THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS

MATERIAL OUTFLOWS FROM INDUSTRIAL ECONOMIES

EMILY MATTHEWS CHRISTOF AMANN STEFAN BRINGEZU MARINA FISCHER-KOWALSKI WALTER HÜTTLER RENÉ KLEIJN YUICHI MORIGUCHI CHRISTIAN OTTKE ERIC RODENBURG DON ROGICH HEINZ SCHANDL HELMUT SCHÜTZ ESTER VAN DER VOET HELGA WEISZ

WORLD RESOURCES INSTITUTE
W A S H I N G T O N

,

D C

CAROLLYNE HUTTER
EDITOR

HYACINTH BILLINGS
PRODUCTION MANAGER

NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION/ DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE
COVER PHOTO

Each World Resources Institute report represents a timely, scholarly treatment of a subject of public concern. WRI takes responsibility for choosing the study topics and guaranteeing its authors and researchers freedom of

inquiry. It also solicits and responds to the guidance of advisory panels and expert reviewers. Unless otherwise stated, however, all the interpretation and findings set forth in WRI publications are those of the authors.

Copyright © 2000 World Resources Institute. All rights reserved. ISBN 1-56973-439-9 Library of Congress Catalog Card No. 00-107192 Printed in the United States of America on chlorine-free paper with recycled content of 50%, 20% of which is post-consumer.

C O N T E N T S

Preface ...................................................V Acknowledgments ...............................IX Key Findings ....................................XI 1. Introduction.........................................1 2. Approach and Methodology ............4
2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 The Material Cycle Accounting for Output Flows What’s In and What’s Out Characterizing Material Flows Data Access and Quality The Importance of Physical Accounts in Understanding Material Flows

4. Policy Applications ..........................32 5. Next Steps.........................................38 Notes .....................................................42 Annex 1. Data Summary: National Comparisons ....................................44 Annex 2. Country Reports ................48
Austria Germany Japan The Netherlands United States

For Further Information .................125

3. Study Findings ..............................13
3.1 Total Domestic Output (TDO) 3.2 Domestic Processed Output (DPO) 3.3 Sector Indicators: Who Generates the Biggest Output Flows? 3.4 Gateway Indicators: Where Do Material Outflows Go? 3.5 Dissipative Flows 3.6 Net Additions to Stock (NAS)

WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS

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However. In addition. Conventional demand studies suggest that global energy consumption is likely to rise nearly threefold and manufacturing activity at least threefold. sector by sector? Such questions illustrate the case for WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS v . a 300 percent rise in energy and material use still represents a substantial increase. There is an urgent need for new information tools and new metrics if we are to monitor progress toward the development of more ecoefficient economies and long-term sustainability. environmental pressures will increase rapidly. according to conventional projections. These projections indicate that some measure of “decoupling” is probable: that is. As long as continued growth in economic output implies continued growth in material inputs to and waste outputs from the economy. Global throughput of material is also likely to triple. the world economy is expected to grow faster than the rate of resource use. How will we know whether the necessary degree of decoupling is occurring? How can we design policies to promote decoupling and gauge their effectiveness. while the world’s population is forecast to increase by 50 percent. economic growth poses a fundamental challenge to sustainable development. Indicators should measure the physical dimensions of national economies. Unless economic growth can be dramatically decoupled from resource use and waste generation. Over the next 50 years. Our task has been to document the materials that flow through industrial economies and develop sets of national physical accounts that can be used alongside national monetary accounts. we have developed indicators of material flows that complement such economic indicators as gross domestic product (GDP). there is little hope of limiting the impacts of human activity on the natural environment.P R E F A C E T his report. global economic activity is expected to increase roughly fivefold. Standard economic indicators—those that describe the financial flows in an economy— provide incomplete information on the environmental consequences or implications of economic activity. not just their financial dimensions. The Weight of Nations: Material Outflows from Industrial Economies. driven largely by industrialization and infrastructure growth in developing regions. By its very nature. is the second product of a remarkable collaboration between the World Resources Institute and research partners in Europe and Japan.

especially when they occur during material extraction (for example. Quantities of solid wastes sent to landfills have stabilized or declined. however.S. Resource Flows: The Material Basis of Industrial Economies. resource endowment. To what extent are industrial economies breaking the link between economic growth and material throughput? The evidence for decoupling is either strong or weak. for 80 percent by weight of material outflows in the five study countries. economic structure. our estimates indicate that flows of fuel-related contaminants to the U. Japan. contributing further to atmospheric pollution. with potential for environmental harm. mining) or during product use and disposal. our first report. This report shows conclusively that the atmosphere is by far the biggest dumping ground for the wastes of industrial economies. Despite strong economic growth over the period 1975–1996. depending on the measure used. climate. the extent of decoupling may be regarded as remarkable and possibly symptomatic of profound underlying structural changes in the nature of industrial economies. has resulted in waste outputs being diverted from land to air. Output flows are dominated by the extraction and use of fossil energy resources: when bulky flows like water. This latter practice. Yet. Given declining real prices for most resource commodities. Good indicators will make it much easier for us to measure physical flows accurately and compare them to economic flows. and phosphorus. resource inputs and waste outputs rose relatively little on a per capita basis and fell dramatically when measured against units of economic output. documented material inputs to industrial economies and showed that the total material requirement of major OECD countries (Germany. on average. We have found. physical inputs are quickly returned to the environment as pollution or waste. carbon dioxide accounts. and continued subsidies for resource extraction and use in most OECD countries. In 1997. soil erosion and earth moving are excluded. Examples include sulfur emissions to air and releases of some heavy metals. For example. Outputs of some of the materials known to be hazardous to human health or damaging to the environment have been regulated and successfully reduced or stabilized. chlorine. the Netherlands. and lifestyles. This new report completes the material cycle by documenting and analyzing the material output flows for the four original study countries. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS vi . patterns of material outputs from their economies to the environment have much in common. in some cases by 30 percent or more. environment increased by about 25 percent between 1975 and 1996. plus Austria. and the United States) is currently between 45 and 80 metric tons per capita annually. Reductions have been achieved thanks to increased recycling efforts and greater use of incineration as a disposal option. rather than at the processing and manufacturing stages. Except for the relatively modest quantities of materials recycled or added each year to stock in use (largely in the form of infrastructure and durable goods). that many hazardous or potentially hazardous material flows are increasing. These countries differ in terms of their size. There are positive trends. however.comprehensive measures of material flows.

Between 1975 and 1996. Targeted policies will be needed to accelerate the trend toward dematerialization and to encourage substitution of benign materials for those that are environmentally harmful. although increasing wealth. The findings presented in this report show that. they have not achieved any overall reduction in resource use or waste volumes. Germany GEN OHI Director-General/National Institute for Environmental Studies. therefore. over time. developing countries can be expected. It is. and discharges in the five study countries increased by between 16 percent and 29 percent. the Austrian Federal Ministry for Agriculture.S. clear that efforts at genuine dematerialization have a strong claim on the policy agenda. even as decoupling between economic growth and resource throughput occurred on a per capita and per unit GDP basis. ERNST ULRICH VON WEIZSÄCKER President/Wuppertal Institute. We also acknowledge the financial support of the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency. total quantities of conventional wastes.A. Leiden University. Austria HELIAS A. Given the likelihood of common economic aspirations in developing and industrialized countries. U. the Environment Agency of Japan through the Global Environment Research Fund. Innovation and Technology. we found no evidence of an absolute reduction in resource throughput in any of the countries studied. Environment and Water Management. and the Austrian Federal Ministry for Transport. to attain roughly the same physical basis—the same level of per capita material throughput—as will then be found in economically advanced countries. the Netherlands Ministry of Housing. the Statistical Office of the European Communities (EUROSTAT). Despite the rapid rise of e-commerce and the shift over several decades from heavy industries toward knowledge-based and service industries. and economic restructuring in industrialized countries have contributed to significant decoupling between rates of economic growth and material throughput. such as climate change. JONATHAN LASH President/World Resources Institute. Forestry.However. technological advances. UDO DE HAES Scientific Director/Centre of Environmental Science. Japan ROLAND FISCHER Director/Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies of Austrian Universities. The Netherlands WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS vii . Only if the level of materials intensity to which industrialized and developing countries eventually converge is substantially below that found in the industrialized countries today can there be hope of mitigating global environmental problems. it is important to understand that overall resource use and waste flows into the environment continued to grow. emissions. We would like to acknowledge the support of the United States Environmental Protection Agency in making possible WRI’s contribution to this joint research effort and the publication of this report. Spatial Planning and the Environment. There is a particular need for accelerated technology transfer from industrialized countries so that developing countries can “leapfrog” older polluting and inefficient technologies.

1. Jim MacKenzie. They include Alan Brewster. the Federal Environmental Agency of Germany. As before. The authors wish to thank numerous colleagues who provided helpful comments and information during the course of this study. Tony Janetos.9 The Statistical Office of the European Union has affirmed the importance of materials flow analysis (MFA) and supports the further use and development of MFA within the framework of integrated environmental and economic accounting. They include staff at the United States Geological Survey. Grecia Matos. John Ehrenfeld. and as a basis for the derivation of indicators for sustainability. Duncan Austin.A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S W e wish to acknowledge the many individuals who have generously given their time to help us develop the databases that underpin this report. Robert Socolow. from within WRI. Anton Steurer. Iddo Wernick and. the Environment Agency of Japan. the German Federal Statistical Office prepared a national materials flow balance in 1995. Materials flow balances for national economies were developed independently at the beginning of the 1990s in Austria. 3 and Japan. and the Austrian Federal Environmental Agency. the European Environment Agency (EEA) produced an indicator report with headline indicators. and previous work on materials flow accounting. Allen Hammond. Janet Ranganathan. 2 Germany. most of which correspond to the main input and output categories of a national materials flow balance. materials flow accounts have already been introduced to official statistics of European Free Trade Area (EFTA) countries and some member states of the European Union. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS ix . 6 and Wernick. and to Hyacinth Billings and Maggie Powell for their management of the production process. 8 Adopting new approaches for environmental statistics. Special thanks are due to WRI’s publications editor Carollyne Hutter. notably in the work of Ayres. Thomas Graedel. Fran Irwin. Berlin.10 Most recently. the Central Bureau of Statistics of the Netherlands. 5 Rogich. and Dan Tunstall. 4 The approach was also applied to the United States. our work has benefitted immeasurably from that of other researchers.7 In Europe. Kevin Baumert.

and fell dramatically when measured against units of economic output. on a per capita basis. We found no evidence of an absolute reduction in resource throughput. and earth moved during construction—total annual material outputs to the environment range from 21 metric tons per person in Japan to 86 metric tons per person in the United States. Our estimates indicate that many potentially hazardous flows in the United States increased by 25 to 100 percent between 1975 and 1996. which are outside the traditional area of regulatory scrutiny.K E Y F I N D I N G S Industrial economies are becoming more efficient in their use of materials. but waste generation continues to increase. Material outputs to the environment from economic activity in the five study countries range from 11 metric tons per person per year in Japan to 25 metric tons per person per year in the United States. however. or potentially hazardous. Many other hazardous. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS xi . Quantities of municipal solid wastes sent to landfills have also stabilized or declined in all countries studied. Even as decoupling between economic growth and resource throughput occurred on a per capita and per unit GDP basis. mining overburden. One half to three quarters of annual resource inputs to industrial economies are returned to the environment as wastes within a year. resource inputs and waste outputs between 1975 and 1996 rose relatively little. Examples of successes include the reduction or stabilization of emissions to air of sulfur compounds and lead from gasoline. phosphorus in detergents. material flows are poorly controlled because they occur at the extraction phase or the use and disposal phases of the material cycle. and some heavy metals. overall resource use and waste flows into the environment continued to grow. Despite strong economic growth in all countries studied. When “hidden flows” are included—flows which do not enter the economy. Outputs of some hazardous materials have been regulated and successfully reduced or stabilized but outputs of many potentially harmful materials continue to increase. such as soil erosion.

for more than 80 percent by weight of material outflows from economic activity in the five study countries.The extraction and use of fossil energy resources dominate output flows in all industrial countries. Nor do they differentiate among the many materials that are aggregated in products. The atmosphere is by far the biggest dumping ground for industrial wastes. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS xii . monetary accounts and environmental statistics record few material flows that are not subject to regulation or classified as wastes requiring treatment. On the output side. Carbon dioxide accounts. Physical accounts are urgently needed. Neither traditional monetary accounts nor environmental statistics are an adequate basis for tracking resource flows into and out of the economy. because our knowledge of resource use and waste outputs is surprisingly limited. Modern industrial economies are carbonbased economies. on average. Fossil energy consumption is still rising. They record only a part of resource inputs. lose sight of some materials in the course of processing. such as soil erosion from cultivated fields. and entirely miss major flows of materials that do not enter the economy at all.

Our report has helped to stimulate similar research efforts in other countries. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 1 . Industrial economies “ingest” raw materials. Sweden. and the European Union as a whole. as living organisms. which are associated with making those commodities available for economic use but do not themselves enter the economy. This forum will provide a focal point for discussions. we included all foreign hidden flows of materials associated with imported commodities. Total resource requirements for each study country were shown to be 45 metric tons of material per person annually in Japan. the Netherlands. and they “excrete” wastes in the form of discarded materials and pollution. which are “metabolized” to produce goods and services. our report Resource Flows: The Material Basis of Industrial Economies documented for the first time the total material requirement (TMR) of four industrial economies—Germany. Today. there is evidence of a growing international momentum to develop physical accounts that can be used in parallel with traditional monetary accounting systems. Finland. In 1997. and their relation to economic growth over time. researchers view modern economies. academic. and nongovernmental organization (NGO) communities. and the United States. metaphorically. I The 1997 study of the input side of industrial economies provoked much interest in the policy. and more than 80 metric tons per person annually in the other three study countries. Examples of hidden flows are rock and earth moved during construction and soil erosion from cultivated fields. Brazil. Egypt. together with indicators for measuring progress. It demonstrated that physical accounts provide an integrated framework for analyzing flows of materials from the natural environment into the human economic system. In calculating the TMR. the OECD Working Group on the State of the Environment is likely to establish a forum for collaborative efforts on the development and implementation of materials flow models.1 I N T R O D U C T I O N n the emerging discipline of industrial ecology. in terms of their size. Japan. Malaysia. which is likely to stimulate demand for the collection of materials flow statistics. Italy.11 We showed that national resource requirements include both direct inputs of commodities to the economy and “hidden” flows of materials. including Australia. At the time of writing. Poland. their composition. A number of European Union countries have established long-term national targets for material and energy efficiency.

such as rock and earth (from mining and construction) and carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion. some subjectivity is unavoidable. This report builds on. where interested countries and organizations can exchange information and possibly develop collaborative efforts towards harmonized models. However. indicators of materials flow that tell us whether overall WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 2 . Indicators of materials flow are created by summing the weights of many different materials. (ii) show how material output flows have changed in relation to population size and economic activity. Big flows are not automatically bad. Based on the physical accounts developed for each country. the Netherlands. our earlier work by presenting the output side of industrial economies. A ton of iron ore is not equivalent to a ton of mercury. Therefore. With this in mind. we have developed a number of new indicators and measures that (i) summarize national trends in outputs of material to the environment between 1975 and 1996. The scope of this new study has been expanded from the first report and now includes Austria in addition to Germany. Nevertheless. one concerning methodology and one concerning policy-relevance. such as total material requirement (TMR). Indicators. and other infrastructure. dominate these indicators. and small flows are not automatically better. hardly show up. increases in resource throughput imply increases in environmental impacts. and (iii) compare the level of material output flows from different economic sectors (such as industry. All resource use involves environmental impacts of some kind at every stage of the material cycle from extraction or harvesting to final disposal. We stress that summing different materials is not intended to imply parity among them. Unless technologies are changed dramatically. but which accumulate as stock in the form of durable goods. we chose to exclude freshwater flows. that must be addressed directly. product use. regardless of their economic importance or environmental impact. we have attempted to create “value-neutral” physical accounts that include all materials. buildings. through processing and manufacturing. It documents the materials that flow from the human economy back into the environment at every stage of economic activity. from commodity extraction or harvest. and households) and into different environmental media (air. primarily on the grounds that they are so large they would overwhelm the other data.seminars. Hidden flows are again reported because. Our first report raised two important questions. Japan. we believe that indicators are useful measures of potential environmental impact. 2. for example. and water). and workshops. are presented simply as physical descriptors of the economic system. or total domestic output (TDO). and complements. land. in system terms. such as synthetic organic chemicals or heavy metals. just as economic indicators like gross domestic product (GDP) are monetary descriptors of the economic system. the report documents materials that do not rapidly exit the economy. they represent a simultaneous input and output. and final disposal. Highly aggregated indicators of materials flow should not be interpreted as direct indicators of environmental impact. Very small flows. transport. 1. We recognize that a few very large flows. and the United States. In addition.

A summary of the data underlying the indicators presented in this report can be found in Annex 1. and provide practical illustrations of how documentation of physical outputs to the environment can directly assist in policy formulation. where nonrecoverable dispersion into the environment is an inherent quality of product function. This scheme enables us to identify flows according to their physical and chemical characteristics. as is the case with pesticide sprays. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 3 . present the main findings. (See Annex 2. we develop a system of flow characterization that allows flows to be disaggregated according to their medium of entry into the environment (flows to air. and categories of like flows—that materials flow analysis will have most relevance to detailed policy-making. land. and whether national economies are becoming more or less efficient in their use of resources. as well as their medium of entry into the environment.resource throughput is rising or falling. and their residence time in the economy. and water). We document a number of small but high impact flows. Indicators help to determine strategy. More detailed descriptions of material output flows in each of the study countries are provided in Annex 2.S. such as those of heavy metals and other hazardous substances. and by their mode of use. This report takes some steps toward examining the links between material flows and their environmental impacts. we develop a detailed. are valuable starting points for analysis. We focus on dissipative flows. details are provided in the U.) Subsequent sections of the report set out the approach and methodology for our study. pilot characterization scheme for material output flows in the United States. We recognize that it is at the level of sub accounts—the examination of specific material flows. In addition to documenting quantities of material outputs. country report. Finally.

and develops indicators that relate the size of material output flows to population and economic growth over time. • WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 4 . Our present methodology provides a conceptual model of the complete material cycle in the industrial economy. These goals were to provide a more complete accounting system and develop aggregate indicators for the output side of material flows.2 APPROACH AND METHODOLOGY O • • ur first report. which documented total resource requirements in four industrial economies. The right-hand side of the chart covers the flows documented in the present report—the output side of the economy. focus on the roles of economic sectors in the material cycle. and on the share of outputs generated by different economic sectors. The left-hand side of the chart indicates the flows documented in our 1997 report—the input side of the economy. We also document materials that are retained in the economy in the form of infrastructure and long-lived durable goods (stocks). separate domestic and foreign flows. • • 2. and develop a materials flow characterization scheme to distinguish better the quality and potential environmental impact of flows. established a number of goals for any subsequent report. Information is also provided on the environmental media to which material flows are released. to avoid double counting as the number of countries developing physical accounts grows. compare total material requirements (including imports) with total material outputs (including exports) to allow creation of national flow accounts. It documents the quantity and composition of physical outputs to the environment generated by five industrial economies.1 THE MATERIAL CYCLE Figure 1 is a schematic representation of material flows through the modern industrial economy.

discharges. via imports of commodities. However.FIGURE 1 THE MATERIAL CYCLE Foreign Hidden Flows Imports Air and Water Water Vapor Exports Economic Processing Austrian Federal Ministry for TM R Domestic Extraction DM I T DO Domestic Processed Output ( DPO) (to Air. some air-borne and water-borne pollutants) may ultimately affect other countries’ environments. we examined the total material requirement (TMR) of a country’s economy. In still other cases. Materials recross the boundary back into the environment when they are no longer available to play a role in the economy. In our previous study. because exported materials become wastes in another country. Classifying hidden flows as a simultaneous input to and output from the economy is a convention that enables these flows to be measured in an accounting year. and dissipative flows. and finished goods. All countries obtain physical inputs from their domestic environments. the nature of the losses and uses of a material preclude recapture (system losses. In other cases. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 5 . That study. emissions. the economic system chooses to release materials to the environment as controlled wastes. system losses. which are returned to an earlier step in the material cycle. many metals are recycled. without creating an imbalance on either the input or output side of the accounts. In some cases. Materials cross the boundary into the economy when they are purchased. But these flows occur and should be included in an accounting scheme. For example. but foreign hidden flows (flows associated with production of commodities imported by the study countries) are excluded. they never enter the economy. did not subtract exports and included the hidden flows that occurred in foreign countries in the course of producing goods that the study countries then imported. imports are included in the materials that contribute to domestic outputs to the environment. In the present study. some portion of TDO (for example. an output is avoided by recapturing wastes. nor do they leave it. outputs to the environment in the form of wastes. Exports from the study countries are excluded from the calculation of total domestic output (TDO). which focused on defining the total inputs to the economy. and Water ) Stocks Domestic Hidden Flows Domestic Hidden Flows Domestic Environment TMR (Total Material Requirement)=DMI+Domestic Hidden Flows+Foreign Hidden Flows DMI (Direct Material Input)=Domestic Extraction+Imports TDO (Total Domestic Output)=DPO+Domestic Hidden Flows NAS (Net Additions to Stock)=DMI–DPO–Exports DPO (Domestic Processed Output)=DMI–Net Additions to Stock–Exports Note: The system boundary of our materials flow studies is the interface between the natural environment and the human economy. and from other countries. These flows have not been separately estimated in this study. from extraction to final disposal. These inputs are transformed in a materials cycle (via economic processes) into the following: materials that accumulate in the economy as net additions to stock in the form of long-lived durable goods and infrastructure. semimanufactures. Hidden flows are not purchased. and exports to other countries. Land. dissipative flows). Outputs to the environment occur at every stage of the material cycle.

Our study indicates that between one half and three quarters of direct material inputs pass through the economies of the study countries and out into the envi- ronment within a year. or sulfur flows from air to land. which we call the “environmental gateway. in which material dispersal into the environment is an unavoidable or necessary consequence of product use). although our data are more complete. emissions. while this study disaggregates these material flows according to the medium by which they enter the environment. and discharges in official statistics. The flows that constitute DPO correspond roughly to conventionally described wastes. it documents flows only up to this first point of entry. the summed annual outputs are called the “total domestic output” (TDO). We call the annual material outflows from a domestic economy to the environment the “domestic processed output” (DPO). in the form of durable goods and physical infrastructure. is called the “net addition to stock” (NAS). which is increased by such practices as recycling and reuse. The material that is retained in the economy for a longer period. A third critical variable is the destination of output flows within the environment. TDO ranges from 21 metric tons per person in Japan to 86 metric tons per person in the United States.” Our study shows that there has been a steady increase in the share of outflows to the atmosphere and a corresponding decrease in the share of flows going to land and water. according to their source (the economic sector directly responsible for the output) or their mode of dispersal (we focus here on dissipative flows. This report shows that DPO in each of the study countries ranges from 11 metric tons per person in Japan to more than 25 metric tons per person in the United States. Box 1 presents summary definitions of the indicators developed for this study and the various ways in which we disaggregate the physical accounts. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 6 . Industrial economies are ultimately oncethrough systems. It does not track secondary deposition. One critical variable is the total quantity of materials flowing out of the economy in a year. When domestic hidden flows are added to DPO. such as nitrogen flows from fertilized land to water. We disaggregate material outflows according to their first point of entry to the environment. It should be noted that. All stock materials eventually become waste outflows.2 ACCOUNTING FOR OUTPUT FLOWS By analyzing the output side of the material cycle. A second critical variable is the average retention time of materials in the economy.2. too. we can learn a number of things about the potential environmental burden of material outflows. Material output flows can be analyzed further.

but no attempt has been made to estimate this fraction and subtract it from DPO. Note that an uncertain fraction of some dissipative use flows (manure. transport. overburden that must be removed to permit access to an ore body. Hidden flows occur at the harvesting or extraction stage of the material cycle. which do not themselves enter the economy. Domestic Hidden Flows (DHF): the total weight of materials moved or mobilized in the domestic environment in the course of providing commodities for economic use. For the purposes of physical accounting—in system terminology—hidden flows represent a simultaneous input and output. this study does not account for secondary deposition. and water. and glass) are subtracted from DPO. land. Hidden flows were also accounted for as part of the total material requirement (TMR) of industrial economies. and excavated and/or disturbed material flows (for example. These flows occur at the processing. although their environmental impacts may be different. Total Domestic Output (TDO): the sum of domestic processed output and domestic hidden flows. Gateways are the first point of entry of a material flow into the environment.g.BOX 1 DEFINITIONS OF INDICATORS AND OUTPUT FLOWS Domestic Processed Output (DPO): the total weight of materials. This indicator represents the total quantity of material outputs to the domestic environment caused directly or indirectly by human economic activity. but is later separated from the desired material before further processing). both categories have been combined into the single category of domestic hidden flows. then flow to the domestic environment. manufacturing. This report documents outputs from the industry (manufacturing and mining). and major constituents. fertilizer) is recycled by plant growth. metals. air. materials dispersed into the environment as a result of product use (see dissipative flows below). and household sectors in each of the study countries. or TDO. or TDO. and emissions from incineration plants. extracted from the domestic environment and imported from other countries. land. material loads in wastewater. industrial and household wastes deposited in landfills. paper. Gateway Flows: the share of DPO.. Sector Flows: the share of DPO. gateway flows are a means of differentiating material flows in order to provide more information about their potential environmental impacts. Recycled material flows in the economy (e. agriculture. of material flows to air. which have been used in the domestic economy. For purposes of aggregation. use. which can directly be attributed to the activities of individual economic sectors. Included in DPO are emissions to air from commercial energy combustion (including bunker fuels) and other industrial processes. Exported materials are excluded because their wastes occur in other countries. namely. plant and forest biomass that is removed from the land along with logs and grain. Outputs from combustion WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 7 . and water. and final disposal stages of the economic productionconsumption chain. and soil erosion that results from agriculture). They comprise two components: ancillary flows (for example. Both domestic processed output and total domestic output can be disaggregated to show the quantity. energy supply (utilities). construction. which exits the economy by each of three environmental gateways.

and exports. if not recycled. and sewage applied on fields for nutrient recycling. For all study countries other than the United States.. Secondly. while the extraction of water from aquifers. compost.g. rubber worn away from car tires. Water flows are excluded from this study. These flows comprise two components: dissipative uses (for example. e. disposed durable goods. and lakes may create environmental problems at the local or regional level. but we had to make some essentially subjective decisions about system boundaries. or unavoidable (with current technology). Hidden flows associated with all forms of mining (including coal mining) have been attributed to the industry sector. which varies considerably among WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 8 . Both domestic processed output and total domestic output can be disaggregated to show the quantity of material output generated by each sector. Net Additions to Stock (NAS): The quantity (weight) of new construction materials used in buildings and other infrastructure. Dissipative uses can be part of an ultimate throughput flow. based on the location of direct output flows. Dissipative Flows: the quantity (weight) of materials dispersed into the environment as a deliberate. and solvents used in paints or other coatings).. such as brakes and clutches. problems depend largely on the availability of water. including utilities. thus. with some exceptions noted below.3 WHAT’S IN AND WHAT’S OUT This report seeks to present comprehensive physical accounts for the five study countries. minus the material outputs of decommissioned building materials (as construction and demolition wastes ). the usefulness of the indicators. Water flows are so large that they would completely dominate all other material flows and would obscure the meaning and. 2. plus air inputs (e.g. groundwater reserves. including energy use. have been attributed to different economic sectors. and household appliances. NAS is calculated indirectly as the balancing item between the annual flow of materials that enter the economy (direct material input). such as cars. mineral fertilizer. industrial machinery. are accounted for in DPO. water vapor. consequence of product use. rivers. net additions to stock are calculated directly as gross additions to stock. e. particles worn from friction products. for oxidization processes).BOX 1 (CONTINUED) processes. or part of recycling. New materials are added to the economy’s stock each year (gross additions) and old materials are removed from stock as buildings are demolished and durable goods discarded. minus domestic processed output. and materials incorporated into new durable goods. and salt spread on roads) and dissipative losses (for example. In the case of the United States. These decommissioned materials. fertilizers and manure spread on fields.g. for a number of reasons. and materials recycled.. The balance is the net addition to stock. manure.

where it is difficult to exclude it with any accuracy). oxygen binds to other elements. nitrogen. Oxygen was accounted for in our 1997 study as part of the materials balance calculated for Germany and the Netherlands. a major outflow from fossil fuel combustion. therefore. chosen to include oxygen in emissions from industrial processes in our output indicators. 2. is documented in the country reports (see Annex 2). municipal wastes. Impacts depend on a material’s form and a material’s fate. and is emitted back to the atmosphere in the form of combustion and processing waste products. where it ends up. respiration emissions have been calculated and are presented in the comprehensive materials flow balance for Germany (see p. Water vapor. Asbestos bound in concrete is harmless. These waste products include carbon dioxide. oxides of nitrogen. fuels) and where it is part of the fresh weight of certain outputs (for example. should include data on water flows. such as carbon. and human and livestock respiration. feedstuffs. With a few exceptions. and hydrogen. Agricultural grains. 12 but is not included in our indicators. Water is included in this study only where it is present as an embedded component of materials (for example. However. sulfur. it becomes a constituent of important environmental pollutants. but it was not included in the indicators of input to industrial economies (TMR and DMI). and manure. but data are less complete than those for air pollutants. Nitrogen absorbed in agricultural plant tissue is good. oxygen is also inhaled during human and livestock respiration and exhaled as carbon dioxide and water vapor. Thirdly.4 CHARACTERIZING MATERIAL FLOWS This report does not attempt to show the relative environmental impacts of material flows by using a weighting or scoring system. In the course of industrial processes. In addition to its role in industrial processes. among others. wood products. For information value. In this study. material flows cannot be assigned values indicating that they are good or bad.regions. Contaminants in water flows have been recorded where possible. and water vapor. Japan. Oxygen in itself is an almost constant additive on the input and the output sides of the material balance. We have. sulfur dioxide. sewage. Material flows follow WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 9 . and in the country reports for Austria. current data are inadequate to track the role of water flows as the transport medium for pollutants in some of the study countries. 37). are accounted for at a standardized low water content weight. National level data on mass flows of water are not particularly useful. Germany. particularly if supplemented with geographic information systems analysis. Emissions from human and animal respiration are assumed to be approximately balanced by plant photosynthesis. that is. it accounts for at least 20 percent by weight of material inputs to industrial economies. Oxygen is drawn from the atmosphere during fossil fuel combustion and other industrial chemical reactions. A set of physical accounts developed at the regional or sectoral level. asbestos in human lungs is harmful. in binding to other elements. however. nitrogen dissolved in groundwater may be bad. respiration-related emissions are not included in the indicators presented in the main report. we take a different approach. However. and the Netherlands.

Their purpose is to enable users to identify and search for quantities of materials of specific interest. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 10 . These categories permit a number of policy-relevant questions: Which materials flow to land. and dissipative outflows. net imports. To this end. as well as their residence time in the economy and their mode of entry to the environment. and one weighting value cannot adequately capture the full picture.5 DATA ACCESS AND QUALITY The national physical accounts databases on which this report is based. can be accessed on the Internet via the home pages of our institutions (see p. materials database. and water. The indicators presented in this report were developed using data obtained from national statistics on wastes and emissions. we have identified material outputs according to various characteristics. (See U. For the United States. (An example might be a database search to identify material outputs between 1975 and 1996 that are: unprocessed but chemically active. data on outputs were derived from statistics on production. and to air. along with detailed technical notes and sources. and the scale of the activity producing the hidden flow. country report. partially solid. it is not the purpose of accounting systems to prejudge complicated issues by providing answers: rather. More importantly.S. We have taken a first step in this direction by developing a more detailed pilot characterization scheme for the U. and dispersed directly on land in solid. outflows exiting the economy within one year of entry. for example. The reliability of the data and the methods used varied by country and material. resident in the economy for less than two years.) 2. This scheme assigns values to the 460 material flows documented. outflows remaining in the economy for more than one year. modeled estimates supplemented missing or incomplete data. land. It is our hope that researchers using these data will improve on them.S. to water. by developing sophisticated weighting schemes applicable to single material pathways or conducting environmental and social cost-benefit analyses on the impacts of specific flows. Consistent data sources and methods were used for the entire 1975–96 time frame.complex paths. based on a range of physical and chemical characteristics. or liquid form. engineering practice. In some cases. and recycling. While some data were available on hidden flows. coupled with disaggregated information on how commodities were used.) These values do not correlate with any degree of environmental impact. to permit their disaggregation into the categories outlined above: outflows to air. they should provide information that enables people to ask the right questions. and estimates based on use information. 125). and in what quantities? Which materials are dissipated into the environment with no or limited possibility of recovery? How much material is potentially recoverable and recyclable? How much toxic and hazardous material flows to the environment each year?13 And how are these outputs changing over time? These are basic questions. for the most part hidden flow quantities were estimated on the basis of national average statistics. The comprehensive nature of national statistics on emissions and wastes for countries other than the United States and Japan made them the source for the majority of these countries’ data.

In Germany. Dredging wastes are adequately reported in Germany. No mention is yet made of hidden flows in official data sources in either the Netherlands or the United States. Nevertheless. Minor flows. which are only now being prepared. information on the temporal trend indicating possible developments of nonpoint source releases and the effectiveness of Among dissipative material outflows. Dissipative losses were accounted for by Austria. official statistics provided the basis for our estimates. future waste statistics will probably provide more complete information for national material flow accounts. we had to supplement official statistics to provide complete time series from 1975 to 1996 on waste disposal in controlled landfills. Germany. where we had to make estimates. such as manure. and the United States. good quality data are available on waste. official sources provide good timeseries data for municipal wastes disposal. Emissions of substances to water are small in quantity. the Austrian Environmental Policy Plan (1995) mentions hidden flows but does not provide data. Although soil erosion from cultivated land • • • WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 11 . and NO2 in all the study countries. emissions of CFCs and halons were not represented in official data. but data on industrial wastes are of inadequate quality. official sources provided the basis for study estimates. relative to other emissions. • • In the European countries studied. In Austria and Germany. are insufficiently documented. There is now increasing recognition of their importance. those representing recycling flows. Among hidden domestic flows. Emissions to air are adequately documented in official statistics for CO2. accounting for emissions to water appears to be underdeveloped given the range of substances discharged. Overburden from mining has been included in waste statistics in Germany since 1993. Among the throughput flows. except in the United States.Our experience with using official statistics as the basis for compiling national physical accounts leads us to the following conclusions: sewage treatment is lacking in study countries other than the Netherlands. Also. We were able to account for most mining wastes directly from official statistics in all countries except the United States. In Japan. Materials used for other purposes were considered only in the country studies of Germany and the United States. hidden flows have been ignored in official data. Except in Germany. and sewage sludges spread on agricultural land. are well documented in official statistics. However. we could quantify soil excavation for all five countries in this study. compost. In the United States. official governmental statistics are insufficient and in most cases served only indirectly as a basis for study estimates. and the United States. in all the countries studied. such as the use of grit materials on roads. The Netherlands appears to have the most comprehensive data. Generally. SO2. mineral fertilizers and pesticides are also recorded in official statistics. The Japanese Environmental Year Book of 1998 also records hidden flows. the Netherlands. Until recently. The current study extends official reports by including bunker fuel emissions in national data.

where they originate. Comprehensive. and even in households (for example. Environmental policy tends to focus on specific materials known to be harmful to the environment or human health at specific stages of their life cycle. Data for soil erosion and dredging wastes were not available. and miss many hidden flows entirely.6 THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL ACCOUNTS IN UNDERSTANDING MATERIAL FLOWS Physical accounts are commonly used to track inputs and outputs in the mining sector. but they rarely take sufficient account of upstream or downstream effects. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 12 . Traditional monetary accounts are not an adequate basis for tracking material flows. Current environmental statistics and monitoring policies do not capture the whole picture of material flows either. permit the formulation of environmental and economic policy based on the big picture. integrated physical accounts. units of energy consumption). for Austria. It also helps to identify which activities or products are primarily responsible for these flows and to devise interventions which stand the best chance of being environmentally effective and economically efficient. The United States was the exception. 2. lose sight of some materials in the course of processing (for example. in the United States. where the Department of Agriculture provides official estimates of soil erosion. Although attempts to attach monetary values to output flows (pricing externalities) are useful. They clearly are relevant for prioritizing clean-up and remediation efforts relating to specific flows. They record only a part of resource inputs. using methodologies that are not comparable across sectors or among countries. in many industries at the sector and firm level. these methodologies remain subjective and controversial. we were obliged to estimate quantities for most countries. but are of less value in characterizing mass flows. Physical accounting is the norm in plant operations. However.represents a major environmental concern. physical accounts are either absent or are compiled only for a limited number of natural resources. and where they end up. at the national level. 14 Monetary accounts record few material output flows that are not subject to regulation or classified as wastes requiring treatment. nor do they differentiate among the myriad materials that are aggregated in products. Such an approach allows us to pinpoint where flows of a harmful material are concentrated. Regulations and economic instruments seek to prevent or mitigate certain impacts. covering the entire material cycle. lead “disappears” in monetary terms when it is incorporated into glass products). or estimated.

