to increase service coverage to communities living in the cities, urban villages and rural areas. This website presents the mechanism how the micro credit and micro credit for sanitation developemt could be implemented and identify the key factors to the success of its application in many parts of the world. One of them is a report on Indonesia by Yayasan Dian Desa in Yogyakarta in 1993.

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ACCION International
http://www.accion.org/default.asp

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his institution was established in 1961 for the purpose of poverty alle-

t is said that micro financing system was implemented for the first time in Bangladesh. One of the implementing institutions was BEES in cooperation with Bangladesh Krishi Bank in 1975. The program was intended to reduce poverty through facilitating the poor to access to resources and strengthening them. The method is, BEES acts as guarantor to bank so that the poor could access to a credit without collateral. The credit is specifically designed to the landless poor, the poor with less than 50 m2 lot, labourers, population who live below poverty line. BEES offers 4 service types one for each of the poor groups in the form of credit, saving, insurance, and credit plus service. They are given a credit at a level between 3.000 - 10.000 taka at fixed interest rate of 15 percent. Repayment is done once a week. The loan may take the format of a genuine loan, sectoral loan program, and micro enterpreneurship development program. (MJ)

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B OOK INFO
The Danger of Water Privatization

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he echo of privatization is sounding loudly in Indonesia, especially after the opening of reform faucet. One by one of the state owned companies that control the need of the general population are privatized. This process gradually moves to drinking water. Some of the PDAMs are now under the control of private companies. Most of them are foreign investors. To some people this tendency is considered as a natural consequence considering the present Indonesian economic condition. But, have we ever seriously considered that privatization of water supply sector is extremely dangerous not only to the water source but also human life in general? This book which is written by Maude Barlow and Tony Clarke will speak against the presently developing mainstream in water supply management. Empirical facts indicate that privatization will lead to extensive water exploitation, ignoring public rights, and generating social conflicts.

Title:

Blue Gold. Perampasan dan Komersialisasi Sumber Daya Air
Author: Maude Barlow dan Tony Clarke Publisher : PT. Gramedia Pustaka Utama Pages : 327 pp + xviii

The steps towards privatization have been taken systematically. Transnational companies take aggressive efforts to take over public water supply services with the support of the World Bank and International Monetory Fund (IMF). It is unsurprising that in order to enter a certain nation, these two institutions take preliminary activities to change the law and regulations in order to suit them with

what the transnational companies want. Previously, the government and international institutions supported the "Washington Concensus" which states that solution to water supply service is through privatization and commodiousness. This book mentions that privatization and commodiousness of water must be challenged. Water is public property and part of human rights. The vital resource is unchangeable to a commodity for sale to the highest bidder. Both authors offer a solution towards a water resilience movement, (i) promoting Law on BasicWater Rights, (ii) establishment of local water regulatory board; (iii) promoting National Law on Water Protection; (iv) denial to commercial trading of water; (v) support an anti damming movement; (vi) anti IMF and World Bank movement; (vii) fight against water tycoons; (viii) promote a movement towards water equity; (ix) promote a treaty initiative on water as common property; (x) and support Global Water Convention. (MJ)

H

ave you ever imagined what will happen to the world population 25 years from now? It is estimated that by that time the world will be inhabited by 8 billion souls, 5 billion of them will live in the urban areas. What will the water supply sanitation look like then, considering that the present condition is already as bad? This is what makes the planners, architects, environmentalists, biologists, cultural scientists, and sociologists put their brains together to develop an approach to water thriftiness, non polluting sanitation system that recycles human wastes (feces and urine) into the soil. This approach is called ecological sanitation or ecosan. This book discusses this matter extensively. Here are 4 main topics discussed therein, sanitation as part of global eco-

New Sanitation Model
Title:

Ecological Sanitation
Editor : Uno Winblad and Mayling Simpson-Hebert Publisher: Stockholm Environment Institute, 2004 Pages : 141 pp

logical system, experiences in apllication of ecosan in several parts of the world, how and when ecosan approach is applicable, and vision of ecosan concept within

urban communities. Ecological sanitation is based on three underlying principles, namely (i) preventing pollution is better than controlling the existing; (ii) sanitize oneself from sickness, urine and feces; (iii) using the recycled materials for agricultural purposes. To put it simple: sanitize and recycle. The important part of ecosan is how to sanitize human feces before it is put into utilization, as feces may cause contamination of diseases. There are two methods of sanitazing it, dehidration and decomposition. With these methods virus, bacteria, and fungi will die. Then the feces can be used. Whereas urine is safe enough to be directly used for agriculture without a specific process or keeping for a specific length of time. Several examples of ecosan from various parts of the world are described in this book. (MJ)

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C D INFO
Electronic Library on Water, Sanitation and Health
or the third time WHO issues an electronic library on water, sanitation and health in a CD. This library contains a wide range of information from a number of organizations related to the sectors. In the CD that was released in October 2004 publications and documents are presented in HTML files and several other sources in PDF format. The next edition is scheduled to be released in December 2005. The data collection for this CD is intended to simplify the process of searchng information by scientists, policy makers, practitioners, students, NGO, consultants and so on. It is hoped that with this kind of CD access to information about water, sanitation and health could reach the developing countries all over the world.

F

The topics are among others drinking water quality, global supervision on water supply and sanitation, health arrangements, safe wastewater and human waste utilisation, relationship between water and sanitation to health, water source quality, and environmental sanitation in times of emergency. Each of the topics

consists of scores of books and magazines. This CD also contains the latest publications. Among others manual on the drinking water quality ed. 3 (2004), MDGs meeting on drinking water and sanitation targets (2004), and international workshop on health as it relates to foods and drinks in Amman, Jordan (2003). This library contains also posters and photographs from all corners of the world. There are catalogues on drinking water, sanitation, and health. Some books could be directly ordered through internet. All data in the CD are easily accessible. The search is based on word, subject, title, organization, and topic. (MJ)

Experience in CLTS Application in India

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he concept of Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) has entered Indonesia. A series of field trials is now being implemented. It is said this concept has been successful in changing the community behaviour especially in India and Bangladesh who used to defecate in the open but now they are doing it in a toilet. Is that true? This VCD at least provides us an illustration how the concept has been applied successfully in Maharashtra, India. It is illustrated that the community used to defecate in bushes. Not only children, but also the adults. The consequence is obvious, everywhere around the village one can smell unpleasant stench of human waste. Hearing the experience of Bangladesh, the local government with the support of local NGO started with an anti dolbun (defecate in the garden) campaign. The message is delivered through

traditional art show, classroom lesson in schools, religious lectures, and film show. Together with these events the facilitator conducts motivational activity to the community. One of the methods to trigger the "hate" to the habit of defecating in the open is through persuading the inhabitants to walk around the village. The villagers, as it turns out, feel unpleasant with foul stench. The facilitator then explains the impact of the dolbun. Finally the community becomes aware that they have to build a toilet in order to satisfy their fulfill need. Then communal movement comes into action. The community works at night, because during daytime they are

busy with their own job. The schoolchidren are also involved in collecting rocks for the toilet construction. All is developed from their own resources. Finally the first toilet comes into being. After two years implementing the program the villages of Maharashtra are free from dolbun. The villagers have a toilet. It is also illustrated that there is an understanding with the community that one cannot marry his grown up children unless one has a toilet. Besides, in the beginning of the program there was a patrol to see if anyone is still practising dolbun. Anyone caught while practising doldun is fined a sum of 50 Rupee. This VCD can serve as a comparison for areas where CLTS are being put to trial. Of course the contents cannot all be taken right away. There are processes that need be complemplated and then be adapted to Indonesian condition. (MJ)

