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PHYSICS PRACTICALS INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS

LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

Cycle-I 1. Frequency of A.C supply using sonometer 2. Hall effect 3. L C R series resonant circuit 4. Haidinger fringes 5. Diffraction grating Normal incidence method

Cycle-II 6. Newtons rings 7. Plancks constant 8. Solar cell 9. Field along the axis of a circular coil 10.Laser diffraction grating

1. Frequency of AC supply using Sonometer

Experiment No Date ..

AIM: To determine the frequency of an A.C supply using sonometer.

DIAGRAM:

APPARATUS: Sonometer with a steel wire, Weight hanger, Slotted weights, Step down transformer, common balance, Weights. FORMULA:

1 T 4l m Where T = Mg dynes (M = mass suspended) m = Linear mass of the string (X/L), X = mass of the specimen string L = length of the suspension string, l = Resonating length (AC)
Frequency of A.C n1 = n/2 =

PROCEDURE: The frequency of the given wire in the experiment is found by using the rider method. The apparatus is arranged as shown in the figure. The primary winding of step down transformer is connected to A.C mains and secondary to the electro magnet. The given steel wire is stretched tightly on the hollow wooden box over the bridges A & C through the pulley. A weight M of 250 gms is added to the weight hanger. Initially minimum distance between bridges A & C is maintained and a paper rider is kept on the wire. Now the electro magnet is brought near the center of the stretched wire. Distance between A & C is adjusted till the paper rider falls down. Now the wire segment is in resonance. Length AC is measured. The experiment is repeated by changing the tension of wire and the results are tabulated. OBSERVATIONS:

S.No

Tension T=Mg

Resonating length l (cm) Trail 1 Trail 2 mean

(l) cm

T T / l (dynes/cm)

Average = T /1 1 2 m T n & n1 = l 2

n=

GRAPH: The graph is drawn between T vs l taking l on x-axis and T on y-axis. The graph is straight line passing through origin. n1 is calculated using the values of T and l obtained from graph .

RESULT: The frequency of the given A.C supply = . Hzs

REVIEW QUESTIONS: 1. What is a sonometer? 2. What is resonance? 3. What is the law of length? 4. What is the law of tension? 5. What is the law of mass? 6. Define node and antinode. 7. How transverse stationary waves are produced in a stretched string? 8. How does velocity of a sound vary with humidity? 9. Write the difference between stationary and progressive wave. 10. What kind waves are produced in a stretched string? 11. Define tension. 12. Define sound and which medium sound travels faster. 13. What are the uses of sonometer. 14. What type of waves is produced in sonometer wire?

2. HALL EFFECT
Experment Number : Date:

AIM: To study the dependence of Hall voltage with current and magnetic field.

FORMULA: Hall effect apparatus semi conductor sample (probe) a tiny D.C. electromagnet, digital millivoltmeter & milliammeter, constant current source, and power supply. VH Where ic = constant d.c. current (X-axis) (amp) B = d.c. magnetic field (Y-axis) (tesla) n = carriers concentration e = charge electron (coulombs) t = thickness of sample crystal (m) RH= Hall coefficient of the crystal. DIAGRAM: A schematic diagram of the working principle and the apparatus is shown below. PRINCIPLE: If a sample-conductor or semi conductor, material is placed in a uniform d.c. magnetic field (along axis) and a constant current (along Y-axis)is sent, then a voltage along (Z-axis) is developed across the sample. This voltage is known as Hall voltage which depends on the magnetic field strength i.e. indirectly on the magnet current and the probe current through the sample. Hall effect is useful to establish the polarities of the current carriers and also to measure magnetic field (gauss meter). 6 = = (RH)(1/ne)(1/t)Bic K X Bic X 10-8 volts

PROCEDURE: 1. Arrange the Hall effect apparatus and do the circuit diagram. 2. Remove the sample (or probe) from the stand in the magnet. 3. Set the selector switch at the position marked probe on the front panel. Adjust the current control and set the current, ic to a desired value (say 70 ma). 4. The probe current must remain constant in the remaining part of the experiment. 5. Now set the selector, switch at the position marked magnet. 6. Adjust the magnet current control and set the magnet current to convenient value, say 500 mA. 7. The probe out put may show some value. By adjusting the zero control make the initial reading (without the sample) become zero. 8. Fix the sample or probe to stand and place above the magnet. Arrange it symmetrically between the polls of the magnet. The width of the sample must be parallel to the surface of the poles. 9. Note down the Hall voltage as shown by the probe out put digital display 7 connections as per the

10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18.

