You are on page 1of 12

Business Research Methods Project Proposal

Submitted By:
Umair Ashiq

MBA spring3rd

Contents
Topic:............................................................................................................................................................. 4 Introduction .................................................................................................................................................. 4 Literature Review .......................................................................................................................................... 5 Problem Statement ....................................................................................................................................... 6 Hypotheses: .............................................................................................................................................. 6 Dependent variable................................................................................................................................... 6 Independent variable: ............................................................................................................................... 6 Theoretical Model: .................................................................................................................................... 6 Language: .................................................................................................................................................. 7 Methodology:............................................................................................................................................ 7 Target audience: ....................................................................................................................................... 7 Purpose of the Research ............................................................................................................................... 7 Research Design ............................................................................................................................................ 7 Research Methodology ............................................................................................................................. 7 Data Collection .......................................................................................................................................... 7 Designing the questionnaire ..................................................................................................................... 8 What Information is needed? ................................................................................................................... 8 What was the content of the Individual questions? ................................................................................. 8 What was the wording of the questions? ................................................................................................. 8 Sampling Procedure .................................................................................................................................. 8 Analysis ..................................................................................................................................................... 9 Limitations and Delimitations: .................................................................................................................. 9 Reliability and Validity............................................................................................................................... 9 Validity: ................................................................................................................................................. 9

Reliability:.............................................................................................................................................. 9 ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS ..................................................................................................................... 10 Conclusion ............................................................................................................................................... 11 References .............................................................................................................................................. 12

Topic: Impact of Fuel prices on middle class cost of living

Introduction
Development strategies in Pakistan have unfortunately failed to ensure the flow of benefits to all sections of the population. They have contrarily made the rich richer and the poor poorer. The process of inequitable distribution of benefits has disadvantaged the fixed income or the salaried class comprising the middle class forming the two blocks from the bottom, more than the others. This class has had to part with a substantial portion of its not enough earnings due to the cost spiral in order to maintain its lifestyle. In contrast with the poor, the middle class does not go on the street for begging, or doing menial jobs. It certainly has a large family and the head of the family does encourage his wife and children to earn a little to contribute to the income of the family. Alternatively, it has entered into corrupt practices to earn a little more. The recent changes in tax structures, devaluation of the rupee and increase in prices have affected a much larger section of population and forced many persons to think of alternatives since the price spiral that has been set into motion is least likely to be brought under control. The process of rise in prices of all commodities, on the one hand and the fixed income of the salaried class and the fixed-for-lifetime income of the pensioners on the other hand, are in sharp contrast with each other. It is hard to imagine as to how the said class of people can still manage a living. The middle class has to spend on its food, clothing and other needs of living, on educating its children, getting them married, besides paying taxes. Yet, it is this middle class which is fleeced by the government by raising the cost of living in the routine as well as through mini-budgets, and in return giving them a very nominal increase in pay for bare survival. Just imagine that the cost of commodities has gone up by a factor of 30 to 100 during the last 40 years but the pay has increased only by a factor of 10 to 15. This is the class that is politically and economically exploited and there is no assurance that its fate will improve.

Literature Review
The people from all segments of society have in one voice rejected the bulk increase in petroleum prices. The working class, terming the hikes a mini-budget, demanded from the government to withdraw this anti-people decision forthwith and meet the shortfall in revenue, if any, by cutting their wasteful expenditures. Meanwhile, traders have termed the increase a bombshell for the common man already groaning under hyper-inflationary pressure. Disappointed citizens also asked why government has put series of taxes on petroleum products to generate direct income in billions, while hard pressing common man. Right with the inception of fiscal year government has increased petroleum prices, which is a bad omen for the coming year, men from the civil society observed. The working class termed the fresh increase in petroleum price a mini budget and rubbing salt to their injuries. They said due to high inflation it was already hard for them to make their both ends meet and the current increase in petroleum prices would further burden them. They said instead of increasing petroleum prices, the rulers should have cut their own expenditures and taken to austerity measures. They feared that this would let loose yet another bout of inflationary pressure by sending the prices of almost everything skyrocketing. Traders termed the surge in petroleum prices a bombshell for common man, as it would increase the cost of production and, thereby the prices of goods and services badly affecting them. The exporters feared that the emanating situation might render them uncompetitive in the international market.