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July 2005

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Appropriate Technology Exhibition
ithin the framework of XIII commemoration of World Water Day 2005 the national committee organized an exhibition of appropriate technologies which was held at the parking area of the Department of Public Works on 27-29 April 2005. No less than 100 participants consisting of government agencies, private sector, and NGOs took part in the exhibition. The exhibition was dedicated by the Minister of Public Works, Djoko Kirmanto. In his openign speech Mr. Kirmanto made mention that water is a vital need for human and other living creatures. Even it can be interpreted that without water life is impossible therefore water is an invaluable blessing from God the Merciful. Besides he also emphasized that water contains social, economical and environmental function, thus water must be

W

SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE

Minister of Public Works is visiting Pokja AMPL - WASPOLA

treated and used as effectively and efficiently as possible and its function is pro-

tected and regarded as source of life.
(AK/MJ)

INCOMING OUTGOING

&
NEW OFFICERS
Ir. Agoes Widjanarko, MIP Director General for Cipta Karya, Dept. PW Ir Ismanto, MSc Secretary Directorate General for Cipta Karaya Dept. PW Ir. Djoko Muryanto, MSc. Director of Pramming Dept. PW Ir. Poedjastanto S, CES, DE Director of PLP Development Dept. PW Dr. I Nyoman Kandun, MPH Director Gneral for PP & PL Dept. Health Ir. Ace Yati Hayati, Msi Caretaker Director of Water and Sanitation Dept. Health Drs. H. Syamsul Arief Rivai, MS Director General Bangda Dept. Home Affairs

RETIRED
Dr. Hening Darpito, SKM. Dipl SE Direktur Penyehatan Air dan Sanitasi, Depkes Ir. Budiman Arif Sekjen Dep. PU Hartoyo Anggota Pokja AMPL dari Depkes Sutjipto Anggota Pokja AMPL dari Depkes

40

Percik

July 2005

A ROUND WSES
Inauguration of SANIMAS Projects
SOURCE:OSWAR MUNGKASA

T

he implementation of Community Sanitation (SANIMAS) projects in several towns and cities have come to completion in 2005. The project is intended to (i) improve the community sanitation facility through treatment of domestic wastewater from washing, bathing and toilets of slum areas by construction of community based sanitation facility, (ii) adoption of community based sanitation as one of the regional government's alternatives. Along with the completion of the projects a series of inauguration events were conducted. The following are several reports from the inaugural ceremonies together with a short description of SANIMAS in each of the locations.

Denpasar City, Bali

S

ANIMAS Project II of the city of Denpasar was inaugurated on 14 March 2005. The project is located at the Neighborhood Kusuma Bangsa, Banjar Mekar Manis, Desa Pamecutan Kaja, Sub district Denpasar Barat, about 1,5 km from the centre of the city. The ceremony was held right on top of the wastewater treatment facility which is built under the road surface. Present in the ceremony were representatives from central government, the neighbouring regional governments such as District Badung, District Jembrana, BORDA, Bali Fokus, and representatives from SANIMAS I beneficiaries. SANIMAS II is a cooperative endeavour between the central government, regional government, NGO and the community. The total budget was Rp 275,9 million with the composition (i) Denpasar city government (Agency of Environment) Rp 150 million (54,4 percent) as a direct subsidy to the community; central government (Dept. of Public Works) Rp 76,3 million (24,4 percent) as in kind subsidy; (iii) BORDA, an NGO Rp

50 million (18,1 percent) as facilitation; community contribution Rp 5 million in cash and Rp 3,6 million in labour (3,1 percent). The construction was conducted by Community Selfhelp Kusuma Bangsa as the contractor with facilitation by Bali Fokus, an Indonesian counterpart of BORDA Indonesia. The community was provided with counterpart facilitator in planning, construction up to operation through a series of training, health campaign and discussion meetings. Before the project, the community took drinking water from shallow pit and drilled wells. While the latrines used by the inhabitants were without any proper septic tank and the faeces was flushed directly into the nearest water body. The river was highly polluted, of course. SANIMAS II provides service to 211 households or 800 people. Their livehood varies from vendor business selling sate (barbeque), ordinary street vendor, casual labourer and construction worker at an average monthly income around Rp 500.000. The system consists of piping network connecting home to Wastewater Treatment facility which is built right under the road surface, using Anaerobic

Baffled Reactor-ABR technology. Construction work lasted from November 2004 till February 2005. The management is run by the officers of Kusuma Bangsa Selfhelp Community Group with membership consists of all the users. In October 2004 they have been given management training and empowerment by BORDA in Yogyakarta. The users agree to pay a monthly contribution amounting to Rp 5.000 per household, the fund is used to cover the O&M costs and cleaning of the surrounding. Besides improvement to the sanitation, the project is also producing biogas as alternative energy for domestic purpose. Based on empirical experience the gas production can satisfy the need of 3 households at the least. (OM)

Pasuruan City, East Java

S

ANIMAS II in the city of Pasuruan was inaugurated on 6 April 2005. Present in the event were the Chairman of DPRD Pasuruan, Head of Bappeda, community leaders, representatives of the central government, BORDA representative, and local faclitators. The inauguraton was held in Karang Kletak Hamlet RW (Community group)

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July 2005

41

A ROUND WSES
SOURCE:EXCLUSIVE

II/RT (Neighborhood Group) 06 Mandaranrejo Village, Kidul Pasuruan Subdistrict. The Project takes the form of MCK construction consisting of toilet component (latrine, bathroom and washing floor), piping network and wastewater treatment installation equiped with biogas generating facility. The choice of MCK option was based on limited land area that makes it impossible to build a private toilet for each of the households. The selection of land (100 sq. m) for MCK was made by the community with the facilitation by local field facilitator and Best, a Surabaya based NGO. The construction cost Rp 314 million from central government subsidy, Pasuruan City municipal government, BORDA and the community. The construction work was just completed in the last week of March 2005 so that the MCK has not been used by the community. However, in the neighbourhood there was also a newly refunctioning of old MCK along with the growth in awareness of hygienic life produced by SANIMAS project. It is planned that the biogas will be sold to 3-4 households. But the community is still doubtful about the gas, so that for the time being the gas is still being used in the MCK guardhouse. Water for use in the MCK is supplied by PDAM which is contained in two reservioirs. Groundwater of the locality cannot be used because of inferior quality. Therefore, the MCK can earn an additional income by selling water because many of the inhabitants buy water from water vendor. MCK management is run by the community. Within the first seven days the communty may use it free of charge. Afterwards one will be charged with a contribution the sum of which will be decided later. (Ita)

per month. One unique thing is the wastewater treatment facility is used also used as a gathering place including sport ground for the local community. The source of funding for SANIMAS I construction was grant fund from the Australian government, city government, and local community contribution. (OM)

Pamekasan, East Java
ANIMAS in Pamekasan was inaugurated on 28 July. The ceremony was held at Pondok Pesantren Miftahul Qulub, Desa Polagan, Kecamatan galis, Pamekasan, Jawa Timur. The official opening was made by the Bupati of Pamekasan, Drs. Achmad Syafi'i. Present in the event were Chairman of DPRD, Oswar Mungkasa from Bappenas, and representaive from Pondok Pesantren Sumber Bungur, Pamekasan. SANIMAS in Pamekasan was developed in two Pondok Pesantrens, i.e. Miftahul Qulub and Sumber Bungur. The project is quite beneficial to the santris (pupils) because the existing MCKs in both pesantrens were short of expectation. The ratio of latrines to the number of users was imbalanced. The regional government record from an oberservation made in 4 pesantrens indicates that one latrine is used by 200 - 400 pupils per day. In the beginning the SANIMAS project almost met with a failure because of objection from some members of the community. The project was later shifted to Pondok Pesantren. At that time there were more pesantrens who were interested and requested for assistance. More lending hands were needed to help those pesantrens. (MJ/AK)