3 S T U D Y F I N D I N G S T his chapter presents an overview of material outflows in the five study countries. dredging wastes—the bulk of which are landfilled or deposited in open waters—are the largest hidden flow in the Netherlands.1 TOTAL DOMESTIC OUTPUT (TDO) Total domestic output (TDO) is the aggregate measure of domestic processed output (material outflows from the economy) plus domestic hidden flows (which do not enter the economy). and NAS. 2. TDO varies widely among the study countries: 23 billion metric tons in the United States. It represents the total quantity of material outputs and material displacement WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 13 . The relative dependence of an economy on imports also significantly affects the size of total domestic output. the country’s geographic scale (which determines the size of infrastructure and related earth moving). The size of national hidden flows is. 381 million metric tons in the Netherlands. closely linked to the presence or absence of a mining sector. It documents current levels of material outflows. which are dominated by mining overburden (in those countries with a significant mining sector). 3. and the scale and type of agriculture (which influences soil erosion). reviews 21-year trends in the indicators TDO. earth moved during construction. economic structure.5 billion metric tons in Germany. and draws comparisons among the five study countries through the use of per capita data. DPO. summary tables of the data discussed in the following pages are presented in Annex 1. and 171 million metric tons in Austria. Annex 2 provides more detailed analyses of material flows in each country. quantities and types of material outputs. therefore. For ease of comparison. and soil erosion from cultivated fields. analyzes the composition of these flows. The findings also help to explain how and why patterns of material outputs are changing over time. The study findings provide policy-relevant information about the links between economic growth and population growth. For example. and the fate of materials in the economy or the environment.6 billion metric tons in Japan. Uniquely. These differences are due in large part to disparities in the size of domestic hidden flows. the United States and Germany produce many of 3. within national borders and is the best proxy indicator of overall potential output-related environmental impacts in each country.

WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 14 . 15 Material output flows are not closely correlated with the size of a national economy. and the Netherlands. Austria. and rose by less than 3 percent in the Netherlands and the United States. and domestic processed output.261. 1999 (Washington D.4 22.C. by contrast.4 Million Metric Tons 100.8 Country Austria Netherlands Germany Japan United States 235. but there is a relationship between the two. The United States is exceptional. 1996 GDP Billion $US Ratio 1.: World Bank.0 2.492.3 381. generating larger material flows than might be expected from the size of its economy.) Only Japan experienced an increase in TDO of 19 percent. Figure 2 compares TDO in the study countries on a per capita basis.S.446.074.0 67.3 410. offset to a greater or lesser extent by increases in flows of domestic processed output from the economy.5 2. total domestic output. and hidden flows associated with domestic mining activities (such as overburden and waste ore) are included in the TDO of these countries.390.0 Million Metric Tons 171. the most significant difference from other countries being an atypical increase of 18 percent in hidden flows.2 2.their own mineral resources. After reunification. Table 1 provides information on the absolute and relative sizes of each country’s economy.7 31. publicly funded construction programs.8 10. TDO did not change substantially between 1975 and 1996. dollars.5 6. and mining flows occurring in the exporting countries (foreign hidden flows) are not included in TDO reported for these three study countries.3 1. The otherwise relatively stable pattern in TDO is attributable primarily to national reductions in domestic hidden flows. For Germany. The relationship between size of economy and size of outflows is noticeably closer between GDP and DPO. data before reunification of the country in 1990 refer to the Federal Republic of Germany only. The United States substantially reduced its rates of soil erosion after imple- TABLE 1 THE RELATION BETWEEN MONETARY AND MATERIAL OUTPUT FLOWS.1 3.6 5. Total outputs fell by 5 percent in Austria. there was a significant decline in TDO.7 14. 1999).406.4 15.632. Domestic hidden flows in Japan are caused primarily by large.1 23.0 TDO Ratio 1.0 1.338. even when hidden flows are excluded. (See Figure 3.8 DPO Ratio 1.4 135.0 2.773.9 7.2 20.7 1. import most of their mineral requirements. based on data provided in World Bank Development Indicators.8 281. TRENDS IN TOTAL DOMESTIC OUTPUT (TDO) In most study countries. Japan.6 Note: GDP for all countries is expressed in 1996 U.7 10.

1996 100 90 80 Metric Tons Per Capita 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Hidden Flows DPO Austria Germany Japan Netherlands United States FIGURE 3 TRENDS IN TDO.FIGURE 2 TOTAL DOMESTIC OUTPUT (TDO). 1975–1996 (INDEX) 250 200 Index (1975=100) 150 Austria Germany Japan Netherlands 100 United States 50 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 15 .

and depletion of the ozone layer. Some degradation or landscape alteration is often involved. as when earth is excavated during construction. Useful carbon enters the economy as coal.menting the Conservation Reserve Program. Hidden flows may also involve physical or chemical transformation. is now double the preindustrial rate. soil eroded from cultivated fields is of little further use once transformed into sediment in rivers. may be leached from overburden when rock and earth are newly exposed to air. In the Netherlands. reduced hidden flows by more than 25 percent. The scale of modern industrial activity. or disruptive of biogeochemical cycles. in excess quantities. soil. toxic in the environment.16 The rate of nitrogen fixation. although this trend was countered by an increase in the amount of overburden and gangue from mining activity. such as selenium. excavated and displaced. or oil. and exits as climatechanging carbon dioxide. the most abundant gas in the atmosphere. possibly because of completion of the national road network. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 16 . Austria and Germany achieved dramatic reductions in quantities of overburden as lignite mining was scaled back. when four fifths of the world is still relatively nonindustrialized. acid rain. is great enough to have changed significantly the natural global cycles of carbon and nitrogen. 17 Domestic Hidden Flows. even today. Zinc or mercury are safe enough until they are mined and dispersed into air. Nitrogen. is burned. and into nutrients that. or water. and sulphide rocks can contribute to acid mine drainage. loses much of its structure and natural fertility. The atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has risen from 280 parts per million (ppm) in preindustrial times to 367 ppm today. represent the displacement of materials from their original position in the environment to another. lower rates of soil erosion and a steep fall in the quantities of earth moved during construction. Topsoil. which never enter the economy as traded commodities. BOX 2 MATERIAL OUTFLOWS AND ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION Economic activity transforms materials into different physical and chemical forms or mobilizes them in ways that may be hazardous to human health. is fixed by a variety of human actions and transformed into nitrogen gases that contribute to global warming. gas.18 Hazardous chemicals. thanks to fertilizer manufacture and fossil fuel combustion. stimulate eutrophication and algal blooms and contaminate drinking water. which more than offset increases in construction-related earth moving.

3.2 DOMESTIC PROCESSED OUTPUT (DPO)
Domestic processed output (DPO) comprises solid wastes, and liquid and gaseous emissions and discharges; these flows are partially captured in official national statistics, though many individual flows are missed. The DPO indicator is more directly comparable across the study countries, because it captures the economic activities common to all and excludes the highly variable hidden flows. On a per capita basis, the quantities of domestic processed output generated in each country vary at most by a factor of just over two. (See Figure 2.)

Trends in DPO: Growth and Decoupling In marked contrast to the relative stability of TDO, domestic processed output in four of the five countries has risen by between 16 percent and 28 percent since 1975. (See Figure 4a.) The exception is Germany, where DPO rose slightly and fell again between 1975 and reunification in 1990, and has fallen from its new higher level since then. This atypical pattern was largely because of fuel-switching away from high-carbon energy sources, which reduced emissions of carbon dioxide. The shift to lower-carbon oil and gas occurred earlier in the other study countries; therefore, their gains in carbon efficiency are less pronounced during the study period.
Economic growth in all study countries was strong over the same 21-year period. GDP grew by between 62 percent in the Netherlands and 106 percent in Japan. At

first glance, therefore, we see considerable decoupling between economic growth and generation of material outflows. (See Figure 4b.) The materials outflow intensity (DPO/GDP) of all five countries has fallen impressively since 1975, although the trend appears to have slowed in recent years. Decoupling is partly the result of successful attempts to reduce waste volumes, especially landfilled wastes, and to increase recycling. (See section 3.4.) Decoupling appears to owe more to efficiency improvements and the ongoing shift away from traditional energy- and material-intensive industries toward knowledge-intensive industries, and the financial and other service sectors. As one example, the share of Japan’s GDP contributed by the manufacturing sector fell from 30 to 24 percent between 1975 and 1996, while the share of the services sector rose from 52 to 60 percent. 19 Shifts within sectors, from heavy industries to high technology industries, for example, are still more pronounced. In spite of the trend toward decoupling between economic growth and material output, progress is less evident at the more tangible level of material outputs per person. Figure 4c displays erratic and contrasting trends, reflecting cycles of economic recession and prosperity and changing population structures. At the end of the 21-year period, however, per capita domestic processed output had declined slightly in only one country, Germany, and had increased in all the others. This means that the average citizen in the study countries generates slightly more waste outputs today than he or she did in 1975.

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17

FIGURE 4a
140

DOMESTIC MATERIAL OUTPUT (DPO), 1975–1996 (INDEX)

130

Index (1975=100)

120 Austria Germany 100 Japan Netherlands 90 United States

110

80 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995

FIGURE 4b

MATERIAL OUTFLOW INTENSITY (DPO/GDP), 1975–1996 (INDEX)

110

DPO Per Constant Unit of GDP (Index, 1975=100)

100

90 Austria Germany Japan 70 Netherlands United States 60

80

50 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995

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18

FIGURE 4c

MATERIAL OUTFLOW INTENSITY (DPO PER CAPITA), 1975–1996 (INDEX)

120

110

Index (1975=100)

100

Austria Germany Japan Netherlands

90

United States

80 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995

Table 2 presents the absolute values behind these 21-year trends: increases in DPO and GDP, decoupling between DPO and economic growth, and less pronounced decoupling between DPO and population growth. These findings indicate that technological progress and restructuring toward servicebased economies in the study countries have substantially weakened the link between economic growth and resource throughput. The development of new patterns of economic growth, such as e-commerce, may weaken the link further. However, actual dematerialization has not been achieved. We see here that, despite decoupling between growth rates in GDP and material throughput, quantities of wastes and emissions generated by the study countries have increased in

absolute terms over the 21-year study period. On a per capita basis, some countries achieved modest decoupling during the 1980s, only to lose their gains in the more prosperous 1990s. (Stronger decoupling in Germany is explained largely by the unusual and temporary circumstance of declining carbon dioxide emissions). Part of the explanation for the continued increase in overall waste quantities lies in the fact that traditional industries, despite their declining relative economic importance, are not necessarily declining in terms of their physical operations. In addition, even economies with sophisticated high technology sectors continue to use older generation, inefficient technologies where they represent low-cost options. For example, the United

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19

541. has encouraged more material acquisition.20 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 20 . structural economic change and technological efficiency gains alone appear unlikely to bring about a real reduction in resource use and waste outputs. Dollars (United States).States still makes use of old.0 +68 1.0 1.7 6.5 +93 244.8 18.47 0.1 +5 Germany 1975 1996 % change 1975 1996 % change 1975 1996 % change 1975 1996 % change Japan Netherlands United States Notes : 1 All data for Germany are affected by reunification in 1990.5 +10 14. and billion constant 1996 U.3 +16 5.6 +74 11.2 269.24 0.8 81.6 +62 4.406.42 –29 1.441.0 667.4 +106 413.9 25.9 7.6 8. Consumer lifestyles have changed over the past quartercentury and affluence.8 +32 111. for the most part. TABLE 2 COMPARISON OF TRENDS IN ECONOMIC AND POPULATION GROWTH.7 100.3 12.4 +23 85.773.390.074. GDP is based on World Bank data.S. In the absence of further policy incentives.S.92 –26 DPO/Capita (metric tons per capita) Country Austria 1975 1996 % change 1 7.8 +28 1. Finally.0 2.78 –42 0.415.7 +24 1. billion constant 1996 Guilders (Netherlands).6 281. cultural factors and consumption choices have helped to offset the real efficiency gains that have been made in industry.1 –6 10.0 13. own currency) 0.5 +20 242.059 0. and poorly insulated houses remain the norm in the construction sector.5 3.258.9 125. GDP by 24 percent.8 +18 865. more mobility.9 +13 13.3 504.5 +14 220. GDP expressed in billion constant 1996 Austrian Schillings (Austria). 1975–1996 Population (millions) DPO (million metric tons) GDP (own currency See notes) DPO/GDP (metric tons per million constant monetary units.3 1. billion constant 1996 Yen (Japan).838. coal-fired power stations. which increased the population of the country by 26 percent.173.042 –29 0.6 15. and a preference for convenience and product disposability.5 11. and DPO by 35 percent.1 +6 61.30 –36 4. AND DOMESTIC PROCESSED OUTPUT (DPO). U.80 2.2 +7 17.253. billion constant 1996 Deutsch Marks (Germany).1 +2 23.59 0.

Trends in DPO: Composition The composition of DPO is complex and dynamic over time. the decoupling of economic growth and carbon dioxide emissions resulted from improved energy efficiency achieved following the oil crisis in the seventies and reduced dependence on high-carbon lignite fuels. Despite this strong growth. A notable change in DPO in most study countries since 1975 is the increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuel combustion. what’s going down) and changes in where outputs enter the environment (how much goes to air. CO2 emissions rose only slightly as a proportion of domestic processed output. Following reunification. Data on the overall increase in DPO since 1975 conceal important changes in the size of individual flows (what’s going up. FIGURE 5a C O2 E M I S S I O N S F R O M F O S S I L F U E L C O M B U S T I O N A N D INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES. where emissions fell slowly between 1975 and 1990. land. or water. including emissions from bunker fuels and other industrial processes. (See Figure 5a. or is dispersed). The size of the relative increase is determined by the interplay between the rate of increase in fossil fuel combustion. and the rate of increase in other materials in DPO. the government closed many inefficient facilities in the former German Democratic Republic. and fell again from their new post-reunification level by another 6 percent.) CO2 emissions rose in all countries except Germany. In the Federal Republic of Germany. Carbon dioxide emissions in other countries have risen in both absolute terms and on a per capita basis. 1975–1996 (INDEX) 140 130 Index (1975=100) 120 Austria Germany Japan 100 Netherlands United States 90 110 80 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 21 .

energy consumption rose more rapidly than in Japan. too. Austria has implemented policies to encourage the use of biomass energy since the 1970s. carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes accounted for. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 22 . just one percent higher than in 1975.) In strong contrast to carbon dioxide emissions. (See Figure 5b. while combustion-related nitrogen emissions have broadly stabilized. 81 percent by weight of their entire domestic processed output in 1996. the share of CO2 in Austrian DPO (1996) would be 15 percent higher than shown here. The point of these calculations is to highlight the fact that. fossil fuels have maintained their dominance in the material outflows of industrial economies. In the United States. which encouraged the switch to lower-sulfur fuels. saw the share of CO2 in DPO rise by 4 percent. on average. which is assumed here to be carbon-neutral. and the net result was that the share of CO2 in DPO barely changed. but faster growth in energy consumption. 1975 AND 1996 100 90 80 70 60 Percent 50 1975 40 30 20 10 0 1996 Austria Germany Japan Netherlands United States Notes : These data do not include CO2 from biomass combustion. These changes were forced by mandatory emission reductions and targets established in OECD countries.Thus Japan. In the study countries. If CO2 emissions from biomass combustion were included. which experienced steady growth in DPO as a whole. despite improvements in energy efficiency and increased waste generation in other areas. and aided by technological changes and market forces. but DPO grew more rapidly. all countries have experienced absolute declines in sulfur emissions to air. FIGURE 5b C O2 F R O M F O S S I L F U E L C O M B U S T I O N A N D O T H E R I N D U S T R I A L PROCESSES AS A PERCENTAGE OF DPO.

and their predominant activity is burning material.S. the Netherlands. the picture is even more dramatic. following the introduction of recycling targets for certain categories of municipal wastes. thanks to relatively low per capita energy consumption in that country. The more detailed nature of the U. quantities of manure spread on fields and pesticide use fell in the Netherlands. For example. flows associated with energy use are equally dominant. landfilling has declined by 34 percent in the Netherlands and by 31 percent in Austria. Quantities of sewage sludge have risen in all countries. because of our decision to include the weight of oxygen in combustion products. are carbon-based economies. improvements in materials efficiency therefore bring improvements in energy efficiency as well. and the United States in 1994. no matter how hightech. and they appear more dominant in this report. it appears that waste outputs of synthetic organic chemicals in plastics in the United States have more than doubled since 1975. the mining sector (mineral fuels and metals) and the manufacturing sector dominate total WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 23 . Emissions from all fuel combustion account for between approximately 80 and 90 percent of domestic processed output in the study countries. Since 1975. Processing materials into products requires energy.) On the output side. sometimes combined with landfill taxes.3 SECTOR INDICATORS: WHO GENERATES THE BIGGEST OUTPUT FLOWS? In Germany and the United States. (These data exclude the weight of oxygen drawn from the atmosphere during combustion. such The quantities of municipal and industrial wastes going to controlled landfill sites have declined significantly in most study countries.BOX 3 A NOTE ON ENERGY AND MATERIAL FLOWS IN NATIONAL PHYSICAL ACCOUNTS as carbon dioxide. database on material outflows permits examination of finer categories of material. Annex 2 provides more detailed information on the composition of DPO in each of the study countries. Modern industrial economies. generally reflecting the presence or absence of strong government intervention. as have outputs of waste medical chemicals. Our 1997 report showed that fossil fuels and their associated hidden flows accounted for approximately 40 percent of total material requirement (TMR) in Germany. If hidden flows are excluded. It is important to recognize the extent to which energy-related flows dominate physical accounts. For example. 3. and a little less than 30 percent in Japan. For example. in line with population growth. coal mining wastes and fossil fuel combustion emissions together account for about 50 percent of total domestic output in the United States. as part of the government’s effort to reduce nitrogen pollution and dispersion of hazardous materials from agriculture. Dissipative flows show varying trends.

which arguably could be assigned to households. Thus. Hidden flows remain largely on land.) The Netherlands is an exception. therefore. It is also worth noting that most transport-related DPO takes the form of emissions from private vehicles. Improved energy efficiency and faster progress toward a low-carbon fuel mix would dramatically reduce direct emissions to air from combustion. The national analyses presented here are not exactly comparable. which is defined as power plants and distribution systems. given the dominance of carbon dioxide emissions in DPO across virtually all sectors.domestic output. Such changes would also reduce other outflows associated with energy supply and distribution—coal mining wastes. and more than half of dredging wastes in the Netherlands is simply relocated within harbors or in deeper waters. The role of energy consumption is central. When hidden flows are excluded from consideration. although an unknown fraction of earth from construction activities and eroded soil from cultivated fields enters river systems as sediment. in all cases. and fuel losses and spills that occur during energy transportation.4 GATEWAY INDICATORS: WHERE DO MATERIAL OUTFLOWS GO? In this study. costly recycling requirements may encourage incineration. industries’ choice of fuels and materials. where the agriculture sector is the single largest contributor to DPO: animal manure flows in 1996 (dry weight) were more than four times greater than all landfilled wastes. The fate of materials constituting DPO is more complex. The share of outputs going to different gateways is influenced over time by changes in national economic structures. data comparison is. (In this study. not the energy supply sector.) More detailed analysis of the physical accounts for each country reveals that. they also provide a powerful tool to improve policies restricted to certain media. Comprehensive physical accounts track total outputs of each material. transport. the energy supply. and the question of who is directly “responsible” for output flows becomes almost irrelevant. and land) and track emissions or ambient quality in each medium separately. manufacturing. toxic and hazardous outputs from oil refining and power generation. (See Figure 6. and household sectors all emerge as major sources of direct output flows to the environment. consumer lifestyles and individual behavior. limited to the coarse picture. Gateway indicators provide useful information given that many countries still organize environmental policy according to environmental media (air. we attribute overburden from coal mining to the mining and manufacturing sector. and policy decisions. and manufacturing sectors generate the largest material flows. economic sectors are interconnected by upstream and downstream product chains. because of methodological differences imposed by the organization of national statistics. water. we have disaggregated TDO and DPO by mode of first release—the first gateway by which materials enter the environment. In countries without significant mining activity. 3. construction. regardless of where it is deposited or whether or not it is regulated. Poorly designed waste management policies can simply transfer wastes from one medium to another. the agriculture. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 24 . for example.

Regulation and public information campaigns have resulted in increased recycling rates for such materials as paper. for organic wastes. some countries have reduced the amount of solid waste being disposed of on land. In Japan and Austria. In Germany. At the same time. Quantities of landfilled municipal wastes declined in the United States after 1987. and in Germany and the Netherlands since 1990. glass and metals. No trends could be WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 25 . the amount of waste going to controlled landfills has fallen in absolute and per capita terms since the 1980s. and. more recently. 1996 45 40 35 Agriculture Construction 25 Energy Supply Industry (inc.FIGURE 6 CONTRIBUTION OF ECONOMIC SECTORS TO TDO. government and industry initiatives on packaging recycling and composting biowastes reduced the weight of household wastes by 30 percent between 1990 and 1993. from disposal on land to disposal in the atmosphere. the shift has been dictated mostly by choices made on the input side of the economy. As already discussed. following the widespread introduction of recycling and composting schemes. mining) 20 Households 15 Transport Other 10 Metric Tons Per Capita 30 5 0 Austria Germany Japan Netherlands United States The study shows some shift between 1975 and 1996. increased fossil fuel combustion is the principal driver behind rising emissions to air.

e. In all study countries. regulatory efforts have focused on improving ambient air quality by reducing emissions of NOx.. therefore. in any case. this output is recorded as wet weight. 2 Approximately 10 percent (when oxygen excluded) or 4 percent (when oxygen included) of outputs in the United States could not reliably be allocated to any gateway. i. because of incomplete data.S. industrial landfilled wastes.” which exaggerates the reduction in solid waste quantities when incineration displaces landfilling. which we did not include in our accounts. LAND AND WATER. Unfortunately. The inclusion or exclusion of oxygen is. dry weight. in that we recorded municipal waste as “wet weight.discerned from the poor data on U. has also encouraged the diversion of wastes from land to air. 1975 AND 1996 To Air 1975 1996 1975 1996 1975 To Land 1996 1975 1996 To Water 1 1975 1996 Country Excluding Oxygen Including Oxygen Excluding Oxygen Including Oxygen Austria Germany Japan Netherlands United States 2 45 70 72 54 66 57 70 81 61 68 73 89 89 81 86 82 89 93 85 87 54 29 28 45 24 42 29 19 39 22 27 11 11 19 10 18 11 7 15 9 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 <1 Notes: 1 Outputs to water are incomplete for all countries. the output is recorded as combustion emissions and ash. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 26 . If municipal wastes are landfilled. and other substances harmful to human health. airborne lead. numbers.S. where they may be transported over long distances. Numbers may not add due to rounding. Much of the difference between the two forms of output is actually due to water evaporation. SOx. particulates. but the share of output flows going to air has increased in all study countries TABLE 3 PROPORTIONS OF DPO (PERCENT) GOING TO AIR. It is a surprising fact that the atmosphere is now the biggest dumping ground for the processed output flows of industrial economies. Incineration residues (which range from approximately 10 percent to 30 percent of original weight) are usually landfilled and the combustion products are emitted to air. some distortion arises from this study’s accounting system. of minor relevance. The waste management hierarchy espoused in some countries. These measures have met with considerable success. if they are incinerated. U. do not sum to 100 percent. which favors incineration over landfilling.

and oxides of sulfur. For this reason. partly to enrich soil. sulfur. but may have important environmental impacts. compost. which include their transport in water. Excessive nitrate levels in drinking water are now a widespread water quality problem in Europe and North America. and. but enter soil. These flows are beneficial in appropriate quantities. and some heavy metals. the inadequacy of available data on output flows to water in some countries. These results also reveal. nutrient losses to the environment are known to be large. Obvious examples of dissipative use flows are inorganic fertilizers. and partly (in the case of manure and sewage) as a disposal option. Nutrient run-off also threatens estuaries and coastal areas worldwide. Mass flow analysis is not best suited to track these contaminants. on the one hand. the system boundaries that we chose for this study exclude the material exchanges involved in soil chemistry. water. manure. Emissions to water. notably the United States. Table 3 illustrates how the proportions of domestic processed output going to air. They do not represent an intentional recycling loop. a number of researchers have undertaken more detailed substance flow studies for such pollutants as nitrogen. Dissipative flows may take the form of dissipative uses or dissipative losses. and the use of manure. and water changed over the 21-year study period. land. The contaminant loading of these water flows is minor in quantity. Despite these problems. 22 Available national level data do not support the accurate documentation of nutrients that are recycled through plant uptake or those that are lost into the environment through leaching and run-off. material flows do not simply stop.21 3. The table presents the data in two forms: exclusive and inclusive of the weight of oxygen in emission compounds. and the air. the way in which system boundaries are drawn can strongly influence both data sets and the indicators they support. Some other dissipative use flows are smaller in quantity but of comparable potential harm. carbon dioxide emissions have fallen. the effects of our methodological decision to exclude freshwater flows from the study.5 DISSIPATIVE FLOWS Some materials are deliberately dissipated into the environment because dispersal is an inherent quality of product use or quality and cannot be avoided. such as carbon dioxide. and a policy-relevant physical accounting system should attempt to capture at least some of the most environmentally significant cycles in their entirety. but serious problems arise where dispersal loads exceed the absorptive capacity of the receiving environment.except Germany where. because of reduced dependence on lignite and hard coal and improved energy efficiency. for the most part. on the other hand. consist of wastewater and have not been estimated. and dispersive uses of nitrogen in agriculture are the leading source of contamination. and sewage sludge that are spread on fields. As with economic accounts. sewage and compost represents a necessary cycling of nutrients. Bio-accumulative agrichemicals are WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 27 . It can be seen that the decision to exclude or include oxygen makes a substantial difference to the proportions of outflows to each environmental medium. However. Also. oxides of nitrogen. Pesticides and herbicides are sprayed over fields.

not active ingredients.S. sand. 3.) It is important to know the quantities and nature of materials involved because once materials have been dispersed into the environment.7 . This study is the first attempt to estimate some of the less obvious. asbestos (or substitute composites) from brake blocks and linings.. Governments do not officially record many of these flows.5 . the German and U. paint flakes from buildings. Examples of such dissipative losses include rubber worn from vehicle tires. and gravel includes all grit materials spread on roads to improve tire traction. but potentially harmful.more controlled than in the past.. Austrian data for inorganic fertilizer and pesticides are recorded as total weight. for example. Salt. Not estimated WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 28 . The Austrian data are high because of heavy use of grit materials on mountain roads in winter.. 60 .. and bitumen from road surfaces. and Gravel Sewage Sludge 114 454 3 134 11 Notes: Salt... country report data tables. Dissipative loss flows comprise numerous materials that are shed from products into the environment as an inevitable consequence of use or ageing. but their use has not been eliminated. 4 United States 86 298 . the only option is to reduce or substitute them with materials that are believed to be less harmful when dispersed into the environment. there is little opportunity for human action to recapture and recycle them. if they are not captured and recycled by biological processes (such as plant growth). Fuller accounts for dissipative use and dissipative loss flows are provided in the country reports. Table 4 illustrates the significant differences in rates of some dissipative flows among the study countries. Sand. . If dissipated materials are suspected of causing environmental or human health impacts.4 26 13 Japan 17 105 0. is still widely used as a de-icing agent on roads.282 0.6 NET ADDITIONS TO STOCK (NAS) Physical accounts make it possible to track how much new material is added each year to a country’s physical stock—the national TABLE 4 SELECTED DISSIPATIVE USE FLOWS. Manure and sewage sludge are accounted in dry weight. (See. 1996 (KILOGRAMMES PER CAPITA) Austria Germany 113 334 0. which has been linked to harmful impacts on wildlife. . dissipative flows in five countries. Inorganic Fertilizer Spread Manure Pesticides Salt. Netherlands 65 2.

as buildings are demolished. Austria and Germany add the greatest amount of material to stock each year. railways.5 metric tons per person. airports. and residential. Each year.) In per capita terms. The material flows added to stock each year are of comparable magnitude to DPO in three of the study countries—Austria. (See Figure 7. at just under 8 metric tons per person. and durable goods discarded.” and its reputedly high levels of material consumption.material store represented by long-lived durable goods and physical infrastructure (roads. given the size of the country. FIGURE 7 NET ADDITIONS TO STOCK. Germany and Japan—and they are around one-third to one-half of the size in the United States and the Netherlands. industrial plants. 1996 30 25 Metric Tons Per Capita 20 15 NAS DPO 10 5 0 Austria Germany Japan Netherlands United States WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 29 . and public buildings). a small percentage of stock is decommissioned. and the United States appears to add the least. AND DOMESTIC PROCESSED OUTPUT. This is a surprising finding. its penchant for “building big. These materials are subtracted from gross annual additions to stock to determine net additions. commercial. at 11.

Booms. The decision whether or not to recycle construction materials emerges as important. but data are not adequate to determine the quantities. about one to two metric tons per capita of material added to stock each year. The most damaging aspect of this trend will be an ongoing loss of productive land. rail. increasing affluence has encouraged a taste for very large. and increased pressure on biodiversity. electronic goods. and cultural factors affects flows of construction materials. part of stock. degradation of scenic beauty. (Construction and demolition wastes sent to landfill are recorded as part of DPO. such as cars. while mountainous terrain in Japan and Austria means that road building involves many bridges. One is that construction materials are overwhelmingly the largest constituent of net additions to stock. although it is difficult to interpret the data. and major building programs show up clearly in construction material flows. Construction and demolition wastes generated when buildings are erected or demolished are recycled to a limited extent in all study countries. Transportation is a major element in national construction. the long distances in the United States necessitate a huge highway system. If this trend continues. given the huge quantities of material involved. The second insight is that the study countries. technological. lowdensity residences. rising broadly in line with population growth in the United States and at a somewhat lower rate in the other study countries. as more people live alone or in smaller family groupings. recessions. which are all mature industrial economies with their road. Higher or lower levels of public investment in infrastructure maintenance will affect the WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 30 . tunnels. and embankments. at least temporarily. account for. For example. When tracked over time. The relatively high NAS figures seen in parts of Europe might reflect a preference for building in stone and brick. topographic. In the United States. The materials are. This has been deduced approximately by comparing quantities of construction materials required in each country (recorded as 1994 inputs in our earlier study) with NAS as calculated in this study. in that these practices increase the residence time of materials in the economy. not part of the waste stream. and household appliances. The continued physical growth of mature economies goes beyond maintenance. Annual material enlargements of stock have remained remarkably constant over the past 25 years. and housing infrastructure relatively complete. at most. It appears that durable goods.23 National building standards and traditions also appear to influence flows to stock significantly. the number of households is increasing faster than population growth. many millions of tons of minerals will continue to be dug from the land for the foreseeable future. fragmentation and disturbance of habitats. A variety of economic. net additions to stock closely follow the economic cycle. It is due to increased demand for transport infrastructure.Two insights emerge from the data.) Recycling of materials in durable goods—notably metals from vehicles and large appliances—and material reuse as part of product maintenance and reengineering are accounted for indirectly. It is also significantly influenced by demand for new housing associated with changing demographic structures and affluence. do not yet show any sign of significantly reducing the quantities of new construction material required each year. rather than using the lighter wood-frame construction techniques still favored in much of the United States.

WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 31 . along with settlement expansion after reunification. A forthcoming study by the U. In the case of Germany.quantity of annual flows to stock. it is interesting that heavy construction activities induced high per capita NAS even before reunification. European countries have recently taken steps to encourage recycling of construction and demolition wastes. An important lesson is that as material stocks grow. Geological Survey aims to stimulate similar action by demonstrating the quantities of material that will be required as the country’s infrastructure is largely replaced over the next 50 years. Modernization of buildings and infrastructure. Equally. has fostered the high rate of physical growth. so does the potential “mine” of materials for reuse.S. so do the potential future waste volumes.

social. so the indicators we recommend do not tell the whole story of the physical economy. Most industrialized countries have taken effective action to control a limited number of the more hazardous or objectionable outflows. special analysis. Together with domestic hidden flows. Material flows out of an economy are a measure of the effective loss of useful materials. Material flows into an economy in physical terms (metric tons) are a measure of that economy’s dependence on resource extraction and potential associated environmental impacts. As in economic analyses. subaccounts. aggregated material flows combine many different kinds of material in order to demonstrate the absolute and relative magnitudes of economic activity in terms of mass. Definitional difficulties (and definition changes) applied to toxic and hazardous wastes preclude the development of reliable time-series data. Like many macroindicators. Physical measures better approximate potential environmental burden than do the monetary indicators used by traditional economists. The creation of indicators of material flows through industrial economies allows us to visualize those economies as physical as well as financial entities. they are an indicative measure of that economy’s burden on the planet’s assimilative capacity. it is the contention of this study that the total quantities of outflows remain a mystery to most regulators and to the economic actors who produce them. comprehensive data on discharges to surface water do not exist in any of the study countries. OECD countries are also engaged in a program to test chemical materials produced in large volumes for toxicity. and other economic indicators are descriptors of an economic system. But just as GDP doesn’t tell the whole story of the monetary economy. Until the physical outflows of industrial economies are more accurately documented and assessed. and relevant weighting must be used to answer specific questions of economy and environment interactions. However. and to come up with specific management plans or policy interventions. just as GDP. it will be difficult to identify and prioritize remedial actions or design appropriate future policies. For example. environ- WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 32 . The indicators are descriptors of a physical system. If the promise of the greening of national accounts is ever to be fulfilled.4 P O L I C Y A P P L I C A T I O N S T he environmental. trade balances. and economic consequences of material outflows have become readily apparent over recent decades.

it is likely that the indicators of the physical dimension of the economy. however. to fully understand an economy and develop soundly based policy. This section presents examples of how physical accounts and indicators at various levels of aggregation can be used in environmental policy-making. Carbon dioxide is not included. We stress that both sets are necessary. which are of concern either because of their impacts on human health or the environment or because of their economic or strategic interest. fuel spills at the extraction. it is possible to analyze trends in the use of specific materials or categories of material. will stand separate from monetary indicators for some time to come. and coal fly ash. Given difficulties with valuing these physical accounts. and use stages.mental economists must have these physical accounts—parallel to monetary accounts—to provide a basis for valuation and to calculate a green GDP. 1975–1996 500 450 400 Other Chlorine Heavy Metals Asbestos Salt Synthetic Organic Chemicals Fuel-Related Contaminants Million Metric Tons 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Note: Fuel-related contaminants include gangue (waste ore) from coal mining operations. which we are recommending. Physical accounts can be used to track specific flows of concern over time and at every stage of the production-consumption chain. Where time series are available. along with those for labor and prices. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 33 . It is also possible to discern the influence of regulation. distribution. where controls have successfully FIGURE 8 POTENTIALLY HAZARDOUS OUTPUT FLOWS IN THE UNITED STATES. methane leakage.

stricter waste disposal regulations. represent measures of the physical activity. 24 Faced with rising resource costs. Eco-efficiency is increasingly regarded as a key driver for corporate innovation and competitiveness. It does not cover most emissions from resource extraction. and in a sectorspecific context. and reduced waste intensity. in order to reduce the problems of managing hazardous substances later. the use of lead in gasoline and mercury in batteries has declined). Definitions of sustainable development remain elusive. At the national level. Figure 9 presents an illustrative case study. It records the results of a study that documented how the Austrian chemical sector improved its performance in the late 1980s and early 1990s. when they enter the environment during use or disposal. but over half of toxic materials are embedded in products. the industry increased its economic output and reduced its waste outflows at faster rates than the economy as a whole. output flows that are potentially toxic or hazardous in the environment have risen by nearly 30 percent in the United States since 1975. the indicators DPO and TDO. Dupont. They are also relevant to companies interested in benchmarking their environmental performance against the industry sector as a whole or in comparing their sector’s performance with that of other countries. and their relationship to GDP. and increasing economic pressure from international competitors. This suggests the need for policy measures that focus more on resource extraction and the initial design and material components of products. For example.influenced material output flows in one or another application (for example. Regulations are focused on the processing stage. hazardous waste policy focuses on listed substances and releases to specific media. Our reports WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 34 . product use. the physical indicators presented in our earlier resource flows report and in this study provide a means of tracking progress toward greater efficiency of resource use. Detailed physical accounts can be developed and applied at the sector level. lead uses in electrical products). and the energy and materials efficiency of an economy. provide the basis for monitoring eco-efficiency. where they may or may not receive appropriate treatment at the disposal stage. This increase appears to be primarily due to growing use of synthetic organics and increased outputs of the numerous contaminants associated with fossil fuels. When tracked over time. Systematic accounting for such categories can highlight whole classes of materials currently outside the scope of environmental regulation. Figure 8 shows that when the entire material cycle is considered. or where lack of regulation has allowed other outputs to grow (for example. or post-use disposal of products. and their relation to economic performance. in the United States. has introduced a new measure that tracks resource throughput per unit of shareholder value as one of its performance indicators. This study provides preliminary data on the relative contributions of different economic sectors to national output flows in the five study countries. But we believe that decoupling economic growth and resource throughput is an essential objective in achieving long-term sustainability. both economy-wide. Physical accounts of inputs and outputs at the sector level. for example. Sector level data are of interest to policy-makers concerned with energy and material efficiency and with waste pre- vention.

WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 35 . a national decline in U. We have learned that efficiency gains brought by technology and new management practices have been offset by the scale of economic growth and consumer choices that favor energy. but that resource use and overall waste quantities have remained approximately steady on a per capita basis and have continued to grow in absolute terms.) This study shows the high energy and material intensity of the United States compared with other study countries. The indicators also allow comparisons of eco-efficiency across countries.and material-intensive lifestyles. For example. and interpretation of indicators requires care. relative to economic growth. (See Figure 10. gold mining would reduce hidden flows and “improve” apparent efficiency. tons DPO Austria/GDP (kg/1000 ATS) DPO Chemical Industry (kg/1000 ATS) Million Metric Tons 110 100 90 80 70 60 50 1983 1986 1989 1992 have shown that in all five countries materials efficiency has improved in recent decades.FIGURE 9 DECOUPLING IN THE AUSTRIAN CHEMICAL SECTOR. However. at both the national and sector levels. This is a finding of critical importance to economic and environmental decision-making in the years ahead.S. national economic structures vary. 1982–1993 150 140 130 120 GDP Share: Chemical Industry GDP: Austrian Economy DPO Austrian Economy DPO Chemical Industry. especially Japan. but would not represent a contribution to global sustainability if equal quantities of gold continued to be imported from other countries.

partly as a result. the figure shows exported materials. as well as supporting indicators which track progress at the national level. Such comprehensive frameworks show the composition of the material basis of an economy.C. 1999 (Washington. dollars. As an example. and the quantities of material deposited into the environment.: World Bank). German policy-makers have been influenced by the availability of material flow data for some years.S. because they do not enter the economy they are represented as a simultaneous input to. materials harvested or extracted from the domestic economy. and water. Germany became one of the first countries to establish national targets for improving the efficiency of materials use. DOLLARS) 1975 AND 1996 1400 1200 Metric Tons/Million $US 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1975 1996 Austria Germany Japan Netherlands United States Note: National currencies expressed in U. D.FIGURE 10 DPO PER CONSTANT UNIT OF GDP (U. Materials retained in the economy are shown as net additions to stock. and inputs of oxygen required for fossil fuel combustion and human and animal respiration. the size of its infrastructure. The input side documents imported materials. On the output side. based on data provided in World Development Indicators. outflows to land. its dependence on imports. Figure 11 presents a sample material balance for Germany. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 36 .S. Domestic hidden flows are accounted for on both sides of the system. National physical accounts make it possible to organize flow data in an integrated framework. air. The German Federal Statistical Office prepared a national material flow balance in 1995 and. and output from the economic system. in order to see the big picture. These frameworks allow setting of priorities based on knowledge of the whole system.

CO and others 1005 990 15 639 Air 1080 Emission of water from material Biotic raw materials (fresh weight) 225 Erosion 126 Erosion 126 Dissipative use of products and dissipative losses 47 Emissions to water 37 TOTAL INPUT 5348 TOTAL OUTPUT 4411 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 37 .FIGURE 11 MATERIAL FLOW BALANCE OF GERMANY. 1996 MATERIAL INPUT Imports 475 ECONOMY MATERIAL OUTPUT Net Additions to Stock 938 Exports 228 Abiotic raw material Used: • minerals • energy carriers Unused: • non saleable extraction • excavation 3443 898 253 Waste disposal (excl. incineration) 2329 • controlled waste disposal 119 • landfill and mine dumping 2210 1996 296 Emission to air • CO2 • NO2. SO2.

Physical Accounts in Developing Countries Published studies of material flows currently exist only for industrialized countries. the development of physical accounts for an economy provides the basis for far more detailed analysis than we have attempted. which employ different technologies and are still building their infrastructure. but implementation of new patterns of materials use in highly industrialized countries could be slowed by “lock in” to existing infrastructure and established consumer behavior patterns. Weighting Material Flows This report takes a step toward linking material flows to potential environmental impacts by characterizing flows according to their medium of entry. new metrics. or mode of dispersion. and new management tools.5 N E X T S T E P S T he goal of materials flow analysis is to develop new thinking. What and where are the key harmful flows? How efficiently are materials used? What are the hidden flows associated with producing materials for export? These questions are especially relevant in many developing countries because of their dependence on resource-intensive industries and the accelerating rates of resource use associated with high economic growth. OECD countries are currently developing some of the concepts and methodologies of materials flow analysis. which will facilitate the transition to more efficient and less environmentally harmful patterns of material use in industrialized and developing economies. into the environment. where opportunities to “leapfrog” Western technologies exist. In the case of the U.S. Quantities and intensity of materials use are likely to vary substantially in developing countries. dataset. However. including physical and chemical properties of individual flows. Faster application should be possible in developing economies. The study findings and discussions with officials in the five study countries lead us to propose future activities that could enhance the usefulness of physical accounts and materials flow analysis in policy development and industrial decision-making. we further characterize material flows according to a more detailed set of parameters. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 38 . Greater understanding of material flows in these countries could help to answer questions critical to cost-effective and environmentally sound development policies.

in order to develop a system of national physical accounts comparable to the internationally recognized System of National Accounts used in monetary accounting. then the financial attributes of material flows in the system of national accounts could be calculated. But they do provide the means for answering specific questions—if the accounts can be weighted appropriately. if the individual flows in a set of physical accounts are weighted by relative toxicity. Integration of Materials Flow Data in National and Corporate Indicator Sets Materials flow data have been used as the basis for resource efficiency indicators in a number of recent official reports.S. The indicators presented in this report and those developed in our previous report are intended to stimulate the widespread adoption of physical accounting methods. Interagency Working Group on Sustainable Development. December 1998). and Quality of Life Counts: Indicators for a Strategy for Sustainable Development for the United Kingdom (Department of the Environment. However. Industries in many countries are also developing performance measures and indicators to track their progress toward environmental or sustainable development goals. including Sustainable Development in the United States: an Experimental Set of Indicators (U. Such national physical accounts will be increasingly necessary in tracking material flows across national borders and identifying the potential environmental impacts of growing world trade. then assessments as to the relative toxicity of different sectoral activities could be calculated. further effort and continued collaboration will be required if governments and business are to adopt physical accounting as a practical management tool. For example. If weighted by ozone-depleting potential.Physical accounts do not in themselves provide information on environmental impacts. The OECD is currently consulting experts on how to expand its existing environmental indicator framework to make it more reflective of the wider objectives of sustainable development. a universe of questions could be addressed if appropriate weighting schemes were applied. Official statistics are still inadequate in many respects. If weighted by price.5 of this report. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 39 . 1999). Indeed. and appropriate indicators in government and business operations. United Kingdom. as noted in section 2. Improvement and Harmonization of Physical Accounting Methodology This study made every effort to harmonize accounting methodologies used in the five study countries. A crucial next step in refining physical accounting systems will be the development of such weighting schemes in order to demonstrate that specific material cycles can be linked to specific environmental impacts. Transport and the Regions. Researchers in the field have more to do in establishing physical accounting practices and standardizing methods of data analysis. these flows would be relevant to understanding the causes of ozone layer depletion. The hope is that these actors will “institutionalize” materials flow accounting and track eco-efficiency as part of good practice. The OECD is in the process of establishing a forum which will serve as an information clearing-house for countries interested in developing physical accounts and learning from each other’s experience.

34). such as watersheds. The World Resources Institute is currently undertaking a more detailed study of input and output flows in the agriculture and forestry sectors of the United States. waste generation. we presented the results of a study of mass flows in the chemical sector in Austria (see p. and landscape alteration. To help translate science into the policy and public arenas. Studies at the scale of the administrative unit or of natural boundaries. sinks. They might examine likely flows of specific commodities under different assumptions regarding economic growth rates. analysis could focus on the size and spatial distribution of flows generated by mining and ore processing activities. As one example. Physical Developing Scenarios of Material Flows Scenario development is widely used in government and business to compare plausible futures under different assumptions about resource availability and prices or to estimate environmental quality given higher or lower emissions of specific pollutants. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and material flow analysis could be combined to produce a visual representation of specific material flow patterns known to be adversely impacting the environment. to understand what is locally generated and what is imported from other regions. and recycling rates. researchers could identify the spatial sources and sinks of flows of environmental concern and develop visually powerful maps of material flows and environmental impacts. and directional movement through actual environments. most analyses of material flows have focused at the national level. arrival pathways. and generation of specific pollutants at the sector level. accounts developed at the regional or local level would allow more detailed analysis of flow sources. pollution. A next step is to further disaggregate specific material flows by sector.Materials Flow Analysis at the Sector Level Materials flow analysis is a powerful tool for understanding the role of economic sectors in resource use. Decisionmakers could apply scenario techniques to compare the economic and environmental implications of alternative future material flow patterns at national or international level. efficiency of resource use. technologies. Or they might compare alternative substitutions among WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 40 . Materials Flow Analysis at Different Scales To date. This study has disaggregated national output flows by major economic sectors. In Chapter 4. At the global level. As one example. in order to understand patterns of resource consumption. which are major sources of hazardous flows. would allow decision-makers to monitor flows into and out of their area. relative to the economic or nutritional value of agricultural commodity outputs? Does modern agriculture disrupt the natural temporal and spatial patterns of nutrient cycling? Such an application of the techniques of materials flow accounting to agriculture could help determine the longterm productivity constraints to sustainable global food production. future studies could quantify environmentally and socially relevant material inputs and outputs associated with the production of specific products. analysis of the global agriculture sector could address questions that are fundamental to the long-term sustainability of food production systems: Where are some resource inputs high.

Policies will therefore be needed to accelerate the trend toward dematerialization and to encourage substitution of benign materials for those that are environmentally harmful. Scenarios could be used to improve industry’s understanding of the environmental implications of choices regarding material use (for example. for example. Fossil fuel combustion is the dominant activity of modern industrial economies and is the single largest contributor to material outflows to the air and on land.materials that could. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 41 . achieve greater input efficiency (lower resource use per unit of economic output) or greater output efficiency (lower emissions to environment per unit of economic output). Conclusions This report demonstrates that material outflows to the environment are still a cause for concern. Numerous flows remain undocumented and outside the purview of environmental agencies. Technological advances and economic restructuring have contributed to significant decoupling between rates of economic growth and material throughput but they have not achieved any overall reduction in resource use or waste volumes. Some toxic and hazardous flows have been controlled but many others have not. Scenarios could also help to influence policy reforms favoring material cycles that use resources efficiently and keep toxics out of the environment. use of virgin versus recycled supplies). Most of these flows are hazardous to human health or the environment.

Chemically toxic and biologically active materials that are hazardous in the environment may be aggregated in the U. Federal Statistical Office of Germany (Statistisches Bundesamt). Bull. “Trends in Material Use: Implications for Sustainable Development. I. Bringezu. 1999. Schütz. 8. 1998. Accounting for Resources. 1993. Directorate B: Economic Statistics and Economic and Monetary Convergence (Luxembourg: European Commission). 10. 1996. E. D. 9. 11. 1995. Bull. (Cheltenham. Water vapor from human and animal respiration has not been calculated for the United States. Ayres and Leslie W. and H. (Luxembourg: European Commission). Band 26. Mass. 1992. Wernick et al. M. 2. Robert A. “Towards Increasing Resource Productivity: How to Measure the Total Material Consumption of Regional or National Economies” Fres. 2:443–448. Materials Flow Accounting: Experience of Statistical Offices in Europe. Rogich. “Major Material Flows in Germany. New Materials. Dredging. D. Rodenburg. H. Band 26. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 42 . S.” Paper presented at the conference on Sustainable Development: Energy and Mineral Resources in the Circum-Pacific Region and the Environmental Impact of their Utilization. Institut für Interdisziplinäre Forschung und Fortbildung der Universitäten Innsbruck (Vienna): Klagenfurt und Wien.N O T E S 1. Modes of Production and the Physical Exchange Between Societies and Nature. Env. Rogich.. no international comparisons have been made. 1991. India. Rogich et al. 13. D. EUROSTAT.K. A. 5. 2: 437–442.. 1: Economy-wide applications of mass-balance principles to materials and waste. Reihe 5.S. “Technological Changes. Y. S. February 14–16. Japanese Environmental Agency. 1997. 1993. Ayres. Other study countries also compiled data on toxic and hazardous material flows. However.G. 12. Fischer-Kowalski and H. Meaningful comparisons are not possible because of differing national definitions of “toxic” and “hazardous” materials. Schriftenreihe Soziale Ökologie. UK and Northampton. Pilot Studies on NAMEAs for Air Emissions with a Comparison at European Level. in that the costs of managing them are included in GDP. 1992). Quality of the Environment in Japan 1992 (Tokyo. Bringezu. Steurer. 4. Moriguchi. 1997. 3. Hammond. 1993. Integrated Environmental and Economic Accounting— Material and Energy Flow Accounts. Bangkok. Fachserie 19. and their Impact on the Demand for Minerals. 7. (Washington. 6. Env.G. Institut für Interdisziplinäre Forschung und Fortbildung der Universitäten Innsbruck (Vienna): Klagenfurt und Wien.” Daedalus: The Liberation of the Environment 125(3): 171–198. 1992. A. Stoffstrombilanz Östereich 1988. March 9–12. A. “Materialization and Dematerialization: Measures and Trends. DC: World Resources Institute).: Edward Elgar). Schütz and S. Bangalore. material flow database.” Fres. Some hidden flows are captured indirectly by monetary accounts. EUROSTAT. Resource Flows: The Material Basis of Industrial Economies. nor do we present an indicator of toxic flows. 14. Schriftenreihe Soziale Ökologie. Adriaanse. Bringezu. Haberl. Metabolism and Colonisation. Wiesbaden.” Paper presented at the International Convention on Marketing of Minerals.

E. the same principle applies to anthropogenic carbon dioxide emissions. and S. M. 1997.gov/bea/dn/gdplev.S. Bureau of Economic Affairs. Switzerland: Physics Institute. 47). Hansen. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 43 . 1996). in which hidden flows associated with imported resources were included in the calculation of total material requirement. eds. J. 1993.” Environmental Science and Technology 27: 786– 793. Environmental Project no. U. for example. Hansen. Kaas and J. Peter M. Department of the Natural Environment. World Bank. 19. Methods for Sectoral Material Flow Accounting]. B. University of Bern). Mineralen in de landbouw. Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations (ppmv) Derived From In Situ Air Samples Collected at Mauna Loa Observatory. S. Brunner and T.S. Final Report. Larsen.S. U.. C. 20.htm 17. Materials Accounting as a Tool for Decision Making in Environmental Policy (MAc TEmPo) (EC Programme Environment and Climate ENV4CT96–0230. Anderberg.esd.B. (Vienna: IFF Social Ecology Papers No. London: Kluwer Academic Publishers. 21. California: Scripps Institute of Oceanography). “Heavy metal pollution in the Rhine Basin. 1997. This methodology differs from that used in our 1997 report.: World Bank). Because of limited data availability.P. Materialbilanz Chemie. Substance Flow Analysis for Mercury (Copenhagen: Danish EPA. Lohm. No. Vitousek et al. Indeed. Environmental Project no. March 24. Stigliani. 1998). Lassen. van der Voet. 1999. J. 1: February.C. Bergbäck. road construction flows are not always adequately reflected in this report. A. Jaffe. and landscape reclamation following mining are examples of activities that involve economic transactions. Historical CO2 Record from the Siple Station Ice Core. H. 2000). Department of Commerce data are available online at: http://www.bea. series Environment and Policy vol.R. An exception should be made for river sediment that is deposited on cultivated land downstream during floods. Anderberg and U. Maag. Lassen. private communication. 1999). L. 484. Neftel et al. economic growth and material throughput. 15. E. since its calculation of GDP offers greater comparability with the other study countries. T.” Issues in Ecology. 320). 344. an important element in maintaining fertility in some parts of the world. 1994.ornl. 22. (Bern. 1970–1990 (CBS publications C-67 / 1970– 1990). “Lead Load: Historical Pattern of Lead Use in Sweden” Ambio 21:159–165. The point is that the total quantities of material involved cannot readily be determined from an examination of national financial accounts. Lahner. Keeling and T. Boston. Hoffmann. P. 1992. gov/trends/co2/contents. Though not a dissipative flow as defined here.A. Udo de Haes.highway construction.htm Accessed March 23. C. 23. Substance Flow Analysis for Phthalates (Copenhagen: Danish EPA. “Human Alteration of the Global Nitrogen Cycle: Causes and Consequences. Department of Commerce data show U. GDP rising by 93 percent between 1975 and 1996 (constant 1996 dollars).S.. Methodik sektoraler Materialbilanzen.. Zangerl-Weisz.D. World Development Indicators 1999. (Dordrecht. 1998. U. and E. These new figures would substantially increase the decoupling observed between U. P. Whorf. 24.S. Aluminium-Substance Flow Analysis and Loss Reduction Feasibility Study (Copenhagen: Danish EPA. (Washington D. these flow management costs have formed the starting point for some of our estimates of flow quantities. Central Bureau of Statistics. 18.doc. Such an approach would have led to double-counting among countries linked by trade. Schandl and H. See. Environmental Project no. which are partially captured and recycled by plant biomass and the oceans. Heavy Metals: a Problem Solved? Methods and Models to Evaluate Policy Strategies for Heavy Metals. 2000). Guinée and H. 2000. C. (San Diego. W. Hawaii. 22. [A Material Balance for the Chemical Industry. 16. Online at:http://cdiac. The United States has recently revised the manner in which GDP is calculated to include software investment (Larry Moran. This report uses World Bank data.

122 134.918. Information on these emissions can be found in the country datasets.367 5.964 106 n/a 13.068 19.982 2.874 45.818 70. It should be noted that these indicators exclude the weight of water vapor from fossil fuel combustion and other industrial processes.348 92.487.221 53. For the purposes of comparison.261 99.118 6.773. the indicators are presented here in two forms: inclusive and exclusive of the weight of oxygen in emissions from fossil fuel combustion and other industrial processes.495 3.344 33.827 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 44 .153 937.597 1.982 1.086 1.120 281.725 2.492.899 163.396 5.538 2.312 484.074.712 n/a 56.063 2.076 235. however.220 23. 1996 ( thousand metric tons) Austria 1 Germany Japan Netherlands 2 United States Indicators Including Weight of Oxygen Domestic Processed Output (DPO) Domestic Hidden Flows (DHF) Total Domestic Output (TDO) Net Additions to Stock (NAS) DPO by Gateway Land Air Water Uncertain DPO by Sector Agriculture Construction Energy Supply 5 Industry Household 4 3 100.548 1.417.553 92.120 431.772 954. SUMMARY INDICATORS.350 46.523 579.406.373 1.305 92.530 171. They are drawn from the more detailed datasets presented in the country annexes.458 n/a 52.311.918 45.623 116.265 400.A N N E X 1 DATA SUMMARY: NATIONAL COMPARISONS T he following tables present the indicators that have been used as the basis of analysis throughout this report.261.202 30.961 231.219.605 109.870 267.798 10.854 1.509 675 n/a 65.862 381.616 7.748 82.248.077.399 57. and exclude the weight of water vapor and carbon dioxide from human and animal respiration.362 1.357 37.718 17.886 661.427 3.814.953 6.843 16.225.632.

707.510 1.169 732.854 1.650 171. which were not estimated.265 431.037 n/a .772 266.417. n/a: not applicable.221 77.256 92.006 12.206 133.399 57.854 401.038 17. Numbers may not add due to rounding.466 5.294 6.377.373 18.712 n/a 30.359 103.122 14.021 285.414 119.509 7. 5 Industry sector data include the mining (including coal mining) and manufacturing sectors.021 177.904 32.393 102.000.061 65.792 1.383 57.383 57.397 10.998 1.993 6. 4 Energy flows have been attributed to utilities (energy supply) and other economic sectors based on location of emissions.538 1.721.355 668. 4 3 41.894 119.061 1.271 13.812.623 116.305 92.212.265 289.510 1.370 19.088 19.686.643 25.725.427 2.825 36.921 652.721 937.404 18.910 70.332 80.964 280.862 210.916 329.774 61.904 32.910 n/a 4.093 5.998 35.049. 3 Virtually all hidden flows go to land. so only DPO has been disaggregated by gateway.254 1.484 3.093 5.731 675 n/a 44.077.754 26.594 2.221 77.986 45.293 2.235.224. they differ by up to 10 percent.608 496.482 99.774 63.326 322.458 n/a 44.332 80.605 109.868 105.365 2.757.332.597 207.063 3..076 64.643 3.953 61.950 19.206 110.523 579.925 163. 2 Dutch sector data do not sum to DPO and TDO due to use of data from different datasets.600 431.667.136 2.088 19.027 10.466 54.221 2.034 133.301 56.440 92.870 267.918 45.404 18.136 35.120 285.712 1.739 3.654 n/a 4 9.687 661.285.790 718.157 9.206 37.544 5.038 17. dissipative flows are embedded in flows of DPO to land.608 170.118 12.122 14.201 n/a 4.982 723.686 2.367 55.Austria 1 Germany Japan Netherlands 2 United States Transport Other TDO by Sector Agriculture Construction Energy Supply 5 Industry Household Transport Other 4 18.961 231.328 56.219.140 484.650 3.650 201. air.453.860 32. and water.736 16.202 51.031.344 134.271 207.604 2.739 3.688 1.225.172 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 45 .803.748 24.825 36. Indicators Excluding Weight of Oxygen Domestic Processed Output (DPO) Domestic Hidden Flows (DHF) Total Domestic Output (TDO) Net Additions to Stock (NAS) DPO by Gateway Land Air Water Uncertain DPO by Sector Agriculture Construction Energy Supply Industry 5 Household Transport Other TDO by Sector Agriculture Construction Energy Supply 5 Industry Household Transport Other Notes: 1 Austrian TDO data for agriculture do not include soil erosion or dredging waste flows.718 17.864 2.294 35.056 106 n/a 9.350 46.864 45.396 1.530 112.338.860 10.172 386.544 5.359 103.

40 2.94 9.82 0.18 0.40 2.74 13.34 6.41 1.18 9.82 2.66 6.70 3.14 29.27 0.84 2.66 0.53 6.46 6.43 11.95 11.70 3.45 13.14 61.55 34.03 3.03 0.29 3.73 0.69 7.27 11.03 0.33 0.73 2.19 86.73 2.52 7.86 0.92 0.27 6. 1996 (metric tons per capita) Austria 1 Germany Japan Netherlands 2 United States Indicators Including Weight of Oxygen Domestic Processed Output (DPO) Domestic Hidden Flows (DHF) Total Domestic Output (TDO) Net Additions to Stock (NAS) DPO by Gateway Land Air Water Uncertain DPO by Sector Agriculture Construction Energy Supply 5 Industry Household Transport Other TDO by Sector Agriculture Construction Energy Supply 5 Industry Household Transport Other 4 3 12.94 1.99 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 46 .55 42.94 1.68 9.72 1.50 13.20 8.04 n/a 0.51 9.04 n/a 0.93 3.90 16.34 n/a 16.41 Indicators Excluding Weight of Oxygen Domestic Processed Output (DPO) Domestic Hidden Flows (DHF) Total Domestic Output (TDO) Net Additions to Stock (NAS) DPO by Gateway Land Air Water Uncertain 3 5.20 0.15 21.53 0.46 6.72 29.31 9.03 3.46 3.01 n/a 1.20 10.64 0.52 2.53 13.74 2.29 0.43 3.44 2.20 2.98 0.41 8.90 4.46 11.53 0.26 11.52 n/a 4 1.45 0.04 n/a 2.45 26.19 0.91 9.25 6.71 2.27 0.93 3.92 25.15 6.01 n/a 2.73 3.74 20.50 4.SUMMARY INDICATORS.33 0.98 2.48 38.97 0.23 4.05 8.25 0.00 2.33 7.69 19.75 13.73 2.02 5.90 60.31 25.99 0.83 1.04 n/a 4.05 2.51 8.27 3.01 n/a 0.71 2.61 6.74 3.43 3.68 11.57 0.43 0.75 21.37 2.42 0.01 n/a 1.00 2.97 8.43 3.82 8.66 2.98 0.65 0.41 5.67 0.74 10.62 70.17 4.23 2.

43 0.80 1.10 0. which were not estimated.30 9.68 0. Numbers may not add due to rounding.35 1. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 47 .15 1 Austrian TDO data for agriculture do not include soil erosion or dredging waste flows.62 0.35 4.Austria 1 Germany Japan Netherlands 2 United States DPO by Sector Agriculture Construction Energy Supply Industry 5 Household Transport Other TDO by Sector Agriculture Construction Energy Supply 5 Industry Household Transport Other Notes: 4 1.36 0.38 0.71 0.91 1.40 2.10 13. 4 Energy flows have been attributed to utilities (energy supply) and other economic sectors based on location of emissions.01 0.28 0.48 n/a 16.80 1.67 n/a 1. air.64 0.86 0.17 0.93 6. so only DPO has been disaggregated by gateway.24 0.81 0. dissipative flows are embedded in flows of DPO to land.08 3.69 0.41 2.59 0.68 2.91 1.17 0.20 0. N/a: not applicable.72 34.95 1.94 1.32 1.42 1.69 2.15 4 0.83 0.40 0.28 1.68 0.69 0. they differ by up to 10 percent.60 0.81 0.10 0.95 1. and water.29 2.17 0.28 0.63 24.04 2.77 0.19 0.88 0.55 0.63 0.29 0. 3 Virtually all hidden flows go to land.36 0.38 2.71 0. 2 Dutch sector data do not sum to DPO and TDO due to use of data from different datasets.67 0.17 6.08 2. 5 Industry sector data include the mining (including coal mining) and manufacturing sectors.62 0.

Composition of Domestic Processed Output In 1996. which have more than doubled since 1975. DPO increased by 17 percent in absolute terms. Helga Weisz Input Flows [Authors’ note: This section on input flows is included. (See Figure A1.A N N E X 2 COUNTRY REPORTS MATERIAL FLOWS: AUSTRIA Christof Amann. 1997).1 metric tons per capita). Walter Hüttler.] The direct material input (DMI) to the Austrian economy. CO2 emissions from human and livestock respiration (0. domestic extraction of fossil fuels (mainly lignite) steadily decreased and biomass use remained more or less constant. increased from 136 million metric tons in 1975 to 176 million metric tons in 1996. While Austria’s population grew by about 6 percent during the study period. waste deposited in controlled landfills (1.) From 1975 to 1996. and organic manure (0. At the same time. (See Figure A2.) The DMI increase during this recent period was less dramatic than the 1960 to 1975 period. domestic processed output per capita increased by 10 percent.3 metric tons on a per capita basis. The most significant material flows within DPO in 1996 were CO2 emissions from combustion of fossil fuels and industrial processes (almost 8 metric tons per capita). when it was more than 50 percent. encompassing both domestic extraction and imports. domestic processed output (DPO) amounted to 107 million metric tons in absolute terms and 13.9 metric tons per capita).7 metric tons per capita).8 metric tons per capita) 1. CO2 emissions from combustion of biomass (1.. Austria’s period of rapid material growth ended around the beginning of the 1980s. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 48 . Marina Fischer-Kowalski. which examined national inputs of material (Adriaanse et al. Heinz Schandl. This 29 percent increase was fueled mostly by a 24 percent rise in domestic extraction of minerals and by an increase in imports. because Austria was not one of the original study countries in the 1997 report. Domestic extraction of minerals and imported materials accounted for most of the earlier increase.

AUSTRIA 1975–1996 20 Imports Domestic Extraction (biomass) Domestic Extraction (fossils) Metric Tons Per Capita 15 10 Domestic Extraction (minerals) 5 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 FIGURE A2 COMPOSITION OF DOMESTIC PROCESSED OUTPUT (DPO). AUSTRIA 1975–1996 CO2 (Combustion of Fossil Fuels and Industrial Processes) CO2 (Combustion of Biomass) CO2 (Human and Livestock Respiration) Other Emissions to Air 16 14 12 Metric Tons Per Capita 10 Waste Deposited 8 6 4 2 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Organic Manure Other Materials Dispersed on Agricultural Fields Other Dissipative Uses and Losses Material Loads in Waste Water WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 49 .FIGURE A1 DIRECT MATERIAL INPUT (DMI).

as well as soil excavation. a consequence of the structure of Austria’s energy supply. Hydropower produces about 70 percent of electricity in Austria. Mainly Lignite) Metric Tons Per Capita 10 Overburden/Ancillary Flows (Ores) Overburden/Ancillary Flows (Industrial Minerals) Soil Excavation Overburden/Ancillary Flows (Construction Minerals) 8 6 4 2 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 50 . ores. mainly because of the sharp decrease in lignite extraction. AUSTRIA 1975–1996 12 Overburden/Ancillary Flows (Fossil Fuels. Quantities of dispersed materials such as organic manure are quite high. Furthermore. including overburden and ancillary flows associated with the extraction of fossil fuels. industrial minerals.) Hidden flows are dominated by soil excavation (4.7 metric tons per capita). or 8. From 1975 to 1996. (See Figure A3. because of the importance of livestock in the agricultural sector. and fossil fuels such as lignite (1. and construction minerals.3 metric tons per capita). amounted to a total of 71 million metric tons in 1996. FIGURE A3 14 DOMESTIC HIDDEN FLOWS.) This is due primarily to a significantly lower level of CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions from combustion are comparatively low without Austria resorting to nuclear power. Austria has a lower DPO than most of the countries studied in this report (when CO2 from human and animal respiration is excluded. More than 20 percent of the nation’s primary energy supply stems from these two sources. (See Note 1. and other renewable forms of energy (such as fuelwood) also play an important role. Mining plays a small role in Austria compared to countries such as Germany.Overall.8 metric tons per capita. As a result. overburden from the extraction of construction minerals (1. domestic hidden flows declined by about 25 percent. Domestic Hidden Flows Domestic hidden flows (DHF).8 metric tons per capita).

DPO to water apparently declined by 73 percent from 1975 to 1996. railroads. and materials dispersed on land. The mass of human beings and livestock amounts to less than 0. During the last two decades.1 percent of total DPO in 1996.hidden flows associated with ores were halved. partly because of a special tax. accounted for only 17 percent of DPO. by about 23 percent from 1975 to 1996. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) discharges also show decreasing trends. and encourage recycling.1 percent of the total material stocks. reproduction. land. and maintenance. Quantitatively. During the last two decades. and pipelines.1 metric tons per capita. reduce packaging materials. The decrease of DPO to land. which is closely related to the use of energy sources (fossil fuels and biomass). This decline was primarily due to a reduction of organic carbon in wastewater emissions. and now they amount to several hundred metric tons for each inhabitant. the capacity of municipal sewage treatment has tripled and the technical standards (N and P elimination) have improved significantly. However. and durable goods. Humans need food just as livestock need fodder. These policies aimed to emphasize waste incineration over landfill disposal. infrastructure.9 to 6. or DPO) can enter the environment through the air. which require energy for heating. more than 83 percent of DPO consisted of emissions to air. industry and commercial waste disposal on land decreased by one third. Net Additions to Stock and Material Flows We believe that. Land disposal of waste materials. human beings and livestock must be considered part of the material stocks of a society. They also need buildings. In 1996. the most important of these material stocks are buildings and such infrastructure as road networks. Domestic Processed Output by Gateways Domestic material outflows from economic processing (domestic processed output. Such material stocks have accumulated over long periods of time. resulting in considerable decreases in discharges to water. These material stocks require material flows for their development. in addition to buildings. while the use of pesticides (measured in metric tons of the entire product. One surprising finding of this study is that material stocks in all five countries are still WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 51 . hidden flows associated with construction activities increased significantly from 4. seems to be a result of intensified waste management policies implemented since the second half of the 1980s. Outputs to water were quantitatively negligible. emissions of CO 2 from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes increased by 12 percent between 1975 and 1996. DPO to air consists mainly of CO2. regulatory policies have forced particularly “dirty” industries like paper and pulp production to implement cleaner technologies and improve wastewater treatment facilities. not active ingredients) increased by 50 percent. and construction materials for periodic renovation. amounting to just 0. there has been a shift from land outflows to air emissions. As a result. At the same time. In contrast to emissions of air pollutants such as SO 2 or NO x . Dissipative use of mineral fertilizers declined by about 20 percent. which were reduced significantly by regulatory policies. or water gateways.

and it has consequences for material flow management. Figure A4 shows maximum expenditures for new freeways in the mid-1970s. but rather of its physical scale. 1998) provide a framework for the analysis of the linkage between the economy in monetary terms (economic growth) and the associated physical flows (physical growth). as a consequence. the expenditures for maintenance exceeded expenditures for new freeways. narrows the range of choices with regard to managing future resource flows. Other trends also point to the continuing growth of material stocks: between 1975 and 1996. 2 In 1996. Sooner or later stocks produce output flows such as demolition wastes that have to be recycled or deposited. These flows comprise. While the Austrian population increased by only 6 percent over the past two decades. This shows that population growth is not the principal factor in increased material use. Jänicke et al. This means that. The input flow of materials produces stocks. Decoupling Economic Growth and Material Flows Environmental problems are not a direct result of the monetary scale of an economy. energy for heating buildings. material accumulates in stocks. This example also indicates that certain infrastructure stocks such as freeways seem to have reached a level of saturation in Austria. although they continue to consume a large amount of materials and money for maintenance. are still increasing. 1978. During the 1970–95 period. net additions to stock (NAS) amounted to 93 million metric tons (11. This applies both to material flows and to costs. In addition. there exist the following relationships between material stocks and flows. From a systemic point of view. the larger the stocks. If the input flow is larger than the output flow. which dominates the sustainability debate. the length of the Austrian public road network increased by 10 percent. there followed a corresponding increase of the length of the freeway network. the mass of buildings and infrastructure increased by about one third. Within a decade. The following example illustrates the dynamics of stock growth for the Austrian freeway network in physical and economic terms. The continuous growth of infrastructure requires an increasing share of resources—both physical and economic— for its maintenance and. is the core idea of the “dematerialization” hypothesis. This. World Bank. Environmental Kuznets Curves (EKC: for an overview see Ecological Economics.. Vol. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 52 . stocks constantly induce material flows for use and maintenance. 1992). the larger the flows required for maintenance. for example. This hypothesis argues that a decoupling between GDP growth and material and energy flows is feasible and has already taken place in highly industrialized economies (Malenbaum. of the limited resources available for freeway construction.increasing. Other stocks. and livestock by only 4 percent. other things being equal. and construction materials for maintaining roads. One can assume that.5 metric tons per capita) in Austria. an increasing portion is used for maintenance. expenditures for maintenance of the network increased more or less steadily. in contrast to the growth critique of the 1970s. 1989. but they may follow the course of the freeway network. such as buildings. By the 1990s. and the number of buildings (as well as the floor space available) increased by more than 40 percent. 25/2.