Measure the Hall voltage for different values of magnet current-400, 300, 200, 100 mA. Enter the readings in a tabular form. Draw the graph with magnet current along X-axis and Hall voltage along Y-axis. The nature of the graph is linear type. In the second part of experiment, adjust the magnet current control until the current is 500 mA. Keep this current constant in the remaining part of the experiment. Set the selector switch at the position probe. Adjust the current control until the probe current reads 70 mA. Note the Hall voltage. Measure the Hall voltage for different values of probe current-60, 50, 40, 30 mA. Tabulate the readings as follows. Draw a graph with probe current along X-axis and Hall voltage along Y-axis. Mark the value of magnet current.

PROBE CURRENT = ma
S.No Magnet current (A) Hall voltage (mv)

Magnetic Current = A

S.No

Graph2

Magnetic Current = Constant

i Y

HallVoltage(mv)

ProbeCurrent(ma)

PRECAUTIONS: 1. Handle the probe gently and carefully. 2. Strictly follow the operating instructions. 3. When a sample is not placed in the magnet, set the initial reading to zero by adjusting the zero control. 4. Do not set the probe current greater than 80 mA. 5. Keep the pole gap of about 2.5 cms.

RESULT: The dependence of Hall voltage with current and magnetic field is studied.

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is Hall effect. 2. Explain the cause of development of Hall voltage. 3. What do you mean by a hole. 4. On what factors does the direction of the Hall voltage depend up on? 5. What is the order of magnitude of Hall voltage. 6. Define Hall coefficient. 10

7. How do you produce the magnetic field H. 8. Give practical and absolute units of Hall coefficient. 9. On which factors does Hall voltage depend? 10. How do you measure the magnitude o f Hall voltage? 11. How does the value of a Hall coefficient change with the current through the specimen? 12. Which type of specimen produce Hall effect? 13. Mention the importance of Hall effect? 14. What type of curve do you get for a graph between Hall voltage and magnetic current. 15. What type of curve do you get for a graph between Hall voltage and probe current. 16. What is a semiconductor? 17. What is Hall voltage? 18. What is probe current? 19. What is electromagnet? 20. What is Rh factor for p-type semiconductor? 21. What is Rh factor of n-type semiconductor? 22. Explain the effect of magnetic field on a charged particle. 23. Define Electric field. 24. Define Magnetic field. 25. What is a semiconductor?

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3. LCR CIRCUIT
Experiment No Date ..

AIM: To study the frequency response of an electrical circuit containing inductor, capacitor and resistor.

APPARATUS: Three resistors (R1, R2, R3), inductor (L), Three capacitors (C1, C2 , C3 ), Pulse generator, Connecting leads, A.C.Ammeter.

PROCEDURE: 1. The connections are made as shown in the figure. Ammeter is connected in series to the resistance. 2. Calculate the expected resonance frequency according to the equation. 1 f0 = Hz 2 LC 3. Record the ammeter reading for different frequencies in the small range around f0, for different frequencies in the small range around f0, for each value R. 4. Change the resistance R in the circuit to other values (R=50,100,150etc) and note the ammeter readings, which are to be tabulated as below.

Circuit Diagram:

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Model Graph:
Y EO

TABLE 1

S.No

Frequency (kHzs)

Ammeter Readings (milliamps) R1= R2= R3=

Vo

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CALCULATION: A graph is to be plotted between E and frequency from which the resonance frequency f0 and band width = f2-f1 can deduce for each R value separately. The quality factor Qexpt is calculated as Qexpt = f0/ a graph is drawn between 1/ Qexpt and R. The intercept on the negative R axis is the resistance on the inductance RL. The theoretical quality factors calculated from the equation

Qth =

LW0 (R + R L )

Where W0 = 1/ LC And they are tabulated as shown below. TABLE -2

S.No R f0(Hz) = f2-f1 Qexpt = f0/ 1/Q

Qth =

LW0 (R + R L )

1. 2. 3.

R1= R2= R3=

INFERENCES:

1. The resonance frequency does not depend on the resistance R in the circuit. 2. The band width and therefore quality factor decreases with the increase of total
resistance in the circuit.

3. The differences in the theoretical and experimental values may be due to aging of
components and calibration errors.

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RESULT: The frequency response of the given LCR circuit is studied.