S

City of Blitar, East Java
The mayor of Blitar, Djarot Saiful, inaugurated SANIMAS II at Desa Kauman, Blitar City on 13 April 2005. Present in the ceremony were representatives from central government, Chairman of DPRD City of Blitar, BORDA (an NGO) and its associate. And a number of community leaders. SANIMAS II project of this city takes the form of Communal Sanitation System. The system can serve up to 100 households but for the time being it is usedf by 67 households or 269 persons. The system was constructed from a combined funding source: central government, city government, BORDA, and local community. The management will be undertaken by Community Selfhelp Group "Ngudi Raharjo" that was established by the community. In this opportunity a visit was paid to the SANIMAS I Communal System. From an interview with the local inhabitants it was revealed that the number of users has increased from 72 up to 94 households. The capacity of the existing system is 150 households. The amount of contribution is Rp 2.000 per household

42

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July 2005

A ROUND WSES
MPA/PHAST Training CWSH Project

A

s an effort to improve the capacity and skill in project management, the government conducted a Management Training for Project Managers and Mobilization of MPA/PHAST for CWSH Project", held at Pasuruan, East Java, 19-26 June 2005. This training was openend by Ir. Ace Yati Hayati, MS, Caretaker of Director of Water and Sanitation, Dept. of Health. Sixty four participants attended the training, they were coming from CWSH project of kabupaten, provincial and central levels. The subject matters presented in the training comprised government workplan 2006 for health sector, National Policy for WSES Development, CWSH project management, and community empowerment using MPA/PHAST. Community Water Services and He-

alth (CWSH) Project intends to improve commuity access to drinking water and sanitation. Methodology for Participatory Assessments/Participatory Hygiene and Sanitation Transformation (MPA/PHAST) consists of methods in increasing community role in identification, analysis and problem solving. (OM)
SOURCE: EXCLUSIVE

CWSH District
No
Province

1

Kalimantan Timur

2

Kalimantan Barat

3

Jambi

4

Bengkulu

District 1. Kapuas 2. Kotawaringin Timur 3. Katingan 4. Barito Selatan 5. Pulang Pisau 6. Barito Timur 1. Landak 2. Sanggai 3. Kapuas Hulu 4. Ketapang 5. Sintang 6. Sambas 1. Tanjung Jabung Barat 2. Bungo 3. Batang Hari 4. Sarolangun 5. Muaro Jambi 1. Bengkulu Utara 2. Bengkulu selatan 3. Rejang Lebong

n Thursday, 2 June 2005 FORKAMI Discussion Forum (FDF) held a discussion with the topic "Overcoming Clean Water Crisis Using Soil". This discussion was chaired by Achmad Rachman, researcher of the Centre for Soil and Agroclimatic Researh, Bogor. In his presentation Achmad revealed that excessive groundwater exploitation has resulted in a drop in ground water table, and intrusion of salt water. To overcome the negative impact, according to him, it is deemed necessary to increase ground water supply. Several techniques have been developed such as infiltration well, construction of reservoir, pond and manmade lake. He also offers subterranean reservoir technology by laying a network of porous pipes buried underground. The basic principle of this technology is ca-

Discussion Forum “Overcoming Water Crisis” O
SOURCE:ANDRE K

pturing rainwater temporarily in a network of porous pipes buried below the ground surface. Water then seeps into the soil around it and finally moves to the drier areas of the soil. With the application of this technolo-

gy land use is more efficient, reduces crop maintenance cost, and prevents disruption to natural scenery. But the weakness is a relatively large amount of money is needed for construction and it requires a specific expertise for planning and construction. The participants of discussion hailed this technology. But its application is still waiting pending specific strategies. This technology is considered more suitable for application in construction that needs a large land area such as office buildings, shopping centres, and so on. Besides, it is also necessary to consider the effect of porous pipes on land carrying capacity to withstand heavy physical structures on it. To enable extensive application of this technology, it is deemed necessary to develop a binding regulation including incentive and disincentive mechanisms. (AK)

Percik

July 2005

43

A ROUND WSES
National Dialogue on Solid Waste Management
n order to find solution to the national problem in soild waste management, on 4 July 2005 a "National Dialogue to Find a Solution to Solid Waste Management in Indonesia" was held at the Jakarta Hilton Convention Centre. This event was the fruit of a cooperative endeavour of the Sate Ministry of Evironment, Indonesia Association of Environmental and Sanitation Engineers (IATPI) and Indonesia Solid Waste Association (InSWA). The dialogue was intended to build a synergism and commitment among the stakeholders as a stepping stone for decision makers in formulating a realistic commitment strategic policy for a sustainable solid waste management. The event was opened by the Ministry of Environment, Rachmat Witoelar. The dialogue process was divided into 2 sessions. The speakers of the first session were Sarwono Kusumaatmadja (MP), Basah Hernowo (Director of Human Settlements and Housing, Bappenas), Agus Widjanarko (Dir. Gen. for Cipta karya, Dept. of Public Works) and Sri Bebassari (Solid Waste Expert, World BankIWF/IsSWA) with Parni Hadi as moderator. This session discussed the priorities in the clean first oriented development comprising the basic concept, legal framework, institution and financing. Present as reviewers were Tjatur Sapto Edi (MP/IATPI), Bagong Suyoto (Tapak Biru, an NGO), Sayogo member of DPRD Jakarta), and Imdaad Hamid (Mayor of Balikpapan). Several main issues that were revealed during the session were the absence of relevant public policy, lack of pertinent law to act as legal umbrella, lack of inter-agency coordination in management, weak community position in case of garbage related conflict, insufficient public and private sector's interest to invest in solid waste management. It was realized from this dialogue that solid

I

SOURCE:ANDRE K

Dialogue: MrBasah is presenting his views (bottom), and dialogue between speakers (top)

waste management calls for multisectoral involvement. Therefore it is deemed necessary to as soon as possible develop a legal framework and relevant policy for solid waste management. This legal framework and policy is expected to provide a favourable climate for the private sector participation. In the second session present as speakers were Deputy Governor of Jawa Barat, Rama Boedi (Dinas Kebersihan, Jakarta), Slamet Daroyni (WALHI, an

NGO), Djoko Heru Martono (Solid Waste Expert of BPPT-IWF/InSWA). This session discussed integrated solid waste management system, solid waste management in the contect of decentralization, regionalization, and privatization, social engineering and social empowerment, and staged management startegy utilising environmentally friendly technology. Present as revieweres were Enri Damanhuri (Solid Waste Expert from ITB), Widhi Handoko (IATPI), and Katie Andriani from JWMC Joint Secretariat. This dialogue came to an agreement to establish a waste management body involving the regional governments, the community and the private sector. The management body should be established as a business entity so that it can serve as an alternative investment opportunity for the private sector. It should, however, be taken into consideration that the management body must not do any harm to those community members who up to now have been depending their life on waste materials. (AK)

44

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July 2005

A ROUND WSES
Preliminary Meeting Multistakeholder PSP Global Review in Water and Sanitation Sector in Indonesia

