There are 2 ways to mix gypsum: 1- Mixing by the hand. 2- Mechanical mixing. The important thing is to use scanning to get correct water:powder (W:P) ratio. We need some time to do mixing and we have working time. When we put the machine in tray then in patient mouth , after the material become too rigid . 

INITIAL SETTING: We can detect if the material start initial setting by its appearance , that happen when the material become not shiny >>>its called ( loss of gloss ). At first the surface of the material is shiny and contain water but when the component take part in reaction, water absorb inside .so, the material will not be shiny or glossy any more ( dark appearance). *****After this level you can’t manipulate any more . The material take 1 hour to become rigid, but after you send it to the lab they can separate it from tray after 30 min. But they can work on it after it become hard enough. When the powder mix with water crystallization take place (component of powder + water = crystal )when these crystal become large , the material will expand a little bit (crystal expand and interlock with each other), this is continue until the material become hard.

~~~ As we said we must have good proportional of water by using scanning. Sometime Dentist have small package contain a certain amount of powder and you add a certain amount of water ( written on the package ) and start mixing >>>> this is make life easy ^___^. ***Final setting of the material mean that you can handle it because it cooling ( the reaction is exothermic ) ***setting expansion: result from crystal growth during setting . can be decreased by the addition of potassium sulfate, sodium chloride and borax . ***Hygroscopic expansion: if gypsum soaked during setting , water fills pores and increase volume.

For any material we should know the mixing time , working time and setting time. So, we have TESTS which we do in the lab to detect these times. These tests depend mainly on the ability to penetrate of needle on the surface of the material. (made marks on the surface ). We use needle attached to certain weight. after we mix the material and place it in the tray we start to allow the needle to attach the surface and wait until it stop making mark. Once the material resist injection (no more marks) >>>>> this indicate the setting time. These test called PENTRATION or INDENTATION test, because it depend on the resistance of material to penetrate or identate .

REMEMBER: ~loss of gloss >>>>> initial setting.

~other stages of setting is measure by needle test .

***Types of needle test : 1- Vicat penetration (A) for setting. 2- Gillmove test(B) for final setting time. (it take these name from person who done them )

~_~ please look to slide 29 : this diagram show you the different stages of setting time. - At the bottom :at 10 min >>>loss of gloss stage . - With time strength and hardness increase until you reach the point of ready for use. There are clinical tip to make sure that you can use criteria: - Before separation cast from impression, ensure that no part of the tray is connected to the gypsum. - If alginate impression dried before cast separation, soak in water for 15 min.

FACTORS EFFECT SETTING TIME: 1- Its very important to know W:P ratio  Increasing water >>>retarded setting >>>weaker model or cast >>>inaccurate model  Decreasing water>>> shorter setting time >>>mix difficult to manipulate >>> bubbles inclusion in mix >>>inaccurate model  Your material shouldn’t be watery or viscous, it should be in between.

2- SPATULATION :rapid prolonged spatulation accelerates setting and also, increase setting expansion. 3- TEMPERATURE: increasing water temperature to a certain level will accelerate setting. 4- Accelerator and retarders :  Accelerate the setting time mean make it shorter  Retard the setting time mean make it longer  Shorten the setting time lead to slightly expansion because it increase the ratio of crystallization  There are material (manufactures) accelerate the reaction like potassium sulfate or set gypsum (slurry water ) .  There are material (manufactures ) retard the reaction like blood, saliva, alginate ….. ***NOTE: always try to give your material an extra time to make sure that the inner layer has set. ( now the doctor explain the picture in slide 36) In the previous lecture we talked about base which we made simply by mixing gypsum with water into a ball shape, now put it on the paper then add your impression on top of it. Now you must be careful when trimming the base because you mustn’t remove part of the teeth or palate or sulcus. If you want to trimming the upper and lower cast together you must put them in contact then trim them at the same time. ***in the orthodontic dentistry you need to make trimming for upper and lower cast at the same time.

We have other way to pour the base, it is boxing method (it use wax):

Atrip of wax is fitted around the impression then gypsum is poured. The wax border should extend at least 0.5 inch above the highest point of the impression.

Now you must know that the gypsum store in a certain way. It must store in a dry area away from moisture (become adding water after crystal formation make setting time longer and longer…)

*~*~*~* DISINFECTION of the cast will be do if necessary after 24 hour of setting . Disinfectant commonly use:  Sodium hypochlorite, iodophors, chlorine dioxide

TRIMMING:  Plaster bass are recommended since trimming them is easier than dental stone.  If base is made from stone, it should be soaked in water for 5-10 min to soften it before trimming because stone harder than plaster.

