You are on page 1of 28

# 1

## Lifting Lug Load Capacity Vs Crack length Calculation

Sample Calculation
Thickness of Lug (t)
Width of Lug (W)
Diameter of Hole ( D h )

=
=
=
=

20
200
100
60

Diameter of Pin ( D p )

=
Distance from centre of hole to Welding (h)=

mm
mm
mm
mm

57 mm
100 mm

## Area of Cross Section

=
20 x 200 =
4000
Length of Crack ( a )
=
4.5 mm
Distance from centre of hole to edge of crack = (D h / 2 + a) =
Temperature (T)
Fracture Toughness ( k 1c )

15 C
(60 + 0.2 T) Mpa. Sqrt(m)
For -140 < T < 150
o
63 C

=
=
K 1c =

## Check For Geometry

We =R- D h /2 =

100 - 60/ 2 =

70 mm

We =R- D h /2

100 - 60/ 2 =

70 mm

We =R- D h /2

100 - 60/ 2 =

70 mm

By Yeild Theory
Yeild Strength of Plate
Effective width of plate
By Fracture Theory
K 1c =
Fd =
Where,

d=
d=
Fd =
=

s =

K 1c =
63 =

=
=
=

345 MPa
200 - 60- 2 x4.5 =
0.9 x 345 x 131 x 20/1000 =

131

F d . s . Sqrt ( p . a )
0.5 x (3 - d) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 - d) 3 ]
a / (D h / 2 + a)
4.5 / (60/ 2 + 4.5)

0.13

## 0.5 x (3 -0.13) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 -0.13)^3 ]

2.61
Area

P / 4000 =

F d . s . Sqrt ( p . a )
2.61 x 0.00025P x sqrt(3.1416 x 0.0045)
812 kN

0.0003

## Temp = 30 Degree Celcius

Length of
Crack ( a )
(mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
5
5.8
7
8
9
10

Fracture Theory

(D h / 2 + a)

Temperatu
re (T) o C

Fracture
Toughness (
k 1c )

d = a / (D h / 2 + a)

Fd

(kN) Fracture
Theory

31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
34
35
35.8
37
38
39
40

30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66
66

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.162
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.457
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

1492
1257
1121
1031
967
918
882
827
796
762
741
725
711

## Temp = 15 Degree Celcius

Length of
Crack ( a )
(mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
6
7
8
9
10

(D h / 2 + a)

Temperatu
re (T) o C

Fracture
Toughness (
k 1c )

d = a / (D h / 2 + a)

Fd

31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
34
34.5
36
37
38
39
40

15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63
63

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.13
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.61
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

## Temp = Zero Degree Celcius

Fracture Theory
(kN) Fracture
Theory
1424
1200
1070
984
923
876
842
812
754
727
708
692
678

Fracture Theory

Length of
Crack ( a )
(mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
3.7
5
6
7
8
9
10

(D h / 2 + a)

Temperatu
re (T) o C

Fracture
Toughness (
k 1c )

d = a / (D h / 2 + a)

Fd

(kN) Fracture
Theory

31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
33.7
35
36
37
38
39
40

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60
60

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.11
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.711
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

1356
1143
1019
937
879
834
821
752
718
693
674
659
646

## Temp = -15 Degree Celcius

Length of
Crack ( a )
(mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.1
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

(D h / 2 + a)

Temperatu
re (T) o C

Fracture
Toughness (
k 1c )

d = a / (D h / 2 + a)

Fd

31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.1
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15

57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57
57

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.094
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.796
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

## Temp = -30 Degree Celcius

Length of
Crack ( a )
(mm)

(D h / 2 + a)

Temperatu
re (T) o C

Fracture
Toughness (
k 1c )

d = a / (D h / 2 + a)

Fd

Fracture Theory
(kN) Fracture
Theory
1289
1086
968
890
835
826
762
715
682
658
640
626
614

Fracture Theory
(kN) Fracture
Theory

1
1.5
2
2.5
2.6
3.5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

31
31.5
32
32.5
32.6
33.5
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30

54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54
54

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.08
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.873
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

## Temp = -45 Degree Celcius

Length of
Crack ( a )
(mm)
1
1.5
2
2.15
3
3.5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