AUSTRIA 1970–1995 100 10 Billion Austrian Schillings (1983 Prices) 8 80 Kilometers 6 60 Expenditures for New Freeways (Billion 1983 ATS) Expenditures for Freeway (Billion 1983 ATS) Annual Increase of Austrian Freeway Network (km) 4 40 2 20 Trend (annual increase of Austrian freeway network [km]). modeled as a second order polygon 0 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 0 1995 The EKC approach first was applied to the relationship between income and toxic emissions (Selden and Song. nor does it decrease. We analyze the relationship between GDP and DPO in an EKC framework. 1997). there is a fairly random relationship between overall DPO and GDP. This confirms previous studies claiming that decoupling should only be expected for outputs that can be reduced by end-of-pipe technologies. for the first time. These results mirror the successful implementation of end-of-pipe technologies in Austria. whereas DPO to water and locally hazardous emissions to air are clearly negatively related to GDP growth. it becomes obvious that this seemingly “random” relationship is due to a non-relationship of GDP and CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes. Overall DPO does not increase consistently with an increase in GDP. A similarly strong decoupling effect can be observed for DPO to land (see Figure A6). Upon closer inspection. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 53 . Here. as the decoupling hypothesis would suggest. 1994) and later to aggregate resource indicators (de Bruyn and Opschoor. As Figure A5 illustrates.FIGURE A4 ANNUAL GROWTH OF THE AUSTRIAN FREEWAY NETWORK AND CORRESPONDING EXPENDITURES. we test the “dematerialization” hypothesis using aggregate output data. which is the result of policy strategies that fostered a structural change from deposition of wastes to waste incineration and recycling.

CO2) (Metric Tons Per Capita) 4 0. AUSTRIA 1975–1996 CO2 Emissions (Metric Tons Per Capita) 20 10 15 DPO (Metric Tons Per Capita) 14 9 13 8 12 11 7 10 14 16 18 22 24 6 14 16 18 20 22 24 GDP ($1.4 DPO to Land (Metric Tons Per Capita) 20 DPO to Air (Excl.000 Per Capita) GDP ($1.FIGURE A5 ECONOMIC PROSPERITY (GDP) IN RELATION TO OVERALL D P O A N D C O2 E M I S S I O N S F R O M C O M B U S T I O N O F F O S S I L F U E L S AND INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES.3 3 0.000 Per Capita) GDP ($1.5 0.2 14 16 18 22 24 2 14 16 18 20 22 24 GDP ($1.000 Per Capita) WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 54 .000 Per Capita) FIGURE A6 ECONOMIC PROSPERITY (GDP) IN RELATION TO DPO TO AIR ( E X C L U D I N G C O2 ) A N D D P O T O L A N D . A U S T R I A 1 9 7 5 – 1 9 9 6 5 0.

then on cleaner air and reduced emissions. Environmental policies have recognized this problem. CO2 is not toxic. CO2 emissions from fossil fuels. they create environmental pressures because of their huge quantities. but it has significantly improved the water quality of Austria’s lakes and rivers. 2. In its second phase.01 metric tons per capita). but end-of-pipe technologies have not yet been applied to them. land.Considering input and output flows of materials from an overall perspective. Austrian environmental policy has sequentially addressed problems relating to specific environmental media. Thus. and air with the major exception of CO2) from GDP growth. In 1996. but have yet to implement successful strategies. Since decoupling has not taken place. The goal for these materials must be resource management. Acidifying substances like SO2 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 55 . forthcoming). namely material loads in wastewater. we can differentiate among three types of material flows. These emissions are also strongly related to the input side. The policy has already led to the decoupling of DPO (to water. This policy was very expensive. and circular wastewater collection systems around lakes led to a substantial reduction in discharges of toxic and eutrophying substances into surface water. and finally on land-based waste deposition (Amann and FischerKowalski. one of the most important economic sectors in Austria. the EKC shows no correlation. caused the first political response. These are construction and other types of materials that are used in large quantities and are transformed into outputs after a long time lag. It is surprising that the largest outflows did not become a policy focus until the 1990s. but the government’s environmental policy has not yet recognized this problem. 3.39 million metric tons in 1975 (0. Decoupling CO2 output from GDP growth can probably be achieved only by reducing inputs. wastewater treatment plants. but the sheer volume of emissions is altering the earth’s climate. DPO to water amounted to no more than 0. first concentrating on the quality of surface water. Material loads in wastewater were (and still are) negligible compared to total DPO.05 metric tons per capita). Although usually not toxic. and even now the reduction of CO2 seems to be beyond the capability of environmental policy. These can be reduced by end-of-pipe technologies that shift the destination of output materials from one gateway to another. Bulk Input materials. Outputs of toxic emissions. This was the first group of materials to be addressed by Austrian environmental policy. Nevertheless the obvious impacts of water pollution negatively affected tourism.1 million metric tons (0. the smallest material flows. Political Responses to Material Flows Over the past 30 years. Austrian environmental policy during the 1980s focused on air pollution. The first environmental problem Austria tried to solve—even before the government established an environmental ministry—was the cleanup of lakes and rivers. Large investments in sewerage systems. as well as positive feedback loops that may constrain future development. amounting to 0. Each has a different logic with regard to decoupling and responds to different environmental policies: 1.

In addition to regulatory policies. as well as leaking contaminated sites. with emissions continuing to trend upward in recent years. apart from some government measures to promote the use of renewable energy carriers and energy efficiency in buildings. the media. Austria’s environmental policy focused on individual substances that could be regulated by end-ofpipe technology. but lakes and rivers are very sensitive because of their physical and ecological characteristics. For a long time. 1999). In 1990. If powerful economic interests are adversely affected. as well as the dimension and the quality of the receiving environment. material loads in wastewater are small in quantitative terms. the probability of a policy response increases. In 1998. however. Austria emerged as a pioneer in international climate change policy. Although the amount of waste generated in Austria is still increasing. Incineration. and fertilizers. threatened both soil quality and groundwater. In its first two phases. the Kyoto Protocol set another goal: a 13 percent reduction by 2012. However. Pressure from the public. Therefore it is necessary to take more factors into consideration. the government enacted the Waste Management Act. climate change policy has been largely symbolic (Steurer. Through extensive regulations.were recognized as one of the main causes of forest dieback (Waldsterben). The Act aimed to prevent waste generation and enforce recycling. Austrian policy-makers have made significant strides in reducing air pollutants. or international communities may also lead to action. the government has used economic instruments effectively. and municipal officials worried about both the effects of acid rain on historic buildings and major floods. Other factors include the visibility of environmental changes and their effects on society. the main source of drinking water in Austria. In the early 1990s. Industrial economies increasingly will be faced with new types of environmental problems characterized by low WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 56 . For example. Forest owners feared for their trees. SO 2 emissions have been cut by more than 80 percent since the early 1980s. (See Table A1.) For example. officials paid less attention to soil pollution and the problem of waste deposition. Dispersed materials such as sewage sludge. The effects of material flows are a result of their size. a tax on fertilizers led to a decrease in their use that continued even after the tax was abolished. and what are the advantages of such an approach in the future? The political system did not directly respond to the evidence of material flows in the first two phases. For instance. but to the likely consequences of ongoing environmental changes. has contributed to air emissions. How can material flow accounting help us to understand this sequence of environmental policy. pesticides. based on 1990 emissions. waste deposition has generally decreased since the second half of the 1980s because of recycling activities and increased waste incineration. It accepted the “Toronto target” that called for a 20 percent reduction of CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions by 2005 (based on 1988 emissions). which were expected to follow forest dieback. There is no indication that Austria will achieve its goals. Emissions of CO2 have increased by 12 percent since 1988. The reduction of waste generation or emissions of CO2 requires the application of more sophisticated instruments and a stronger degree of policy integration.

visibility and long delays between socioeconomic activities and corresponding environmental impacts. Material flow analysis, as an

overall information tool on environmental pressures, is the most promising instrument for future preventive environmental policies.

TABLE A1

POLITICAL RESPONSES TO MATERIAL FLOWS IN AUSTRIA

Environmental Policy Phase

I 1970s

II

III 1980s

IV 1990s air/global atmosphere greenhouse gases (CO2 etc.) large global atmosphere, climate

Gateway Material flows

water loads in waste water

air/domestic air pollutants

land waste and dispersed materials medium land (soil), groundwater, human health medium

Size of material flow Affected environmental medium/issue Scale of environmental medium/issue Direct visibility of effects Economically interested environmental actors

very small surface water

small forests, historic buildings, human health medium

small

large

high

medium

low

very low

tourism, construction industry

forest owners, municipalities, waste municipalities, management plants end-of-pipe technology industry medium medium

agriculture, forestry, tourism

Environmental expenditure Political responses

high

low

regulatory, end-of-pipe

regulatory, end-of-pipe

regulatory, (economic, societal)

mainly symbolic

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57

Material Output Flows: Austria, 1975-1996
All units 1,000 metric tons unless otherwise stated 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985

Summary Data
Population (thousand capita) 7,579 GDP 1,441 (constant 1996 billion Austrian schillings) Direct Material Input (DMI) 136,498 Domestic Extraction 109,619 Imports 26,879 Exports 10,428 7,566 1,507 142,324 111,622 30,701 11,956 7,568 1,575 145,439 114,801 30,638 11,730 7,562 1,576 144,452 112,384 32,068 12,819 7,549 1,651 152,036 115,946 36,090 14,564 7,549 1,699 157,335 120,510 36,825 15,085 7,555 1,694 153,787 117,939 35,848 15,317 7,574 1,712 151,553 117,306 34,248 15,299 7,552 1,746 145,380 112,473 32,906 16,505 7,553 1,770 152,789 115,132 37,657 18,198 7,558 1,845 152,316 113,078 39,238 18,279

Summary Indicators (as presented in main report) DPO (including oxygen) 85,710 DPO (excluding oxygen) 42,504 Domestic hidden flows 94,492 TDO (including oxygen) 180,202 TDO (excluding oxygen) 136,995 Net Additions to Stock 73,411 Summary Indicators (metric tons per capita) DPO (including oxygen) 11.31 DPO (excluding oxygen) 5.61 Domestic hidden flows 12.47 TDO (including oxygen) 23.78 TDO (excluding oxygen) 18.08 Net Additions to Stock 9.69

91,586 44,612 92,832 184,417 137,444 75,199

89,694 44,333 91,696 181,390 136,029 79,323

92,352 45,115 88,937 181,289 134,052 76,234

95,439 46,034 87,176 182,615 133,210 81,058

98,373 47,601 89,416 187,789 137,017 84,207

94,224 46,113 91,310 185,534 137,423 81,787

92,828 46,041 94,554 187,383 140,595 79,665

91,415 45,093 92,476 183,891 137,569 73,087

94,411 45,958 91,601 186,012 137,559 77,497

95,594 45,978 92,557 188,151 138,535 76,748

12.10 5.90 12.27 24.37 18.17 9.94

11.85 5.86 12.12 23.97 17.97 10.48

12.21 5.97 11.76 23.97 17.73 10.08

12.64 6.10 11.55 24.19 17.65 10.74

13.03 6.31 11.84 24.88 18.15 11.15

12.47 6.10 12.09 24.56 18.19 10.83

12.26 6.08 12.48 24.74 18.56 10.52

12.10 5.97 12.25 24.35 18.22 9.68

12.50 6.08 12.13 24.63 18.21 10.26

12.65 6.08 12.25 24.89 18.33 10.15

Summary Indicators including additional outputs (not presented in main report) DPO 92,195 98,107 96,260 99,059 102,089 (including carbon dioxide from respiration, excluding water vapor from all combustion & respiration) TDO 186,686 190,938 187,956 187,996 189,265 (including carbon dioxide from respiration, excluding water vapor from all combustion & respiration) Domestic Extraction
Fossils Lignite & Hard Coal Crude Oil Natural Gas Minerals Ores & Industrial Minerals (incl. salt) Construction Minerals (incl. clay) Biomass Agricultural Products Wood Grazing 109,619 7,220 3,397 2,037 1,786 66,702 7,264 59,437 35,697 27,739 7,012 946 111,622 6,769 3,215 1,931 1,624 69,158 7,172 61,986 35,696 26,208 8,590 898 114,801 6,726 3,127 1,787 1,812 72,064 6,763 65,301 36,011 27,280 7,821 909 112,384 6,694 3,076 1,790 1,828 70,134 6,126 64,008 35,556 26,931 7,705 920 115,946 6,218 2,741 1,726 1,751 73,312 6,929 66,383 36,416 26,202 9,315 899

104,891 194,307

100,867 192,177

99,484 194,038

98,137 190,612

101,195 192,796

102,335 194,891

120,510 5,782 2,865 1,475 1,441 76,416 7,506 68,910 38,313 28,097 9,304 912

117,939 5,487 3,061 1,338 1,088 75,153 7,165 67,988 37,300 27,482 8,889 929

117,306 5,590 3,297 1,290 1,003 71,914 7,342 64,572 39,802 30,752 8,102 947

112,473 5,229 3,041 1,269 919 70,942 7,550 63,392 36,303 26,955 8,532 816

115,132 5,070 2,901 1,205 963 71,895 8,010 63,885 38,166 28,495 8,846 825

113,078 5,109 3,081 1,147 881 69,233 7,585 61,649 38,735 29,410 8,492 833

Gateway Indicators DPO to Air

68,876 74,131 71,995 CO2 from fossil fuel combustion & industrial processes 57,400 62,000 59,200 CO2 from biomass combustion 1,902 2,435 2,968 CO2 from respiration 6,484 6,521 6,566 (included in Austrian country report, not included in main report) SO2 314 333 352 204 209 215 NOX NMVOC 511 513 514 CH4 191 190 189 CO 1,589 1,600 1,612 1 2 2 N 2O NH3 84 84 84 Dust 72 73 75 Bunker Fuel Emissions 123 171 219 CO2 from bunkers

74,755 61,200 3,500 6,707 372 220 516 187 1,623 2 83 76 268

77,716 63,600 4,033 6,650 391 225 518 186 1,635 2 83 77 316

79,531 64,730 4,710 6,517 400 234 519 178 1,691 2 80 79 390

75,868 60,710 5,020 6,643 349 226 519 177 1,625 2 80 76 440

73,974 58,250 5,700 6,656 329 224 517 178 1,564 2 81 73 400

73,285 57,410 5,830 6,721 246 223 520 181 1,529 2 82 70 470

76,309 59,300 6,760 6,784 218 222 527 185 1,583 2 83 64 580

77,784 60,240 7,370 6,740 196 225 526 185 1,530 2 83 58 630

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58

Material Output Flows: Austria, 1975-1996
All units 1,000 metric tons unless otherwise stated 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996

Summary Data
7,566 1,888 151,551 112,641 38,910 18,050 7,576 1,920 152,704 113,024 39,680 18,718 7,596 1,981 155,676 114,702 40,974 20,038 7,624 2,065 161,190 119,360 41,829 20,980 7,718 2,159 164,838 121,125 43,713 22,259 7,796 2,233 163,372 116,960 46,411 21,808 7,914 2,263 166,081 119,352 46,730 22,222 7,991 2,274 166,259 120,567 45,692 22,638 8,030 2,328 176,292 127,075 49,217 25,283 8,047 2,368 174,299 121,705 52,594 28,107 8,059 Population (thousand capita) 2,415 GDP (constant 1996 billion Austrian schillings) 176,084 Direct Material Input (DMI) 120,710 Domestic Extraction 55,375 Imports 28,742 Exports

Summary Indicators (as presented in main report)
98,693 46,161 91,303 189,996 137,464 76,255 99,564 46,029 89,383 188,947 135,412 76,864 96,863 44,949 79,584 176,447 124,533 79,801 96,297 43,859 80,561 176,858 124,421 84,789 100,189 44,676 85,734 185,923 130,410 85,821 102,499 44,158 81,215 183,713 125,372 85,132 95,130 40,991 76,823 171,953 117,814 91,209 94,564 41,022 75,536 170,101 116,558 90,605 95,963 40,944 73,981 169,944 114,925 98,035 98,891 41,858 73,565 172,456 115,423 91,855 100,818 41,910 70,530 171,348 112,440 92,718 DPO (including oxygen) DPO (excluding oxygen) Domestic hidden flows TDO (including oxygen) TDO (excluding oxygen) Net Additions to Stock

Summary Indicators (metric tons per capita)
13.04 6.10 12.07 25.11 18.17 10.08 13.14 6.08 11.80 24.94 17.87 10.15 12.75 5.92 10.48 23.23 16.39 10.51 12.63 5.75 10.57 23.20 16.32 11.12 12.98 5.79 11.11 24.09 16.90 11.12 13.15 5.66 10.42 23.57 16.08 10.92 12.02 5.18 9.71 21.73 14.89 11.53 11.83 5.13 9.45 21.29 14.59 11.34 11.95 5.10 9.21 21.16 14.31 12.21 12.29 5.20 9.14 21.43 14.34 11.42 12.51 5.20 8.75 21.26 13.95 11.50 DPO (including oxygen) DPO (excluding oxygen) Domestic hidden flows TDO (including oxygen) TDO (excluding oxygen) Net Additions to Stock

Summary Indicators including additional outputs (not presented in main report)
105,377 196,680 106,240 195,623 103,440 183,025 102,910 183,471 106,824 192,558 109,117 190,331 101,642 178,465 101,305 (including carbon 176,841 (including carbon 120,567 3,974 1,692 1,155 1,127 84,266 4,233 80,033 32,327 22,601 8,954 772 102,680 105,617 107,448 DPO dioxide from respiration, excluding water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 176,661 179,182 177,978 TDO dioxide from respiration, excluding water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 127,075 3,498 1,372 1,100 1,026 89,282 4,511 84,771 34,295 22,983 10,490 822 121,705 3,445 1,289 1,035 1,122 83,365 5,204 78,162 34,894 23,934 10,085 875 120,710 3,230 1,108 992 1,130 82,669 4,870 77,799 34,811 22,969 10,965 876

112,641 4,927 2,969 1,117 842 70,612 6,932 63,680 37,102 27,369 8,861 872

113,024 4,732 2,786 1,063 884 71,324 6,585 64,739 36,967 27,504 8,590 874

114,702 4,262 2,129 1,175 958 72,298 6,039 66,259 38,142 27,943 9,333 866

119,360 4,226 2,066 1,158 1,002 76,711 6,311 70,401 38,423 27,467 10,097 859

121,125 4,572 2,448 1,149 975 78,589 6,061 72,529 37,963 25,676 11,477 810

116,960 4,368 2,081 1,280 1,007 79,011 5,305 73,707 33,581 24,409 8,395 778

119,352 4,022 1,751 1,180 1,091 84,870 4,981 79,889 30,460 20,738 8,947 775

Domestic Extraction
Fossils Lignite & Hard Coal Crude Oil Natural Gas Minerals Ores & Industrial Minerals (incl. salt) Construction Minerals (incl. clay) Biomass Agricultural Products Wood Grazing

81,819 59,360 12,260 6,685 177 221 539 187 1,624 3 83 51 630

83,115 60,640 12,350 6,676 160 217 542 184 1,577 3 82 45 640

80,681 57,250 13,320 6,577 115 209 545 184 1,528 3 81 40 830

81,331 57,970 13,140 6,614 102 202 534 176 1,462 3 79 39 1,010

85,369 62,040 13,380 6,635 91 200 516 171 1,288 3 76 39 930

89,179 66,440 12,710 6,618 83 205 488 161 1,269 4 73 38 1,090

83,155 60,530 12,770 6,512 64 196 462 160 1,188 4 75 35 1,160

82,509 59,530 12,980 6,741 60 183 450 164 1,161 4 76 32 1,130

84,486 61,070 13,410 6,717 56 191 439 167 1,133 4 78 30 1,190

87,126

89,594

Gateway Indicators DPO to Air

CO2 from fossil fuel combustion 62,430 64,030 & industrial processes 14,690 15,540 CO2 from biomass combustion 6,726 6,630 CO2 from respiration (included in Austrian country report, not included in main report) 52 52 SO2 178 171 NOX 435 426 NMVOC 168 167 CH4 1,016 1,024 CO 4 4 N 2O 78 77 NH3 27 24 Dust Bunker Fuel Emissions 1,320 1,450 CO2 from bunkers

WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS

59

591 12.468 7.482 69.029 18.703 5.300 5.691 65.310 27.442 1.Material Output Flows: Austria.102 68.934 13.311 25.700 24.370 13.101 281 9. straw.738 18.669 19 872 972 1982 25.224 Domestic Hidden Flows Excavated soil Overburden/Ancillary flows (fossil fuels) Overburden/Ancillary flows (ores & industrial minerals) Overburden/Ancillary flows (construction minerals) WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 60 .182 25.154 39.608 94.130 68.804 13.557 29.564 24.342 14.166 91.738 5.588 26.856 38.896 12.476 28.292 12.176 27.950 5.030 71.807 71.009 DPO to Land 22..544 13.864 1.437 18.492 25.180 23.969 66.600 1.200 18.708 25.305 7.979 13.715 13.157 18 882 1.) Dissipative uses 846 (thawing & grit materials) 387 314 35 7 30 80. .411 265 9.321 7.180 18.312 42.731 5.325 92.422 261 10.738 26.212 13.645 234 9.182 18.602 12.955 26.617 12.052 12.826 25.582 92.131 12.815 12.211 66.437 27.564 18. 1975-1996 All units 1.939 5.591 92.589 10.452 406 DPO to Water Organic carbon in waste water Nitrogen in waste water Phosphorus in waste water AOX in waste water 385 312 35 7 30 86.063 25.020 13.014 1983 24.775 248 10.650 18.922 12.832 25.949 268 9.815 12.312 8.614 5.703 12.717 37.992 13.150 36.000 metric tons unless otherwise stated 1975 1976 23.039 11.732 40.797 246 9.398 1.433 7.. .755 1.566 20 847 854 1980 24.730 1.398 (excrements.134 Organic manure 7.143 272 10.740 12.143 8.584 38.953 531 380 309 36 7 28 90.396 12.944 91.791 12.708 18.734 13.192 512 259 194 34 7 24 90.268 8.717 12.000 1981 24.346 26.167 485 381 309 36 7 29 91.718 467 383 311 35 7 30 84.696 26.369 27 892 1.286 40. compost.729 27.342 13.937 26.601 29.063 498 333 263 36 7 27 86.778 62.844 5.196 7.436 504 357 286 36 7 28 88.394 12.487 8.416 27..566 273 10.718 91.671 12.) Pesticides (total weight) 17 Other 825 (sewage sludge.881 12.993 1.853 1.936 72.650 25.324 1.577 38.177 13.932 Waste disposal to controlled landfills 12.142 25.642 13.696 12.857 12.079 18 858 1.063 18.705 24.876 12.486 12.688 18 841 852 1979 23.770 25.604 5.493 Dissipative losses from roads & tyres 219 Dissipative uses (agriculture) 9.678 25 884 849 1985 24.151 8.988 1.881 88.588 18. seeds.641 14.864 13.428 35.373 Mineral fertilizer (total weight) 1.256 281 10.534 477 382 310 36 7 29 88.883 507 283 217 35 7 25 89.641 12.940 5.002 34.860 446 Additional Inputs (not presented in main report) Oxygen in combustion Oxygen in respiration Water Nitrogen (for the production of ammonia) Additional Outputs (not presented in main report) Water vapor from combustion of fossil fuels & biomass Water vapor from respiration 23.651 19 850 850 1978 23.827 67.029 26.617 87.554 28.816 12.825 17 826 848 1977 23.331 23 893 732 1984 24.005 13..025 89.060 94.630 26.200 24.249 5.947 498 308 240 35 7 26 85.

031 5.562 28.665 73.177 1996 17.762 Domestic Hidden Flows Excavated soil Overburden/Ancillary flows (fossil fuels) Overburden/Ancillary flows (ores & industrial minerals) Overburden/Ancillary flows (construction minerals) WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 61 .320 1994 18.249 25 863 765 1989 21.561 31.842 5.067 8.551 15.215 32.811 18.632 915 5.194 1.800 399 106 58 29 5 14 108..050 80.121 14.277 389 120 65 31 6 18 103.780 30.938 75.942 1.122 79.079 401 118 63 33 6 17 98.641 9.329 12.343 286 10.383 30.410 33.458 18.801 31.414 5.082 270 10.885 12.888 Additional Outputs (not presented in main report) Water vapor from combustion of fossil fuels & biomass Water vapor from respiration 27.659 375 200 137 33 7 22 95.120 12.349 91.224 26. seeds.958 400 8.918 25 845 315 1990 21.458 34.030 8.919 365 8.057 5.501 11.020 364 114 62 31 5 16 99.897 12.Material Output Flows: Austria.565 17.144 74.315 5.862 32.121 18.555 375 109 60 29 5 14 104.648 5.612 431 8.082 8..590 16.582 456 7.982 18.751 11.625 5.382 8.229 14.669 22.752 12.556 13.818 9.116 21.872 26 842 799 1992 18.345 5.349 34. 1975-1996 All units 1.748 8.804 12.837 12.947 85.465 5. .854 411 171 109 34 7 22 93.625 396 112 61 30 5 15 101.303 30.454 82.740 81.374 24 887 746 1995 18.656 5.181 7.876 1.888 18.338 25.574 80.949 36.000 metric tons unless otherwise stated 1986 23.441 384 7.616 409 DPO to Water Organic carbon Nitrogen Phosphorus AOX in in in in waste waste waste waste water water water water Additional Inputs (not presented in main report) Oxygen in combustion Oxygen in respiration Water Nitrogen (for the production of ammonia) 27.661 77.281 7.044 1.528 32. .565 34.926 11.418 30.681 12.801 12.536 33.) Pesticides (total weight) Other (sewage sludge..546 31.399 6.584 30.396 321 9.318 10.909 919 6.939 297 9.427 34.760 250 10.530 89.862 17.426 10.509 419 153 95 32 6 20 95.019 25 831 659 1991 19.240 5.690 12.697 33.697 17.079 1.474 75. straw.141 89.707 5.369 9.926 85.811 33.121 31.088 7.056 8.781 12.897 26.734 994 6.635 76.785 12.588 11.563 31.015 16.161 938 6.399 73.372 8.908 25 865 837 1988 22.418 18. compost.739 452 8.301 14.086 22 905 933 1987 22.081 18.877 12.982 36.105 20 884 1.488 80.972 85.146 860 6.081 27.078 DPO to Land Waste disposal to controlled landfills Dissipative losses from roads & tyres Dissipative uses (agriculture) Mineral fertilizer (total weight) Organic manure (excrements.) Dissipative uses (thawing & grit materials) 229 166 34 7 23 93.847 12.823 32.709 81.530 34.128 8.149 14.003 995 6.734 31.467 14.728 76.744 27.546 17.458 28.103 22 866 635 1993 18..281 49 894 1.429 70.349 18.970 12.805 27 884 1.981 33.927 30.682 8.483 9.322 33.866 9.416 432 136 80 32 6 19 99.020 36.075 6.665 15.

consistent data are available for 1991 and 1995 (BMLF. BMLF Wasserwirtschaftskataster. nitrogen. we also estimated emissions of water vapor and CO2 from respiration. and N2O from agriculture and forestry were subtracted to avoid doublecounting. and emissions from industry. 1979. NMVOC. personal communication). We calculated data for the other years by using statistics on households connected to municipal wastewater collection systems. 1998). waste treatment and landfills. CH4. the dataset provides a good overview for material trends between 1975 and 1996. as well as information on the capacity and the efficiency of the sewage treatment plants. To balance inputs and outputs. We calculated a complete time series by using several assumptions and filling remaining data gaps by interpolation. direct (dispersed) emissions from households. 1990 ff. 1999). 1981. 1983. CH 4 from agriculture (excluding enteric fermentation) and forestry. Water vapor emissions from water and H-content in energy carriers were calculated using data from energy statistics (OESTAT) and factors according to Schütz (1999. Domestic Processed Output to Air Official data on emissions to air (including international bunkers according to Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [IPCC] format) are available for CO2.Data Sources and Methodology: Technical Notes General Notes on Quality of Data Austrian official statistics do not provide comprehensive data on material outflows from economic activities and the quality of data varies widely. Data on hidden flows are not available at all. most data in this report derive from our own calculations. 1991) was a major source for our estimates of the percentage of deposited waste that industry and commerce produces. A 1980s survey by the Austrian Federal Chamber of Commerce (Bundeskammer für gewerbliche Wirtschaft. Time series from 1975 to 1979 were completed using trend estimations. the Austrian Federal Institute on Public Health conducted surveys on waste from households (OEBIG. phosphorus. SO2. For 1972. 1999. personal communication). 1991. The agricultural statistics (OESTAT) represent the most important source for dissipative flows (such as mineral fertilizer and organic manure). depending on the material category and the period of time. and 1987. Domestic Processed Output to Water DPO to water includes emissions of organic carbon. Data for direct emissions from households were calculated and cross-checked with the results of a specific survey about nutrient flows in the Danube basin (Kroiss et al. 1974. and AOX from municipal sewage treatment plants. CO2 and water vapor emissions from human and livestock metabolism were calculated using factors from Moll (1996) and Schütz (1999. NOx. 1989). Ritter and Raberger.. N2O. 1995. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 62 . CO. 1999). For these three categories. Nevertheless. and NH3 from 1980 to 1996 in time series (Ritter and Ahamer. Except for some specific flows reported in official statistics.. 1985. 1998). 1995. 1992. 1985. Domestic Processed Output to Land Reliable official data on the total amount of waste produced by households and similar institutions are available for 1989 to 1996 (BMUJF.

2000) and factors according to Schütz/ Bringezu (1998) with the exception of lignite. gravel.. and crushed stone. domestic processed output (DPO). WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 63 . like sand. Some water had to be added on the input side to support an accurate balance of livestock metabolism. 1999). lead and zinc ores. salt. and additional outputs (water vapor). 1999) using several assumptions. 1999). In this country annex. of annual area covered by construction of new buildings (OESTAT). Consequently. 2000). Data on additional inputs of nitrogen from air for the production of ammonia come from the chemical industry. and NAS cannot be compared directly. 1999. iron ores. DPO. or animal grazing. some indicators differ slightly from those presented in the main report.Input Flows Most of the primary data incorporated in the calculation of the material input flows are periodically included in the official statistics by OESTAT and BMwA. Schandl et al. Data for 1996 were extrapolated from 1994 data for emission to air and hazardous waste. Soil excavation was calculated based on a time series Economic Sector Indicators Sectoral indicators could be calculated on the basis of NAMEA 1994 (Wolf et al. and “magnesit” where specific Austrian factors were available or factors from other sources were used. because data transferability of factors calculated for countries other than Austria could not be checked in every single case.. Schandl et al. 2. 1999.. stock changes are calculated as the difference between direct material input (DMI) plus additional inputs (such as oxygen) minus exports. tungsten ores. For the purposes of this study. Because of these additional inputs and outputs. Soil erosion and dredging materials were not estimated due to a lack of sound data. DPO to air includes CO2 from human and livestock respiration (FischerKowalski and Hüttler. hard coal. DMI. Oxygen for human and livestock respiration was estimated with factors by Moll (1996) and Schütz (personal communication. Stock changes therefore include statistical differences.. The results should be viewed as a first approximation. NOTES 1.. Domestic Hidden Flows Domestic hidden flows were calculated using data on domestic extraction of minerals and fossils (Hüttler et al. For some aggregates. Additional Inputs Additional oxygen in CO2 from the combustion of fossil fuels and biomass was calculated using atomic weights. we had to rely on our own calculations and estimations (Hüttler et al.

” Proceedings to the 3rd ConAccount Conference. K.: World Resources Institute. Empirical Evidence on Thirty-One Countries in East and West. BMwA (Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs). C. Vol. BMLF (Federal Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry)-Wasserwirtschaftskataster. 21. ed. Nov. M. H. Österreichisches Montanhandbuch. Ecological Economics. UBA Berichte IB-601. Kommunale Kläranlagen in Österreich. and W. Jänicke. Deutsch. and U..” in Successful Environmental Policy. Vienna: BMUJF. Neue Folge 1995.. Ritter. 1995.B. 1997. ed. M. Raberger. 1989. Vienna: BMLF.. Vienna: UBA. BMUJF (Federal Ministry for the Environment. 1996. LuftschadstoffTrends in Österreich 1980–1997. Gerhold. M. Malenbaum. H. Vienna: Horn. and J. Weisz. Schandl. Jänicke and H. “Society’s Metabolism. ed. 51. Kreuzinger. Ritter..E. 1995.M. and W. Moll. Vienna: Institut für Wassergüte und Abfallwirtschaft der TU Wien. 1970–1998. Vienna/: Horn: Ferdinand Berger & Söhne. Kisser. 1995.C. Vienna: OEBIG. ed. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 64 . 1996. Vol. and B. Bundesabfallwirtschaftsbericht. Gewässerschutzbericht. “Reduction of Waste Water Emissions in the Austrian Pulp and Paper Industry. Fischer-Kowalski. M. 1992.. M.. De Bruyn. Unpublished. Kirschten. World Demand for Raw Materials in 1985 and 2000. and U. ed. Umweltkontrollbericht des Bundesministers für Umwelt. XLVI. 1985. Statistisches Jahrbuch für die Republik Österreich. W. Abfallerhebung Industrie. M. Jugend und Familie an den Nationalrat. Simonis. Abfallerhebungen in Gemeinden.” Journal of Industrial Ecology 2(4): 107-137. eds. T. Ranneberg. and Family). several volumes. Kroiss..” Environmental Monitoring and Assessment (12)2: 99-114.” Statistische Nachrichten. Berlin/Heidelberg/New York: Springer. 1974. 1999. and Family). Amsterdam. 1989. Schaar. and H. Weiterentwicklung und Aktualisierung. “Structural Change and Environmental Impact. ed. Umweltsituation in Österreich. 1998. UBA Berichte BE-146. Vienna: OESTAT-OEBIG (Österreichisches Bundesinstitut für Gesundheitswesen). “Developments in the throughput income relationship: theoretical and empirical observations”. 1999. BMUJF. Part II. “Problemorientierte Umweltindikatoren. S. Washington D. Zessner. Youth. 2. 1999. 2000: “Materialfluss für Österreich 1960 bis 1997. issue not available: 255-268. No. Weidner. et al. Hüttler. “Are Industrial Economies on the Path of Dematerialization? Material Flow Accounts for Austria 1960–1996: Indicators and International Comparison. S. H. 1978. and M. Ernährungsbilanzen privater Haushalte und deren Verknüpfung mit physischen InputOutput-Tabellen. Fischer-Kowalski. Jahrgang... ed. 1990. M. 1991. 1996. S. Berlin: Sigma. Resource Flows: The Material Basis of Industrial Economies. Youth. Studie im Auftrag des Statistischen Bundesamtes Wiesbaden. 1981. The Intellectual History of Material Flow Analysis. 1999: Treibhausgas Emissionen in Österreich 1980–1997. 1995. 1998. Schandl. Vienna: Bundeskammer für gewerbliche Wirtschaft.. Amann. Weisz. BMLF (Federal Ministry for Agriculture and Forestry). 1997. and B.” Statistische Nachrichten 54 (2). In National Environmental Policies: A Comparative Analysis of Capacity Building. 1993. Mönch. H. W. 1998: Nährstoffbilanzen für Donauanrainerstaaten–Erhebung für Österreich. Opschoor. N. Forthcoming. 20. Issue 12 (June 1996): 950-963. Petrovic. Vienna: UBA.REFERENCES Adriaanse. Bundeskammer für gewerbliche Wirtschaft. Bundes-Abfallwirtschaftsplan. eds. Jänicke and H. M. Vienna: BMLF.. H. Vienna. 1999. New York: McGraw Hill. Ahamer. ed. and G. Hüttler. BMUJF (Federal Ministry for the Environment. 1991. 1985. OESTAT (Austrian Central Statistical Office). A. Weidner.

” Statistische Nachrichten. E. June 2–5. Vol 53.. “Economy-wide Material Flow Accounting (MFA). Germany. 1992. and S. 1994. 1998: “Eine NAMEA der Luftschadstoffe Österreichs 1994. “Klimaschutzpolitik in Österreich. 39. J. issue not available: 147-162. T. and D. Wiesbaden. Bilanz der 1990er Jahre und Ausblick. Steurer. World Development Report 1992. 1999.. World Bank. Hanauer.” SWS-Rundschau. “Environmental Quality and Development: Is there a Kuznet Curve for Air Pollution?” Journal of Environmental Economics and Environmental Management Vol. Issue 2: 624-39. Development and the Environment. 1998. R.. Vol. 1998: 56-67. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. H. March 1999.M. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 65 . Selden. M.Schütz. Wolf.” Technical Documentation presented at the MFA-Workshop. Issue 1. Jan. 27. Ahamer. Song. Bringezu. and G. 1.