T

he participation of private sector in the management of institutionally based water supply service is still being seriously debated. Several international institutions that work or are interested in the role of private sector in drinking water and sanitation sector, especially in the benefit or impact that have been produced, agree to conduct a global review of private sector participation in drinking water and sanitation sector. Indonesia is expected to become a participating country in this global review. For this purpose, on 29 July 2005 the global review program in cooperation with FORKAMI conducted a preliminary meeting on multistakeholder PSP Global Review in Drinking Water and Sanitation in Indonesia. The meeting was attended

by representatives from the government, private sector, service provider (PAM Jaya), NGO, university, WASPOLA, Apeksi, and Perpamsi. The purpose of the meeting was to build an understanding amongst the multistakeholders related to water supply and sanitation about the need of PSP review in Indonesia. The Project coordinator of PSP global review on behalf of the international working group presented a number of salient points as discussion materials, they are namely explanaton about global PSP review, the benefit of global PSP review for Indonesia, whether this study will support national policy process? If yes, how could it be translated into action. Towards the end of the meeting, the

drinking water and sanitation related multistakeholders agreed that Indonesia will be party of the global PSP review activity, and for this purpose it was also agreed to form an interim working group consisting of representatives from several components, one of them being WASPOLA. The members of the interim working group consist of Riant (Drinking Water Service Regulatory Body, Jakarta), Budi (Unika Soegiyo Pranoto, Semarang), Budi (PAM Lyonnaise Jaya), Hamong (People's Coalition on Rights for Water/Kruha), Sugiono (FORKAMI, Drinking Water Communication Forum), Dameria (PAM Jaya Trade Union), Bambang Purwanto (Dept. of Public Works), Oswar Mungkasa (Bappenas & WASPOLA), Lis Novani (PAM Jaya) and Rhamses (Thames PAM Jaya). (Lina)

Youth Campaign Against Plastic

T

here was an interesting scene during the environmental exhibition on 2-5 Juli 2005 in Jakarta. A group of young people displayed a big poster anti plastic wrapping which says "Say No To Plastic". The poster was part of a campaign by young people belonging to Tunas Hijau (Green Bud), a Surabaya based youth group who care for environment safekeeping. The President of Tunas Hijau, M. Zamroni, explained that this campaign was a step towards reducing the use of plastic bags especially for shopping. "We all know that once it becomes a garbage it is difficult to decompose," he stated. In its campaign the Tunas Hijau asked the general community to think twice in asking for a plastic bag if the merchan-

dise is only a small thing and easy to carry. As an alternative, the community is persuaded to prepare their own bag from home, office, motorcycle, and car so there is no need for a free plastic bag when shopping. Besides, the community is persuaded to ask the stores to stop supplying customers with free plastic bags. More that that, they also ask the people's representatives to introduce a special tax law for using plastic bags or prohibition of using them. Zamroni explains that this campaign has received a hearty welcome from the community. No one is against it, the community is in general in favour of it, he says. This is evidenced from support given by bussines community in Surabaya to those who were willing to join the campaign.

Tunas Hijau was initiated 1999. It was founded by 5 students alunmi of Indonesia-Australia student exchange program specializing on environment. Upon returning from Australia they started to persuade the community to pay more attention to the environment especially on waste material. "Our community is still careless. In Australia almost 95 percent of her community disposes twaste materals into garbage bins. Therefore we are moving in that area," explains Zamroni who is presently a student of University of Airlangga. Currently Tunas Hijau has 700 members. Some of them are still young boys and girls of 7 up to young people of 29 years old. Tunas Hijau membership is spread all over Jawa Timur. It is planning to expand its membership reach. (MJ)

Percik

July 2005

45

A ROUND WASPOLA
Learning How to Develop Road Mapping To Achieve MDGs-WSES Target

W

ASPOLA conducted a Workshop and Training on Operationalization of Policy and Formulation of Regional Level Water Supply and Sanitation (WSES) Development Strategic Plan. The activity was successively conducted in two places, one in Makassar on 30 May - 3 June 2005 to cater the the participants from eastern regions (Gorontalo, Sulawesi Selatan, NTB and Sulawesi Tenggara) and another one in Puncak on 6-10 June 2005 for western regions (Sumatra Barat, Bangka Belitung, Banten and Jawa Tengah). Total participants: 89. The workshop training was a preparatory step for the regions for policy implementation in 2005 which will be exercised in 8 provinces and 21 district. This activity was intended to provide the participants with the necessary knowledge about the national policy for community based WSES development and its operational plan. Specifically

this activity discusses the techniques in formulating strategic plan in relation to target achievement as mandated by MDGs. The purpose of the activity was to improve the participants' knowledge about the national policy and its operational plan and formulation of the regional level WSES development strategic plan. While the specific objectives of the workshop training consit of: Conduct a study and common perception about the policy in the regional context, rating and significance of policy principles in accordance to the demand of each region. Conduct an updated policy analysis in each of the regions in relation to sustainable WSES development. Understanding road mapping of operational plan within the framework of MDGs target achievemnt. Learning and practise in formulating strategic plan for regio-

nal level WSES development. In general the workshop traing was divided into two parts covering understanding the policy and formulation of strategic plan. The whole process was conducted in participatory manner while positioning every individual participant as resource person about the specific condition in his own region. This workshop training has produced a common perception about each of the policy principles in the regional context and priority as well as significance in accordance with the regional condition. Besides, there was a growing awareness among the participants about the issues and problems related to sustainability of WSES development. The participants also managed to formulate strategic plans for WSES development for each of their owe regions in participatory manner. (Subari/MJ)

Official inauguration of WSLIC-2 Project in Sawahlunto Sijunjung District

W

SLIC-2 project implemented in 37 sites at Sawahlunto Sijunjung District, West Sumatera was inaugurated on 30 May. The facility transfer was centred at the Nagari Mundam Sakti, Jorong IV Nagari. The event was attended by Darius Apan, Bupati of Sawahlunto Sijunjung, Umar Fahmi Ahmadi, Director General for PPMPL (Head of District Government), Dept. of Health, Hening Darpito, Director of PAS, Dept. of Health, Basah Hernowo, Director of Housing and Settlement Systems, Bappenas, Arum Atmawikarta, Director of Community Health and Nutrition, Bappenas, and representatives from the involved government agencies. The Head of Health Agency of Sawahlunto Sijunjung District explained that WSLIC-2 project is implemented in 50 sites and up to that time 37 are ready with a management

unit and are being transfered for operation. The remainder is still in contract process. The representative of adat leaders who was present in the event said that the project was not merely intended to increase access to drinking water and sanitation and improve community health condition but it also motivates the rural economic development and support religious activities, because since clean water is available at home the community is more regular in conducting shalat tahajud (prayer after midnight). Director General for PPMPL of Dept. of Health said that water and sanitation service, application of hygiene behaviour can reduce the prevalence of diarrhoeal disease up to 40 percent. Besides, it can also help in reducing the spreading of polio, a disease that attacks Indonesia lately. After completion of the inauguration event a visit was paid to Nagari Gantung Ciri, Jorong Kampung

Baru. The water supply system over there consists of 35 home connections and 19 public faucets. And there are 28 toilets. The toilet construction was not organized through revolving fund system, it was paid by private fund since it has been decided that those who requests for home connection must previously build a household toilet. The community also constructed places for wudhu (cleansing before praying), public faucets, home connection, relief valves, and water intake structure. The water quality is moderately acceptable (no colour, no taste and no smell). However, stains of rust in the iron pipe of the intake structure indicate a fairly high ferrous content. Therefore, the Director of Human Settlements and Housing, Bappenas suggests that the community construct a steplike structure in the intake in order to help aeration process and reduce the ferrous content. (Ita)

46

Percik

July 2005

A ROUND WASPOLA
WSES Working Group Meeting with Director of Water and Energy, the World Bank
n his visit to Indonesia the Director of Water and Energy, the World Bank, Jamal Saghir took the pleasure of meeting the WSES (Water Supply and Environmental Sanitation) Working Group. The meeting was held on 28 June 2005 at the WASPOLA Secretariat and was chaired by Basah Hernowo, Director of Housing and Settlement Systems, Bappenas. In his openig Basah Hernowo explained WASPOLA achievement and several on-going activities up to the present. Beside the National Policy for Community Based WSES Development which was completed during WASPOLA Phase 1, currently the Working Group has completed similar draft for Institutionally Based WSES Development. It is expected the draft could be approved for implementation by the Deputy/Directorate Generals of the involved government departments. In the second phase, WASPOLA is focused