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is meant by resonance? 2. Define Inductance. 3. Define Capacitance. 4. Define Resistance. 5. What is meant by quality factor? 6. Define bandwidth. 7. Define current. 8. Define Voltage. 9. Define time constant. 10. Give some examples of resonance. 11. Write the condition for electrical resonance. 12. What is Lenzs law? 13. Define induced emf. 14. Define frequency. 15. What is an oscillator? 16. What are active and passive elements? 17. Define Phase angle. 18. Define RMS voltage. 19. What is average value? 20. What is internal resistance of a circuit? 21. What is the significance of quality factor? 22. How we can determine the internal resistance? 23. What are the units of L, C, R? 24. What is the significance of LCR circuit? 25. Explain the frequency response of LCR circuit.

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4. Haidinger Fringes
Experiment No AIM: To determine the thickness of the paper using wedge method. Date ..

DIAGRAM:

APPARATUS: Traveling microscope, Optical flats 2, thin paper, Table lamp, Reading lens, Reflector, Glass plate, Retard stand, Sodium vapor lamp. FORMULA: Thickness of the paper T = Where = wavelength of the incident light = fringe width l = length of the air wedge

l 2

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EXPERIMENTAL ARRANGEMENT: 1. A thin paper is inserted in between the two optical flats upto half centimeter inside and place the flats under microscope so that the air wedge between the flats lie under the objective of the microscope. 2. Fix the glass plate (reflector) to a retort stand and change the position of the glass plate until the light beam intensity is maximum. In this position the glass plate will interrupt the light beam from sodium lamp at 450 and the beam falls normally on the optical flats. 3. Microscope is focused on the wedge. Alternate dark and bright bands are observed . PROCEDURE: Screw attached to the microscope is rotated, and displacement of the interference bands is observed, cross wire is made to coincide with one bright fringe in the pattern. Initial reading S1 of the microscope is noted. Microscope is moved and no. of fringes crossed the cross wire is counted. Cross wire is made to coincide with fifth fringe. Final microscope reading S2 is noted. The bandwidth is obtained.

S 2 S1 N

Thus the band widths are determined 5 to 6 times and average value of is obtained.

OBSERVATIONS: Least count of Travelling Microscope 1 main Scale Division = 0.05 cm No. of divisions on vernier = 50 Least count = value of 1MSD / No. of vernier scale divisions = 0.05cm/50 = 0.001cm

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TABULAR COLUMN:

S.No

No.of fringes

M.S.R (a) cm

V.C

V.C x L.C (b) cm

Total (a+b) cm

S.No

No of Fringes (N)

Microscope Reading (cm) Initial (S1) Final (S2)

S 2 S1 (cm) N

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CALCULATION: The thickness of the paper t used can be calculated using the formula l t= Where 2 -Wavelength of the sodium vapour lamp =5890 A0 - Fringe width l - Length of the air wedge, can accurately be determined with microscope, which is the distance between the inner edge of the paper and the point of contact of the two optical flats.

PRECAUTIONS: 1. Do not rotate the horizontal scale screw forward and backwards. Rotate unidirectional (to avoid back lash error) once you start taking readings.

RESULT: The thickness of the given paper = . Cm

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is interference? 2. Why bright and dark fringes are appeared in the experiment? 3. How wedge is formed? 4. What is a fringe width? 5. How thickness of paper is calculated using wedge method? 6. What is the relation between path difference and phase difference? 7. If light travels from denser medium to rarer medium how much phase difference it exhibits? 8. What is the condition for getting bright fringes? 9. What is the condition for getting dark fringes? 10. If we take mercury lamp instead sodium lamp, how the fringes will appear? 11. What is the formula for fringe width? Is it is constant or variable factor? 12. If the thickness of the paper increases how the fringe will appear? 19

13. What is coherence? 14. Explain constructive and destructive interferences. 15. Give the relation between intensity and amplitude of the wave. 16. What is the nature of light? 16. Define refractive index. 17. State Stokes theorem. 18. What is the principle of superposition? 19. What is the least count of traveling microscope?

20. What is the formula used to determine the thickness? 21. What is backlash error? 22. How the fringe width varies with the refractive index of the wedge film. 23. What happens to the fringes when sodium vapour lamp is replaced with laser? 24. How the fringe width varies with wavelength (if t and l are constant). 25. Why normal incidence is preferred?