6 percent. than in Federal Republic of Germany. Data presented here for 1975–1990 refer to Federal Republic of Germany only. refer to material outputs. Population and GDP in the reunified Germany were 26 percent and GDP 24 percent higher. FIGURE A1 TDO AND DPO PER CAPITA. human and animal livestock respiration.MATERIAL FLOWS: GERMANY Stefan Bringezu. data for 1991–1996 refer to reunified Germany. Helmut Schütz Highlights The following results. GERMANY 1975–1996 60 50 Metric Tons Per Capita 40 30 TDO Excluding Water DPO Excluding Water 20 10 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 66 . German population increased by another 2. Between 1991 and 1996. unless otherwise stated. population had been relatively constant over the whole period from 1975 to 1990. In the Federal Republic of Germany. respectively. Time series for socioeconomic and material flow data in Germany reflect the reunification of Federal Republic of Germany with the former German Democratic Republic in 1990–91. and evaporation from domestic biomass. excluding water vapor emissions from the combustion of energy carriers.

4 0. their composition. compared to about 30 to 40 metric tons per capita in Federal Republic of Germany.2 0. During 1975–96. rising to 54 metric tons per capita.) Despite the different levels of TDO in Federal Republic of Germany and reunited Germany. Mining has been at the center of regional political debate because some villages have had to be abandoned to make way for mining excavation.4 TDO AND DPO PER CONSTANT UNIT OF GDP. This was due to the inclusion in the accounts of overburden from lignite mines in the eastern part of the country. total domestic output (TDO) increased significantly with reunification. Most of the hidden flows from mining are included in official German waste statistics.0 0. some of which have been closed in recent years. both DPO and TDO rose more slowly than economic growth.2 1.6 0.8 TDO Excluding Water 0. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 67 . in terms of the main material constituents. GERMANY 1975–1996 Kg Per Deutsch Mark 1. we can record a decoupling between physical throughput and economic performance. However. lignite mining is still ongoing in Germany.6 1.8 1. (See Figure A1. was similar for both periods. Landfill and mine dumping.) In contrast.FIGURE A2 1. (See Figure A2. Thus.0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 DPO Excluding Water Domestic processed output (DPO) was almost constantly high in both the Federal Republic of Germany and reunited Germany with values around 15 metric tons per capita.

(See Figure A4.CO2 emissions to air. dominate domestic hidden flows.) Soil erosion and dredging excavation contribute a significantly lower share to domestic hidden flows. and excavation of soil for construction of infrastructure dominated outputs to the environment. which account for a high proportion of TDO in Germany. (See Table A1. about 90 percent of DPO is emitted to the atmosphere. CO2 dominates DPO to air throughout the study period.) Mining wastes (mainly from open-pit lignite mining) and soil excavation for construction.) However. FIGURE A3 COMPOSITION OF TDO. while such pollutants as SO2 and NO2. quantities of outputs from landfill and mine dumping accounted for a significantly higher proportion of TDO in reunited Germany. to a much lesser extent in the reunited Germany. contribute little to the overall volume. although important with respect to their environmental impacts. With respect to environmental gateways. (See Figure A3. the remainder being almost exclusively DPO to land. Dissipative outflows make up around 3 to 4 percent of DPO to air. DPO to water is negligible in terms of flow volumes. GERMANY 1975–1996 60 50 Metric Tons Per Capita 40 Others 30 CO2 Landfill Waste 20 Excavation Landfill and Mine Dumping Erosion 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 10 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 68 .

3 12.5 0.4 11. GERMANY 1975–1996 3500 3000 2500 Million Metric Tons 2000 Erosion Mining Wastes* 1500 Dredge Excavation to Water (North Sea) 1000 Soil Excavation* Soil Excavation 500 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 *outputs not deposited on controlled landfills WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 69 . GERMANY 1975–1996 Federal Republic of Germany 1975 1990 Reunified Germany 1991 1996 Million Metric Tons CO2 Other emissions to air TOTAL Metric Tons Per Capita CO2 Other emissions to air TOTAL 741 26 767 726 17 743 995 24 1019 938 16 954 12.4 12.5 0.8 11.7 FIGURE A4 COMPOSITION OF DOMESTIC HIDDEN FLOWS.3 11.TABLE A1 C O2 A N D O T H E R E M I S S I O N S T O A I R .2 11.8 12.5 0.0 0. E X C L U D I N G W A T E R V A P O R .

Excluding Hidden Flows) CO2 From Fossil Fuels 150 SO2 NOx as NO2 100 CFCs and Halons Mining Wastes Not Deposited on Controlled Landfills Index (1975=100) 200 50 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 FIGURE A6 MATERIAL OUTPUT FLOWS TO AGRICULTURAL FIELDS (INDEX).FIGURE A5 SELECTED MATERIAL OUTPUT FLOWS (INDEX). GERMANY 1995–1996 300 250 Controlled Waste Disposal (Landfills Only. GERMANY 1995–1996 700 600 Compost 500 Erosion Sewage Sludges 400 300 200 100 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Farmyard Manure Pesticides Seeds Mineral Fertilizers Index (1975=100) WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 70 .

Net additions to stock in the German economy exhibit an interesting trend. compost shows a significant increase over the study period. indicating a higher recycling of nutrients via agriculture. thus contributing to reduced resource requirement.) Mining wastes for landfills (not disposed of in controlled waste disposal sites) increased immediately after reunification and then decreased until 1996. (See Figure A5.) The application of sewage sludge also reached a higher level in the reunited Germany in the 1990s compared to the level in the Federal Republic of Germany. Nevertheless. net additions of material were lower between 1981 and 1987. These materials can be substituted for mineral fertilizer to a certain extent. material additions to stock in the reunited Germany range from about 10 to 13 metric tons per capita. After reunification. these are examples of material outputs declining because of effective policy regulations. renovation and construction of new homes in the eastern part of Germany led to another increase.For selected material flows. This was due to the phase-out of lignite mining facilities in the eastern part of Germany. The increase in the use of compost and sewage sludge should be interpreted as positive trends. the overall increase in DPO and TDO indicates that these regulations did not reduce total output flows. we recorded some interesting temporal trends. (See Figure A6. The decline of CFCs and halons is particularly obvious. On a per capita basis. Among dissipative uses of products on agricultural fields. No continuously declining trend can be detected. As with SO2 emissions. (See Figure A7.) After a period of heavy construction activities in Federal Republic of Germany from 1975 to 1980. FIGURE A7 1600 1400 NET ADDITIONS TO STOCK. then increased again in 1988 to 1990. GERMANY 1975–1996 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1980 1985 1990 1995 Million Metric Tons 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 1975 Metric Tons Per Capita Additions to Stock (Million Tons) Additions to Stock (Tons Per Capita) WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 71 . which indicates that pressure on the environment associated with the physical growth of the technosphere is still increasing. but did not reach the high levels of the 1970s.

368 carbon dioxide from respiration.392.401.332 920.260 1.475 61.499 6.705 1.707.170 1.270 1.544 956.294 940.918 15.836 1.392.30 5.00 14.638 1.829 1.64 38.155 733.271.270 61.066.304.626 343.42 22.051.135 21.349 1.993 361.089.588 carbon dioxide from respiration.69 23.970 1.555 27.687 883.633 1.36 22.681 958.733 14.394 13.259 758.771 327.360.767 2.086.598 1.10 Domestic hidden flows 17.71 26.402 3.462 3.89 20.308 14.063.359 2.590 3.906 2.750.271.194 635.649 24.398 61.835 2.279 872.621 6.298.000 3.426 NOX 2.566 2.120 (e.693 130.270 751.513 1.042.70 14.967 779.026.442 14.72 18.828 1.807 133.000 27.906 2.392.716 1. excluding all water vapor) CO2 from fuel combustion 714.435 2.348.479 1.269 1.278.093.542 1.295 1.798.862 2.024 1.125 2.089 6.55 22.158.900 2.775 1.488 344.916 164.016 1.433 350.749 61.703 3.198 161.135.119.741 2.927 carbon dioxide from respiration.83 5.142 19.348 323.00 DPO (excluding oxygen) 5.962.155 21.917.327 2.391.991.733 778.091 166.338 862.309 2.430 15.583 919.377 13.109 13.00 28.458.000 2.754 2.285 61.699 2.838.753 794.362 2.072 1.555 6.000 (not caused by energy use) SO2 3.440 Dissipative flows to air 1.707 carbon dioxide from respiration.43 5.460 2.908 15.232 2.684 2.405.596 1.04 5.105 1.723 2.418 315.77 27.34 22.100 2.334 1.175 2.896 61.046.830 2.862 1.401 12.79 22.738 342.01 TDO (including oxygen) 31.790 2.887 551.357 11.62 15.665 1.22 33.609 768.886 1.139 1.203 970.236.20 5.397 3.638 2.052 708. 1975-1996 Data apply to Federal Republic of Germany 1975-1990.780 2.47 5.824 757.853 6.621 21.331 6.51 18.86 28.635 724.245.804 Methane 3.559 329.400 1.34 22.48 18.512.295 1.717 923.019 14.495 Other emissions from bunkers 6.696 2.26 23.140 20.639 337.252.470.497 Domestic hidden flows 1.266.581 2.g.887 553. including water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 1.508 1.000 2.43 33.346.449 1.674 356.335 798.292.140 1.000 27.190 1.588 952.367.125 20.05 Summary Indicators including additional outputs (not presented in main report) DPO (including DPO (including TDO (including TDO (including 910.12 28.874 980.089 22.024 2.519 21.323.030 61.449 946.901 1.115 1.266.804 1.654 15.454 355.162.169 13.124 1.776 1.265.675.058 2.643 61.000 27.630 2.310.992 1.086 6.26 33.169 747.650 14.495 2.061 1.726 (including oxygen from all combustion.000 2.103 328.161 1.000) GDP (constant 1996 million DM) Direct Material Input (DMI) Domestic Extraction Imports Exports 61.167 TDO (excluding oxygen) 1.549 2.17 5.563 337.66 36.98 15.719 830.515 Summary Indicators (metric tons per capita) DPO (including oxygen) 14.295 11.682 2.846 14. excluding oxygen from respiration.263.111 1.357.639 1.088.936.033 6.576 141.338.984 2.464 1.125 1.531 1.685.778 873.382 2.131.01 TDO (excluding oxygen) 22.984 155.43 14.467.019.109 767.341 11.03 36. including water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 998.091.911 1.283.473 910. unless otherwise stated 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 Summary Data Population (1.473 1.235 1.348 872.677 918.575 61.000 metric tons.Material Output Flows: Germany.617 Gateway Indicators DPO to Air 767.470.716 3.559 1.686.297.94 15.511.161 Summary Indicators (as presented in main report) DPO (including oxygen) 865.478.671 1.579 929.106 830.26 23.465 820.682.970 715.718.423 12.384.121.000 2.004 325.000 25.739 3. excluding water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 2.203 331.353 Net Additions to Stock 754.473 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 72 .703 3.255 20.440 Other air pollutants 15.525 374.853 22.245 385. excluding water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 1.081 2.805 560.431.312.250 162.292. N2O from product use) Bunker Fuel Emissions 19.656 2.143 61.572 336.000 3.112.087.675 3.887 2.577 1.44 5.214 1.711.585 2.445 14.495 CO2 from industrial processes 27.373 3.93 14.175.544 3.83 27.71 27.358.404.257.388 714.115 23.000 2.58 14.244.99 5.312.062 341.773 1.845 714.019 810.28 36.60 36.694.877 167.767 3.659 1.855 TDO (including oxygen) 1.780 1.216 565.633.649 7.214 CO2 from bunkers 13.051.393.544 2.064 20.644 2.607 161.755 2.125.271.989 1.470.434 3.698 14.362.312 DPO (excluding oxygen) 315.459 3.294.290 152.647 338.263 1.957 20.358 765.058 1.444.317.674 2.827 1.80 5. Reunited Germany 1991-1996 All units in 1.69 37.455 2.12 925.701.142.145 22.318 946.283 718.022 912.019 992.816 2.69 14.423 2.782 747.73 36.719.721.129 919.540 760.446.957 7.

126.262 2.330 574.189 (including carbon dioxide from respiration.077 2.35 38.140 201.000 4.990 2.096 9.263 423. including water 1.345 4.803.202 8.057 1.940 29.251.439 4.662.67 13.191 315.432 1.308.25 46.254.663 1.025 62.065 22.932 703.056 1.436 189.169. including water 3.195.279 79.851 1.493 728.66 5. excluding water 4.195 1.495 970.475 2.466 3.104 943.461 2.206.895 1.189 11.099 8.115 3.09 21.354 329.530 165.294 13.744 3.650.714.956 753.117.495.844 1.474 10.497 2.244 318.596.375.08 5.148.874.320 2.096.320 837. unless otherwise stated 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Summary Data 61.418.958.85 5.025 837.710 2.056 338.175 2.541 882.156.595 SO2 2.338 3.403.829 433.97 43.065 7.060.850.226 (including carbon dioxide from respiration.682 189.878 28.14 4.847 2.210.206 1.153 2.313.675 1.462 3.214.134.410 17.693.107 2.312 2.74 35.623 DPO (including oxygen) DPO (excluding oxygen) Domestic hidden flows TDO (including oxygen) TDO (excluding oxygen) Net Additions to Stock Summary Indicators (metric tons per capita) 14.266.132 896.203 7.090.345 1.826.47 34.680 1.305 4.055 2.100 897.821.352 1.830 3.970 2.725 386.174 63.18 22.357 4.749 956.53 5.625.532 1.344 2.322 11.470 2.23 13.402 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 73 .247 2.165 1.579 81.786 919.433 941.323 1. N2O from product use) 25.608 80.865 455.694 2.255.160 905.606.182.530.818 912.408 374.969 1.337 8.154 21.150 212.647.373 3.149 2.000 1.121 383.715 1019.327 Bunker Fuel Emissions 17.19 26.569 3.539 3.366 2.977 423.862.993 2.072 10.388.177 1.90 54.710.074.310 3.75 33.027.00 13.453 1.769 16.586 916.756 742.095 28.891 3.035 23.49 27.438 3.378.06 35.046 1.00 33.605 1.05 49.990 227.000 27.381 1. excluding water 1.083 NOX 3.111 319.493 1.87 36.822 2.065.100 20.885 2.858.569 1.066 CO2 from fuel combustion 25.45 5.271 8.973 2.603 3.054.655 1.496 3.450 1.351 965.707 3.190 1.754 Methane 11.154.948 1.066 CO2 from bunkers 8.917 474.281.055 23.176.794 652.442 394.08 21.083.54 25.848 18.670.244.999 1.010 1.655 704.276 81.294 19.489 4.095.000 1.868 80.270.362.529 3.492.91 27.43 40.098 1.975 3.99 35.381.844 686.500 1.590 214.835 61.099 25.833 1.971.571.100 898.013.096 1.354.542 1.811.080 25.840 9.153 1.236 935057 345179 162027 61.810.40 20.907 1.271 2.020 851.254 2.381 1.610 1.885 2.96 26.140 2.587.753 3.280.449.355.016 Dissipative flows to air (e.280 1.673.100 20.836 1.927 463.432.818 3.096 1.51 5.852 942.821 16.942 16.818 20.325 9.000 CO2 from industrial processes (not caused by energy use) 3.096 1.026 1.982 Other air pollutants 1.251 565.908.464 612.799 (including carbon dioxide from respiration.026 2.195 3.92 13.677.000 25.261 Other emissions from bunkers 966.456 1.27 DPO (including oxygen) DPO (excluding oxygen) Domestic hidden flows TDO (including oxygen) TDO (excluding oxygen) Summary Indicators including additional outputs (not presented in main report) 928.918 1.148.003 1.457 4.401.000 metric tons.647 175.080 191.280.81 13.945 321.376 1.329.002.769.617 (including carbon dioxide from respiration. excluding oxygen from respiration.427 3.864 1.083 1.000 2.55 13.45 34.732 899.517 1.185 1.919.38 4.271 19.341.212 28.541. Reunited Germany 1991-1996 All units in 1.358 1.016 81.000) GDP (constant 1996 million DM) Direct Material Input (DMI) Domestic Extraction Imports Exports Summary Indicators (as presented in main report) 882.109.663 2.288.31 39.g.81 47.012 2.47 38.587. excluding all water vapor) 919.739 725.41 45.181 2.653 9.066 2.203 20.304.392.500 929 2.536 4.Material Output Flows: Germany.22 13.788.249.652 1.954 3.311 1.113.417.22 20.910 2.118 1.062.000 25.10 4.347 2.112 9.100 19.70 30.396 714.638.72 29.68 13.881 3.704.945 9.651.596.49 5.524.000 990 2.275 3.68 34.293 2.368.000 26.721 937.629 4.006 860.060 8.392 463.054 7.401 350.339.049 2.078 10.055 23.830 Population (1.382 1.196 29.718 4.343 1.533.518 2.915 855.546 683.676.230 DPO vapor from all combustion & respiration) DPO vapor from all combustion & respiration) TDO vapor from all combustion & respiration) TDO vapor from all combustion & respiration) Gateway Indicators 769.14 14.568.605 1.415 400.494.495 DPO to Air (including oxygen from all combustion.930 1.828 1.140 741.450 2.063 2.95 35.115.394.048 963.543.407.03 4.465 954.337 20.04 14.55 42.740 205.581 386.314.332.952 1.140 26. 1975-1996 Data apply to Federal Republic of Germany 1975-1990.522 2.641 354.100 913.

984 46.282 Oxygen in respiration 32. unless otherwise stated 1975 1976 102.198 1982 111.459 30.255 1.203 33.367 8.696 313 35 2.587 1.362 8.711 315 35 2.660 3.526 33.794 74.660 3.837 388.420 30.365 8.357 8.704 314 35 2.676 45.794 73.373 137.794 75.915 46.608 610 1.660 3.649 2.731 45.891 Domestic Hidden Flows Excavated soil Dredging wastes Soil erosion Mining overburden 143.645 608 1.997 859.043 2.660 33.095.291 153.689 313 35 2.794 78.409 153.864 1977 109.426 149.864 7.351 779.660 3.634 33.065 DPO to Land Municipal landfill Industrial landfill Landfilled sewage sludge Dissipative flows to land Fertilizers Pesticides Animal manure spread on fields Sewage sludge spread on fields Grit materials Others 95.836 10.532 781.801 528 1.531 2.361 8.926 1979 115.418 32.325 33 18.842 537 1.184 2.781 1.873 9.563 10.011 30.637 167.452 818.283 67.593 10.864 1978 113.353 8.394 1.276 30.802 33.899 25 19.407 859.357 30.794 70.429 64.101 871.374 44.099.807 837.459 2.371 369.794 71.635 45.147 50.420 28 19.706 30 18.439 32.472 31 17.307 33. Reunited Germany 1991-1996 All units in 1.724 316 35 2.571 29 18.828 1.354 8.946 2.858 342.042 795.815 2.702 314 35 2.615 158.574 31 18.107 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 74 .955 33.260 149.429 33.316 2.660 3.997 359.794 77.712 315 35 2.797 33.326 2.732 31 18. 1975-1996 Data apply to Federal Republic of Germany 1975-1990.574 30.780 33.389 66.660 3.660 2.532 558 1.802 1.715 315 35 2.838 1985 109.372 8.098 34.794 74.648 Additional Outputs (not presented in main report) Water vapor from fossil combustion 331.934 375.626 33.120 3.629 34.918 170.409 2.717 315 35 2.051 26 19.444 CO2 from respiration 44.995 10.808 351.044 33.243 3.555 612 1.077 64.057 2.312 30.Material Output Flows: Germany.218 2.129.206 30.654 149.383 34.274 561 1.238 10.530 33.794 79.117.591 1984 111.748 45.217 563 1.497 45.874 9.841 2.306 993.476 566 1.374 1.131.781 30 19.446 1.785 347.803 46.052 1981 115.056 356.740 555 1.454 803.713 1.935 33.705 314 35 2.239 Water vapor from respiration 30.336 896.552 9.341 DPO to Water N P Others Additional Inputs (not presented in main report) Oxygen in combustion 782.371 67.506 70.098 57.349 68.266 30.532 1.669 606 1.799 9.190 2.106 345.932 3.706 314 35 2.345 1983 111.986 30.794 81.894 33 18.307 33.026 789.794 76.000 metric tons.761 73.940 1.393 10.174 2.891 46.660 2.356 8.905 352.347 8.068 70.183 852.123 10.989 1980 118.282 868.852 33.658 822.826 147.447 2.132.848 2.

704 2.439 33.043 64.794 120.734 317 36 2.538 1.018.906 151.327 29 27.586 2.890 2.300 43.000 metric tons.004.596 262.892 1.794 122.672 791.997 33 18.691 313 35 2.475 32.435 1989 108.638 515 1.429 33.361 51.862 137.588 2.521 1988 106.506 33.087.262 30.129 781.655 33.478 338 34 3.097 59.449 51.110 6.439 35 18.470 37.794 82.769 37.875 37 18.500 63.319 2.731 900 1.111 12.381 7.358 8.940 1.954 2.477 45.794 82.107 9.013 37.006.172 271.772 12.249 32.427 8.186 35 27.660 3.038 2.593 37.950 33.139 DPO to Water N P Others Additional Inputs (not presented in main report) 799.098 1.047 983 2.318 1.343 8.061.070 507.028 2.718 2.604 9.692 313 35 2.794 81.729 3.375 1.129 9.263 1991 133.934 3.457 45.121 9.212 342.299 344.464 Water vapor from fossil combustion Water vapor from respiration CO2 from respiration Domestic Hidden Flows 145.753 994 2.705 38.484 513.016.173 33.725 46.224 33 26.559 51.773 161.027 Excavated soil Dredging wastes Soil erosion Mining overburden WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 75 .080 8.651 53.507 10.313 4.682 12.575 33.949 59.400 540.443 1.299.657 1995 117.657 DPO to Land Municipal landfill Industrial landfill Landfilled sewage sludge Dissipative flows to land Fertilizers Pesticides Animal manure spread on fields Sewage sludge spread on fields Grit materials Others 8.000 33.325 30. unless otherwise stated 1986 110.314 37 27.Material Output Flows: Germany.660 3.361 1.168 55.407 1993 123.060 8.932 37.127 56.729 3.910 62.095.039 2.552 343.458 296 23 3.349 1990 110.745 30.343 8.614 10.088 1.110 5.691 3.161 37.864 33 18.818 266.210 12.759 767 1.478 360 39 3.110 5.851 266.251 3.158 1992 126.822 33.926 2.903 789.165 3.110 6.418 30.599 37.261 35 27.102.318 31.496.093 3.391 2.570 501 1.754 33.996.794 123.794 82.329 37. Reunited Germany 1991-1996 All units in 1.466 317 28 3.008 65.794 81.660 4.596 1.037 2.755 3.881 767.565 57.784 321 36 2.014.890 2.496 1. 1975-1996 Data apply to Federal Republic of Germany 1975-1990.859 33.572 1.035 33.376 61.657 37.706 3.118 995.657 1996 116.023 9.794 122.175 37.110 5.981 37.485 381 44 3.293 1987 104.657 1994 119.557 495.469 3.656 634 1.997 13.187 30 27.522 170.707 314 35 2.110 5.101 2.657 6.615 500.042.239.192 1.660 4.964 2.534 13.287 30.447 295 23 3.985 69.428 Oxygen in combustion Oxygen in respiration Additional Outputs (not presented in main report) 345.794 125.241 352.552 259.628 51.065 2.619 45.564 1.794 128.566 51.439 33.252 308.684 1.054.723 36 18.660 3.927 3.815 504.170 9.753.600 2.

domestic hidden flows that are included in official waste data were subtracted and counted under the group of domestic hidden flows. then on the period 1991 to 1996 (the territory of the reunited Germany). 5). and locality of materials. The basis for German data on waste disposal is official waste statistics published by FSOG (Federal Statistical Office Germany) in two volumes: waste disposal by industry and hospitals. as well as in public landfills and commercial landfills (the latter being used mainly by industry).Technical Notes and Sources In general. This refers to soil excavation and mining wastes. Material outputs of the German economy to the environment comprise the following main groups: (1) waste disposal in controlled landfills. The difference between material inputs. however. as accounted for in our earlier study (Adriaanse et al. detailed technical notes on data sources and formulae used in calculating outputs can be viewed at the homepage of the Wuppertal Institute (http://www. still kept in the data base and might be used in further studies.org/Projekte). (4) emissions to water. the total amount of nitrogen in mineral fertilizers applied to agricultural land was counted under DPO. outputs from the German economy comprise outputs to the domestic environment and outputs of materials to foreign countries as exports. For example. the amount of waste disposed of in controlled landfills was estimated in time series based on official statistics and other sources. Three major data source types were differentiated: governmental statistics. non-governmental statistics. (3) emissions to air. for example. In spatial terms. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 76 . and municipal waste disposal. Outside the technosphere. quality. (5) domestic hidden flows. and specific studies. humans control the quantity. on qualitative aspects of DPO. Net additions to stocks were calculated by subtracting DPO and exports from direct material inputs to the German economy.wupperinst. and material outputs accounted for here represents the net amount of additional materials stocked within the technosphere. this is not the case. but the subsequent emissions of nitrogen oxides from these fertilizers were not counted under DPO (double-counting). In this study. Outputs 1 to 4 constitute the DPO. Because of limited space. These emissions were. the system boundary is at the end-of-pipe for industrial processes and at the surface of soil for agricultural and forestry processes. 1997). To account for the contribution to DPO (to land). TDO comprises DPO plus hidden flows (No. Waste Disposal in Controlled Landfills (Excluding Incineration) This group comprises wastes disposed of in controlled landfills owned by industry or hospitals. Please note that domestic material outputs were counted here at the system boundary between technosphere (economy) and environment.. (2) dissipative uses and dissipative losses. Time series were established for Germany based on the period 1975 to 1990 (the territory of the former Federal Republic of Germany). which was functionally defined: within the technosphere.

1997.. and water emissions from materials. and to dissipative losses by erosion of infrastructure. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 77 . and for other purposes. and emissions of water from materials. VOC (NMVOC excluding emissions from use of solvents. NO x as NO2. Except for CO2 from respiration. water vapor from combustion and respiration. Respiration outputs in the form of carbon dioxide and water vapor Domestic Hidden Flows These material outputs were described in Adriaanse et al. and waste statistics of FSOG. and CH4. on roads. N2O. CFCs and halons. They were supplemented by our own estimates. excluding CH4 from landfilled wastes). SO2. H2O from combustion and respiration.Dissipative Use of Products and Dissipative Losses These material outputs refer in general to dissipative uses of products on agricultural fields. abrasion of car tires. Data are provided by German agricultural statistics. dust. from bunker fuels. were first estimated in the context of studies for the physical input-output table for the Federal Republic of Germany 1990 by FSO and Wuppertal Institute. and from respiration. Exports Official foreign trade statistics of FSO provide the data from which we subtracted the water content whose counterpart on the input side is the domestic water input and not the water content of other materials. the Federal Environmental Agency (FEA). Emissions to Air Emissions to air were accounted for in the following major categories: CO2 total (from combustion of energy carriers. excluding N from agriculture and wastes. Emissions to air also include those from international transport. nonenergy sources. that is. NH3 excluding emissions from fertilizer use. Sectoral Disaggregation of Material Outputs The basic principle behind this attribution to activities was in line with the procedure used for the physical input-output table— PIOT—for Federal Republic of Germany 1990 by FSO. Emissions to Water Statistical information for emissions of materials to water were available for nitrogen and phosphorus from households and industry. all the data for categories listed above are available from FEA. and N2O from use of products. The data for Federal Republic of Germany 1990 were used here and data for the remaining years were estimated on a per capita basis. starting in 1970. CO. and leakages.

5 Billion Metric Tons 2.0 TOTAL DOMESTIC OUTPUT. the data show a smaller increase than when DPO is calculated including oxygen.5 0.0 Hidden Flows 1.5 DPO (Including Oxygen Excluding Water Vapor) 1. Total domestic output in Japan also grew about 20 percent during this period. DPO per capita also decreased slightly in this period.4 percent. while the country’s population grew by 12. Before then. DPO was almost constant and TDO decreased slightly. because of an increase in both DPO and domestic hidden flows.MATERIAL FLOWS: JAPAN Yuichi Moriguchi Highlights Domestic processed output in Japan grew 20 percent during the period 1975–1996. This is because CO 2 emissions FIGURE A1 3.) The growth in DPO and TDO occurred mainly after the late 1980s.0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 78 . (See Figure A1. When DPO is calculated excluding oxygen. Growth in DPO per capita and TDO per capita were particularly evident in the late 1980s. JAPAN 1975–1996 2. (See Figure A3. when the country experienced the so-called “bubble-economy.” (See Figure A2. there was a downward trend in TDO from the late 1970s to the mid–1980s. the former was almost constant.) The absolute level of DPO per capita in Japan is about 4 metric tons without oxygen and 11 metric tons with oxygen. These values are relatively small among the countries studied. whereas the latter was increasing.0 0. On a per capita basis.) In 1990–1996.

2 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 79 . Outputs) 15 10 5 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 FIGURE A3 TRENDS IN MATERIAL FLOW INDICATORS (INDEX).4 Direct Material Input (DMI) DPO (Including Oxygen Excluding Water Vapor) TDO (Including Oxygen Excluding Water Vapor) 1.FIGURE A2 TDO.6 NAS (DMI=Add. AND NAS PER CAPITA.8 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Index ( 1975=100) 1. JAPAN 1975–1996 1. Outputs) 1.0 DPO (Excluding Oxygen Excluding Water Vapor) 0. Inputs– Exports–DPO–Add. JAPAN 1975–1996 25 20 Metric Tons Per Capita TDO Per Capita (Including Oxygen Excluding Water Vapor) DPO Per Capita (Including Oxygen Excluding Water Vapor) NAS Per Capita (DMI+Add. DPO. Inputs –Exports–DPO–Add.

0 CO2 from Combustion of Biomass CO2 from International Bunkers CO2 from Limestone CO2 from Fossil Fuels 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 0.0 Dissipative Uses and Losses Waste Disposal to Controlled Landfills DPO to Water Other Emissions to Air 1.FIGURE A4 MATERIAL OUTPUT INTENSITY.0 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 80 .00 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Population DPO Per Capita TDO Per Capita DPO Per GDP TDO Per GDP FIGURE A5 COMPOSITION OF TDO.75 GDP Index ( 1975=100) 1.00 0.25 0.50 0.25 1.50 1. JAPAN 1975–1996 2. JAPAN 1975–1996 Soil Erosion Mining Overburden 3.0 2.5 0.75 0.5 1. DENOMINATED BY POPULATION AND GDP (INDEX).25 2.00 1.5 Cut and Fill Surplus Soil (Moved Out of the Site) Billion Metric Tons 2.

which dominate DPO increased. mainly reflected fluctuations in construction activity. thanks to waste minimization and recycling measures. such as final disposal of solid wastes to land. took place before 1973. Reduction of final disposal of this industrial waste is. NAS and DMI show parallel fluctuations. while economic growth has slowed down.from fossil fuel combustion. roughly proportional to GDP growth. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 81 . but animal excreta used as manure is classed as recycling. whereas some other outputs. However. and DPO or TDO per capita. particularly from combustion of fossil fuels. that is. household energy consumption (including gasoline consumption by private cars) has increased as a proportion of total energy consumption and has contributed to higher CO2 emissions. Dissipative flows are dominated by applications of animal manure to fields. Three quarters of MSW is incinerated to reduce waste volumes. then increased from the late 1980s to the 1990s. Figure A4 shows that material output intensity. After CO2. the direct material input (DMI) of Japan was actually decreasing. This is because construction materials that are dominant elements of DMI went almost exclusively to stock. This recent trend can be explained by structural changes in energy consumption: thanks to relatively cheap oil prices. TDO is dominated by CO2 emissions. including dioxins. the period of the bubble-economy. decoupling between economic growth and material throughput has not improved. As shown in Figure A5. A steep increase in CO2 emissions. thus. that is. mainly because of reduced construction activity following the collapse of the bubble-economy. DPO or TDO per constant unit of GDP. Net additions to stock (NAS). declined until 1990 because of larger growth in the monetary economy than in physical throughput (the physical economy). Japan classes animal excreta as industrial wastes in waste statistics. The difference between the amount generated and the amount sent to landfill is the amount recycled or reduced by incineration and drying. In the same period. offset by dissipative use. since 1990. The amount of landfilled wastes was almost constant until 1990. before the first oil crisis. A steep increase in NAS occurred in the late 1980s. Fertilizers and pesticides are intensively used in Japanese agriculture to enhance productivity and compensate for the limited area of available farmland. but this practice unfortunately generates undesirable byproducts such as air emissions. The weight of waste disposed of in landfill sites is much smaller than that of waste generated. because DPO and TDO have continued to increase. Waste statistics report that 50 million metric tons of municipal solid wastes (MSW) and 400 million metric tons of industrial wastes (both of them measured as wet weight) were generated in 1995. These trends are closely related to fluctuations in energy price. but is now declining. but this trend has contributed little to GDP growth. waste disposal to controlled landfill sites is the next major component of DPO. decreased. CO2 emissions were roughly constant from 1975 to the mid1980s. This is of greater environmental significance than the nominal weight implies because Japan has a shortage of landfill sites for waste disposal. Dissipative use is another important category of output flows. Reclaiming coastal areas for this purpose has sometimes decreased habitat for wildlife.

Currently. However. but they are relatively small as far as the quantity of solid materials is concerned. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 82 . is quantified by official surveys. the construction sector surpasses these two sectors. NAS increased significantly in the late 1980s. Nevertheless. the contribution of domestic hidden flows to TDO is relatively small. we may differentiate the surplus soil from the excavated soil for on-site application. 1997 emphasized.) Net additions of materials to stock (NAS) in the Japanese technosphere have fluctuated in accordance with patterns of governmental and private investment. Because Japan has a shorter history of industrialization than other Western countries. because they are an important issue in Japanese environmental policy. As much as 60 percent of direct material input (DMI) is added to the stock. (See Figure A6. Only “surplus soil. as an indicator of output flows. DPO to air accounts for about 90 percent of total DPO. Some portion of excavated soil is moved out of the construction site. The total quantity of soil excavation by construction activities is much greater. When disaggregated by economic activities. these two types of soil are separately shown in the data sheet and Figure A5. Soils excavated during construction activities dominate domestic hidden flows. In the case of TDO. compared with more resource-rich countries.Estimates of output flows to water are rough and incomplete. because of the limited resources of fossil fuels and metal ores in Japan.” which means the soil excavated then moved out of the construction site to landfill or other sites for application. then dumped into landfills or used for other purposes. and minimize the generation of surplus soil. Consequently. the energy supply sector and the manufacturing sector are large contributors because of their high levels of CO2 emissions. then stabilized at a lower level in 1990. Figure A7. wastewater flows should be analyzed carefully. For DPO. because of large amounts of excavated soil. but also in absolute amounts. The former has greater environmental significance. because excavation work is usually designed to balance cut and fill.. The total size of excavations may be a better indicator of landscape alteration. to use excavated soil on site. Increasing quantities of stock imply that demolition wastes will also increase in the future. This figure also has a close relation with inputs of construction materials as well as with soil excavation. while another portion remains within the same site (cut and fill). construction work is still active and significantly contributes to the country’s overall picture of material flows. different sectors contribute to different types of output flows. the government is attempting to encourage recycling of demolition wastes. Hidden flows associated with mining activities are trivial in quantity. It should be borne in mind that the small size of domestic hidden flows is counterbalanced by imported hidden flows associated with imported metals and energy carriers. For this reason. which the study by Adriaanse et al. DPO to land is decreasing not only in terms of its relative share of total DPO. this represents the transfer of Japan’s environmental burden to its trade partners.

4 Other 1.0 Households Mining. JAPAN 1975–1996 3.FIGURE A6 DPO BY ECONOMIC SECTOR.6 0.0 2.2 Billion Metric Tons Transport Households Mining.0 0.6 1.4 0.5 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 83 .5 Other Transport Billion Metric Tons 2. Manufacturing 1.5 Energy Supply 1. JAPAN 1975–1996 1.2 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Construction/Infrastructure Agriculture FIGURE A7 TDO BY ECONOMIC SECTOR.8 Energy Supply 0.0 Construction/Infrastructure Agriculture 0. Manufacturing 1.