TRIMMING CONSIDERATION:      Proportion of base to anatomical part Parallelism Use of wax bite registration Outer border of cast Shaping of anterior part of upper and lower arches

OTHER TYPES OF DIE STONE:  Metal plated die stone: silver or copper plated to increase abrasion resistance.  Expoxy die stone: resin is used as a hardener  Resin reinforced die stone: resin is incorporated into the gypsum material to increase abrasion resistance.

*~*~*~*~*Investment material: mixing of dental stone with silica. It’s a powder similar to gypsum but it has better strength, better ability to handle in high temperature. And usually we use it when we make ridges. ***high temperature are used in this process to milted the metal. *~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~*~

NOW we will start with WAX: We use wax in:  Complete and partial denture  Bite registration (closer relationship between upper and lower teeth)  Sometime when we use the tray we notes that its short. So, we need to use wax as alteration in the side of tray  We use wax to make restoration in the oral cavity then send to lab to form proper restoration (metal, ceramic,,,,)  Use boxing wax to make the gypsum surface of the model  Sticky wax used to hold 2 fracture component with each other

wax sources: 1- Natural sources: from plant or animal ….

2- Synthetic sources ***there are other component add to natural wax to adjust its properties (to make it softer or harder or rigid or make it set at higher or lower temperature ). The wax as a material has a milting range. SO, you can modify the material by temperature. So, to make it soft you can simply heated it and to make it harder you can cool it. So, by the temperature and the amount of force that you applied on the wax you can control the flow of the wax. So, when you use the wax to make bite registration, your wax shouldn’t milted until 37 degree, because if it milted to 37 it will go away when you put it in the patient mouth. So, you don’t able to have clear copy of the bite.

NOTE: You must clean the machine which use in wax processing. (Remove an extra amount of wax) if this extra wax still inside the machine it will cause irregularly of dimensional stability and inaccuracy. This is called excises Lesage: excises wax from previous work it needed to completely remove. So, your new work will not effected by old wax. * Dimensional changes in waxes because they expand and contract at very wide range it is very wide range it is very important to know how to maculate especially when you do crowns & bridges (need to be very accurate ) the crown on wax should be exactly the same of the crown that will fit on patient mouth. *so wax must be not heated very much to avoid damage it & expand easily all over. *once you carve your crown or bridge on wax you should not leave it for a long time on the bench before you replace wax with metal to avoid changing on the wax shape(dimensional instability ) because you manculate the wax (change its shape ) which mean that you have created

stress inside it if you allow the wax to set for long time on the bench this stress can change the shape of the wax again so the crown when you replace it with metal will not fit properly on patient mouth . *so wax → manculated → replaced by metal (as soon as possible) to prevent change in shape because of stress that was created when it manculated *heated the wax should done gradually and take pit by pit not taken & heated in bulk this again will cause change on dimension *its important for us as dentist to know these things (not only teqnitions ) because on future if we will have a crown not fit properly we can know what's the problem on it. -how is wax classified: 1-pattern wax → used to make the general shape or pattern of restoration ( inlay wax , baseplate wax ) 2-casting wax (motility wax ) → process on lab *horseshoe wax used for bite restoration 3-utility wax → used to over extend the tray & adjust the length when we place it on patient mouth . *after take a waxy model we replace it on patient mouth with porcelain filling material . *inlay wax is a pattern wax supplied on the form of sticks or small pieces gradually milted & placed in the cavity & hard with a wax knife → used with the lots wax teqnique explained before . *lots wax teqnique = remove wax & replace it with find restoration material. *many types available : -type 1 → the wax adulate diversity on patient mouth & there is a lot of types used on indirect teqnique which is harder

*hard wax available some of them medium & some are soft it depend on melting temperature. *castilc wax → partial denture metal is made up of wax firstly then it replaced by metal by lost wax teqnique . *basepaste wax used to set the teeth then it replace with dental material by use flask. *boxing wax →we take a wax and adjust the bulge of tray to make it over extended to cover all anatomical area needed. -problem on them that it must kept on dry area … if they be wet they will not stick to the tray or the impression. *sticky wax → rigid as soon as you milt it you can use it to attach broken component together to fix them together or for repair but when its cold its rigid (its come on form of yellow or orange sticks ) in a box. *impression wax → it can used take impression but its not commonly used because its soluble restoration easily affected by temperatures (if not used properly you get easily distorted impression ) "it can used if you want to block any area or correct void on gypsum to give flat surface. *bite registration wax : come on form of sheet or horseshoe to take relation between upper & lower teeth can soften on flame or by placed on warm water sometimes on our hand at 37 c just to make it move flexible then shaped & placed on mouth. *they need to be added on layer it should not be stand for long time before milted away *store on dry & low melting temperature avoid melted away . Requirement on gypsum material:*Because they are used on special application of ways. * Because it’s used under very high temperature they need to be:1-very strong