Problem Statement
It would create a bigger financial crunch, increase economic difficulties, and be it the business community, agriculture sector or the general public. Public transport vehicle owners and business community, besides the people from various walks of life, have already started protesting against the hike. Prices of consumer items, electricity tariff and transport fares would go up substantially due to this increase. The increase in prices of petroleum products would further undermine industrial growth already reeling under power shortages and outages. A number of industrial units are already closed or are operating at below optimum levels. Frequent increase in gas and power tariffs, transport fares and oil prices has already accelerated the capital flight and discouraged local and foreign direct investment. Law and order is already a serious problem and feared day-to-day increase in oil prices, gas and power tariffs may further create unrest among the general public.

Hypotheses:
H0= Fuel prices doesnt have any impact on cost of living H1= Fuel prices have any impact on cost of living

Dependent variable
Cost of living of middle class

Independent variable:
Fuel prices

Theoretical Model:

Fuel Prices

Cost of living of middle class

Language:
Formal

Methodology: Deductive approach Target audience: Middle class income people

Purpose of the Research


The main purpose of this research is to examine and analyze the impact of fuel prices on middle class people cost of living. The Key Research Objectives are:

To find out the increase in fuel prices and its effect on cost of living To know the reaction of consumer in increase of oil price

Research Design
Research Methodology
The research methodology has been designed keeping research objectives under consideration.

Data Collection
An exploratory primary research will be conducted among the general public. All of them must be aware of the problems and how their contribution towards the economy. The data will be collected using questionnaire and interview. The reason to choose the questionnaire is that will describe a population by providing a quantitative numeric description of some fractions of population through the data collection process of asking question of the people. This will enable to generalize the findings from sample of response to a population.

Questionnaires also have a number of strengths like; it is good for measuring attitude and eliciting other content from research participants. It is inexpensive and can be administrated to probability samples and has a quick turnaround.

Designing the questionnaire


A questionnaire will be prepared to find out the bad impact of fuel prices on cost of living.

What Information is needed?


We have made an attempt to know the fuel prices trend and its effect on cost of living and then how this effect on middle class people. And also find out that whether decrease in fuel price also effect on cost of living or not.

What was the content of the Individual questions?


Some general questions about the respondents background Only questions those were necessary to draw inferences and conclusions Questions where we knew the respondent would have true information Questions which were within the respondents experience Questions which would be easy to understand and interpret for the respondent.

What was the wording of the questions?


It was endeavored for the questions to be Simple Unambiguous Specific Mix of positive and negative statements to measure attitude.

Sampling Procedure
Target group: This study was aimed at people who belong to middle class income group. Probability sampling

Analysis
SPPS will be used to analyze the data in addition to other suitable statistical techniques this approach is chosen for two reasons

It is closer to the way in which quantitative data analysis is carried out in real research
nowadays. It helps to equip the researcher with a useful transferable skill.

Limitations and Delimitations:

Delimitations:
This research will restrict to the middle class cost of living people.

Limitations:
The sample of respondents will be taken for this proposal may not be enough to investigate or generalize the findings or appropriate result.

Reliability and Validity Validity:


It defines that whether or not an indicator really measures the concept

Predicted validity:
Here the researcher uses a future criterion measure, rather than a contemporary one, as in case of concurrent validity.

Reliability:
It defines the consistency and stability of the measurement.

Test-retest reliability:
It is determined by comparing the scores of two successive measurements. So a reliable measurement procedure will produce identical results.

ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS
Some issues will be considered related to ethics, which are as follows: The data will be kept strictly confidential. The data would only be used for research purpose. Signatures of both the researchers and the participants would be used if at any time needed. The respondents will be told about all the aspects of the research beforehand so that the respondent answers clearly.

Conclusion
Result of the study will be discussed to check the significance of the proposed model. Further the Further the implication of study for both theoretical and practical purposes will be discussed. Further, scope for future research in this area will be highlighted.

References
http://www.pakistaneconomist.com/database2 http://www.thenews.com.pk/blog/blog_details.asp?id=150 http://teabreak.pk/pakistan-times-blasts-govt-policies-on-oil-prices-253/32122/ http://www.dailytimes.com.pk/default.asp?page=2010\02\02\story_2-2-2010_pg5_1 http://www.spdc.org.pk/pubs/rr/rr43.pdf http://www.dawn.com.pk/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/in-papermagazine/economic-and-business/flaws-in-measuring-inflation-820 http://finance.kalpoint.com/economic-updates/exclusive-articles/state-ofeconomy.html Business Research Methods - Cooper & Schindler Research Methods for Business Uma Sekaran en.wikipedia.org