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5. DIFFRACTION GRATING AND NORMAL INCIDENCE

Experiment No: Date:

AIM: To determine the wavelength of spectral lines in the mercury spectrum.

APPARATUS: Plane diffraction grating, spectrometer, sprit level, reading lens and mercury lamp. FORMULA: The condition for the nth order spectrum in case of grating for normal incidence. Nn = sin

=
Where

sin Nn

N = number of lines per cm in grating n = order of the spectrum = Wavelength of spectral line = angle of diffraction

PROCEDURE: The usual adjustments of the spectrometer are done. The least count of vernier of the spectrometer is found. To find the wavelength of different colors present in mercury source, the grating is arranged in normal incidence position.

NORMAL INCIDENCE POSITION: Coincide the vertical wire of the telescope with the slit of the collimeter. Rotate the telescope through 90 degrees and then fix. Keep the grating on prism table.

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Collimeter

Telescope

Collimeter

Grating

Telescope Telescope Telescope

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Rotate the grating such that the image from the slit will coincide with vertical wire of telescope. Rotate the prism table through 45. Bring the telescope in the direction of the collimator. Coinciding the telescope with different colors of the first order spectrum. The readings tabulated in the table. Observations : Least count of spectrometer: LC= value of 1MSD / No.of VSD For 30 vernier scale divisions LC =1 For 60 vernier scale divisions LC =(1/2) TABULAR COLUMN: LEFT are

Spectrometer Readi V1(a) S.No M.S.R (p) cm V.C V.C x L.C (q) cm Total (p+q) cm M.S.R (p) cm

RIGHT
Spectrometer Reading V1(c) S.No M.S.R (p) cm V.C V.C x L.C (q) cm Total (p+q) cm M.S.R (p) cm V.C V.C x L.C (q) cm Total (p+q) cm V2(d)

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Spectrometer Reading Left V1 (a) V2 (b) Right V1 (c) V2 (d) V1 (a-c)

2 V2 (b-d) Mean

sin Nn

PRECAUTIONS 1. Always the grating should be held by the edges. The ruled surface should not be touched. 2. Light from the collimator should be normally incident on the grating. RESULT: Wavelength of the spectral lines are measured. Wavelength of Blue = . Wavelength of Green= . Wavelength of yellow= ..

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is Diffraction 2. Explain the significance of normal incidence 3. What is the use of a grating 4. What is a spectrum. 5. Explain Braggs law. 6. What is a Fraunhoffer diffraction

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7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17.

What is a Fresnel Diffraction. What are differences between interference and diffraction. How compact disk acts like a grating. Give some examples of gases that produces diffraction spectrum. Why grating is most useful than prism. Diffraction phenomenon confirms wave nature or particle nature. Explain how wavelength of a colour depends on diffraction angle. Who discovered Diffraction of light. Is Diffraction takes place for longitudinal waves or transverse waves or for both How the structure of crystal can be studied by X-rays. Incase of Diffraction bands due to straight edge , what is the change observed as we move away from edge.

18. 19. 20. 21.

Radio waves undergo diffraction around buildings where as light waves do not why? What is the order of diffraction. How does the phenomenan of diffraction differ from interference. In single slit experiment,What is the change observed in diffraction pattern if the light of small wavelength is used.

22.

In single slitexperiment , What is the change observed in diffraction pattern if the slit is made narrow.

23. 24.

What is the shape of wavefront in Fresnels diffraction. Why we are observing the silver lining surrounding the profile of a mountain just before the sunrise.

25.

Is diffraction gives any information about tranverse nature of light?

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6. NEWTONS RINGS
Experiment No. .. Date:

AIM: To determine wavelength of sodium light by forming Newtons rings.

APPARATUS: Convex lens, optically plane glass plate, traveling microscope, lens and sodium vapor lamp. FORMULA: =Dn2-Dm2/(4R(n-m)) where Dm and Dn are the diameters m th and n th rings. R is the radius of curvature of the length.

EXPERIMENTAL ARRANGEMENT: 1. Convex lens placed on optically plane glass plate on platform of traveling microscope. 2. Emergent parallel beam of light is made to incident normally on plane glass plate and lens combination by glass plate inclined at angle 45 3. Due to light reflected from lower surface of lens and upper surface of glass plate , interference takes place to give alternate bright & dark rings with dark ring at centre.