(D h / 2 + a)

Temperatu
re (T) o C

Fracture
Toughness (
k 1c )

d = a / (D h / 2 + a)

Fd

31
31.5
32
32.15
33
33.5
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45

51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51
51

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.067
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

3.157
3.059
2.97
2.947
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

1221
1029
918
843
832
751
722
677
646
623
607
593
581

Fracture Theory
(kN) Fracture
Theory
1153
971
867
842
747
709
682
639
610
589
573
560
549

## Kawish Shaikh P.Eng. UofC

> Dh/4 ; Hence OK

## > 1.5xDh ; Hence OK

mm 2
Both side of Hole
35 mm

Mpa. Sqrt(m)

100
mm

100
mm

Crack
Length (a)

60 mm
Dia. hole
200
mm

< 5t ; Hence OK
> 2t ; Hence OK

mm
814 kN

## Crack Lenth (a) Vs Tensile Load (P)

Yeild
Theory

Fracture Theory
Stress in
the Net
Section
601
510
458
424
401
383
371
354
344
336
332
330
329

Effective
width of
Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133
132
130
128.4
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory
Stress in
the Net
Section
573
487
437
405
383
366
354
344
327
321
317
315
314

Fracture Theory

Effective
width of
Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133
132
131
128
126
124
122
120

(kN) Yeild
Yeild
Theory Stress (s)
857
851
845
838
832
826
820
807
797
782
770
758
745

345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345

## Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Theory
(kN) Yeild
Yeild
Theory Stress (s)
857
851
845
838
832
826
820
814
795
782
770
758
745

Yeild
Theory

345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345

## Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Stress in
the Net
Section
546
463
416
386
364
349
344
321
312
305
302
300
299

Effective
width of
Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133
132.6
130
128
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory
Stress in
the Net
Section
519
440
396
366
346
343
321
305
296
290
287
285
284

Effective
width of
Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133.8
132
130
128
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory
Stress in
the Net
Section

Effective
width of
Plate (mm)

(kN) Yeild
Yeild
Theory Stress (s)
857
851
845
838
832
826
823
807
795
782
770
758
745

345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345

## Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Theory
(kN) Yeild
Yeild
Theory Stress (s)
857
851
845
838
832
831
820
807
795
782
770
758
745

345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345

Yeild
Theory
(kN) Yeild
Yeild
Theory Stress (s)

## Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

491
417
375
347
343
314
304
289
281
275
272
270
269

138
137
136
135
134.8
133
132
130
128
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory
Stress in
the Net
Section
464
394
354
345
310
296
287
273
265
260
257
255
254

Effective
width of
Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135.7
134
133
132
130
128
126
124
122
120

857
851
845
838
837
826
820
807
795
782
770
758
745

345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345

## Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Theory
(kN) Yeild
Yeild
Theory Stress (s)
857
851
845
843
832
826
820
807
795
782
770
758
745

345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345

## Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

1600
1400

1200
1000

Theory

800

Theory

600
400
200
0
0

10

15

a (mm)

1600
1400

1000

Theory

800

1600
1400

Theory

600
400

1200

1200

200
0
0

10
a (mm)

15

1000
800
600
400
200
0
0

1600
1400

1200
1000

Theory

800

Theory

600
400
200
0
0

10

15

a (mm)

1400
1200

1000
800

Theory

600

Theory

400
200
0
0

10

15

a (mm)

1400
1200

1200

1000
800

Theory

600

Theory

400
200
0
0

10

15

a (mm)

1400
1200

1000
800

Theory

600

Theory

400
200
0
0

10
a (mm)

15

1600
Temp = 30 Degree
Celcius

1400
1200

Temp = 15 Degree
Celcius

1000

Celcius

800
600

Celcius

400

Celcius

200
0
0

6
a (mm)

10

12

Theory

## Lifting Lug Load Capacity Vs Crack length Calculation

Sample Calculation
Thickness of Lug (t)
Width of Lug (W)
Diameter of Hole ( D h )

=
=
=
=

20
200
100
60

Diameter of Pin ( D p )