I

similar program such as ISSDP (Indonesia Sanitation Sector Development Program). Jamal Saghir expressed his respect for the Working Group achievements, and he said that the Policy that was produced is an invaluable output in the management SOURCE: LINA of WSES sector in Indonesia. At the present stage the Working Group must start to focus on matters that support the process of tranlating policy into practice. One of the main activities suggeste by Saghir is a fiscal flow analysis in WSES sector. According to him that besides the policy and its strategies, financing is one important component in WSES sector, for without a clear financing framework the policy principles will be difficult to apply. Besides fiscal flow Saghir also suggests that the activities in Phase 2 is focused to sanitation sector. Up to now saniSanitation) field trial. Basah also made tation is grossly lagging behind the drinking mention that the Policy was formulated water, there is a need for a serious effort to fill through WASPOLA facilitation is expectthe gap. (Lina) ed to serve as umbrella or reference for on implementation of the policy at the regional level through central government facilitation. Other activities include studies for finding more effective approaches in increasing WSES coverage, such as CLTS (Community-Led Total

Workshop on Dissemination of the National Policy for WSES Development in Banten Province

A

s an effort to push the regional government to implement the National Policy for Community Based WSES Development, WASPOLA organized a workshop for dissemination of National Policy for WSES Development at Serang, Banten on 3 May 2005. This workshop was attended by 30 participants coming from the cities of Cilegon and Tangerang, Serang District, Tangerang District, Pandeglang District and Kab. Lebak. The workshop was opened by the Chairman of Bappeda of Province of Banten. There were 4 topics discussed in the workshop, they were national policy

for WSES development, ground- and surface water condition in Banten, policy and strategy for health development of the Province of Banten, and adoption of national policy for WSES development in Lebak District . The subject of national policy for community based WSES development was presented by Oswar Mungkas of Bappenas. He explained that drinking water and environmental sanitation service coverage in Indonesia is still quite low. On the other hand, he continued, that in year 2015 Indonesia in accordance to MDGs target is obliged to decrease 50 persent of the number of those who cur-

rently are without access to drinking water and environmental sanitation facility. Whereas the government capacity is limited, population growth is increasing, raw water reserves are become more scarce, and environmental sanitation issues is becoming more and more complicated. Therefore, the government formulated a national policy for WSES development. It is expected this policy could serve as reference for those involved in sustainable WSES development and further will be put to operational steps and strategies by the regional government, dan finally be followed up into action plan and implementation at the regional level. (MJ)

Percik

July 2005

47

A ROUND WASPOLA
Result of Workshop on Urban Sanitation Management
anitation, the abandoned child", a statement expressed by a presenter in this workshop seems quite relevant with the sanitation situation of our country. Sanitation sector of Indonesia especially in towns and cities is lagging far behind the drinking water and other sectors. Today, the sewerage system of urban areas can only cover about 2 percent of the total population. In the meantime, the health related social and economic costs has reached 2,4 percent of the GNP (approximately 4,7 billion USD or Rp 100.000 per household per month). Therefore, sanitation of the urban was selected as the main topic of this workshop. This workshop was organized by the World Bank in cooperation with FORKALIM (Forum for Communication on Wastewater), held in Makassar on 28-29 April 2005. The participants came from various institutions such as PDAM (Regional Drinking Water Enterprise), university, the involved government departments, local governments, DPRD (Local Legislative Board), NGO, and several international organizations such as World Bank, WSP and USAID. The guest speakers invited to this workshop came from Water and Sanitation Anchor of the World Bank and Indah Water Konsortium (IWK) of Malaysia. The workshop process consisted of a combination between presentation and participatory group discussion. The discussion topics consisted of sanitation alternatives, beginning from community based sanitation, up to the city scale; the possibility of PDAM role in sanitation management; and cost recovery issues. The workshop was divided into two sessions. The first session that deals with several issues related to urban areas was provided in presentation format. The first topic of this session was entitled "Lessons learned and global experience from

"S

Sanitation, anak yang terlupakan* Sanitasi si the abandoned child

*Ambillah, dia tanggung jawab anda (Dep PU), Bukan, dia tanggung jawab anda (Dep Kes) Bukan, anda ambil dia (Depdagri)

From WSP East Africa Dari WSP Afrika Timur

city scale sanitation system that includes the urban poor." There are four important points for developing the strategic concept of urban sanitation, namely the investment scheme in connection to the principle of the beneficiaries' obligation (individual vs. public); (ii) the advantage of modular/unbudled approach which combines several sanitation choices beginning from community based up to a centralized system; (iii) the importance of sanitation and hygiene promotion to build community awareness and demand for sanitation, and behavioural change; (iv) the strategic plan of a city scale sanitation should be developed under the leadership of a certain level of the government but with involvement of other parties including the community. The second topic of session entitled "The approach to be applied in the cost recovery of city scale sanitation" was presented by PDAM which manages centralized sanitation system of the cities of Banjarmasin and Surakarta. The said PDAM is currently operating integrated wastewater treatment installation at a

I

Unbundling
t means splitting of service into smaller portion like modular approach: May apply different technology and level of service Involving more parties The community takes the initiative in problem solving Staged funding at a smaller amount and more varied funding sources Increase choice by the participants and ownership by users.

capacity of 500m3/day and centralized sanitation network covering an area of 16,5 ha (0,002 percent of the whole city area), with 528 home connections. The sanitation connection is primarily serving the commercial areas, and at a low cost technology and O&M operation system. These two factors are considered significantly influential in income and expenditure levels. Through a billing efficiency at 87 percent and an income of Rp 35 million a month, PDAM Banjarmasin is able to cover most of its O&M costs. On the

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contrary, PDAM Surakarta is operating a wastewater sanitation network covering approximately 10 percent of the total population with 5.700 home connections. The composition of users is 99.4 percent domestic and 0.6 percent commercial. As of the first quarter of 2005 the billing efficiency is at a meager 14,5 percent, this reflects that wastewater management in Surakarta is far from cost recovery level. The third topic of the session is about "Community Based Sanitation (CBS) and mapping as a step towards an efficient centralized sanitation network." The main characteristic of community based sanitation is placing the community as the main decision maker in selecting, funding, and system management, using demand responsiveness approach. CBS is considered as the most suitable alternative for sanitation service provider for the urban poor. But CBS is unable to increase service coverage of a city scale sanitation system significantly because its scope is limited within a small community. City scale centralized sanitation system is capable of reaching a relatively exensive area but it is still constrained by e.g. low tariff level, low billing efficiency and low funding capacity. The challenge of city scale sanitation managmement is how to integrate CBS with other sanitation service formats such as piped network system and how to create public and political support for sanitation sector. The fourth topic of the session was "Strengthening PDAM to improve drinking water and sanitation service to the poor". Before the issuance of PP 16/2005
SOURCE: LINA

on the Development of Effective Drinking Water Supply System there was no regulation that explicitly mandated PDAM to service the poor families. According a study conducted by Mercy Corps in 2004 the poor communities of Jakarta spent 12-15 percent of their family budget for water. If they have a direct home connection the poor families could increase water consumption from 2 to 10 m3 per month, yet they still could save their expenditure for water up to 11 percent. Why PDAM? Because, up to this time most of water service network is monopolized by PDAM. Several efforts to strengthen PDAM in order to enable it serve the poor families consist of government support, improvement of regulation, improvement to PDAM viability, community involvement, provision of incentive. The second session consisted of participatory group discussion. The participants were divided into 4 groups, each group was assigned to discuss respectively (i) knowing better about CBs and its integration to city scale sanitation system; (ii) preparory activity and feasibility study of a piping system; (iii) PDAM role and position in the management of city