492 1.339 1.600 2.72 9.709 99.663 TDO (including Oxygen) 2.92 10.684 1.298 2.064.735 2.694.397 135.510 1.257.770 2.864 2.827 1.149 80.058 1.612 87 1.983 13.85 9.073 1.285 (from non-biological activities) CO2 from fossil fuels 961.14 8.851 121.141.150 1.333 1.428 1.304 57.78 13.035.155 293.450 1.172.286.73 TDO (excluding Oxygen) 13.353 1.18 8.417 1.775 2.684 1.721 31.338 55.408 908.45 13.768 carbon dioxide from respiration.174 956.229.248 972.091.039 33.176 1.012 963.03 10.701 Net Additions to Stock 922.07 19.898 77.827 1.479 16.44 9.269 14.763 1.067 2.586 2.397 7.037 1.613.427 2.874 1.996 94 1.664 1.16 9.03 Domestic hidden flows 9.010.224 35.Material Output Flows: Japan.227.076 1.813 1.233 1.515 10.702.354 460.738.190 279.588 21.801 2.489 6.643.146 1.189.94 3.444.589 133.42 9.129.900 101.06 11.10 16.887 7.603 949.607 10.313.142 19.546 78.495 1.77 8.962 1.367.050 29.757.Add’l outputs) 1.093 97.186 1.731.244.095.983 52.989 31.277.23 19.120.819 1.325 2.275 (including oxygen from all combustion.40 9.721.560 1.239 1.480 1.606.689 1.175 2.953 572.827 1.203 488.037 2.06 9.179 72.718 105.48 DPO (excluding Oxygen) 4.346 445.159.060 301.143 1.08 16.403.516 476.182.914 1.085.221.611 1.037 Domestic hidden flows 1.76 9.021.266.589 116.788 84 1.045.234 2.257 104.927 1.634 119.314.265 Summary Indicators (as presented in main report) DPO (including Oxygen) 1.921 118.111 31.095 133.322 1.070.024.207.864 94 134.750.303 117.092 (incl.488 2.940 244.036.717 CO2 from international bunkers 125.59 17.003.78 7. excluding oxygen from respiration.022 1.82 4.237 1.263 1.86 10.235.780 carbon dioxide from respiration.236 593.214.858 475.191 134.114.752 2.74 4.089 253.235 50.72 20.854 1.118 1.611 1.000) GDP (constant 1996 billion Yen) Direct Material Inputs (DMI) Domestic Extraction Imports Exports 111.243 34.136.004 460.666 83 DPO to Land Municipal solid wastes to controlled landfill Industrial wastes to controlled landfill Dissipative flows to land Animal manure spread on fields (dry weight) Mineral fertilizers Pesticides WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 84 .239 2.373 7.089.952 589.116 2.92 8.213.078.801.637.91 7.Exports . excluding water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 2.313.041.035.62 3.288 1.850 16.690.83 7.95 17.651 49.957 2.168.860 7.016 (DMI + Add’l Inputs .246 1.183.929 2.688 55.28 Net Additions to Stock 8.329 2.097 1.192.234 2.10 9.538 9.DPO .123 1.988 1.627 560.968 85.118 1.457 120.754 954.084 (cement making) 26.262.665 2.915 597.021.073 900.588 32.487 2.562.042.300 2.536 328.28 18.788 2.304 2.10 9.024 928.902 310.560 9.75 86 1.615.547.67 4.201 2.83 3.464 2.848 1.777 1.226.948 1.445 2.064 1.335.093 1.234 2.484 1.100.308 1.602.728 319.743 1.150 TDO (excluding Oxygen) 1.840 468.944 53.199 133.535.969 11.402 1. including water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 1.68 7.578 1.226 1. excluding all water vapor) Total CO2 1.769 103.25 TDO (including Oxygen) 19.754 936.465 88 992.254.682 1.485 1.507 464.756 2.178 2.547 1.201 1.876.459 953.143 16.128.536.475 2.32 4.128 117.349.551 28.017 95.06 7.81 7.480 610.878 999.578 90.99 9.257.234 44.70 10.000 metric tons unless otherwise stated 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 Summary Data Population (1.035.600 565.51 3.049 2. Bunkers) CO2 from limestone 49.89 11.291 1.20 Summary Indicators including additional outputs (not presented in main report) DPO (including DPO (including TDO (including TDO (including 1.529 2.734.659 84.25 11.746 1.547 987.031.109.393 17.893.212 448.485 1.70 3.354 90 1.240.Add’l outputs) Summary Indicators (metric tons per capita) DPO (including Oxygen) 10.550 11.06 12.249 29.199 1.78 10.969 2.601 115.293 1.733 94 128.722.657.049 355.136 604.279 2.079.138.034 59.163 9.031 92.046.895 114.877 1.604 13.527 2.315 122.300 1.097 2.524 2.927 31.315 2.662 2.195.822 857.20 8.208.888 2.090.226 12.174 104.357 103.665 81.133 1.277 2.DPO . including water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 2.145.098.479 1.583 66.147 944.282.268.192 102.097.812 19.398 853.492 10.173.677.153 52.10 11.412 NOX 2.36 10.142 2.038. 1975-1996 All units 1.315.134 1.234 2.154 264.943 1.109 CO2 from combustion of biomass SOX 2.770 51.800.36 8.36 17.055 30.687 879.164 1.951 1.778.030.332 1.679.583 8.70 4.848 11.149 85.164.24 (DMI + Add’l Inputs .93 18.272.503.173 41.627 1.145.96 12.424 900.987 6.514.178 60.692.814.057.269 2.439 2.464 carbon dioxide from respiration.306 1.710 20.234 Bunker Fuel Emissions 68.344 VOC 2. excluding water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 1.305 341.370 1.634 544.019.404 113.221.034.756 94 131.002.507 1.469 10.150.838 1.039.903 32.397.324 1.350 992.343 94 126.665.912 455.844 557.086.238 2.002.709.728 906 2.248 1.566 2.475 carbon dioxide from respiration.133 1.430.039.109 1.286 2.801 1.125 2.040.822 2.133 18.921 47.639 1.358 2.714 45.192 Gateway Indicators DPO to Air 1.079.880 2.271.82 8.735 32.093 932.896 2.303.921 75.903 1.17 8.486.560 19.289 8.551 2.244 549.591 53.487 DPO (excluding Oxygen) 451.563 18.232.084.602 1.757 1.528 978 2.Exports .105 10.748.088 1.

896 .204.685 754.308.466 68 1.715.975.362 (including carbon dioxide from respiration.285.854 13.253.021 13.358.035 1.368 CO2 from combustion of biomass 895 814 847 827 805 SOX 2.389.566 1.28 10.441.205 65 92.059 1.403.888 1.143.77 19.25 18.342.620.98 9.361 2.901 (including carbon dioxide from respiration.366 (including carbon dioxide from respiration.207 14.660 366.24 16.864 504.65 13.777.205 425.305 2.468 2.207 11.010 46.22 8.272.860 966 2.496 134.891.694 1.680 14.655 121.490 101.093 66.219.667 44.325 3.417 124.745 407.167.673.593 711.038 1.560 1.744 1.044 124.088 2.721.975 14.752 2.383 862 2.652.643.252 1.974 2.113.61 10.159 2.212.64 10.752 1.000 metric tons unless otherwise stated 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Summary Data 121.743 653.57 9.989 1.210.083 2.068.648 52.889 1.372.620 1.136.865 835 2.569 2.071 125.514 16.18 DPO (including Oxygen) 3.576.996 482.982 DPO to Air (including oxygen from all combustion.926.083.303 691.413 1.554 13.229.460 46.705.77 10.000) GDP (constant 1996 billion Yen) Direct Material Inputs (DMI) Domestic Extraction Imports Exports 1. including water 2.020 1.534 12.091 2.697 3.25 11.271 1.985 978.53 3.469 700.053 1.910 61.200.070 2.377 66 1.434.608 880.43 17.016.Add’l outputs) Summary Indicators (metric tons per capita) 11.254 1.31 9.196.319.222.103.330.142 463.873 1. excluding all water vapor) 1.213 1.237 2.753 664.043 2.875 499.605 1. excluding oxygen from respiration.544 2.351.030 1.355 1.407.518 2.262 1.923 1.324 1.438 71.993.222 2.88 3.822 93.089 1.037.336 1.391 2.431 56.456 122.601 14.992 1.577.512.703 1.209 1.726 2.22 20.538 Domestic hidden flows 2.424.789 50.668 35.218.440 507.874.990 3.226 17.390 1.342 876 2.94 DPO (excluding Oxygen) 9.020.154.999 1.136.764 466.476.69 Net Additions to Stock (DMI + Add’l Inputs .181 1.735.63 12.02 8.04 13.88 12.126.662 38.049 2.010.873 1.035 13.531 16.273.823 1.626 11.176.577 3.697 76 1.248.290 16.688.423.144 1.166 579.685 2.512.028 1. Bunkers) 58.111 2.90 11.79 7.238 2.964.259.250 123.113 746.432 133.395 65 112.068.246.73 21.056 1.803 1.29 11.035 966.29 4.615 66.843 1.951 25.737 1.973 134.903 Population (1.617 56.DPO .536 1.611 448.113 1.760 12.02 13.104.960 58.797 69.577 12.679 2.326.538 2.297.834 2.74 10.025 1.262.513 38.426.070.782 1.582.795 11.176 1.04 4.034 469.768 935.023 102.254 DPO (excluding Oxygen) 1.16 11.325.80 9.247.107 3.555 1.678 1.413 1.789 1.063.737 1.70 7.865 1.36 11.194 1.927.47 20.31 10.430 596.722 79 1.247 Total CO2 (from non-biological activities) 1.54 13.26 13.490.666 1.708 125.271 1.371 907.034 42.448.125 122.470.822 12.725.096 976 2.966 29.237 2.371.254 2.120 1.06 9.908 1.296 91.227 3.823 1.Exports .899 2.307.331.62 4.242.614 44.357 Summary Indicators (as presented in main report) 1.313 16.168.063 679.500 1.06 4.792 TDO (excluding Oxygen) 1.839 37.190.040.923 56.832 1.555.270.602 68.994 2.225.901 VOC Bunker Fuel Emissions 32.181 1.124 65 DPO to Land Municipal solid wastes to controlled landfill Industrial wastes to controlled landfill Dissipative flows to land Animal manure spread on fields (dry weight) Mineral fertilizers Pesticides WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 85 .216.369.986 122.030.072 1.939 2.809 91.739 2.411.145 14.163 2.872 14.415.75 9.179. excluding water 3.80 11.296 450.48 Summary Indicators including additional outputs (not presented in main report) 1.159 2.863 849 2.305 Net Additions to Stock (DMI + Add’l Inputs .301.507 1.597 2.147.063 1.28 3.282 1.322 1.415 65 107.632.93 7.895 509.338 1.154.946 1.958 27.684 14.948.406.150 1.95 8.894 1.056 1.894 32.490 102.452 463.031 496.900 102.576 509.759 2.953.060 44.562 123.065 43.03 8.32 10.979 1.477 70.503 14.724. excluding water 1.264 1.156.593 1. 1975-1996 All units 1.746 498.11 9.903 14.384 11.311.87 18.609 69 1.205.571 1.692.77 20.379 90.008 124.194 1.152 43.419 15.128 1.139 2.014.480.893 36.35 11.010.114.641.943 26.811.212 1.800.76 21.101 1.817 31.691 94.554.797 2.Add’l outputs) 9.053 36.835 667.358.79 9.018 2.952 1.752 495.Material Output Flows: Japan.928 1.083 2.241.178.751 1.733 12.904 (including carbon dioxide from respiration. including water DPO vapor from all combustion & respiration) DPO vapor from all combustion & respiration) TDO vapor from all combustion & respiration) TDO vapor from all combustion & respiration) Gateway Indicators 1.115 2.575 70 1.691 1.587 CO2 from international bunkers 1.570 483.293.034.155 1.619 12.DPO .172.91 TDO (including Oxygen) 13.762 78.883 2.74 Domestic hidden flows 20.133 1.058 1.218.867 1.961.827 2.548 DPO (including Oxygen) 496.617 40.825 90.641.142 79.243.86 4.09 9.023.167 1.259.300 125.74 9.314.087 CO2 from limestone (cement making) 43.627 1.238.994.371 65 95.29 3.881 1.245.86 3.086 TDO (including Oxygen) 1.029 NOX 1.121.213.178.452 2.958 2.105 1.225.376.016 1.549 1.541 1.478.335 11.793 CO2 from fossil fuels (incl.935 27.512 1.239 384.170 78.959 83.619 12.268.427 85.985 2.627.324 14.68 TDO (excluding Oxygen) 9.98 9.159.139.822 1.167.025.979 14.150 1.691 16.Exports .181 55.023 1.955 134.424 66.189 121.043 462.733.695.758 2.018.673 1.

323 1.191 870 81 1.517 Domestic Hidden Flows Excavated soil by construction activities Surplus soil (moved out of the site) Cut & Fill Soil erosion Mining overburden WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 86 .253 1978 2.861 986.023 1.903 354.894 38.726 857.632 9.068.318 11.181 1.518 469.105.475 493.100 426.239 881.329 1.169 336.316 908 98 1.304 909.325 835.986 24.142 1.009.422 7.339 914 102 1.241 23.254 1.048.620 466.886 7.435 7.682 43.756 890.779 936.527 790.663 1.652 1.273 1980 2.767 70.035.008 432.262 956. 1975-1996 All units 1.735 343.213 1982 2.630 22.792 324.507 626.252 879.487 446.562 1983 2.598 24.430 458.192 512.587 1981 2.138 852 73 1.695 53.028.279 463.388 414.035.652 460.366 60.170 1985 2.550 43.012 59.287 23.919 64.776 7.644 320.967 470.803 467.038.536 7.384 9.263 12.051 21.111 842 70 1.929 311.367 39.041.611 1984 2.420 36.855 40.710 7.174 62.180 25.103 1.077.942 501.042.474 487.450 35.897 59.453 7.265 54.073 24.063.430 430.045 325.318 DPO to Water Organic load (as COD) T-N T-P 2.655 555.909 997.737 10.338 1979 2.204 65.905 22.358 570.455 73.239 42.244 887 88 1.788 986.842 1.372 521.942 422.927 484.239 984.016.619 513.218 1.052.489 62.045 928.369 10.036.875 7.699 438.098.724 993.752 810.000 metric tons unless otherwise stated 1975 1976 2.896 7.834 73.105 45.269 894 91 1.826 371.289 1.221 25.571 58.355 41.057 75.666 11.661 78.063 1.325 11.487 509.355 39.496 44.420 77.547 497.463 335.419 11.071 43.492 59.023.575 42.998 937.919 346.444 36.629 Additional Inputs (not presented in main report) Oxygen in combustion Oxygen in respiration Additional Outputs (not presented in main report) Water vapor from fossil combustion Water vapor from biomass combustion Water vapor from respiration Water included in DMI as water contents of food & feed CO2 from respiration 321.951 462.969 906.336 71.293 902 95 1.580 1.029 7.355 1.399 900.Material Output Flows: Japan.044 953.980 57.438 41.042 971.771 25.146 341.025.601 335.155 71.180 1.809 455.682 334.026 979.072 1.864 856.735 7.276 1.431 9.297 55.917 395.093 841 68 1.082.501 1.717 45.139 853.807 1977 2.218 878 84 1.129 42.474 500.709 77.598 39.165 861 77 980.396 38.757 61.002 1.384 39.102 10.

261.763 883 822 58 1.979 1.238 78.514 548.441 46.213 1.028.250 412.113 1992 1.249 26.947 581.985 816.956 966.250 387.230 7.868 591.014 829 62 1.083.797 951.738 1987 1.704 DPO to Water Organic load (as COD) T-N T-P Additional Inputs (not presented in main report) Oxygen in combustion Oxygen in respiration Additional Outputs (not presented in main report) Water vapor from fossil combustion Water vapor from biomass combustion Water vapor from respiration Water included in DMI as water contents of food & feed CO2 from respiration Domestic Hidden Flows Excavated soil by construction activities Surplus soil (moved out of the site) Cut & Fill Soil erosion Mining overburden WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 87 .127.055 63.063 1.662 1.599 32.905 1.224 14.249.480 775.952 26.647 692.583 1989 1.174.211.705 15.823 46.328 530.955 1.814 439.082.468 1.199.107 71.159 901.176.083 1.980 764.000 13.099 63.985 1.758 618.741 859 824 57 1.027 614. 1975-1996 All units 1.225.700 982.417 412.143.310 15.230 7.958 1.016.246.134 1995 1.671 26.408 46.255 64.720 506.016 14.456 332.184 1.140.570 1994 1.344 46.621 656.310 79.Material Output Flows: Japan.002 47.829 7.054 836 65 1.179.568 25.408 34.750 412.279.074.750 412.839 47.187.527 56.084 14.708 412.680 618.780 46.257 73.187.692 26.444 1.965 309.174.368 64.128 415.607 320.713 1.874 64.518 1.305 1.997 64.773 583.221.298 1991 1.931 1.269 64.308.230 7.583 412.216.230 7.276 1.218.355 32.650 46.587 54.767 26.355 30.398 1990 1.165 1.175 26.995 1988 1.704 1996 1.641 57.538 1.262 590.020 26.319 433.300 544.929 332.034 46.529 76.754 13.060 80.592 46.176.883 845.325.230 7.007 381.108 514.014 7.371 7.292 64.796 1993 1.424 1.313 1.000 metric tons unless otherwise stated 1986 1.507 47.755 7.452 74.799 398.980 764.364 76.546 26.258.818 1.480 775.629 56.848 1.136 1.813 728.250 412.645 566.672 1.798 347.162 598.101 1.702 907.225.104.164 78.849 962 827 61 1.129.821 936 826 60 1.319.825 15.534 1.785 410.691 64.474 30.272.585 72.577 439.688 13.043.117 26.712 833 822 57 1.413 613.371 63.877 988 828 61 1.258 366.355 30.028.792 909 824 59 1.201.147 63.286 301.034 833 64 1.936 80.408 12.339 7.932 14.230 7.398 880.336 1.073 839 67 1.545 31.538 1.080 26.

6.25 for natural gas. 0. poultry.327. for example. Factors applied in tons of CO2 per year were as follows: cattle 1. 0. namely. the amount of excreta estimated from feed inputs was compared with the amount of animal manure in industrial wastes. Results were compared with official inventories to prove that both data sets coincide with each other within acceptable margins of error (less than a few percent). Official sources include Environment Agency (EA). Using such fractions. and other animals (MAFF) and exhalation factors for each animal (Wuppertal Institute. and extra inputs of oxygen for oxidation of carbon and hydrogen were newly estimated for this study.3 metric tons per capita per year. Ministry of Agriculture. Human respiration was calculated on the basis of an average CO2 production of 0. 0. 0.75. 0.33. carbon and hydrogen. pigs. and Ministry of Construction (MOC). from digestion of food or feed by animals (including human beings). However. sheep/goats 0. To cross check. Most of the Japanese data are presented on a fiscal year basis rather than calendar year. The outline of our estimation method is as follows: for fossil fuels.027. For example.12 for crude oil.05 for fuel coal. namely as a product of the carbon fraction of limestone and apparent consumption of limestone for various activities. except for cattle data). water. CO2 and water produced and oxygen taken in by combustion of fuels were estimated stochiometrically.125 for petroleum products.76.Data Sources and Methodology: Technical Notes Japanese data were drawn from official statistical sources of various ministries and agencies as well as from academic literature and personal communications with experts. and horses 1. Emissions from incinerating fuels used for international transport (heavy oil for navigation. and excreta validate these estimates. as much as one third of feed intake by cattle is not digested but voided as excreta. contents were assumed by type of fuels.055 for coking coal. Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF). The respiration of livestock was calculated on the basis of the number of cattle. and Oxygen Input Inventories of CO2 emissions have been officially reported based on the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC) using Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guidelines for greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and Japanese country-specific methodologies. were estimated by applying the same procedure and listed in the dataset separately.85. 0. exhalation. 0. DMO to Air Carbon Dioxide and Water Vapor Emissions. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 88 . and jet fuel for aviation) were included as a part of the transport sector’s activities. emissions of CO2. oxygen.254. CO2 and water from biofuels (as in the case of the paper and pulp industry) as well as those from waste incineration. The official inventories do not cover CO2 that is not contributing to the greenhouse effect. CO2 originating from limestone for cement and other industrial activities was estimated by applying the same methodology as the official inventory. this official inventory is not enough to provide a complete balance of CO2. Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). 0. pigs 0. 0.645. Therefore. poultry 0. and water vapor. 0. Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW).865. Material balances among feed intake.

construction scrap wood. Given that the emission factors of SO x and NO 2 per unit fuel consumption for ocean-going vessels are high (IPCC). treated. results from these limited surveys were extrapolated. they are not categorized in the Japanese dataset as dissipative uses. P) were also applied to basins of major lakes and reservoirs. waste acid. Before 1990. Moreover. Although surveys of nutrients (N.. waste plastics. emissions of SO2 and NOx were reported only in international literature (OECD) or documents covering only short time intervals. Oxides of Nitrogen. However. industrial structure. the figures in this report are certainly underestimates. animal and plant residues. cross tabulation between the waste type and the industry type is available only for 1993. Therefore. animal corpses. although a considerable percentage of NMVOC originates from dissipative use of products (e. and Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds The data for SO2. and Seto Inland Sea). which will result in significant changes to the data presented here. metal scrap. assuming that discharges per capita in nonsurveyed areas are the same as those in surveyed areas. slag. and discharge management between surveyed areas and nonsurveyed areas. livestock excreta. waste rubber. Therefore. waste fiber. SO2 and NO x originating from international bunker oil will have to be added in future analyses. there are considerable differences in land use. there is no nationwide survey. solvents and paints). from MHW. Another problem is that these inventories cover only emissions from sources on land and from navigation along Japanese coastal areas. recycled or disposed at landfill sites were available for municipal solid wastes and industrial wastes WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 89 . Although population within the above-mentioned three major surveyed areas covers about 53 percent of the national total.Sulfur Dioxide. The structure of this year was extrapolated to estimate all time series. waste paper. and NMVOC to air since 1990 were drawn from official GHG inventories. DMO to Land Waste Disposal to Controlled Landfills Data on wastes generated. where an area-wide total pollutant load control scheme has been applied. Emissions of NMVOC before 1990 were not published. P) have been surveyed only for the drainage areas of three major closed waters (Tokyo Bay. Although certain inconsistencies exist among data before and after 1990. no correction was applied. glass and ceramic debris. waste alkali. assuming that the proportion of each industry’s contribution to the generation of a specific type of industrial wastes is constant for all time series. sludge. time-series data were simply quoted from multiple data sources. DMO to Water Discharges of organic loads (COD) and nutrients (N. respectively. Industrial wastes are subdivided into 19 types: embers. and others. waste oil. even though Japan’s heavy dependence on resource imports is accompanied by emissions from vessels far from Japanese territory. but as outputs to air. The total amounts of each type of wastes from all industries and the total amounts of all wastes from each type of industries are available in time series. wood debris. NOx. only unofficial estimates are available. Ise Bay. these results should be considered rough estimates. soot and dust.g.

The total size of the excavation was estimated based on various studies in the literature including environmental impact assessment statements. and K 2O. Contribution of Economic Sectors DPO was attributed to seven economic activity categories (sectors): construction and infrastructure. in which figures are expressed as P2O5. The dry to wet ratio calculated from this estimate was combined with the above statistics on reused amounts to estimate manure application in dry weight. agriculture. all of SO2 and NOx emissions were attributed to the energy sector. given more sophisticated data handling. CO2 from waste incineration was attributed to other. although they are reported on a fresh (wet) weight basis. P. Discharges to water were originally reported as arising from three source categories: Domestic Hidden Flows All data for hidden flows were taken from our previous report (Adriaanse et al. the proportion of this year was extrapolated to all time series. The quantities reused can be inferred as manure application. Interpolation was applied when necessary. MOC officially surveyed only excavated soils removed from construction sites (surplus soils). Municipal solid wastes were attributed to households. announced for highway construction work contractors. Emissions of CO2 to air from fuel combustion were attributed by energy balance tables. using sector versus waste type cross tabulation. 1997) and updated when necessary by applying the same methodology. Such a cross tabulation is available only for a single year (1993). amounts of faeces and urine from typical livestock categories are estimated both on a dry and wet weight basis by applying their emission factors per animal head. although they sometimes include wastes from small-sized service industries.Dissipative Use Animal Manure Data on livestock excreta are available from a survey of industrial wastes. In addition. Fertilizers and Pesticides Time series of used amounts of N. used amounts of lime were estimated. On the other hand. land development statistics. and other. Industrial wastes were attributed to the sector corresponding to the type of wastes. excavation volumes WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 90 . N. in which generation amounts as well as reuse amounts are reported. using the consumption data of lime-containing fertilizers. Because of the limited data availability in time series. by multiplying the factor of soil excavation works per unit area (average of several recent cases) by total area of new residential area development. Soil excavated and used within the same site (cut and fill) was estimated only for new residential area development.. resulting in very rough and preliminary estimates. Limited time series for data pesticides use in Japan are available from international sources (OECD). VOC emissions were included in the manufacturing sector. transport. mining and manufacturing. CO2 from oil consumption for international navigation and aviation was included in the transport sector. although they could have been attributed to other sectors. Other generally refers to service industries. among others. energy supply. households. and K fertilizers were taken from the statistics of MAFF.

In terms of hidden flows for calculat- ing TDO by sector. and agriculture in this study. Ministry of Health and Welfare (MHW). and pesticides were included in the agriculture sector. Schütz 1997. Tokyo: Tsuusan Toukei Kyoukai. E. Quality of the Environment in Japan (1999 Japanese edition). Moriguchi.: World Resources Institute. Ministry of Agriculture. Tokyo: Printing Office of the Ministry of Finance. IPCC. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 91 . Greenhouse Gas Inventory Reference Manual. June 25 and December 7. REFERENCES Adriaanse. Personal communication by e-mail. Tokyo: Nourin Toukei Kyoukai. The Government of Japan. ACKNOWLEDGMENT The author would like to acknowledge the valuable assistance of Mr. and soil erosion to the agriculture sector. A. D.municipal. Rogich. Revised 1996 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. Volume 3. 1997. Resource Flows: The Material Basis of Industrial Economies. annual publication for 1976–1997: Yearbook of Mining. Washington. Annual publication until 1996: Wastes in Japan. Paris: OECD. Wuppertal Institute. D. A. Rodenburg. Bringezu. Bracknell: IPCC/WG1/TSU Hadley Centre. Forestry and Fisheries. mining overburden was attributed to the mining and manufacturing sector. and others. Japan’s Second National Communication under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. Agency of Natural Resources and Energy 1998: Energy Balance Table (in Comprehensive Energy Statistics 1997 edition). soil excavation was attributed to the construction/infrastructure sector. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). Ministry of Construction (MOC) 1992: Census for By-Products from Construction Activities in 1990. Hammond. S. Environmental Data Compendium. Tokyo: Ministry of Construction. Dissipative uses of manure. 1997. H. Tokyo: Zenkoku Toshi Seisou Kaigi. 1995. industry. Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF): 1999: Pocket Statistics on Agriculture. Non-Ferrous Metals and Products Statistics. 1989. Y. fertilizers. They were assumed to correspond respectively to households. Masaya Yoshida in preparing this country report. Tokyo: The Government of Japan. industrial. Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI)..C. 1999. 1997. Tokyo: Tsuushou-Sangyou Kenkyuu Sha. Environment Agency 1999.

while the Dutch population grew slightly. Due to a reduction in hidden flows. TDO and DPO per constant unit of GDP decreased steadily between 1975 and 1996. unless otherwise indicated. and Figure A3 shows DPO and TDO per constant units of GDP. It appears that TDO can effectively be characterized by a limited number of key output flows. which is the reason for the slight increase in overall DPO. DPO per capita remained relatively constant. Figure A3 shows that the stream of waste and emissions remained relatively constant. All indicators are presented exclusive of water vapor. FIGURE A1 DPO AND TDO. TDO per capita has decreased slightly.MATERIAL FLOWS: THE NETHERLANDS René Kleijn. Figure A2 shows DPO and TDO per capita. NETHERLANDS 1975–1996 600 500 Million Metric Tons 400 TMO 300 DMO 200 100 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 92 . Figure A4 specifies the contribution of various output flows to TDO. resulting in a roughly constant TDO. the changes in both DPO and TDO were minor. As is the case in the other countries. From 1975 to 1996. while per capita income grew significantly. Ester van der Voet Highlights Figure A1 shows domestic processed output (DPO) and total domestic output (TDO) for the Netherlands. Therefore.

FIGURE A2 DPO AND TDO PER CAPITA.0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 DMO/Capita WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 93 .8 Kg Per Dutch Guilder 0.9 0. NETHERLANDS 1975–1996 30 25 Metric Tons Per Capita 20 TMO/Capita 15 DMO/Capita 10 5 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 FIGURE A3 DPO AND TDO PER CONSTANT UNIT OF GDP.1 0.7 0.3 0.4 0.6 TMO/Capita 0. NETHERLANDS 1975–1996 1.5 0.0 0.2 0.

NETHERLANDS 1975–1996 400 300 Other Dredged Sediments Moved Soil for Construction Million Metric Tons 200 Manure Landfilled Waste Other Air 100 CO2 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 TDO in the Netherlands is dominated by emissions to air.FIGURE A4 TOTAL DOMESTIC OUTPUT. associated with the intensive stock breeding practiced in the Netherlands. This is counterbalanced by a decrease of other outputs. will be addressed later. This can be explained by the level of road building: construction of the highway network was still in full progress in 1975. Domestic hidden flows constitute roughly one third of total TDO and they appear to have decreased during the study period. DPO to water is negligible compared to the other outflows. The contribution of CO2 emissions to TDO has increased. and this issue is treated later in more detail. has decreased steadily over the years. This is a typically Dutch problem. DPO to land. of which the main component is landfill of final waste. keeping the total TDO more or less constant. Reductions in two major flows are largely responsible for this decrease: dredged sediments and soil excavation for construction activities. Dredged Sediments The country’s location in the Rhine and Meuse delta has shaped the Dutch economy as an important transportation center. Another large flow in the category of dissipative use is spread manure. The largest contributor to TDO is carbon dioxide (CO2). The flow associated with dredging of sediments. which is another typically Dutch problem. but had slowed significantly by 1996. The soil excavation hidden flow dropped significantly from 1975 to 1996. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 94 .

and it constitutes only 2 to 3 percent of the total. sand. In that year. Manure use is directly related to the size and composition of the livestock population. an increasing portion of the sediment is disposed of in specified controlled landfill sites. The average amount equals roughly 2.500 kg (dry weight) per person and 500 kg per hectare of arable land per year. however. Therefore. has changed significantly: the percentage that is disposed of at controlled sites increased from zero in 1975 to almost half in 1996. and toxic pollutants such as heavy metals find their way from other countries to the Netherlands by water). Their destination. it cannot be used for soil improvement or construction sites. maintaining the waterways and harbors for use by heavy ships requires extensive dredging of sediments. nor is it acceptable to dump it at sea. Manure Dutch agriculture is famous for its intensive production methods. The total amount of sediments being dredged each year has remained relatively constant over the years.However. NETHERLANDS 1975–1996 42 41 40 Million Metric Tons 39 38 37 36 35 34 33 32 31 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Fertilizer Manure WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 95 . This very large material flow then must be disposed of. Although the use of fertilizer decreased slightly from 1975 to 1996. The amount of fertilizer used is dwarfed by the amount of manure. Figure A5 presents the Dutch use of manure and fertilizer. Because a portion of this sediment is polluted by either Dutch or foreign sources (clay. the government enacted its first (interim) legislation regarding pig and FIGURE A5 MANURE AND FERTILIZER OUTFLOWS. It peaked in about 1984. the use of manure fluctuated.

then declined after 1992.0 1. this phenomenon is something to consider in formulating future waste management policies. these three destinations were roughly equal FIGURE A6 MATERIAL ACCUMULATION IN STOCKS.5 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Billion Metric Tons WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 96 .5 1. the amount of material stockpiled in the economy increased by about 3 billion metric tons during the 21year study period. At present. Figure A6 shows the increase in the stock from 1975 to 1996. NETHERLANDS 1975–1996 3. After 1989. one third was emitted into the environment. it was back to the level of the late 1970s.poultry farming because of a growing awareness of the environmental consequences of overnutrification. manure use rose again. while annual net additions to stock decreased.0 2. Net Additions to Stock. in 1975: one third of DMI was exported. In addition to being exported and being emitted to the environment. Despite that. This increase has yet to show any signs of slowing down. exports had become more important. or what the size of the stock was in 1975. combined with direct material input (DMI) and data on exports.0 0. and one third was added to stock. we do not know which products or materials caused this accumulation. By 1996. and Material Accumulation in the Netherlands An analysis of DPO. since all stockpiled materials will eventually become wastes. materials accumulate in economic stocks of materials and products. On average. possibly because of changes in European Union agricultural policy.5 2.5 3. In 1996. can produce an overall picture of total material inflows and outflows. As Figure A6 illustrates. Manure use subsequently decreased.

219 Sector Construction/infrastructure Manufacturing/Industry Energy Utilities Household Agriculture Transport Other Construction/infrastructure Manufacturing/Industry Energy Utilities Household Agriculture Transport Other 102.The Contribution of Economic Sectors Table A1 shows the contributions of the six main economic sectors to Dutch TDO and DPO.636 65.112 45.689 46.117. With oxygen. Comparing the accounts with and without oxygen.351 14.927 17.350.801 19.874.689 46.642.087.087.350.952.801 19. agriculture appears as the largest contributor to DPO and the second largest to TDO.952.552 DPO (Exc.122. the contribution of the remaining sectors (apart from “others”) is in the same order of magnitude.864.867.038. Oxygen) Metric tons 105.219 Notes: These data do not sum to DPO and TDO as presented in the Dutch data table (see page 98) because of use of data from other datasets.948 18. construction and infrastruc- ture activity appears to be oxygen-extensive.060.398.864.093.130 18. Their contribution to TDO is large.478 12.404 5.398.552 TDO (Exc.555 61.171 45. which are allocated almost entirely to this activity.636 65. Both phenomena are due to the large but hidden flows (in which oxygen plays only a small role).478 12.986. 1996 TDO (Incl.404.404. Construction and infrastructure appear to be the odd ones out.200 57.038.404 5.060. DPO totals differ by up to 10 percent.112 44. Oxygen) Metric tons 6.351 14.122. Oxygen) Metric tons 3.018 57.171 45. Without oxygen.117.392.006. but to DPO minor. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 97 . the difference is much less for this sector than for the others.555 61. TABLE A1 CONTRIBUTION OF MAJOR ECONOMIC SECTORS TO TDO AND DPO IN THE NETHERLANDS.093. Oxygen) Metric tons DPO (Incl.927 17.