=
Distance from centre of hole to Welding (h)=

mm
mm
mm
mm

57 mm
100 mm

## Area of Cross Section

=
20 x 200 =
4000
Length of Crack ( a )
=
4.5 mm
Distance from centre of hole to edge of crack = (D h / 2 + a) =
Temperature (T)
Fracture Toughness ( k 1c )

15 C
(40 + 0.2 T) Mpa. Sqrt(m)
For -140 < T < 150
o
43 C

=
=
K 1c =

## Check For Geometry

We =R- D h /2 =

100 - 60/ 2 =

70 mm

We =R- D h /2

100 - 60/ 2 =

70 mm

We =R- D h /2

100 - 60/ 2 =

70 mm

By Yeild Theory
Yeild Strength of Plate
Effective width of plate
By Fracture Theory
K 1c =
Fd =
Where,

d=
d=
Fd =
=

s =

K 1c =
43 =

=
=
=

345 MPa
200 - 60- 2 x4.5 =
0.9 x 345 x 131 x 20/1000 =

131

F d . s . Sqrt ( p . a )
0.5 x (3 - d) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 - d) 3 ]
a / (D h / 2 + a)
4.5 / (60/ 2 + 4.5)

0.13

## 0.5 x (3 -0.13) [ 1 + 1.243 x (1 -0.13)^3 ]

2.61
Area

P / 4000 =

F d . s . Sqrt ( p . a )
2.61 x 0.00025P x sqrt(3.1416 x 0.0045)
554 kN

0.0003

## Temp = 30 Degree Celcius

Length of
Crack ( a )
(mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
5
5.8
7
8
9
10

Fracture Theory

(D h / 2 + a)

Temperatu
re (T) o C

Fracture
Toughness (
k 1c )

d = a / (D h / 2 + a)

Fd

(kN) Fracture
Theory

31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
34
35
35.8
37
38
39
40

30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30
30

46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46
46

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.162
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.457
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

1040
876
782
718
674
640
615
577
555
531
517
505
495

## Temp = 15 Degree Celcius

Length of
Crack ( a )
(mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
4
4.5
6
7
8
9
10

(D h / 2 + a)

Temperatu
re (T) o C

Fracture
Toughness (
k 1c )

d = a / (D h / 2 + a)

Fd

31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
34
34.5
36
37
38
39
40

15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15
15

43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43
43

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.13
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.61
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

## Temp = Zero Degree Celcius

Fracture Theory
(kN) Fracture
Theory
972
819
731
672
630
598
575
554
515
496
483
472
463

Fracture Theory

Length of
Crack ( a )
(mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.5
3.7
5
6
7
8
9
10

(D h / 2 + a)

Temperatu
re (T) o C

Fracture
Toughness (
k 1c )

d = a / (D h / 2 + a)

Fd

(kN) Fracture
Theory

31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.5
33.7
35
36
37
38
39
40

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40
40

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.104
0.11
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.743
2.711
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

904
762
680
625
586
556
547
501
479
462
449
439
431

## Temp = -15 Degree Celcius

Length of
Crack ( a )
(mm)
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
3.1
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

(D h / 2 + a)

Temperatu
re (T) o C

Fracture
Toughness (
k 1c )

d = a / (D h / 2 + a)

Fd

31
31.5
32
32.5
33
33.1
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15
-15

37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37
37

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.091
0.094
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.812
2.796
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

## Temp = -30 Degree Celcius

Length of
Crack ( a )
(mm)

(D h / 2 + a)

Temperatu
re (T) o C

Fracture
Toughness (
k 1c )

d = a / (D h / 2 + a)

Fd

Fracture Theory
(kN) Fracture
Theory
836
705
629
578
542
536
494
464
443
427
416
406
398

Fracture Theory
(kN) Fracture
Theory

1
1.5
2
2.5
2.6
3.5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

31
31.5
32
32.5
32.6
33.5
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30
-30

34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34
34

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.077
0.08
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

3.157
3.059
2.97
2.89
2.873
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

## Temp = -45 Degree Celcius

Length of
Crack ( a )
(mm)
1
1.5
2
2.15
3
3.5
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

(D h / 2 + a)