sanitation system; (iv) cost recovery in sanitation system management. In the first group the participants agree that CBS initiative can be triggered from within the community or through an outside intervention, yet the basic decision is made by the community itself. The stakeholders involved in CBS initiative are not limited to the government and NGO only but the private sector is also potential. It is therefore necessary to promote CBS extensively to outside parties. The second discussion group also came to a similar conclusion that promotion is one of the most important components before we start with a city scale CBS development. The participants are of the idea that city scale sanitation should consist of a combination of CBS and a centralized system, compensating the strengths and weaknesses of each of the approaches. The third group came to conclusion that PDAM is capable of managing a city scale sanitation system and at the same time also assume a participatory role in CBS initiatives. However, this role may not take over the roles of the existing involved parties, rather it should be considered as an alternative responsible government entity instead of the government agency. However, the doubt about PDAM's capacity for managing two sanitation systems is still being voiced during the course of the discussion. Group four came to the idea that sanitation management can only come to cost recovery through a subsidy to reach a break even point. Specific policy is necessary for provision of working capital and O&M costs. Community education including willing to pay is deemed necessary. (Lina)

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A ROUND WASPOLA
Training for Core Team in CLTS (Community-Led Total Sanitation) Approach
n the framework of the field trial of CLTS (Community-Led Total Sanitation) approach, the Kelompok Kerja AMPL (WSES Working Group) organized an information training for a core team, held at Lumajang, Jawa Timur on 25 May 2005. This training was attented by 38 participants consisting of central level core group (Bappenas, Public Works, Home Affairs, Health, WSLIC, CWSH, WASPOLA/WSP-EAP) and regional representatives (Lumajang district, Sumbawa district, Muara Enim district, Sambas district, and Muaro Jambi district). The purposes of this training are (i) to provide the participants with the basic knowledge of the underlying principles, methodology and development steps and tips in conducting CLTS approach field trial; (ii) to prepare the core team who later on will act as trainers and guide the field trial process in each of the kabupatens; (iii) to improve the skill in stimulating and facilitating CLTS approach through an actual practice within the community; and (iv) to understand and agree on format of assistance requirement for each of the kabupatens to implement the field trial. The training was opened by Oswar Mungkasa on behalf of Director of Human Settlements and Housing, Bappenas. He stressed that access to sanitation in Indonesia is still short of expectation. Many constructed facilities are not functioning and unsustained or short of basic requirements. One of the difficulties is low community awareness on the importance of hygiene behaviour (individual sanitation), and this leads to low demand to sanitation service and low willingness to pay for such a service. Besides, he adds, there is a depedency from central level financing. That is why,

I

SOURCE:RHEIDDA P

only be solved through their own awareness the application of CLTS approach is and effort, nothing to do with subsidy whatexpected to improve the environmental soever. The target in the application of CLTS sanitation situation and help in the effort is not determined from the number of toilet to increase access to sanitation. constructed but on the behavioural change This training was facilitated by Karmal from open defection. Kar, a CLTS expert. He explained that Through CLTS the following changes CLTS is an approach for igniting and trigare expected: gering nausea and embarrasment among community members on the FROM TO habit of defecating in the open that would eventually lead Hardware approach Change in hygiene behaviour them to find a common soluSubsidy Social solidarity Approach that prioritizes No defecating in the tion to change the existing contoilet construction (toiopen dition. The basic assumption let count) used in this exercise is no one Toilet model decided by Toilet is built based on will not be moved if one knows outsider local design that everyone is eating each Approach based indiviApproach based on common other's shit. Besides, CLTS dual interest interest of the villagers Top-down project impleBottom-up approach also triggers the community to mentation realize that sanitation is their Approach prioritizing More flexible approach own responsibility and can project blueprint

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According to Karmal Kar, there are three pillars supporting the CLTS approach, they are (i) changing attitude and behaviour of the decision makers; (ii) sharing between the government as facilitator with the community; (iii) utilization to tools (diagram, map, etc.). pants were requested to apply their knowledge into the actual field practice. The community of RT (Community group) 03 RW (Neighboorhood group) 01 of Gucialit Village, Lumajang was selected as the site for the field trial. The meeting took place in two locations, one in Posyandu attended by 19 villagers, and the other one in RT 03 attended by 58 community members. Triggering was directed towards community willingness to improve their sanitation condition by providing an enclosure to the existing latrines and building new ones for those who have no latrine. During the facilitation process the participating community members were enthusiastic in following the activities step by step. The community went together to drawing the map of their own village right in the field, showing the locations for defecation in the map and conducted transect walk (walking together with the community members to see for themselves the unpleasant sight and nauseating odour that triggers abhorrence and embarrasment among the villagers). From a discussion held at the defecating site, there grew an initiative from the community members to cover the pit hole so that no fly can enter and spread the feces all over the village. From there they elected one informal leader as motivator for latrine improvement. Note Several important notes could be recorded during the CLTS application training: CLTS is proven capable of stimulating the birth of common interest to the demand for improvement in quality of life through reducing the habit of defecating in the open that triggers into construction of improvement of toilet by the community alone without any help from outside. As an approach CLTS is sufficiently flexible and is not fixed wihin a given set of procedures. In its application, triggering process is adated to the local attitude and cultural background. The capacity of facilitator group to facilitate each activity is in great demand. From the ability to speak in local dialect, facilitation techniques, and being patient in the faclitation process. (MJ)
SOURCE:RHEIDDA P

Personal individual
Attitude change is & attitude and Behavior behaviour

3 pillars PRA 3 pilar in CLTS PRA di CLTS

methodoloMethod gy

Sharing sharing

Profesional professional

Institusi institution

The key to success of CLTS application lies with the facilitator attitude and approach. He emphasizes that there is no one single standard guideline for the application of this concept. What is available is reference framework for adaptation to the local condition. The steps in the application consist of (i) introduction and group formation, (ii) participatory analysis, (iii) triggering, (iv) formulation of action plan by the community, (v) designing follow-up plan. As a comparison Karmal Kar also revealed the success of this program in other countries like India, Bangladesh, Cambodia and Nepal. This approach can reduce defecation in the open up to 100 percent, character forming leading to the birth of informal leaders, creating local innovation in toilet design, reducing family expenditure for health care, and producing a positive impact to other income generating innovation. Field Practice Beside classical activities, the partici-

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A ROUND WASPOLA
From the WSP-EAP Meeting in China

Learning from the Global Village
ater and Sanitation ProgramEast Asia and the Pacific (WSP-EAP) organized a conference in Guillin, China on 4-6 April 2005. The conference is important because it is an annual agenda, besides that WSP-EAP also realizes that WSES development issues must be given a bigger share especially as they relate to MDGs target achievement. Solution to WSES sector issues need more than just fund availability That's why the theme of the conference was quite appropriate, "Money matters, what else does? Mobilizing resources for sustainability in East Asia to achieve MDGs". Seventy-one participants representing 9 EAP countries were present, plus additionally participants from Kenya and Bangladesh. WSES has become a global issue. The background of the participants varied considerably, different nationalities, but seemingly they have similar information regarding WSES matters. In the early sessions, the discussions dealt with a theme "development of strategy for sanitation financing framework". This topic is considered as the most logical step for improving sanitation situation, in answer to "what alternative gives you the most realistic leverage or impact to improve the sanitation situation in your country? The next steps are: (i) formulation of a clear sanitation policy, (ii) promotion at the national level to make sanitation a priority, (iii) promotion of a better solution to technical matters and change in behaviour, (iv) integratedness of sanitation with other sectors, (v) placement of sanitation as an instrument for poverty reduction.