66 Domestic hidden flows 9.56 16.284 carbon dioxide from respiration.092.361 24.250 541.000 14.028 390.272.898 174.833.855 54.703.000 38.790.481.754 441.059.801.701 480.419 387.205 127.192 38.194 372.165 195.275.182 13.955.172.000 550.452 108.718 81.65 23.120.783.276 348.744 1.932 178.698.35 15.014 127.43 8.759 52.754 53.975.319 39.785.881.251 Summary Indicators (as presented in main report) DPO (including oxygen) 242.38 25.055 192.195 499.998 60.907.409 38.423.11 15.039.263 152.000 356.081 531.09 9.190 from respiration.650 1.281.658.832 101.32 16.200 1.904 243.280 1.772.370 460.518 446.461 53.329.400 79.937.25 12.363.640.286.83 9.532.441.25 250.316 362.731.610.778 137.600.301.252 233.132.829 252.731 13.612 96.685.040.182 347.932.17 18.444.000 197.589 566.491 574.821 138.453 177.325 23.278 521.678 110.518 336.470 118.999.844 404.179 488.815.469 399.038.434 567.000 39.496.550.364 601.393.443.000 36.232 442.650 396.635.000 13.546 447.173.877.518.530 68.461 187.864.275 103.10 7.526.511.038.937.915.749.212.364.466 1.404 432.091.789 199.79 8.454.362.011.127 97.000 13.000 559.274.17 7.411 14.906.836.204 38.000 345.648 50.995.84 TDO (including oxygen) 27.395.538.555 234.694.343.305 34.740 40.80 17.82 Summary Indicators including additional outputs (not presented in main report) DPO (including DPO (including TDO (including TDO (including 264.312 87.724.555.832 213.879.673 106.51 14.243 184.880.821.429.512.642 158.059 510.113 35.119.707.430 108.317 148.464.349.503 167.495 120.773.589 174.209.174.276 190.000 40.000 14.965.310.417.245.353.620. excluding oxygen CO2 from fossil fuel combustion 187.200 377.840 1.010 121.12 16.401.145 40.261 54.247.080 1.309.829.335 53.000 14.100 402.121.950 198.813.982 273.441.513.644.000 412.131 Fertilizers 1.86 16.000 39.447.145 (including oxygen from all combustion.243.022 397.343.752.696 124.541.145 192.295 18.699 463.122.402.022.378.685 360.945.299.280.459 246.817 21.571 145.732.240.129 120.689 DPO (excluding oxygen) 104.213.507.850.52 14.381.552 104.565.762 22.900 62.687 186.685 249.86 7.278 590.83 8. including water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 397.644.376.410 124.000 13.906 252.317 1.599.914 397.000 19.700.181 23.791.653.000 14.710.76 8.52 7.627 21.71 7.668.000 14.734.000 39.261 182.286 403.538 226.275 63.042 38.803.124.22 10.990 61.778 21.111.814.985 240.71 18.692.685 36.36 16.000 1.355 107.734 147.057 Municipal landfill 13.58 17.28 16.956.431 34.915.51 27.366 213.065 37.769 495.750 246.510 1.720 116.774. including water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 269.427 579.775.841 61.84 DPO (excluding oxygen) 7.919.147 484. excluding all water vapor) 194.317 440.999 1.958 348.701.812 37.178 Animal manure spread on fields 34.840 2.916 263.836 396.800.101.897 22.261 271.380.750 534.776 269.064.440 Fine particles 61.65 7. 1975-1996 All units in metric tons unless otherwise stated 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 Summary Data Population GDP (constant 1996 thousand Guilders) Direct Material Input (DMI) DMI (Adriaanse et al.889 405.061.143.789.532 552.658 404.567.000 364.395 CO 2.000.984.996.277 196.467 36.481.885.466 66.832 108.592.98 10.044.457 1.779 400.820.808 546.452.802.724.864.682 170.925 Landfilled sewage sludge 90.898.261.98 24.034.360 74.021.552 492.937.275.421.142. excluding water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 488.000 DPO to Land 49.080 1.400 368.752 371.340.184 569.302 37.605 15.377 141.728.459.148.759 168.207 460.280.944 21.215 553.505 106.314.996.199 93.039.898 53.619.600 TDO (including oxygen) 376.02 14.157.673 236.21 7.067.137.937.985 carbon dioxide from respiration.658.630.260 136.491 12.000 22.997.205 111.559 1.830.300.95 27.907.097 453.638 100.160 1.349.17 7.789 105.546 333.920.80 15.630 NOX NMVOC 612.558 35.460 124.676 146.169 367.699. excluding water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 354.730.339.289 TDO (excluding oxygen) 237.718.71 8.827 Domestic hidden flows 133.829 362.323 238.032.091 338.632 500.761.040.619.005.878.538 108.800 376.720 135.289 Sewage sludge spread on fields 97.804.90 9.916 379.364.49 8.133.091.746 173.843 CO2 from bunkers 49.561.985.200.896.739 90.518.542 499.835.601 Gateway Indicators DPO to Air 191.928.544. 1997) Domestic Extraction Imports Exports 13.505 222.510.453.341 21.482 191.826.716.297.209 370.78 9.985 305.23 27.408.406 15.982 90.971 213.874.546 217.258 147.498 480.227.439.917.078 138.800 68.464 395.311.166.228.17 25.300.80 23.51 24.130.055 466.145 170.055 161.858.000 Dissipative flows to land 35.413 22.317 328.382.826 61.511.684 15.214.993.549.470 130.779 127.640 1.843 SO2 402.121 198.857 190.857 197.447.976 12.000 545.65 9.Material Output Flows: The Netherlands.472 403.895.807.757 175.223 153.679.240 1.851.950 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 98 .040 1.48 7.395.394 496.000 14.527.276.335 181.714 Pesticides 21.435.986.500 542.269 274.427 Net Additions to Stock 152.124 Bunker Fuel Emissions 38.127.88 17.248.145 53.938.128 225.546 103.830 229.205 140.000 130.820 187.976 21.367 456.985 Summary Indicators (metric tons per capita) DPO (including oxygen) 17.575 1.859.19 15.824.24 7.493.838 188.67 26.381 14.915 62.829 228.000 543.043 185.139.352.734 113.233 378.769 135.29 7.706.553.923.118 262.550.366.599 13.405 147.350.500 92.022 101.39 16.94 7.950 368.684 carbon dioxide from respiration.950 254.302.958 464.233 248.731 198.75 9.859.747.146.861 399.481.000 337.49 Net Additions to Stock 11.906 94.264.07 7.130.000 18.172.000 13.776 400.838 52.907.689 473.250 66.632 369.648 195.713 467.958 27.305.105.569 231.385 carbon dioxide from respiration.261 468.724 185.807.228 269.506.13 7.938 37.486.67 TDO (excluding oxygen) 17.000 20.648.537 468.219 421.459 568.983 574.74 9.

036.800.379.750 212.000 210.873 344.000 37.747 13.61 7.13 6.000 174.000 179.29 15.45 24.27 8.311.730 16.423.000 14.14 6.037 209.894 218.408.05 7.837 126.457. excluding water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 340.564 356.671 295.114.90 24.990 281.438 37.387.873 12.936 403.386.183 10.276.805.864.25 25.914 13.800 603.005 21.520 172.000 961.457.906.548 97.589.85 17.962 1.008 80.468 257.930.861.343.000 862.862.256.000 192.000 615.872 101.243.569.03 8.667 375.779 1.016 226.713 667.183 215.000 387.042 504.424 376.774.560 1.65 17.571.059.260.050.517.446 TDO (including carbon dioxide from respiration.242.720 134.956.638 181.134 199.737.081.586.452.000 416.394 267.073.610 35.619 182.51 14.577.797 226.640.224 153.777 13.300.427.97 8.951 348.072.680 35.514.627 DPO (including carbon dioxide from respiration.050 582.000 39.409 96.825 19.076.402 423.787.656.508.882 297.000 Fine particles Bunker Fuel Emissions 16.396 108.533.909 377.787 1.000 NMVOC 1.666.013.906.000 14.40 13.676.956.988.706 520.000 62.000 39.947.133 217.276.714 183.890 399.819.853.673.665.856.333 494.342.45 25.206.750 567.240 1.234.299 49.755 184.884 103.188.443.747 1.794 21.962 13.986.308 404.298 218.477.13 24.000 39.509.991.000 241.000 15.000 49.424.800 510.156 143.000 176.860.182 452.818 203.010.260.700 171.750 65.000 15.016.782 294.800 591.267.245.968.176.103 20.800 485.94 16.861.000 977.363.780 272.157.208 398.000 513.152.500 204.717.000 603.125 184.230 134.160.601 47.80 14.535.091.824 502.515 463.588 37.774 CO2 from bunkers 52.417 280.365.507 135.763.200 535.966.549.623.000 DPO to Land Municipal landfill Landfilled sewage sludge Dissipative flows to land Fertilizers Pesticides Animal manure spread on fields Sewage sludge spread on fields WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 99 .317 8.000 51.686.34 14.249 37.41 7.Material Output Flows: The Netherlands.979.548 987.498 600.784.034.546 215.903.89 7.174 DPO to Air (including oxygen from all combustion.071 109.86 14.726.845 Population GDP (constant 1996 thousand Guilders) Direct Material Input (DMI) DMI (Adriaanse et al.548 12.063 DPO (including oxygen) DPO (excluding oxygen) Domestic hidden flows TDO (including oxygen) TDO (excluding oxygen) Net Additions to Stock Summary Indicators (metric tons per capita) 15.167.74 8.975 122.295.176 403.097.377 514.000 47.931.043.774 fossil fuel combustion 247.505.256.708 214.893.371.000 15.791.976 24.525 506.484.000 38.511 303.435.992.441.780.067 118.018 353.749.485.233.327 219.075 475.732.043 196.235.381 193.319 14.78 23.149.400 515.640.854.022 102.926.287.295.423.000 51.591 103.000 51.581.192 274.819 235.744.035.600 534.183 45.769 98.16 8.447.084.872 415.000 45.000 CO 61.000 434.893.879.222 12.576.750 534.347.944 13.000 637.773 209.117 13.000 55. excluding all water vapor) CO2 from 171.353 145.154 163.323.494.567.000 60.311.96 23.629.679.000 50.375.331.690 142.86 6.277.100 579.000 61.495.28 7.000 626.945 374.309.142.522 177.554 156.078 378.084.68 15.784.838.653 596.489 210.400.846 534.197.000 170.756 646.40 7.601 217.15 14.777 1.845.354.543. 1997) Domestic Extraction Imports Exports Summary Indicators (as presented in main report) 228.797 47.051.978 217.000 14.975.454.404.28 6.618.680 222.736.577 168.08 7.650.18 25.000 52.130 13.080 114. including water vapor from all combustion & respiration) Gateway Indicators 174.610.000 53.381 198.394 380.455 66.020.163.484.325.636 374.229 202.974 134.156 99.000 38.53 7.000.61 24.904.449.900 202.227 221.963 105.967 156.72 7.845 217.532 400.000 52.058 416.10 14.345 399.38 16.239.545 287.927 43.389 113.177.743 379.143 193.476.58 8.113.631 145.025.258.249 296.700 NOX 532.274.280.011.759 1.903.691.035 259.023.229 40.482.957.000 37.740 116.889 204.000 348.044.413 21.450.335 211.461 272.130.387.754.589.615.543 TDO (including carbon dioxide from respiration.43 6.174 123.161.491 397.918.075.999 612.91 17.981 507.834 222.494 384.952 414.082 101.171.685 131.474 223.000 907.490 108.250 554.747.75 24.870 261.698.891.000.609.465.209.816.088 123.014.70 17.341 20.481.80 7.584 1.094 242. 1975-1996 All units in metric tons unless otherwise stated 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Summary Data 14.81 9.647. excluding water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 456.122.046.431.066.097.298.51 7.037 271.700 SO2 581.000 48.683 35.529.994 253. including water vapor from all combustion & respiration) 367.317 1.697.15 7.537 110.529 113.911 110.780.888.549 399.100 497.000 404.005 181.000 14.000 36.708 44.492 1.900 163.446 104.111.330 92.716.76 7.71 DPO (including oxygen) DPO (excluding oxygen) Domestic hidden flows TDO (including oxygen) TDO (excluding oxygen) Net Additions to Stock Summary Indicators including additional outputs (not presented in main report) 252.380.366 237.797 224.31 18.000 52.439 495.228.000 15.150.834.92 7.27 17.29 9.220.189 135.012.457.000 64.840 225.500 414.685 595.882.078.686 415.000 15.818 381.329.255 351.330.352 119.245 111.000 172.374.725 DPO (including carbon dioxide from respiration.01 10.190.152 379.066.737 449.376 115.75 18.519.795 206.197.286 218.791 203.350 67.638 20.369 271.252.789.698 38.768.901 245.011.149.503.379.896.523.70 7.900 145.000 363.47 17.299 233.248 150.000 1.251 220.655 631.88 25.800 532.000 53.242.000 38.858.917 153.927 206.131 397.360 1.722.198 112.000 15.09 7.877.100 145.60 13.327 46.507.091.381.381 193. excluding oxygen from respiration.763.000 37.362 13.998.299 295.707.792 36.879.287.436 114.653.534 195.845.817 37.599 373.129.952 159.912 215.282.03 7.672 397.314 402.788.628.917 36.109 502.214.915 399.088.762 183.000 1.856 263.000 460.33 6.211.290.000 892.400 401.000 37.69 6.468.671 110.990.171 103.891 471.735 152.153.41 15.492 9.228.196 236.529 607.009 223.000 161.442 401.999 1.623.237.363 151.715.374 559.621 38.

519.600 38.741.075.166.000 1.139 79.766 1.775.798.142 16.701 9.577.000.709 37.747 207.000 110.561.272.776 9.070 1983 1.028 16.600 127.900 213.358 42.000 1.758 15.000 1.800 30.228.468.878.636.509.227 22.043 220.149.638.121.824 210.868 1982 1.182 45.438 1.000 200.448.527 Domestic Hidden Flows 133.091 1.158 9.000 78.963.927 23.913 97.885 34.264 1979 1.260.000 1.133 203.280.202.062 1978 1.491.481.249.000.945.861 1977 1.000 51.030.793.732 1.486 22.000.011 23.000 1.400 118.000.000.908.000 DPO to Water N P Others (Chloride) 1.292.404 1.111 1.328 21.854 93.701.277.591.425 198.285 208.306.595 201.671 204.527.074.656 Additional Outputs (not presented in main report) Water vapor from fossil combustion Water vapor from respiration CO2 from respiration 90.197.766.465 1980 1.316.297 35.654.843 85.710.133.692.658.375.770 43.351.618. 1975-1996 All units in metric tons unless otherwise stated 1975 1976 1.040 194.285.292 16.362 211.790.530 16.543 99.000.094.193.039.758.000 1.749 1.533 39.000 78.056 200.121 38.177 21.597 21.596 9.524 101.399.800 121.017 199.539.421 1.465 17.857.445 78.908 8.035.631 9.667.000 1.076 1.185.598.634.535.877 230.400 28.473 1985 1.000 130.000 1.700.863.899.818.000 30.264.800 45.800 78.782.945 41.200 42.123.059 1.141.000 1.357.659 Additional Inputs (not presented in main report) Oxygen in combustion 218.400 48.355.722.097.271 1984 1.175.200 124.000 78.200 78.229.200 32.182 Excavated soil Dredging wastes Soil erosion 54.856 8.421.448.303.607.000 113.159 Oxygen in respiration 15.068.331.042 9.528.166.473 33.000 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 100 .255.280.000 116.818.000 36.600 78.555.515 209.475.088 17.000.800 78.360.000.747.514.247.789.091 108.931.807 23.200 78.507 15.383.715.600 78.710.002 228.667 1981 1.431 17.925 8.997 83.000.346.862 23.400 78.677.000 111.093 16.Material Output Flows: The Netherlands.404.182 1.851.395.102 9.378 85.439.986.571 95.827.328 209.763.853.791 228.881.511.409.400 78.094 1.118 24.000 1.689 9.209 206.715.955 23.972 230.600 34.

458.500.873 118.474 97.909 103.152 76.231.863 252.636 212.410.636 79.591 251.423.561.152 105.171.072 17.773.656.818 1.182.802 23.578.000 79.830 22.533 769.000 1987 1.000 27.564 114.000 27.586.474 9.476 23.564.628.069 17.002.184.600 160.903 9.674. 1975-1996 All units in metric tons unless otherwise stated 1986 1.267.394 108.528.103 23.500.519.879.667 72.103.000 Water vapor from fossil combustion Water vapor from respiration CO2 from respiration 115.981 16.661 9.000 1991 1.696 23.833.133.273 79.Material Output Flows: The Netherlands.900 940.391.700 913.200 28.861.484.237.000 1.560 103.891 16.000 1989 1.500 1992 1.909 9.890.600 534.349 102.384.861.626.984 17.377.414.852.193.424 35.200 202.702 9.064 22.752.877.000 27.001.667 18.463 16.333 21.641 103.000 32.821.012.316.148.909 74.261 23.197.116 16.642.000 25.560 192.138.172.012.200 1.140 976.056 17.441 110.766.849 91.000 24.926 249.845.435.000 1.500 222.567 651.000 15.021.909.612.000 Domestic Hidden Flows Excavated soil Dredging wastes Soil erosion WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 101 .065 22.772.120 185.000 1993 992.563.380 1.460.780 196.376.637 9.000 34.760 994.601 9.674 103.500.444 215.659.877.583.105.600 27.227.773.474.623.088.479.720 9.350 256.858.690 23.500 887.456 248.428.000 28.267 DPO to Water N P Others (Chloride) Additional Inputs (not presented in main report) 204.667 1995 709.187 235.994.611.148 9.491.455 80.180 171.000 27.600 1.809.547.077.563.748.045.945 110.949 9.340 189.000 27.616.200 201.590 89.800 1.617 103.416.141.172.215.900 180.636 108.858.656.000 70.400 1.648.000 26.958.818 27.054 99.394 78.469 23.495.022 22.216.000 1990 1.375.867 14.720.000 1.691.545 81.916 9.782.000 1.698.039 Oxygen in combustion Oxygen in respiration Additional Outputs (not presented in main report) 88.000 37.000 1988 1.636.254 17.900 182.215.500.370.047 489.783 16.187.424 1.953 238.676.520 958.667 101.800 28.000 1.736.793 16.199.827 97.255 116.400 29.000 1996 675.565.554 269.307.333 1994 850.364 80.

SO2. the so-called Special Trade System was used. A description is provided below of the other data sources used in this study. This causes the imports and exports of fuels in the energy balance and the Statistical Yearbook to increase by 50 percent. In Adriaanse et al. Total Domestic was not equal to DMI. The new. In this study. Furthermore. Total Domestic included the category “excavation” that according to the definition consists of hidden flows. Emissions of CO2 from the incineration of fuels used for international transport (oil for shipping and kerosene for aviation) are included in the CO2 emission account. fuels that were not declared at customs were not included in the import and export totals in the energy balance. import data for fossil fuels that were used in Adriaanse et al. which was not correctly included at that time in the export statistics. Data for 1975.. a correction was made for the export of natural gas. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 102 . In Statline.. For 1975 to 1977. In the Statistics for International trade. The method of calculating the data in the energy balance changed in 1989. corrected figures for DMI can be found in the dataset. the bunker fuels should thus be added as an inflow. the Wuppertal Institute corrected the DMI data for some minor issues like a dry weight/wet weight problem in the category of renewables. Furthermore. figures were used from the energy statistics (CBS). and 1979 to 1987 were taken from Statline (CBS). emissions for industrial (noncombustion) sources were not available for 1975 to 1989. “not declared” fuels are not included for the whole time series. Before that year. Corrections in DMI DMI data given in Adriaanse et al. For those years. 1997 have been corrected in this report.Data Sources and Methodology: Technical Notes The majority of the Dutch data was obtained from Statistics Netherlands (CBS) and its online database Statline. Only in cases in which CBS data were not available were other sources used. Missing data were extrapolated on the basis of the known data from the sources above. in which figures from the energy balance are given. They were available from 1975 to 1988 and from 1992 to 1996. These emissions are not included in the NAMEA or Statline emission figures. The figures that were used in Adriaanse et al. DPO to Air Carbon Dioxide. were based on the Statistical Yearbook of CBS. but they were included after 1989. Not declared bunker fuels were therefore added to the DMI. and NOx to air were taken from NAMEA (CBS) for 1987 to 1997. and Oxides of Nitrogen Emissions of CO2. This means that before 1989. They were calculated on the basis of CBS data on the use of fossil fuels combined with their carbon content. whereas from 1989 onward the General Trade System was used. Data for the missing years were interpolated. thus. were much higher than those recorded in CBS import/export statistics. Sulfur Dioxide. it was decided that emissions from bunker fuels would be accounted for in the material out- Exports Export figures were taken from the trade statistics (CBS). put of the economy. For mass balance purposes. A part of the “not declared” fuels were used for international transport.

Carbon Monoxide. pigs for breeding.9 kg per capita (Harte. poultry for eggs. Water Carbon-based fuels are converted into CO2 and H 2O in combustion processes. 0. and human respiration. DPO to Land Final Waste Disposal (Landfill Only) The amount of waste disposed of in landfill sites is available from the AOO for 1991 to 1997. CO2 emissions from industrial sources were extrapolated with the help of data from the Emission Registration. Missing data were extrapolated on the basis of known data from the sources above. Data for 1975. and the Environment (KWS 2000). All other data were extrapolated from the above.0. Livestock respiration was calculated on the basis of the number of cattle. and horses. 0. 1990. and 1980 were extrapolated from the available data. and chlorine to water were available for the years 1985. oil and oil products. The fraction of these two types of waste that was landfilled is known for 1981 to 1996 in oneyear intervals (CBS Waste Statistics). There is a WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 103 . dry weight data were calculated from the wet weight data. Emissions of other substances were found to be negligible on a mass basis. DPO to Water Data for emissions of nitrogen.67. Emission of water generated during combustion of carbon-based fuels was calculated on the basis of the use of fossil fuels (Statline) and emission factors for the different fuels. For fine particles. 0.98. For NMVOC. Spatial Planning. 0. CBS). the amount of dry weight manure produced by the animals (Wuppertal Institute). The total amount of household waste was available from Statline (CBS) for the entire 1975–96 period. 0.04.69. 1976. 6. 8. All other data were extrapolated.03.Human respiration was calculated on the basis of an average daily CO2 production of 0. treatment. sheep and goats. 1.65. 1988).98. and fine particles are available from Statline (CBS) for the whole period except 1976 to 1979 and excluding industrial (non-combustion) sources from 1975 to 1989. The resulting factors in kg CO2/day were: cattle. emissions from industrial sources were filled in with data from RIVM (Nationale Milieuverkenningen) and the Ministry of Housing. and natural gas. Non-Methane Volatile Organic Compounds. and 1995 (Statline. and Fine Particles Emissions of NMVOC. 1992. 0. 0. For those years. phosphorus. poultry. Landfilled Sewage Sludge Amounts of dry weight sewage sludge and the types of use. In wet weight. Resulting factors in kg H2O per kg CO2 were: coal and coal products.0. Factors were based on hydrogen content and the water content of the fuel (CBS). CO. and disposal were taken from CBS for 1981 to 1996. poultry for meat. Data on waste from private companies and public institutions was available from Waste Statistics (CBS) for 1984 to 1996 in one-year intervals. pigs for meat. emissions from industrial sources were extrapolated from the Statline data. and other farm animals (CBS) and exhalation factors based on the average weight of the animals (Handboek Rundveehouderij).55. additional data were available for 1977 to 1979 (CBS). pigs.

0. Sewage Sludge See DPO to land.03.35. 0. horses. fattening pigs.85. Dissipative Use Manure (Dry Weight) Data for the amount of manure produced in the Netherlands were calculated on the basis of time series data for the number of animals (CBS) multiplied by factors for the production of manure per animal (Wuppertal Institute). Data were available for 1988 to 1990 (Ministry of Transport Public Works and Water Management.48. 0. N. 1997. Anecdotal evidence suggests that dredging before 1988 was relatively stable and that landfilling occurred only from 1984 onward. sheep and goats. and horses. 1997). Hidden Flows Surplus Soil The data for surplus soil were taken from Adriaanse et al. 1986. and K2O were taken from Statline. goats. CO. and K2O in typical artificial fertilizers: P2O5. 0.95. 0. 5. Waste disposal was calculated WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 104 . 1984. 2000) for 1986 to 1996. The factors used in kg dry weight manure per day were: dairy cows. All other data were extrapolated.24.73. 1999). Some additional data for broilers. These data were available in five-year intervals only from 1975 to 1990. N.. laying hens. 0. 0. breeding sows.. which were taken from the original dataset (van Heijningen et al. There is a discrepancy between the 1996 balance and the time series because the allocation among economic sectors could not be determined for a number of substances: NMVOC. 0. the Dutch organization for pesticide merchants (published in: de Snoo and de Jong. 1989 and 1990) and 1996 (Absil and Bakker. Erosion The data for erosion were taken from Adriaanse et al. and K2O. Governmental policy plans (IMP-M.. and 1985. All other data were extrapolated from the above.5. and sheep were calculated on the basis of the amounts of P2O5 produced by these animals. 4. Missing years were extrapolated. 1997. 1991) provided additional data for 1976.50. calves. Dredged Sediments (Fresh Weight) Incidental data only are available for the amount of dredging material in the Netherlands. and MJP-G. and fine particles. Pesticides Data for the use of different categories of pesticides were known from Nefyto. These data were available for five-year intervals only from 1975 to 1990. Fertilizer Time series of used amounts of P2O5.45. N.double count in this data with the dissipative use of fertilizer and manure. broilers. These data were combined with fractions of P2O5. 0.023. Missing years were extrapolated except for 1986 to 1989. Sectoral Data for the 1996 Balance The data for DPO to air allocated among economic sectors were taken mainly from NAMEA (CBS). Human and livestock respiration and water emissions were calculated as described above.

A. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 105 . 1992. and T.M. Y. Supply and Destination of Dredging Sediments 1999–2010).L. version of April 15. Utrecht. the Netherlands. Combination of data made available by Statistics Netherlands. Resource Flows: The Material Basis of Industrial Economies. “Others. the Netherlands. Kwartaalberichten Milieu. Voorburg. AKWA/RIZA. Rodenburg. The data on landfilled waste used in the 1996 balance are not exactly the same as in the time series.on the basis of NAMEA (CBS) data. NAMEA database made available by Statistics Netherlands. 97/4. the double count is still present in the time series data. D. Manure. 1998.M. Database made available by Statistics Netherlands. and F. fertilizer. Industriële emissies in Nederland Basisjaar 1988 (Industrial Emissions in the Netherlands. Fong. Bringezu. S. Afvalverwerking in Nederland. the Netherlands. Because the data for the 1996 balance had to be allocated among economic sectors. Bestrijdingsmiddelen & milieu (Pesticides and the Environment). D. In the sector. the Netherlands. Publikatiereeks emissieregistratie Nr.cbs. CBS Trade Statistics. Combination of data made available by Statistics Netherlands. 1997a. Regarding dissipative flows. However. Rogich. L. de Snoo G.W. Washington. Online database of Statistics Netherlands: online at http://www. AOO (Afval Overleg Orgaan).. Voorburg. April 1999. Fosfor in Nederland 1995 (Phosphorus in the Netherlands. data on leaching are not known for the years before 1995. 2000. it is clear which part of the N and P emissions to water is leaching from agricultural soils.” environmental services were excluded. Chlorine was attributed entirely to manufacturing/ industry. Bakker. 1999. and H. Voorburg. N and P emissions were distributed among the different sectors on the basis of the N and P balances of CBS (Fong.nl/en/statline. Werkgroep Afvalregistratie. Fong. and sewage sludge was equally divided between households and manufacturing/industry. AOO 98-05. N. Adriaanse. de Jong. CBS (Central Bureau of Statistics) Energy Statistics. CBS Waste Statistics. However. Accessed August 1999. To include this emission would cause a double count with the dissipative use of fertilizers and manure.: World Resources Institute. 1997a.. 1997b). 1999. 1995). E. Utrecht. Report nr. May 1999. the Netherlands. van Arkel publishers. Ministry of Transport Public Works and Water Management. this N and P emission should be excluded. On the basis of the N and P balance for 1995. therefore. CBS NAMEA. there is a discrepancy here with the time series data. eds.C. Hammond. dredging and surplus soil were attributed to construction/ infrastructure. Central Bureau of Statistics. 5. 1997. 1997 Data). Lelystad. Schütz. a different data source (NAMEA) than in the time series was used (see above). Therefore. and erosion was equally divided between construction/infrastructure and agriculture.R. Inventarisatie Waterbodems aanbod en bestemming van baggerspecie 1999–2010 (Inventory Sediments. Heerlen. Gegevens 1997 (Waste Treatment in the Netherlands. For DPO to water. Emission Registration. A. which is done in the 1996 balance. Voorburg. base year 1988). CBS Statline. and pesticides were attributed to agriculture. REFERENCES Absil. Moriguchi.

DBW/RIZA nota nr. Waterbodems. Voorburg.038. Wuppertal. 1986. Public Works and Water Management. 1–2. 1997b. Public Works and Water Management. Mill Valley. Harte.V. N.D. Water Voor Nu en Later (Sediments. 1988. 1991. 1994. 21250 nrs 1-2. Zorgen Voor Morgen. Derde Nota Waterhuishouding. Tjeenk Willink publishers. Water For Now and For the Future). Punthorst. MJP-G. Ministry of Transport. Lower House of the Dutch Parliament. Proefstation voor de Rundveehouderij Schapenhouderij en Paardenfokkerij. and Solid Chemical Solutions. 1997. Water for Now and for the Future).V. The Hague. RIVM. The Hague. Van Heijningen Energie-en Milieuadvies B. Central Bureau of Statistics. Samsom H. Ministry of Housing. 90. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 106 . California: University Science Books. 21 677 nrs 3-4. Spatial Planning and Environment. 1990.Fong. Lower House of the Dutch Parliament. Nationale Milieuverkenning 1985–2010 (Concern for Tomorrow. 19707 nrs. Alphen aan den Rijn. IMP-M. Strategie 1992–2000. piunipu (anonymous). 1989. KWS 2000. The Hague. 1999. the Netherlands (anonymous). National Environmental Exploration). J. Indicatief Meerjaren Programma Milieubeheer 1987–1991 (Indicative Program Environmental Management 1987–1991). A Course in Environmental Problem Solving. Consider a Spherical Cow. The Hague. Ministry of Transport. Lower House of the Dutch Parliament. Stikstof in Nederland 1995 (Nitrogen in the Netherlands. 1995). Techno Invent B. Meerjarenprogramma Gewasbescherming (Multi-Year Program Pesticides). Water Voor Nu en Later (Third Bill Water Management. Handboek voor de Rundveehouderij (Manual for cattle breeding). Personal communications. The Hague.. 1988. 97/3. Kwartaalberichten Milieu. Materiaalstromen in de Nederlandse Economie (Material Flows in the Dutch Economy). 1988.

and durable goods (2 billion metric tons) or is deposited into the environment (over 23 billion metric tons). Only a small fraction of these materials is exported. in value terms. Eric Rodenburg. though outputs became more concentrated with intensification of the livestock sector. and system losses—rose substantially. economy are dominated by energy-related materials: hidden flows associated with coal mining. Fossil fuel combustion rose by about one third from 1975 to 1996.2 billion to 16. and consumer preferences began to shift toward large. In contrast. as operations expanded and ore qualities declined. economy toward high technology and service industries. from 17. nutrient and other flows from the agriculture sector remained roughly constant. Christian Ottke.8 billion metric tons in 1996. This small change occurred despite the dramatic shift. and earth-moving for construction make up another 24 percent of TDO.3 billion metric tons. which are relatively nonintensive energy and material users. The balance remains in the economy in the form of buildings. other infrastructure. account for over 50 percent of total domestic output (TDO). From 1975 to 1996. 1 The immense input and output flows generated by the U. which pass through the food processing sector to final disposal as manure (from livestock) and sewage (from humans). domestic processed output (DPO)—flows from the economy comprising conventional wastes. Quantities of hidden flows fell only slightly in two decades.S. Manure quantities fell slightly as the livestock base shifted from cows to poultry. Wastes from coal and metal mining actually increased from 1975 to 1996. Hidden flows in the form of overburden from mining of other minerals. soil erosion caused by agriculture. and the largest economy in the world. Oil consumption for transportation grew substantially over the 21-year period: efforts to improve vehicle fuel efficiency stalled as energy prices fell. Don Rogich Overview The United States is a huge country geographically. Soil erosion has declined with the removal of marginal land from cultivation. discharges. which account for 82 percent of total DPO. These flows are dominated by CO2 emissions.MATERIAL FLOWS: UNITED STATES Emily Matthews.3 billion metric tons in 1975 to 6. from 5. encouraged by low oil prices and driven in part by resurgent demand for electricity with the growth of information technologies.5 billion metric tons per year. emissions. heavy sport utility vehicles that consume approximately twice as much fuel per mile as the average car. The other major flows in domestic processed output comprise nutrients and biosolids from the agriculture sector. and electrical and electronic products in the home. in the U. and emissions of CO2 from fossil fuel combustion.S. but it still accounts for nearly 3. Quantities of sewage increased in line with population WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 107 . It is so rich in productive land and mineral resources that it can extract or harvest within its national borders over 90 percent (by weight) of the raw materials it requires each year.

and the population by 23 percent. SOx and NOx Dredged Material Soil Erosion 10. the U. earth moving.000 Coal Mining Overburden 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 108 . During this same period. The main constituents of hidden flows and domestic processed output are shown in Figure A1.000 20. During the study period. These trends FIGURE A1 COMPOSITION OF TOTAL DOMESTIC OUTPUT. The data indicate that fertilizer use has saturated at the national level. UNITED STATES 1975–1996 25. and the quantity of material added to physical stock in the form of infrastructure and durable goods. economy grew by 74 percent.000 Other Agriculture. the net effect of marginally decreased domestic hidden flows and sharply increased domestic processed output has been a small increase in total domestic output flows of less than 1 billion tons (3 percent).000 Earth Moving Other Mining Overburden 5. Regional differences in fertilizer application rates are high. human waste. and dredged materials. Hidden flows comprise overburden. forestry. NOx. agriculture. as well as an absolute basis. domestic processed output comprises CO2. Figure A2 shows the principal material flows generated per capita. On a per capita basis.growth. material flows in the United States are the highest of the five study countries. Forestry and Human Waste Million Metric Tons 15. soil erosion.000 CO2 . and other outputs. and a regional flow analysis would be required in order to determine nutrient flow rates. SOx. A high but uncertain proportion of fertilizer nutrient is not absorbed by growing plants and passes directly into the environment.S.

However.FIGURE A2 PRINCIPAL MATERIAL FLOWS GENERATED PER CAPITA. (See Figure A4. However. interstate highway system. the amount of material going to stock (infrastructure and durable goods) each year has increased since 1975. emissions. and it might be expected that quantities of material going to stock annually would have decreased since then. Conventional wastes. UNITED STATES 1996 25 20 Overburden and Waste from Coal Mining 15 Overburden and Waste from Other Mining Carbon Dioxide Emissions from Fossil Fuel Combustion Soil Erosion 10 Earth Moving for Construction Other Wastes and Emissions 5 Buildings. the largest increase of all the study countries. though the trend has fluctuated with economic growth and recession.) Surprisingly. most of this decline has been offset by construction of new and WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 109 . and industrial and housing base—were mostly completed by the 1970s. decoupling is much less pronounced when hidden flows are excluded. Other Infrastructure and Durable Goods Metric Tons Per Capita 0 represent a substantial decoupling of output flows from economic and population growth (Figure A3). and discharges rose by 28 percent since 1975 (5 percent on a per capita basis). Domestic hidden flows associated with stock flows—principally earth moving—have indeed declined as a result of reduced highway construction (see data table). The great national infrastructure projects—the railroad network.

UNITED STATES 1975–1996 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Index (1975=100) DPO DPO/Capita DPO/GDP WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 110 . AND GDP. UNITED STATES 1975–1996 120 100 Index (1975=100) 80 TDO 60 TDO/Capita TDO/GDP 40 20 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 FIGURE A4 DECOUPLING BETWEEN DPO. AND GDP. POPULATION.FIGURE A3 DECOUPLING BETWEEN TDO. POPULATION.

500 1. further study would be required to determine whether it also uses more material. UNITED STATES 1975–1996 2. FIGURE A5 ANNUAL NET ADDITIONS OF MATERIAL TO STOCK. Extensive urban sprawl uses more space than high-density housing. as well as ongoing infrastructure maintenance.000 Million Metric Tons 1.000 Durable Goods Construction Materials 500 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 111 . though durable goods still accounted for only about 7 percent of total materials added to stock each year.bigger housing. Figure A5 shows that the material weight of durable goods added to the economy each year increased by more than 40 percent from 1975 to 1996.500 2.