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Model Graph:

D2n D2m

PROCEDURE: 1. Microscope is focused at the centre of the ring system and moved across (left side) cross wire pass over 16th or 17th ring and coincide with 15th ring (say). Reading of main scale and vernier scale are noted. 2. Step one is repeated to coincide with 13th ring, 11th ring (odd rings) and readings are tabulated.

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3. Step 1 & 2 are repeated with cross wires moved across right side of ring system up to 15th ring. 4. Diameter of rings 3,5,7,9. etc are calculated. 5. Radius of curvature of the lens is determined with the help of spherometer. 6. A graph is drawn with No. of rings (dark) on X axis and D2 on Y axis. The obtained graph straight line passing through origin. 7. From graph diameter D2m and D2n corresponding to mth & nth rings are noted. 8. Wavelength of sodium light is found using the formula. =Dn2-Dm2/(4R(n-m)) TABULAR COLUMN: TO CALCULATE THE DIAMEMTER OF RINGS
S.No No. of the rings Left (a) Right (b) Microscope Reading Diameter D=(a-b) D2

RADIUS OF CURVATURE OF LENS BY SPHEROMETER Least count = pitch of the screw /No. of divisions on head scale Pitch of the screw = Distance moved / No. of rotations =1mm No. of divisions of head scale = 100. L.C = 0.01mm

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To find h:
S.No h1 h2 PSR HSR PSR+(HSRxL.C)

h = h2-h1 FORMULA: l2 h + 6h 2 To find l press 3 legs of a spectrometer on paper as shown. R= RESULT: Wavelength of monochromatic radiation = ...

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. what is interference 2. What kind of light source is used for Newtons rings experiment 3. At what angle the glass plate is held to the vertical 4. Which to rays interfere to produce cirucular rings. 5. Why are we getting circular rings with central dark. 6. What is the cause of Newtons rings formation. 7. Are the Newtons rings formation is in accordance with the Corpuscular theory proposed by Newton or not. 8. To which type of interference Newtons rings belongs to. 9. Why the central spot in Newtons rings is dark. 10. What are the conditions required for sustained interference. 11. What happens if the distance between lens and plate is increased. 12. What happens if plane mirror is used instead of glass plate.

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13. 14. 15. 16.

How is the ring system when white light used in Newtons rings experiment. What are the uses of Newtons rings. What are coherent sources. Why do we get circular rings in Newtons rings experiment and straight parallel fringes for Wedge method.

17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25.

What is the nature of light? Define refractive index. What is the principle of superposition? What is coherence? State Stokes theorem. Define the radius of curvature of a lens. What is the least count of spherometer? What is formula for wavelength? What happens to the rings when Sodium vapour lamp is replaced with a laser?

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7. PLANKS CONSTANT
Experiment No. .. Date:

AIM: To determine the value of planks constant h.

APPARATUS: Power supply, light source filters, ammeter and connecting wires.

THEORY: From Einstein theory of Photo-electric effect h = 1 mv 2 + w 2 Where h is the energy of incident light photon. mv2 is kinetic energy gained by elelctrons. W is the work function If o is threshold frequency, then work function W= h o .If Vo is stopping potential, then 1/ 2mv2 = eVo Where e is the charge of electron. h = ho + eVo ->eVo = h - h o ->Vo = (h/e) (h/e) o The above equation can be compared with a straight line Y=mx+c

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PROCEDURE: The connections are made as per the circuit diagram. Light of fixed wavelength (red light) is made to fall photocell by placing the red filter in the path of light. The potentiometer is varied untile the photocuttent becomes zero and the value of stopping potential is noted. Following the same procedure, for different filters (orange and yellow) the stopping potential values are noted. The observations are noted in the following table.

FOR HIGH INTENSITY:

S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Filter Y O R B G Wave length (A0) 5790A0 6234.35 A0 6907.52 A0 4602 A0 5500 A0 Frequency (Hzs) 5.18x1014 4.81 x1014 4.35 x1014 6.52 x1014 5.89 x1014 Stopping potential V0

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FOR MEDIUM INTENSITY:

S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Filter Y O R B G Wave length (A0) 5790A0 6234.35 A0 6907.52 A0 4602 A0 5500 A0 Frequency (Hzs) 5.18x1014 4.81 x1014 4.35 x1014 6.52 x1014 5.89 x1014 Stopping potential V0

FOR LOW INTENSITY:

S.No 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Filter Y O R B G

Wave length (A0) 5790A0 6234.35 A0 6907.52 A0 4602 A0 5500 A0

Frequency (Hzs) 5.18x1014 4.81 x1014 4.35 x1014 6.52 x1014 5.89 x1014

Stopping potential V0

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GRAPH:

Stopping

Potential
i l

frequency

A graph is drawn by taking frequency values on x axis and stopping potential value on y axis. As shown in the graph, a straight line not passing through origine will come. We can equate the slope of the above straight line with (h/e) value of the equation 1. Vo = (h/e)V (h/e)Vo h/e = Tan .> h=e Tan RESULT: The value of planks constant, h=.. j-sec.