W

SOURCE:DORMARINGAN

central and regional, law enforcement problems, increased demand for water and water resources scarcity. For Cambodia, realizing that the priority demand is improvement in care for sanitation sector and its related policy, the vision for 2008 consists of promoting the improved service to the poor communities, regulation and policy. While laos emphasizes on the development of integrated policy framework of sanitation sector in the rural areas and towns, through a continuous campaign programs. Philippines is more advanced and sets a target for 100 percent coverage by year 2010, sewerage systems for towns and cities and by year 2015 the coverage of sanitation system in the rural areas will be equivalent to integrated intercity wastewater management system. Priorities in WSES development There are three WSES development priorities that are common to each of the nations, they are (i) sector reform, (ii) effort to attract investor, and (iii) service to the poor communities. Based on order of imprortance, all the nations consider that service to the poor families and development of sector policy are two most important priorities, while attracting investors' attention is ranked lower that the two mentioned earlier. Ecosan in China Many nations have had experiences in sanitation development, but China deserves a special acclaim for this matter. Here sanitation is no more a dealing with dirty things, rather it is an income generating activity and a tourist attraction. How come? Through ecosan they combine the sanitation concept with agriculture and tourism, consequently with economic value, of course. Ecosan (ecological sanitation) is actu-

From Vision to Action The regional visions of WSES sector have a similar direction. Each individual thinks of the importance of (i) increasing the government priority in sanitation development; (ii) clear policy direction for increasing the role of public sector and the community; (iii) improvement of capacity and information; (iv) change in approach from subsidy to market oriented approach, etc. The regional vision is then deduced into country level visions. Vietnam in 2008 will push sanitation development program through a clear policy and instituional framework and increasing the role of private sector up to 70 percent and replacement of subsidy mechanism with market oriented system in 2015. The Indonesian vision for 2012-2025 consists of improvement of access and coverage up to 65 percent, it is however more realistic to look into the future challenge consisting among others of urbanization issues, environmental degradation, financial imbalances between the

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percent. "The community ally not a Chinese origin, sector reform investor service for the poor ddoes not only obtain gas because it had been developed 10 fuel for domestic conlong before in several nations in sumption, manure for the Asia, Africa, Europe and Latin 8 plants,but also reduces America. The ecosan idea was women's job from the developed since 1950 by a 6 hard work and creates a research institute (Kanagawa pleasnt environment," Public Health) in Yokohama, 4 says Wu. Japan dan produced a model Lessons learned called "Benjo". Later it was im2 The conference has proved starting in Vietnam in provided important infor1956 until several different mo0 mation in relation to sadels were produced. nitation development in In China itself, the environCambodia Kamboja Vietnam Indonesia Laos various countries. The mentally friendly toilet, as the ecosan that has been basic idea in developing ecosan, applied successfully in China it lso the feces and latrine are mixed in one colhas been developed since 1997, and cominsprires us to inetgrate ecological anitalector and let it to stand. Through biolopared to other countries this approach tion concept into agriculture, tourism to gical process, biogas is produced and is has been producing the most significant increase and economic improvement. used for energy production. The resulresult in China. "Our government pays an The villages of China have presently ting liquid is collected into a reservior and extraordinary attention to the community been a topic of discussion by environregularly is emptied by bucket or pail and scale biogas development program," says mentalists and people economists of the is used for fertilizer. Wu Li Bin, director of biogas developworld level. This success, according to "What the government has given us is ment institute of the Chinese Ministry of ecosan activist in China is inseparable enough for us," said one of one of villaAgriculture. from: gers when asked "what more would you There were three top level national political and government administraneed from the government?" In spite of leaders paid a visit to the biogas productive support; some depedency from the government tion villages derived from ecosan system collaboration between the regional technician in case of breakdown, but the development. In 1958 Mao Ze Dong vigovernment with the involved governfarmers are satisfied with the service. sited villages of Wuhan City in Hubei ment agencies; "We have only to wait for 6 hours, and the Province. In 1980 Deng Xiao Ping came technical support and facilitation for technician is certainly coming," said to visit biogas development at Chengdu at using the models offered; another villager through an interpretwer. the Province of Shichuan and in 1991 effectiveness and facilitation of cenThe farm manure from ecosan makes Jiang Zemin visited Xiangton in Hunan tral, regional government, and comthe soil really fertile and increases harvest Province. "This kind of visit means a lot munity funding; frequency. The lush green villge makes a to our people," says Libin further. the community's socio-cultural condipleasant sightseeing when we had a boat In this WSP conference, the particition for problem solving; journey along the river. The exotic green pants were invited to see for themselves comprehensive approach in the view is sold as a tourist attraction by tra"what and how" the ecosan was deverealms of sanitation, health, agriculvel agencies, while enjoying the village loped. For this purposes two villages ture, improvement of domestic ecoharvest. were visited. The first village develops nomy. "In China, biogas has contributed in dry pit latrine model and the second the Up to now, Indonesia has also been increasing the farmers' income, rural ecowet latrine in producing biogas. The dry developing sanitation approach in connomic development, environmental impit model separates feces collection from nection with various issues, such as ecoprovement, improvement of quality of urine into two deifferent compartments. nomic development, poverty alleviation, life," says Li Bin. After being let to settle for somwe time, education, and so on. Therefore the lesAccording to him, since 1999 the usually one moth for urine and one year sons from China are worth compemgrowth of biogas consumption at the rufor feces, the community uses it for farm plating. (DHS) ral communities has increased up to 88 manure. In the wet latrine wet latrine,

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B IBLIOGRAPHY
G E N E R A L B O O K S Condominial Water and Sewerage Systems Water and Sanitation Program Good Dams and Bad Dams; Environmental Criteria for Site Selection of Hydroelectric Projects. George Ledec and Juan David Quintero. World Bank. 2003. Indonesia. Averting an Infrastructure Crisis: A Framework for Policy and Action. Is it Difficult to Get Clean Water? ProAir - Rural Clean Water and Sanitation Program in Nusa Tenggara Timur. KfW-GTZ (Indonesian) Water for the Poor: Partnership for Action How to Bring Water to the Rural Poor. Asian Development Bank. G U I D E L I N E S
Characteristics and Procedures of Wastewater Treatment and Its Impact to the Environment. Ministry of Environments. 2003. (Indonesian) Standards of Civil Structures and Construction. Balitbang, Dept. of Public Works. (Indonesian)

MAGAZINES
Water, Ed. December 2004 Published by D.G. of Water Resources. Dept. of Public Works (Indonesian) Environment Matters. Annual Review. World Bank. 2003. Habitat Debate, Vol. 9 No. 1 April 2003. Drinking Water Ed. 113, February 2005. Balitbang, Dept of Public Works. (Indonesian)

C A T A L O G U E
Catalogue of Bibliography on Drinking Water and Environmental Sanitation. Secretariat of Pokja AMPL. 2005.

P R O C E E D I N G
Seminar of Appropriate Technology for Wastewater Treatment: It is Time to Move. Pusteklim, Yogyakarta. 2004. (Indonesian) National Workshop on Conservation of Water Resources. Directorate of Spatial Planning and Environment. Dit. Gen. Bangda, Dept. of Home Affairs. 2004. (Indonesian)

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C

LINIC

Questions can be submitted to Percik Magazine. Contributor: Ir. Winarko Hadi, Ir. Iwan Wangsaatmaja, Ir. Nugroho T Utomo, Ir. Lina Damayanti
This Clinic is a colaboration of Percik magazine and Indonesian Association of Sanitary and Environmental Engineers.