Temperatu
re (T) o C

Fracture
Toughness (
k 1c )

d = a / (D h / 2 + a)

Fd

31
31.5
32
32.15
33
33.5
34
35
36
37
38
39
40

-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45
-45

31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31
31

0.032
0.048
0.063
0.067
0.091
0.104
0.118
0.143
0.167
0.189
0.211
0.231
0.25

3.157
3.059
2.97
2.947
2.812
2.743
2.67
2.546
2.434
2.337
2.246
2.167
2.096

769
648
578
531
524
473
454
426
407
392
382
373
366

Fracture Theory
(kN) Fracture
Theory
701
591
527
512
454
431
414
389
371
358
348
340
334

## Kawish Shaikh P.Eng. UofC

> Dh/4 ; Hence OK

## > 1.5xDh ; Hence OK

mm 2
Both side of Hole
35 mm

Mpa. Sqrt(m)

100
mm

100
mm

Crack
Length (a)

60 mm
Dia. hole
200
mm

< 5t ; Hence OK
> 2t ; Hence OK

mm
814 kN

## Crack Lenth (a) Vs Tensile Load (P)

Yeild
Theory

Fracture Theory
Stress in
the Net
Section
419
355
319
296
279
267
259
246
240
234
232
230
229

Effective
width of
Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133
132
130
128.4
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory
Stress in
the Net
Section
391
332
298
276
261
250
242
235
223
219
216
215
214

Fracture Theory

Effective
width of
Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133
132
131
128
126
124
122
120

(kN) Yeild
Yeild
Theory Stress (s)
857
851
845
838
832
826
820
807
797
782
770
758
745

345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345

## Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Net Section will Yeild before Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Theory
(kN) Yeild
Yeild
Theory Stress (s)
857
851
845
838
832
826
820
814
795
782
770
758
745

Yeild
Theory

345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345

## Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Stress in
the Net
Section
364
309
278
257
243
232
229
214
208
204
201
200
199

Effective
width of
Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133
132.6
130
128
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory
Stress in
the Net
Section
337
286
257
238
225
223
208
198
192
188
186
185
184

Effective
width of
Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135
134
133.8
132
130
128
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory
Stress in
the Net
Section

Effective
width of
Plate (mm)

(kN) Yeild
Yeild
Theory Stress (s)
857
851
845
838
832
826
823
807
795
782
770
758
745

345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345

## Net Section will Yeild before Fracture

Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Theory
(kN) Yeild
Yeild
Theory Stress (s)
857
851
845
838
832
831
820
807
795
782
770
758
745

345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345

Yeild
Theory
(kN) Yeild
Yeild
Theory Stress (s)

## Net Section will Fracture

Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

309
263
236
219
216
198
191
182
177
173
171
170
169

138
137
136
135
134.8
133
132
130
128
126
124
122
120

Fracture Theory
Stress in
the Net
Section
282
239
215
210
188
180
174
166
161
158
156
155
155

Effective
width of
Plate (mm)
138
137
136
135.7
134
133
132
130
128
126
124
122
120

857
851
845
838
837
826
820
807
795
782
770
758
745

345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345

## Net Section will Fracture

Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

Yeild
Theory
(kN) Yeild
Yeild
Theory Stress (s)
857
851
845
843
832
826
820
807
795
782
770
758
745

345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345
345

## Net Section will Fracture

Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture
Net Section will Fracture

1200
1000

800

Theory

600

Theory

400
200
0
0

10

15

a (mm)

1200
1000

600
400

Theory

1200

Theory

1000

800

200

800
600
400

0
0

10
a (mm)

15
200
0
0

1000
900
800

700
Theory

600
500

Theory

400
300
200
100
0
0

10

15

a (mm)

900
800
700

600

Theory

500
400

Theory

300
200
100
0
0

10

15

a (mm)

900
800

800
700

600

Theory

500
400

Theory

300
200
100
0
0

10

15

a (mm)

900
800
700

600

Theory

500
400

Theory

300
200
100
0
0

10
a (mm)

15

1200
1000

Temp = 30 Degree
Celcius

800

Temp = 15 Degree
Celcius

600

Celcius

400

Celcius

200

Celcius

0
0

6
a (mm)

10

12