VIVA QUESTIONS: 1. What is photo electric effect 2. What is the value of Planks constant 3. What are the units of Planks constant 4. Who discovered the photoelectric effect 5. Does the planks constant depend on the metal of cathode of the frequency of light incident 6. What is work function 34

7. 8. 9.

Does the work function depend on incident light and the cathode metal. What is threshold frequency What is stopping potential

10. What is photo cell 11. Are all the metals useful for photoelectric effect. 12. Photo electric affect which nature of light. 13. What is a proton 14. What are the laws of photoelectric emission 15. What is the charge of electron in esu 16. What is an electromagnetic wave? 17. Who discovered photoelectric effect? 18. Who explained photoelectric effect? 19. What are photo metals? 20. How does photocurrent vary w.r.t. intensity? 21. Work function depends on what factors? 22. Write Einstein Photo electric equation. 23. How does Kinetic energy of electron vary with frequency? 24. Photoelectric effect supports which theory of light? 25. Explain the factors on which stopping potential depends.

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8. SOLAR CELL
Experiment No Date ..

AIM: To draw solar cell characteristics and to determine the fill factor of the cell.

APPARATUS: Solar cell, milliammeter, voltmeter, variable load, key, lamp.

FORMULA: The fill factor (N) of the solar cell is given by. N= Where Imp : Vmp : Isc : Voc : I mp I sc x Vmp Voc = max .usefulpower idealpower

Current at max. power amp Volatage at max. power Volts Short circuit current amp Open circuit voltage Volts

PROCEDURE: 1. Connect the circuit as showen in the diagram 2. Switch on the lamp. Keep the lamp close to the solar cell and set it so that the incident light falls normally on the cell. 3. Set the load resistance max (say 10,000) measure the open circuit voltage Voc. 4. Close the key. Keep zero resistance in the load. Note down the short circuit current Isc. 5. Vary the load in equal steps. For each load R note down the output current I and voltage V. 6. Enter the readings in a tabular form.

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Model graph:

i ISC

IMP

VMP VOC

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OBSERVATIONS AND TABULAR FORM:

Open circuit voltage, Voc Short circuit current, Isc Voltage at Max.power, Vmp Current at max.power,Imp Fill factor N = I mp I sc = = PRECAUTIONS: x Vmp Voc =

= = = =

Volts. amps. Volts. amps.

S.No

Voltage V, (volts)

Cur

max .usefulpower idealpower

(a

1. Do not set the lamp very close to the cell. Let it get heated up and the characteristics may change. 2. Keep the intensity of the light constant through out the experiment. 3. Change the load at equal steps slowly.

RESULT: The fill factor of the cell, n is ..

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VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. What is the principle behind working of a solar cell? 2. What is the formula for fill factor? 3. What are the units of fill factor? 4. What is the physical significance of a fill factor? 5. What is work function? 6. What happens to the current when voltage increases? 7. What is short circuit current? 8. What is open circuit voltage? 9. What is the material with which solar cell is prepared? 10. Why should we maintain certain distance between the solar cell and the bulb? 11. What is a junction diode? 12. What is a depletion layer? 13. What is Fermi level? 14. Define efficiency of a solar cell. 15. Write the formula for efficiency. 16. What are the units of efficiency? 17. What is ideal power? 18. What is maximum useful power? 19. Define Vmp and Imp. 20. Which type of current is generated in solar cell? 21. Which wavelength is preferred for solar power generation and why? 22. What are the advantages of solar energy? 23. What are the disadvantages of solar energy? 24. What is the temperature coefficient of a semi conductor?

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9. Field along the Axis of the Coil

Experiment No Date ..

AIM: To study the variation of magnetic field along the axis of a circular coil carrying current.