2-able to handle high temperature 3-maintain dimensional stability 4- accurate 5- able to reduce expansion . (On silica+ dental store) 6-compensate metal shape. *How you select the Gypsum material?? It depends on 1-Tempretur that’s used. 2-type of metal allayed that will be used. * 1+2= connected because you need to choose metal material that will be hardly temperate There are three available type of (inverse) material: 1-gypsom bonding 2-phosphate 3-silica bonding

*it contain more than one component &these bonding together by (gypsum phosphate silica) *each one is used for certain application. -For example:-Gypsum material >> can’t hardly temp higher than 700 so we use it when more gold crown because gold melt at temperature below 1000 so when we replace was with gold it melt about 700 to 800.  If you use other type of alloyed. You need to use silica or phosphate bonded investment because they hardly high temperature without breaking or decomposing (becoming weaker) So gypsum bonding investment mainly compos of silica and calcium sulfate hemihydrates it contain folic aced, sodium chloride all of these

to improve the flow of the material to improve the maculation. but main component calcium sulfate hemihydrates + silica.  Silica is available in many forms these type of crystals has many form each form exist certain temperature?? - When the temperature get higher the component of gypsum investment will change because different shape of crystals of silica & they will become larger and larger this is going to cause expansion of the investment material is by crystal changing the shape they call it (crystal inversion).  The names of silica form:1- quarts 2- crystalline

3- tridymite

According to pic on slide 35 : a-before heat applied b-after heat applied *bound between crystal become straight which cause crystal to become larger & this cause expanding on investment material which called thermal expansion & crystalline inversion. *some types of silica give us more expansion under heat which is second type (crystobalite) This is why some types of of investment material contain crystobalite silica other contain tridymite each behave on different way under heat but all expansion. *sitting expansion occur because crystal will form precipitate & hydroscopic expansion is done by placing the gypsum mold in water before it completely set. -another form of adding water to produce expansion is placing a specific amount of water on top of the model not all around it just on top so water goes in bush particle away from each other give them more space to form crystal & become larger in size.

-kinds of expansion: *sitting expansion *hydroscopic expansion

*thermal expansion *crystalline inversion

-the End result expansion of material to compensate for metal shrinking &give us the actual size of restoration that will fit inside patient mouth *presenting of air bubble between gypsum prevent crystal growing but when water go inside no bubble then gypsum will be grow -so0o expansion can increase with adding water or make water come inside the material but we must do this before the material set so that water actually go in &crystal grow more *types of gypsum bonding investment with slightly different composition : -hydroscopic expansion  give expansion under a high temperature for (complete or partial denture) *so gypsum bonding investment can be used to make denture & gold crown but if the crown is made of another metal like cobalt or naikel chromian we can’t use gypsum bonging investment you need a very high temperature to milt these metal & material decomposite & break off if its high temperature *for that purpose other material used like (silica) but it has different binding not gypsum but silica gel that produced by certain reaction (group of reaction that occur to produce silica gel that bind these component together .

This material is very strong and hardly high temperature but a problem with it that it’s flammable because it produce alcohol as ally produce so it’s flammable and may make explosion. That’s why it’s not wed very common another problem with this material that it’s not forced enough now you need some force to be present on your model. WHY?? (.~_~.) Because this gas formation at high temperature and you want this gas to be able to escape to preprint pressure completing up, if the material completely forced hot forced at all it’s going to be build up inside and pressure will be built up again inside and come explosion

So the fact that they are not pours enough to allow gas to go out (escape) during processing and fact that they are flammable of make explosion  3rd type is phosphate bonded investment:It is safer than silica and hardly temperature so it con be used for metal other than gold. Called Bascemetal alloyed because metal alloy made of expensive metal Like {Gold, Palladium, platinum, and other type of metal >> like: chrome, cobalt, zinc, copper, silver called Base metal}. So these need very high temperature are  The imposition is silica may has come oxide and ammonium phosphate.  Reaction:Mix powder with water and instead of water they mixed powder with silica (solution that contain colloidal silica) to provide metal expansive or more expansive. So once the powder mixed with water or silica Magnesium ammonium phosphate form and going to add as a binder to bord all

component together by phosphate component they expanel with hall type of expansion

 It can used to do removable dentures and crowns or brides or inlays or onlayes all of these composed of metal. - The Fact that Gypsum bonded investment can’t hardly high temperature restrict the use of material to do crown or particle denture at temperature about 1200 c going to start (remitting) gases material because brittle of these gases causes porosity to this material and become weak.

*This is WHY we don’t use at high temperature they damage and weaken the restoration .

 Sometimes they add certain material to gypsum bonded investment like oxalate, these material try to minimize gas formation.

 The table show you the amount of shrinking that occur to metal… You don’t have to memorize the number but you must know which material more than the other.  Each type of investment material expire move on a certain way depend on material and components  pcplease guide study slide # (52)  The casting material not included on the course.

Done by:salam bataineh & heba Ramadneh  (Good luck)