PRIVATE INFILTRATION WELL
Question:
I intend to dig an infiltration well at my home. I would appreciate it if you could provide me with the appropriate manual/practical guideline. What is the diameter, the depth, what kind of construction material to be used? With a land of approximately 60 sq. m. how many wells should I build?
B a m b a n g , Patukangan, Jakarta

Answer: Mr. Bambang, the first thing to know is whether the land condition around your house is suitable for an infiltration well construction. The important factors to note consist of: 1. Depth of groundwater table is more than 3 m (measured from the ground level). The easiest way by observing the depth of water table in the nearest pit well. If there is no such well within the vicinity, you may have to dig/bore a hole in the ground (a small diameter would suffice) in order to make the observation. 2. Soil permeability (velocity of water seepage) should be more than 2 cm per hour. A simple test can be made through digging a hole of 30 cm by 30 cm and a depth of 40 cm. Fill the hole with water and note how long it takes for the water surface to drop as far as 2 cm. If it is less than one hour wait till all the water disappears and fill again the hole and repeat the same measurement. Do it once again for the third time and if the drop of water surface remains more than 2 cm per hour, then the permeability condition of your land is good for an infiltration pit. 3. The distance from the septic tank infiltration well is preferably more than 5 m to prevent interference to the infiltration rate of the septic tank. If the three requirements mentioned above are not met, it seems that the land condition of your locality is not suitable for an infiltration well, and rainwater drainage effort has to be done by way of a ditch in front of your house. Additionally, there are several matters that should also be borne in mind, they are: 1. Rainwater falling on the roof and collected in a gutter may be directly channeled into an infiltration well. 2. It should be prevented to built an infiltration well on a place used to be garbage dumping ground. 3. For safety reason and to protect it against litters entering the pit hole it should be covered with a trellis type cover. 4. The well must not be constructed on a steep slope/landslide area.

5. Infiltration well can be placed right under a building provided that it is reinforced with a strong cover and other means of safety construction. 6. Materials commonly used as filler consist of: rock, ijuk (palm fibre), charcoal, sand. 7. For a duplex house it is adviseable to built one common infiltration well. 8. It must not be forgotten to also provide the well with a spillway in case of extreme rainfall and the sudden flow cannot be contained by the well. As for the number of pits within an area of 60 m2 given the abovementioned requirements are satisfied you can build up to two infiltration pits.

BROWN COLOURED WATER
Question: Water from my well (drawn up by electric pump) after some time will turn to brown and makes an uncomfortable feeling when using it. My question is why this colour changes and how to overcome the problem.
N e l l y , Bandung

Answer: 1. The brown colour in water is caused by high iron content. When the water is freshly pumped up from the well the colour is still clear because the iron solution in the water has not made a direct contact with oxygen in the atmosphere. Soon after it is filled into the reservoir the iron content starts to get in touch with the oxygen from the atmosphere, the ferrous solution is oxidized giving the browish colour. This process is identical with rusting of metal that also produces brown colour. 2. The most common practice in overcoming the problem is by using carbon active filter. Ready for use filters are available in the market, but it s actually easy to manufacture, at a lower cost, naturally. The materials and procedure for the manufacturing are as the following: Materials: 2 pieces of 8" diam. PVC pipe, 1 - 1,2 m long, equiped with water faucets at both ends. Filter media, consisting of gravel, silica sand, and carbon active, granular or local. Procedure: PVC pipes are filled with gravel to 10 - 15 cm, then with silica sand 20 cm, finally with carbon active 45 - 60 cm.

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A GENDA
Date
2-5 3

Month
May May

Activity
CLTS Workshop in Lumajang Socialization of National Policy for Community Based WSES Development in Prov. Banten Evaluation of SANIMAS Implementation 2003 and 2004 and Workplan 2005 Preparatory Seminar on Regional Waste Management Corporation CLTS Seminar in Sumbawa CLTS Consolidation Workshop and Training for Policy Operationalization and Formulation or Strategic Plan of Community Based WSES Development- Indonesia Eastern Region FORKAMI Discussion Forum "To Overcome the Crisis of Clean Water Supply" National Dialogue on Solid waste Management Environment Day: Indonesia's Environment Week Workshop and Training for Policy Operationalization and Formulation or Strategic Plan of Community Based WSES Development- Indonesia Western Region Meeting in the Framework of Cross-sectoral Planning for Water and Environmental Sanitation (WES) Cooperation between RI - UNICEF Wrap-up meeting WSLIC-2 Supervision Mission CLTS Field Trial Implementation and Implementation of Sanitation and Hygiene within WSLC-2 project, Visit to Kab. Lumajang CWSH Training in Surabaya Management Training for Activity and Mobilization Training Managers of MPA/PHAST Methodology for CWSH Project in Pasuruan, Jawa Timur Multicity ESP Seminar on City Scale Sanitation Concept Review of Draft of Guideline for the Formation of Clean Water and Sanitation Board of Management CLTS Training at Sambas, Kalimantan Barat National Dialogue of Funding for Water Management Meeting with Director of Water and Energy, World Bank Officiation of Sanimas in Pamekasan PSP Review Meeting

8-11 26-27 30 May - 3 June 2 4 6 6-10 9-10 13 15-17 19-26

May May

June June June June June June June June

21-23 24 28-30 28

June June June June

29

June

World Habitat Day, 3 October 2005 Theme: Millennium Development Goals and the City Host City: Jakarta, Indonesia (for further information please visit http://www.unhabitat.org/whd/2005/default.asp)

Dubai International Award for Best Practices (DIABP) Dead line: 31 March 2006 (further information please visit http://dubai-award.dm.gov.ae/
Announcement of winners: November 2006 Eligible candidates: Government and bilateral assistance institutions National Habitat Committees or Focal Points Regional Government, Municipal/ kabupaten Government or their associated organizations NGOs Community Based Organizations Private Sector Academic and Research Institutes Mass Media Private or government foundations Individual who has conducted initiative or project that meets the criteria of best practices

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GLOSSARY
Impurities
The pollutant/dirt contained in water, either suspended, dissolved or colloidalthat causes the water classified into a certain category.

Improved Sanitary Landfill
Further development of Sanitary Landfill in which all the leachate is collected and treated that produces disposed to the water body.

Incenerator
An installation to burn solid garbage for a final disposal method through incineration.

Incremental Sanitation Concept
Gradual environmental sanitation improvement concept.

Infiltration head
Underground water pressure that makes water moves through soil (medium) layers.

Inflow
A flow entering a system.

Inlet
The part of a construction to let a flow entering a system.

Inspection Chamber
A componenet of a sewerage system that functions as a manhole. In a bend , the part when dimension, or gradient changes, and every 30 m of a straight line construction.

Intake
A structure built at water source to tap/capture and collect raw water. Interceptor A system to tap wastewater from a drainage flow, in which excessive flow of rainwater is not intercepted. This system prevents the recipient water body from pollution, especially during rainy season.

Interference among wells
A mutual inluence condition of groundwater decrease curves from two or more well built close to each other. In practice this condition will cause reduction of discharge that dould be drawn from each of the wells.

Intestinal infectious diseases
One of sanitation related diseases (such as diarrhoea) commonly contaminates and frequently causes death to the community.

Invert
The lowest internal part of a cross section of waste water drainage pipe or canal.

Jetting
One of the methods of digging well in an unconsolidated soil. It is done by pumping water jet within a well casing so that the detached soil particles are transported by the water flow out of the well.
Taken from “Kamus Istilah & Singkatan Asing Teknik Penyehatan dan Lingkungan” Published by Trisakti University.

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