DIAGRAM:

B=

10 x 2 + a 2

2nia 2

APPARATUS: Stewart & gee type galvanometer, Power supply, Plug key, Commutator, Rheostat and Ammeter. FORMULA: The magnetic filed B at a point on the axis of a circular coil of n turns and radius a is given by the equation.

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Where i = Current passing through the coil, x = Distance of the point from the center of the coil n = Number of turns, a = Radius of the circular coil.

PROCEDURE:

The circuit is connected as shown in the figure. The primary adjustments of the instrument are made. The coil of the instrument is set along the magnetic meridian (Tan A) position. The Al pointer is made to read 0 - 0 readings with no current. The ends of the coil are connected to the commutator and through it to battery rheostat and ammeter. When the circuit is closed with the plug key current flows through the circular coil. A magnetic field is produced on the axis of the coil. The magnetic needle is deflected through an angle from the direction of horizontal component of earths magnetic field H. Thus we get the equation B = BH Tan

The current in the circuit is adjusted such that the deflection lies between 30o 60o using the rheostat. The compass box is placed 5cm away from the center of the coil on its axis. The deflection 1 and 2 of the Al pointer are noted. The deflections 3 and 4 were also noted after reversing the current in the coil. The experiment is repeated in steps of 5cm. on the same side and other side of the coil. For each distance main deflection is calculated.

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OBSERVATIONS:
S. No Position Distance (x) of the magneto -meter Center Left 0 5 10 15 3. Right 5 10 15 1 Deflections 2 3 4 Mean
B= 10 x 2 + a 2

Tan

B=BHtan

2nia 2

1. 2.

Graph: A graph is plotted by taking distance on x axis and main deflection on y axis. The graph shows the variation of magnetic field along the axis of the circular coil with distance. It is symmetrical about y axis and magnetic field is maximum at the center of the coil.

Tan

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RESULT: The variation of magnetic field along the axis of the coil is studied.

VIVA QUESTIONS:

1. State Amperes law. 2. State Biot Savarts law. 3. What is TAN A position? 4. What is TAN B position? 5. What is the use of commutator? 6. Explain the use of Rheostat. 7. How field varies with respect to no. of turns? 8. What is the difference between a magnet and magnetic material? 9. Is current carrying conductor electrically neutral? 10. What is tangent law? 11. Define Faraday and Lenzs law.

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10. LASER DIFFRACTION GRATING

Experiment No AIM: To determine the wavelength of laser beam using diffraction. APPARATUS: Diode laser, transmission grating, screen, meter scale. FORMULA: Wavelength ( ) = Where is the angle of diffraction. Date ..

=
nis the order of the spectrum N is the number of lines per cm of the grating. l is the distance of nth principal maxima from the central maxima. r is the distance of the screen from the grating.

180 Sin l
PROCEDURE:
x rnN

Mount the grating on the stand. Illuminate the grating with laser beam. The beam on the grating produces several spots due to diffraction. The bright spot is central maximum. The other spots on both sides of central maximum are principal maxima. Measure the distance (l) of the nth principal maxima from the central maxima. And also measure the distance (r ) of screen from the grating. Note the number of lines per cm given on the grating plate. Calculate wavelength using the formula given below.

Wavelength ( ) =

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Tabular column:

PRECAUTIONS: Light should fall normally on the grating. RESULT:

The wavelength of the laser is obtained as .. .

S.No: Order of the spectrum (n)

Distance of spot Distance of screen from from central grating (r) max. (l)

2. What are the special characteristics of lasers. 3. What is a monochromatic and polychromatic lights. 4. Is a laser monochromatic or polychromatic. 5. Define coherence. 6. What are the different methods to get coherent lights beams. 7. What is a ground state. 8. What is stimulated absorption. 9. Define mean life of an energy level in a system 10. What is a meta stable state. 11. What is population inversion 12. What is meant by pumping.

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13. Define spontaneous emission. 14. Define stimulated emission. 15. Write the condition to get a lasing action in a system. 16. What are the different types of lasers based on active medium? 17. Define diffraction. 18. What are the conditions for obtaining diffraction of light? 19. Distinguish Fresnel and Fraunhoffers diffraction. 20. Which atoms are responsible for lasing action in Ruby laser? 21. What are the lasing atoms in He-Ne laser? 22. What method is used to pump the atoms in ruby laser? 23. What is the technique used to promote Neon atoms in He-Ne laser? 24. What is the fundamental difference between interference and diffraction? 25. What are the applications of laser?

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