727 20.123 7.88 8.736.62 25.929 340.938.520.061.255 16.864 42.981.653 2. K.529 17.339 23.608.059.759.929 331.57 10.216 239.737.294.438. bunkers CO2 from cement & lime making SO2 NOX Other 4.828 4.715 56.378 15.457 WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 112 .85 80.042 4.90 66.177 4.275 16.229.749 4.838.461.043 4.065 19.366 1.457 1.514 1.275.952 276 976 13.79 104.024 53.618 230.426 20.54 22.955.863 7.332 89.21 70.815.961 7.126.539.043 7.535 88.64 Hidden flows (excluding oxygen) 78.316 574.799.919 5.437.729 51.69 9.377 415.799.578 6.89 DPO (excluding oxygen) 9.124 5.450.144 2.000 capita) 220.16 79.274.686 512.000 metric tons unless otherwise stated 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 Summary Data Population (1.928 24.364 4.977.18 Gateway Indicators DPO to Air (including oxygen) CO2 from fossil fuels.328.262.738 350.712 DPO (excluding oxygen) 2.358 56.609.554 4.087 7.100 294.56 101.00 66.354 5.521 40.603 265 900 15.577 7.56 79.396 224.30 7.417 283 816 15. incl.957.Material Output Flows United States 1975-96 All units in 1.529 5.056 23.75 75.882.923.120.853 383.250 45.846.884 18.975 25.910.021.561 17.78 94.058 23.516.773 551.068 53.952 Hidden flows (including oxygen) 17.614.551.721 4.436.917 22.088 171.735 1.57 24.913 162.260 4.165 GDP 4.364.51 78.10 76.914 20.64 Hidden flows (including oxygen) 78.39 71.169 2.406.301 259 808 12.611 17.899.692 22.806 21.428 19.751 88.333.45 102.799 25.192.489 171.721 43.219.228 2.86 6.391 17. salt.771 19.064 4.394 15.21 23.300 2.751.18 66.617 20.240 241.433 91.519 Additional outputs to air not included in DPO Water vapor from fossil fuel combustion 1.223 22.982 18.279 5.925 2. N.338 383.095 23.53 75.467 1.122.847 4.991.925 4.205.763 1.68 9.168 17.858 21.18 79.79 89.46 9.821 234.597 5.790 20.796 5.354 TDO (including oxygen) 22.17 75.314.950 1.533 264 844 15.974.268 19.240 237.775 7.603.130 19.120 328.580.71 85.834 22.865.94 8.32 76. gypsum.471 41.867 DPO to Land 507.25 10.117 17.274.701.96 7.466 11.503 18.631 50.168 4.163 542.107 377.253.669 17.219 1.519.103 402.582 51.03 72.296.024.250 8.794.877 6.339 2.282.38 78.855 5.681.505 Hidden flows (excluding oxygen) 17.738 2.430 Manure spread on fields 95.599.258.45 6.765 17.892 535.187 2.130.996 91.225 4.41 65.568 21.73 Net additions to stock 7. other) Dissipative flows 165.540 25.338.741 Fertilizers 47.884 20.868.09 93.474.857.670 Summary Indicators (as presented in main DPO (including oxygen) 5.385.574 175.001.593 20.716 25.004.55 88. slag.451 Sewage sludge 6.17 10.45 100.014.337 7.357 (P.672 589.043 228.658 1.488 5.66 25.95 104.393 10.206 23.212 6.643.208 4.662.822 1.719 56.976 42.766.70 85.822 232.022.651.384 359.23 22.802.217 TDO (excluding oxygen) 19.583 371.707 91.893.246 15.703 7.786.330 216.92 9.152 25.423 2.32 99.558.81 5.080 522.462 4.774.925.617 167.731 5.665. & ash on roads 14.67 70.618.800 17.907 1.184 1.322 6.715 226.113 6.123 17.03 25.946.218 544.052 4.43 84.629 2.727 17.065 554.46 89.874 20.558 5.213 7.542.649 283 711 6.975.978 39.724.09 TDO (including oxygen) 102.929 356.948.291 4.276.620 1.67 86.01 22.715 236.426.149 5.068 245 799 14.290 359.863 1.349.143 7.592 1.514 16.117 2.76 89.682 4.36 77.528 171.880 6.493 4.442 5.743.072 16.131 166.205.678.543.693 4.462 90.315.126.492 23.829 50.939 report) 5.961 17.53 10.415 excluding dissipative flows (landfill.452 (slash etc) Other 250 Dissipative losses from vehicle tires 778 (not included in DPO) DPO to Water 6.451 169.224 90.121 349. lime) Sand.715 264.688.629 5.279 55.978 25.13 7.943 4.156 DPO to Land 341.969 21.929 327.304 88.004.139.336 4.018 174.868.573.836 287 960 17.765 56.788.247 6.180 7.846 5.954 23.23 75.321 9.306 Net additions to stock 1.794 15.33 74.521.765 17.988 3.269 21.33 9.532.217.126.639 4.228.623.754 44.421 2.476.185 5.690 17.798 20.89 9.143 162.093.481.791 2.747 94.406 4.143 Summary Indicators (metric tons per capita) DPO (including oxygen) 23.184 262 813 16.80 8.159.508.133.575 54.033 384.03 75.18 4.076 22.331 1.453 226.70 22.483 1.660.42 7.796.719 274 979 16.895 1.094 51.284 19.953 (constant 1996 billion US dollars) 222.712 6.53 TDO (excluding oxygen) 87.97 76.437 554.801 Forestry residues 1.

288 1.53 63.815 6.773.98 88.732 5.600 2.599 22.84 61.504.16 69.852.60 73.141 151.390.285 4.044 19.544 16.703 5.020 85.530 52.153.702.646 6.60 9.793 8.941 87.292.908.559 2.780.155.321 5.924.933.769 18.517 DPO to Water WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 113 .002 18.327 7.806 7.902 254.356 5.534 16.074 6.935.135.987 41.71 75.533 4.765.811 158.65 69.893 21.573 Fertilizers (P.737 4.925 22.557 18.766 262 731 14.922.126.640.726.658.886.932 402.27 7.672 156.994 19.213 40.51 25.800 Dissipative flows 41.013 1.873.063 19.085 17.581 10.920 6.054 574.068 262. incl.01 86.64 9.667 18.727 336.750.22 88.201 21.000 metric tons unless otherwise stated 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 Summary Data 244.59 66.792.274 357.26 60.216.429.034 54.624 6.131 475 269 975 17.731 45.904 553.943 5.538.69 24.695 411.535 21.001 2.918.023 267.19 73.743.86 64.126.897.85 9.197 22.160 6.889 466 237 829 15.594 1.349 251.766 2.300.117 16.435.267 172.606 5.053 463 229 1.92 6.420 15.564 44.308 Water vapor from fossil fuel combustion 14.856.926 259 861 16.971 480 221 994 16.653.581 5.748.245.616 5.022.640 5.065.09 9.630 1.342.446 21.493 48.876 4.88 60.998 including oxygen CO2 fossil fuels.224 6.90 61.43 25.652 2.579 579.21 6.307 7.103 18.941.986.819 534.819 19.086.79 65.6 20.900 320.162 2.587 39.73 24.117 22.795.301 2.487 16.833.253.24 65.29 23.727.568 330.53 88.938 264.389 6. 16.000.887 269.375 21.487.368.757 16.213 246.046.826.209 2.327 22.678 22.92 23.851 86.425 7.332.374 6.346.559 6.165 1.831.899 6.53 72.550.957.317 18.287 55.176.164 2.065.843 2.07 59.679.247 20.386 241 825 18.045.874 7.42 7.345 87.49 7.303 85.396 4.713 249.51 64.12 9.314 89.882 4.29 66.375 5.188 84.781.651 1.80 7.354 1.257.616.778.29 23.007 1.29 64.127 16.758 350.460 15.025.005.362.666 16.261.220 16.523 DPO (including oxygen) DPO (excluding oxygen) Hidden flows (including oxygen) Hidden flows (excluding oxygen) TDO (including oxygen) TDO (excluding oxygen) Net additions to stock Summary Indicators (metric tons per capita) 23.243 15.55 9.444 Population (1. gypsum.54 65.067.827.933 389.091 382.28 60.49 7.870 5.65 72.704.13 70.14 9.919.208 256. bunkers CO2 from cement & lime making SO2 NOX Other Additional outputs to air not included in DPO 1.157.246.384 2.067 350.985.572 6.752.541 2.363 19.055.736 16.019 5.656 7.649 38.399 7.289 1.775 7.913.455.706 5.425.584 52.191.228 22.524 12.914.46 7.685 7.173 2.920 6.20 63.910 & ash on roads 80.667.950 23.722 6.465 335.740 6.116 333.71 DPO (including oxygen) DPO (excluding oxygen) Hidden flows (including oxygen) Hidden flows (excluding oxygen) TDO (including oxygen) TDO (excluding oxygen) Net additions to stock Gateway Indicators DPO to Air 4.700 5.463 2.912 15.030 49.261 560.600 GDP (constant 1996 billion US dollars) Summary Indicators (as presented in main report) 5.483 21.805 8.333 7.375 543.52 7.310. salt.19 23.969 43.839 18.381 47.924.75 66.396 DPO to Land 431.927.39 7.846 265 861 15.769 259.115 7.811 2.446 5.149 21.824.121 44.661 168.670 383.31 9.427 21.05 91.596 DPO to Land excluding dissipative flows (landfill.588.252 21.522 5.680 22.519 16.434 21.571 423.597 16.138 175.054 6.409.876 16.987 84.19 60.51 60.244 15.226 6.30 24.722 415.449 590.14 75.206 467 318 984 579.360.109 2.02 83.831.278 Sewage sludge 458 Forestry residues (slash etc) 350 Other Dissipative losses 981 from vehicle tires (not included in DPO) 7.101 6.201 2. lime) Sand.856.215 43.544.33 70.65 86. other) 147.067.17 9.118 15.758 346.126.426 342.682 88.686 2.673 20.927.175.904.20 23.638 54.073 18.036 557.638.839 5.370.766 1.718 154.54 85.106 6.238 5.690 4.749 150.529 41.050.382 578.268.88 74.255.879 418.914 16.27 7.554 424.54 63.148 6.850 2.98 89.707.706 18.203 15.176 21.15 9.603.576.395 8.710 170.482.324 343.595 2.778 5.630 5.206 40.Material Output Flows United States 1975-96 All units in 1.203 1. K.62 86.928.654 2.959 6.280.452.357 155.240 1.167 16.09 9.186.22 63. slag.504 20.359.526 596.068.398 406.7 20.015 16.781 51.63 87.963.069.00 63.503 90.708.950 21.036 47.704.000 capita) 7.849. N.077.418.418 20.231 Manure spread on fields 8.448 4.591.769 20.795.306 261 823 16.809 15.143 21.

4 10.125 5. mining overburden & waste Earth moving for infrastructure creation Dredging Soil erosion Other 17.763 8.567.07 8.391 16.416.9 1.899 219.662.448.504 5.824 578.625 5.631 17.2 0.729.5 5.806 3.683.0 12.759.539.4 3.536 477.550.3 1.500 5.500 5.056 1.1 2.9 3.27 13.043.0 6.595 775.216.626 10.857.2 2.554 4.750 4.725 17.414 221.4 5.8 1.1 1.0 Lead DPO 414 Lead NAS 235.722 9.093.952.632 3.192.0 0.266.949 25.22 10. plastic in DPO 7.569 8.578 204.0 135 329.6 Mercury DPO 0.6 2.750 4.2 276 318.609 32.954 1.385.469 218.987 31.432 7.8 0.156 10.1 2.758 226.798 5.207 Note: Substances DPO are direct outputs to the environment in the year indicated.084 3.6 1.216.875 5.525.2 0.6 6.1 2.965 3.570 3.989.1 1.03 11.926.11 11.206 1.095 1.724 5.7 368 265.3 0.368.6 1.9 1.960.442.8 234 250.11 11.092 34.6 Synthetic chemicals.475.7 1.569.348 33.8 12.715 3. which will become outputs to the environment in future years.238 31.500 5.000 32.9 Mercury NAS.1 1.385.847.1 2.8 158 332.361 5.394.450.300 3.057 5.348 858.591 788.4 1.1 10.562 727.Material Output Flows United States 1975-96 All units in 1000 metric tons unless otherwise stated 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 DPO to Uncertain Gateways 201.6 1.7 310 289.747.071 15.09 9.4 1.969 1.3 1.1 1.521 596.7 2.027.5 Cadmium NAS 2.9 1. medical DPO 0.743 490.755 Synthetic chemicals NAS 22.7 Cadmium DPO 1.472.8 146 240. later yrs.1 0.0 1.419 489.3 0.3 295 138.773 517.533.5 1.3 1.2 1.521.526 16.1 13.402 898.558 3.5 2.4 0.875 4.475 5.327 767.2 1.694 6.786.42 10.1 2.915 29.994 32.076 1.239 15.300 708.966 3.8 1.339 1. represent stock withdrawals 0.462 199.322.0 1.402.295 11.805.865 519.8 1.171.856.02 13.161 Hidden Flows (excluding oxygen) Minerals.195.9 0.353 17.2 336 234.289 497.793 3.8 1.400 5.326 579. Substances NAS are additions to stock in the year indicated.310. mining overburden & waste Coal.110 511.06 12.1 1.000 5.734 Selected Material Flows of Environmental Concern Arsenic DPO 15.043 10.910.080 17.268.682 34.520.536 881.372 207.250 5.750 5.0 Arsenic NAS 1.853.278 17.110.121.488.616.027 203. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 114 .1 2.406 631.271 5.840 511.879 5.241.420.354 1.446 5.692 1.317.529 6.735 207.6 1.437 213.6 3.492 1.4 1.3 3.806 1.95 Synthetic chemicals.151 841.166.0 201 315.248 559.944 17.

2 1.721.500 3.8 0.6 17.545 219.012.220.765 232.318.2 1.947.716 5.710.894.572 2.427 1.820 967.7 1.2 0.808 832.304.7 2.087.729 473.747 5.5 1. 1.780.311 36.168 15.502 16.5 1.207 806.706 plastic in DPO 48.176.950 2.457 2.17 17.087 3.329.504.338 42.599 5.123 6.877 458.569 44.278 845.258 788.838 230.415 2.9 2.1 1.625 3.6 1.2 90 254.525 5.3 0.708 16.763.105.4 0.250 4.8 0.432.406.316.988.388 3.317. represent -0.238 4.763 3.756.2 149 470.9 15.44 16.9 17.929 5.8 0.2 stock withdrawals Synthetic chemicals.4 20.8 0.8 0.5 2.981 248.3 0.4 2.238 4.4 106 248.463.734 5.9 16.900 794.532 48.050.197 1.6 0.904.0 0.384 656.538 15.852 5.8 Cadmium DPO 0.173 923.117 2.8 174 241.49 16.2 167 235.765.616.072 263.256 5.029.173.678 1.961 Hidden Flows 15. later yrs.478.365.870 51.680 2.536 876.375 2.316 3.824.625 6.322 3.18 15.7 15.338.878.2 0.299.839 496.408 2.7 0.733 3.30 15.853.2 1.820 811. 16.950 2.542.5 Arsenic DPO 20.064 3.425 515.727.228 2.863. Substances NAS are additions to stock in the year indicated.0 112 286.720 48.2 -0.801 42.2 2.5 3. mining overburden & waste Coal.192 15.406.473 478.8 1.355 3.7 188 319.4 2.967 264.5 1.673.327 2.011 5.7 0. mining overburden & waste Earth moving for infrastructure creation Dredging Soil erosion Other Selected Material Flows of Environmental Concern 5.403 6.0 1.4 1.8 0. which will become outputs to the environment in future years.713 48.599 2.1 0.0 19.6 0.111 2.126 562.700 3.1 16.623 517.7 133 296.664.913.809 448.242 5.7 2.520 248.2 0.Material Output Flows United States 1975-96 All units in 1.361.49 16.1 0.665 3.9 107 294.134 208.5 Cadmium NAS 128 Lead DPO 469.834 (excluding oxygen) Minerals.000 metric tons unless otherwise stated 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 DPO to Uncertain Gateways 206.393.3 0.963 3.7 17.862 16.720 4.690 6.172.115 15.5 2. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 115 .212 42.096 3.84 16.597 536.150 4.68 medical DPO Synthetic chemicals.5 Arsenic NAS 1.363 6.910.409 16.684.481 38.338 237.361 438.2 1.592.395 3.332.838 458.4 1.68 16.5 2.2 238 382.250 5.68 16.9 0.0 2.909 16.858.000 3.657 16.483 1.2 -0.784 755.235.1 0.006.448.2 0.1 17.401 Synthetic chemicals NAS Note: Substances DPO are direct outputs to the environment in the year indicated.928.966.049 267.20 15.1 Lead NAS 0.1 Mercury DPO Mercury NAS.

for example. some primary material flow categories have been subdivided. but the flows of chlorine and caustic soda derived from salt have been broken out as separate flows. and individual quantities can be combined to provide a complete picture. as determined by physical and chemical characteristics (Q). Only outputs that occur within the continental boundary of the United States have been counted. linkages between flows are noted.org/wri/materials/. and subtracting the exports.S. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 116 . Unlike many European countries. Characterizing Material Flows: A Pilot Scheme Every flow in the U. partially solid.S.S. and its velocity through the economy (V). based on its mode of first release to the environment (M). However. dataset differs somewhat from that used in the other study countries. since they occur in this country.wri. which offset the imports of finished goods.S. the ancillary (hidden) flows associated with the extraction/production function are included. as an example. material flows documented for this study account for about 95 percent of total material outputs to the environment in the United States. where a portion of a commodity is extracted or produced in the United States. materials flow database. adding the imports and recycled quantities. researchers can sort for and track total quantities of unprocessed but chemically active flows (Q3). material flow database. Where it was deemed useful. the carbon or CO2 emitted during the production of cement or lime can be combined with the carbon from the combustion of fossil fuel. The overall output flows from the industrial economy of the United States were. total quantities of industrial waste going to landfills. or liquid form (M3). its quality. Outputs within the United States have therefore been estimated by considering the domestic production of a particular commodity. for the most part. documenting their output quantities at the extraction. This is the case for salt. This is termed the apparent use of the commodity. (2) exports. also are not considered. and (3) the development of an accurate picture is extremely complex. for example.S. The complete database lists some 460 individual flows. derived from data on the inputs and apparent use for each discrete material flow stream. data sheet. where the use of salt per se is documented. We considered finished goods on a partial basis only for several reasons: (1) their overall contribution to the total weight of all flows in the United States is small.The U. The MQV scheme is detailed in Box A1. The methodology used to compile the U. official data in many cases do not provide reliable data in aggregated form for such factors as. imported semi-manufactured products are included as imports in the individual commodity flows. These characteristics are fully searchable in the U. U. processing. which are resident in the economy less than two years (V1) and which are dispersed directly on land in solid. In order to track flows in a coherent manner. which may be accessed on the Internet at http://www. The datasheet presented here is a highly aggregated version of the current U. Imports of finished goods and semimanufactured products were two specific flows considered in our 1997 report which are not listed in the U. apparent use.S. manufacturing. As an example. material flow database is characterized in three ways.S. In this study. and post-use stages of the material cycle. and then exported.

fertilizers. forestry. M7: Flows that take many paths or no clearly defined path. they remain for more than 30 years. the fate of a flow in the environment is estimated based on the use to which a flow is put in the industrial economy. partial solid. M3: Flows dispersed directly onto land in a solid. Since both M1 and M2 are controlled in essentially the same manner. M2: Flows contained on land as liquids or partial solids (tailings ponds. For the most part.S. dataset. that is. It should be noted that all outputs to the environment are shown in the same year as the input occurred. Although it is useful to differentiate between point and diffuse sources. could be suggested. but becomes less accurate the longer a material remains useful in the economy. pesticides). M1: Flows contained or controlled on land as solids (landfills. sewage effluent. Q4: Flows that have undergone chemical processing. This is not too unrealistic for fast throughput goods such as packaging. industrial chemicals. and fishery products). this could be a problem. or liquid form (fertilizers. partial solid. useful for addressing specific questions. it is acknowledged that the spatial domain affected by multiple point sources may be the same as that for diffuse sources. the useful lifetime of a material in the human economy). deep well injection). Mode of first release categories: M0: Flows that become a “permanent” part of the built infrastructure and do not exit the economy during the period under consideration. but the following categories were used in the study: Quality categories: Q1: Flows that are biodegradable (agriculture. overburden). or liquid form (dredge spoil. The fate of each flow quantity is described by employing three characteristics: mode of first release (M). and this did not appear to be warranted for this study. Q2: Flows that replicate rapid continuous geologic processes (particle size reduction and movement only). These may or may not be chemically active (fuel emissions. M6: Flows discharged into air from diffuse sources in a gaseous or particulate form (auto emissions. the disaggregated use data for discrete material flows allowed a reasonable judgment of fate to be made. quality (Q). it may be possible to combine them. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 117 . or biologically hazardous (asbestos). household heating plants. however. the degree of containment in the geologic structure can be uncertain. Q3: Flows that have not been chemically processed but are chemically active (salt). or which are not classifiable. Overcoming this deficiency would have required the extension of the data time series both backward and forward over time. M5: Flows discharged into air from point sources in a gaseous or particulate form (power plant and industrial source stack emissions). this should not be a serious deficiency. impoundments). Where flows are undergoing rapid changes over time. Many quality measures. M4: Flows discharged into water systems in a solid. and velocity (V) from input to output (that is. certain mineral processing wastes). soil erosion. Where the overall quantity and use of a material flow is fairly stable from year to year.BOX A1 CHARACTERIZING MATERIAL FLOWS In the U. spray paints). Although it could be argued that deep well injection is a controlled release more appropriate to category M1.

ENVIRONMENT. The “transportation” category is dominated by lead acid vehicle batteries. buildings). Geological Survey data but appears to be a statistical anomaly. The spike in 1994 is an accurate reflection of U.S. Velocity categories: V1: Flows that exit the economy within two years of entry (food. 1975–1996 700 600 Thousand Metric Tons 500 Other 400 Oxides and Chemicals Transportation 300 Gasoline Additives 200 Ammunition 100 0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Note: The “other” category is dominated by lead in electrical products.S. “Ammunition” is civilian use. be useful if V2 could be further divided into 3–10 and 10–30 year categories. fertilizer. Also. the quantity of material recycled is subtracted from individual output flows as appropriate. petroleum used as fuel). Flows retained in stock (V3) are not considered to be outputs. automobiles). WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 118 . or radioactive.BOX A1 (CONTINUED) Q5: Flows that are heavy metals. notably computer monitors. It would FIGURE A6 LEAD OUTPUTS TO THE U. synthetic and persistent chemical compounds. V3: Flows that stay in the economy for more than 30 years and are additions to the stock of built infrastructure (highways. but it is not clear that the available data permit this distinction to be made. packaging. V2: Flows that exit the economy in 3 to 30 years (durable consumer goods.

FIGURE A7

POTENTIAL ARSENIC OUTPUTS TO THE U.S. ENVIRONMENT, 1975–1996

25

20

Thousand Metric Tons

15

Other Glass Wood Preservatives

10

Coal Fly Ash Agricultural Chemicals

5

0 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995

Note: Data for arsenic in wood preservatives corresponds to apparent use; we have not accounted for the time lag between use and disposal. This arsenic is currently a net addition to stock (see U.S. datasheet, Arsenic NAS). It will become an output to the environment at the end of the wood’s useful life, typically 15–30 years.

Use of this characterization scheme allowed the aggregation of all toxic and potentially hazardous flows to the environment (Q3 and Q5) that were presented in Figure 8 of this report (p. 33). At a finer level of detail, flows can be broken down by stage in the material cycle (processing, use, disposal) and by different product applications and different end uses. Numerous examples could be presented here, illustrating how material use, in both quantity and application, has changed over time. Figures A6 and A7 present data for just two substances: lead and arsenic. The data show that, while some applications have declined, others have increased, with

different implications for environmental quality and human health. Dispersive use of lead in gasoline, the application most immediately harmful to human health, has declined due to regulatory controls, but lead outputs from other uses such as post-use electrical goods has increased. Arsenic is little used today in agricultural applications, but its use as a wood preservative (currently unregulated) has risen nearly 25-fold. Arsenic in treated wood is believed to pose a threat to soil and water quality when wood products such as fences and flooring are chipped or burned at the end of their useful life.

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119

Commodity Flow: Arsenic
(1,000 metric tons)

INPUTS Domestic Production Imports Recycling

M

Q

V

1975 2.18 12.50 0.32 0.00 15.00

1976 4.40 4.80 0.80 0.00 10.00

1977 4.06 7.90 1.04 0.00 13.00

1978 1.28 11.60 1.12 0.00 14.00

1979 4.11 11.50 0.36 0.97 15.00

1980 3.40 9.10 0.32 1.51 12.40

1981 2.74 17.30 0.48 0.52 20.00

1982 3.58 14.70 0.38 2.66 16.00

1983 2.81 11.00 0.34 0.15 14.00

1984 6.80 14.20 0.42 0.08 17.30

1985 2.20 16.90 0.43 0.16 18.10

estimated @80% of alloy from lead acid batteries

Exports Apparent Use

OUTPUTS Extraction Phase
Hidden Domestic Overburden Arsenic extracted as a byproduct with nonferrous ores (copper and lead), overburden counted with those ores

Processing Phase
Hidden Domestic Gangue Gangue counted with nonferrous ores assume 40% domestic production (arsenic units) 2 5 1 0.87 1.76 1.62 0.51 (Based on information in USBM IC 9382, 1994, The Materials flow of Arsenic in the US)

1.64

1.36

1.10

1.43

1.13

2.72

0.88

Manufacturing Phase
Process losses Assume 0.1% of consumption IC 9382 7 5 1 0.02 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.02 0.02

Use Phase
Direct dissipation agricultural chemicals 3 5 1 13.40 7.00 8.00 9.00 9.00 5.70 8.00 6.00 4.00 3.98 4.16

Post Use Phase
Post use disposal wood preservatives glass alloys other 7 1 1 7 5 5 5 5 2 2 2 2 0.80 0.80 0.08 0.00 2.00 0.80 0.20 0.20 3.00 1.04 0.26 0.96 4.00 1.00 0.28 0.00 5.00 0.75 0.09 0.25 5.40 0.60 0.08 0.70 9.00 1.00 0.12 2.00 8.00 0.80 0.10 1.20 7.00 0.70 0.08 2.30 11.76 0.69 0.10 0.35 12.31 0.72 0.11 0.36

Recycling Phase
Process losses assume 1% 0.004 15.97 0.010 11.98 0.013 14.91 0.014 14.82 0.005 16.75 0.004 13.86 0.006 21.24 0.005 17.55 0.004 15.23 0.005 19.63 18.57

Total Outputs Additions to Stock Links to Other Flows Uses
wood preservatives agricultural chemicals glass alloys other Assume only alloy uses recycle in amounts shown above

Arsenic losses in gangue report to copper mining and processing sites

0.8 13.4 0.8 0.4 0.00

2.00 7.00 0.8 1.00 0.20 0.20

3.00 8.00 1.04 1.30 0.96 0.96

4.00 9.00 1.00 1.40 0.00 0.00

5.00 9.00 0.75 0.45 0.25

5.4 5.7 0.6 0.4 0.70

9.00 8.00 1.00 0.6 2.00

8.00 6.00 0.80 0.48 1.20

7.00 4.00 0.70 0.42 2.30

11.764 3.979 0.692 0.519 0.346

12.31 4.16 0.72 0.54 0.36

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Commodity Flow: Arsenic
(1,000 metric tons) 1986 0.00 26.00 0.51 0.22 21.10 1987 0.00 26.80 0.00 0.17 21.80 1988 0.00 30.00 0.38 0.40 23.70 1989 0.00 29.20 0.36 0.13 22.30 1990 0.00 27.07 0.33 0.15 20.50 1991 0.00 28.52 0.35 0.23 21.60 1992 0.00 31.48 1.53 0.09 23.90 1993 0.00 28.27 1.36 0.36 21.30 1994 0.00 28.21 1.38 0.08 21.50 1995 0.00 29.99 0.36 0.43 22.30 1996 0.00 29.27 0.35 0.02 22.00

Domestic Production Imports Recycling
estimated @80% of alloy from lead acid batteries

Exports Apparent Use

OUTPUTS Extraction Phase Processing Phase
assume 40% 0.00 0.00 domestic production (arsenic units) (Based on information in USBM IC 9382, 1994, The Materials flow of Arsenic in the US)

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

0.00

Manufacturing Phase
Process losses 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02 0.02

Use Phase
4.85 5.01 5.45 4.91 4.51 4.75 2.87 2.56 2.58 1.12 1.10 Direct dissipation agricultural chemicals

Post Use Phase
14.35 0.84 0.13 0.42 15.04 0.87 0.00 0.44 16.35 0.95 0.09 0.47 15.61 0.89 0.09 0.45 14.35 0.82 0.08 0.41 15.12 0.86 0.09 0.43 17.69 0.96 0.38 0.48 15.76 0.85 0.34 0.43 15.91 0.86 0.34 0.43 20.07 0.45 0.09 0.22 19.80 0.44 0.09 0.22 Post use disposal wood preservatives glass alloys other

Recycling Phase
0.005 20.62 0.006 21.39 0.000 23.35 0.005 21.97 0.004 20.20 0.004 21.28 0.004 22.41 0.019 19.98 0.017 20.16 0.017 21.97 0.004 21.67 Process losses

Total Outputs Additions to Stock Links to Other Flows Uses

14.348 4.853 0.844 0.633 0.422

15.042 5.014 0.872 0.0034 0.436

16.353 5.451 0.948 0.474 0.474

15.61 4.906 0.892 0.446 0.446

14.35 4.51 0.82 0.41 0.41

15.12 4.752 0.864 0.432 0.432

17.686 2.868 0.956 1.912 0.478

15.762 2.556 0.852 1.704 0.426

15.91 2.58 0.86 1.72 0.43

20.07 1.115 0.446 0.446 0.223

19.8 1.1 0.44 0.44 0.22

wood preservatives agricultural chemicals glass alloys Assume only alloy uses recycle in amounts shown above

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S. Missing data were interpolated. Liquid and gas fossil fuel data were derived from the U. The production of fly ash.S. The production of nonfuel petrochemicals was either counted as feed stocks for other products or as end uses in themselves that would be disposed of as waste or dissipated in use. was estimated separately for surface and underground mines. and flue gas desulfuration materials have gradually gained value as raw material for other products. For underground mining. Originally compiled by an industry association (American Coal Ash Association). Petroleum was converted to mass units on the basis of . others are based on technical judgments and estimates of relationships. as a hidden flow. Toxic wastes from petroleum production were extracted from the U. west (including midwestern) and east. the country was divided into two zones. and flue gas desulfuration materials was estimated from coal consumption data. slag.135 metric tons per barrel. estimation of hidden flows was more complicated. bottom ash. hidden flows were estimated at 10 percent of coal mined (based on the German experience). bottom ash. World Development Indicators 1999. Based on the one extant publication that compares four western mines (average overburden ration 4.Notes on Data Sources and Quality The data used in this study were obtained from a variety of sources and are not of uniform quality. Overburden. Energy Information Administration’s report Annual Review of Energy 1996. and these Population and GDP Population data are from the United Nations Population Division. slag. Some data come directly from annual published figures.S. Data were obtained from the Association and the USGS. Natural gas was converted from cubic feet to metric tons on the basis of the weight of methane at standard temperature and pressure (653 grams per cubic meter). WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 122 . Processing waste from the production and processing of petroleum was estimated at 11. Geological Survey (USGS) as a mineral commodity. Detailed technical notes on data sources and formulae used in calculating outputs may be found at the WRI Web address noted above. Carbon dioxide emissions were derived from data supplied by the Carbon Dioxide Information and Analysis Center at the U. Annual Populations 1950–2050. coal combustion products are now also tracked by the U. GDP is from the World Bank. Hidden flows from gas production were estimated at 10 percent of production. Department of Energy’s Oak Ridge National Laboratory.8:1) to one eastern surface mine (overburden ratio 26. Basic coal production data were derived from the publications of the Energy Information Administration. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Toxic Release Inventory. including fly ash. (The 1998 Revision).9:1). Missing data on losses from gas use for years prior to 1985 were estimated on the basis of the 1985 ratio of losses to production.S. Fossil Fuels Coal combustion products: Waste from coal combustion. For surface mining.7 percent of domestic production.

Domestic production. or on a pro rata basis. Overburden and gangue: For the most part. copper. but much is spotty. USGS. and is greatly appreciated. discontinuous. A major deficiency is that there is no way to distinguish first movement from subsequent rehandling. Personal communication: Verbal information or estimates were obtained from USGS commodity specialists. Bureau of Mines (USBM). Since these data are used as a proxy for the fate of the material flow. 1985. and apparent use: These data are from USBM annual reports and the Statistical Compendium of the USBM. Apparent use was calculated from these data by considering old (post-consumer) scrap only. supplemented with information from the USBM Statistical Compendium. import. and not very detailed. They represent reasonable order-of-magnitude estimates of the amounts of material handled. Recycling: Recycled flows were deducted from commodity use data based on selected uses that are known to be recycled. Process losses: These are entirely based on technical judgments. Commodity uses data: These were obtained mainly from the USGS annual mineral commodity summaries. The help of these specialists facilitated the data gathering. these flows were compared with EPA recycling data as a check on accuracy. Where possible. The estimates of ore grade and overburden were assumed to be constant for the entire time period. and for commodities where major changes in mining practice or location occurred. Minerals and Metals General References: MCS: Mineral Commodity Summaries. an annual report published by the U.S. these are estimates based on the technical judgment of commodity specialists at the Infrastructure Highway earth moving: These data are derived from detailed annual highway expenditure data by use of cost-estimating relationships. recycling. Methane emissions from coal were reported based on the 1985 ratio of methane to production. their improvement would enhance the quality of the entire database. mainly by USGS commodity experts. A good deal of the commodity use data is quite fine-grained and continuous.ratios were applied to production in each zone for each year using data found in the Annual Energy Review 1996. where some time series data were available for average grade and overburden. MIS: Mineral Industry Surveys are commodity specific reports published annually or periodically by the USGS. export. now part of the USGS. and gold. Exceptions to this were iron ore. Coal wastes and the chemical makeup of those wastes were derived from estimates of ash content (from Environmental Impact Assessment [EIA] publications) as well as from general coal chemistry data (including trace elements) found in the Handbook of Coal Chemistry. Gangue was set at 5 percent of production as representing a reasonable average figure for all forms of coal. WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 123 . Statistical Compendium: A USBM Special Publication published December 1993.

WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 124 .S. Soil erosion: Erosion rates were derived from the U. Synthetic Organic Chemicals and Medical Chemicals Data were taken from the production data produced by the U. A mass-balance approach. Army Corps of Engineers. often in sludges and liquid waste carrying biologically active ingredients.S. Dredging: These are annual cubic yardage quantities reported by the U. was estimated to make up 1 percent of production. published annually by the U. Agriculture Most agricultural data were obtained from Agricultural Statistics. Department of Agriculture. Intermediate years were estimated by interpolation and out years by extrapolation from known rates of change. was used to arrive at outputs from processes for which there are no measured waste statistics.Private and public construction earth moving: These are derived from expenditure data in the annual Economic Report to the President. Forestry Data on production and products were obtained from FAO and the U. The last year the International Trade Commission collected data was 1996. but it ceased to aggregate data in the manner reported here in 1994. Waste from medical chemicals production. which is the five-year physical survey of the non-federal land resources in the United States. Other outputs not measured were arrived at using multiplication factors. Data collection ceased due to congressional mandate. International Trade Commission and published in its annual Synthetic Organic Chemicals. Some information was also obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO).S. Natural Resource Inventory.S. An average density was used to convert to metric tons. The quality of these data is similar to that for highways. the ultimate disposition on land or water is speculative. waste from end-use synthetic organic chemicals was estimated at production. Erosion estimates of federal lands. or through their disposal at end of use—was estimated at 50 percent of production. Although the quantity data are good. such as amount of manure per cow. This is net erosion from wind and water. Recycling data were used to estimate wastes from the production of plastics. in which the products of a process are subtracted from the inputs to the process. the intermediate value in an estimated range of 30 to 90 percent. Except for medical chemicals and plastics. Waste from the use of medical chemicals—either through the excretion of biologically active ingredients or their biologically active metabolites. are explicitly excluded. Logging and mill residue data and their uses are from the Forest Inventory and Analysis group of the USFS. Construction cost-estimating relationships were used to convert these expenditures to earth moving quantities. The breakdown of forest products into uses is based on FAO data. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USFS). which amount to 21 percent of the total land area. Data for 1995 and 1996 are estimated here as identical to that of 1994.S.

jp/index.E. An important factor is the earlier report’s inclusion of foreign hidden flows associated with imports in TMR. The Netherlands http://www. Washington D.org WRI : THE WEIGHT OF NATIONS 125 . D-42103. http://www. Doppersberg 19.A. This is due to a number of differences in the accounting methodology used for each study. oxides of nitrogen. Leiden. Suite 800.) as part of waste outputs from the economy.nies.C.univie. whereas the present study includes oxygen (in carbon dioxide. Please note that the total domestic output (TDO) recorded from the U. Schottenfeldgasse 29. 2300 RA. Einsteinweg 2. Ibaraki 305–0053. Another key factor is that the earlier report excludes atmospheric oxygen from direct material inputs to the economy.leidenuniv.html World Resources Institute (WRI) 10 G Street N.nl/interfac/cml/ssp/ Institute for Interdisciplinary Studies of Austrian Universities (IFF) Department of Social Ecology.S.ac. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION Centre of Environmental Science (CML).wri. The input and output data cannot be directly compared in this way. Wuppertal.org/wri/materials/ Wuppertal Institute (WI) Postfach 100480. Leiden University Van Steenisgebouw. etc. A-1070 Vienna. whereas this report is concerned only with domestic hidden flows. Japan http://www. Austria http://www. U.S.at/iffsocec National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) 16–2 Onogawa Tsukuba.NOTE 1.go.wupperinst. Germany http://www. plus net additions to stock (2 billion tons) do not tally with the 22 billion tons of total material requirement (TMR) documented in the 1997 report: Resource Flows: the Material Basis of Industrial Economies. economy (23 billion tons). 20002.

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