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Student of SMP Negeri 10 Pontianak in Academic Year 2012/2013
RESEARCH BACKGROUND Writing skill is one of the four English language skills in addition to listening,
speaking and reading. It has been taught from primary schools to university. Of course writing is not an easytask because it involves the correct grammar and the conventions of writing. Through writing, the students can express their opinion or idea. The ability to write description clearly is a necessity, especially in students’ everyday activity. Through descriptive writing the students can create visual and images for the reader, describe and explain behavior of others. When the students write descriptive text, they have a chance to explore the objects’ visual, taste, smell, sound and its surface and then transfer it into written words. The students must use appropriate vocabulary, grammar, and organize their idea to make an effective paragraph. The effort to express idea and the constant use of eye, hand, brain is a unique way to reinforce learning. Writing also broadens the students’ communication abilities and also completes the study of grammatical patterns an vocabulary. In integrated skills curriculum, writing is taught in meaningful context It is the teachers’ task to help learners use the language effectively and appreciate the written expression of others. As it is well known, communication is the fundamental reason for the existence of language, and writing is a means towards it. Moreover, it gives the students a chance to practice what they learn ina more meaningful and creative way. In other words, through writing, the students are
able to relate what they learn through everyday life and experiences.To enable the students to write descriptive writing well, the teacher may use various technique and media, because it could motivate the students enjoy in writing process. Based on the Kurikulum Tingkat SatuanPendidikan (KTSP), there are five shorts and simple texts that should be acquired by junior high school students. There are narrative, recount, descriptive, report and anecdote In curriculum for junior high school grade seventh, the purpose of teaching English writing is to enable students to write English correctly. They are expected to be able to write a descriptive text about personal identity, write a descriptive text to introduce someone, understand descriptive text on a person, write a letter to describe physical description, etc. Based on the interview with English Teacher of the first year students of SMPN 10 Pontianak, the researcher could identify the problem faced by the students related with writing skills. One of the most obvious problems is the students’ low writing skills and just few of the students can write well in English. The difficulty faced by the students can be seen in writing a simple paragraph; the students get difficulty in exploring their ideas into words. In other words, the students haven’t use diction. Thirdly the students can’t make a good words order in simple sentence yet. Fourthly the students have low vocabulary mastery. The last, students do not get a lot of opportunity to write; the time for practicing writing is limited Based on the many problems above, the researcher would like to focus on the students’ problem in exploring their ideas into words. Because of this reason, the writer plan to use graphic organizer in the research. Graphic organizer will be used as tools to help the students in descriptive writing process. The writer hopes that the students can learn descriptive writing in more interesting way, and the students have a more organize idea.
(Drapeau, 1998)stated “graphic organizers are teaching tools that appeal to all types of students. They help visual learners see what you are trying to convey and provide a structure that helps children with limited attention spans stay focused.” Graphic organizer is easy to use, it will be a great aid for visual learners in the classroom, as well as a useful way to help all students organize and review information. According to (Drapeau, 2009) stated “Graphic organizers provide teachers with tools to help students on the road to higher achievement.” Graphic organizers that target critical and creative thinking verbs are vehicles to help develop students’ cognitive abilities and provide formats for students to process their thinking about content. Graphic organizer formats also allow teachers to diagnose where students’ thinking has gone awry. Teachers can pin point areas in which students’ thinking is weak, illogical, or unclear. The structure and language of the organizer allows teachers to be able to coach students and move them beyond where thinking has fallen apart. Graphic organizers provide new language that facilitates classroom communication, as well as deepen understanding of the content that teachers work to transmit In this research the writer wants to improve the students’ descriptive writing ability by using graphic organizer to the seventh grade students of SMP Negeri 10 Pontianak class C. The writer choosegraphic organizers by considering the students’ problem in learning English.
RESEARCH PROBLEM The research problem of this research is:
How well can graphic organizer improve students descriptive writing ability?
RESEARCH PURPOSE Ingeneral the research purpose is to know how well graphic organizer can
improve writing ability at seventh grade students of SMPN 10 Pontianak in academic year 2011/2012
ACTION HYPHOTHESIS Based on the research problem, the action hypothesis of this research is
Graphic organizer can improve the writing ability at seventh grade students of SMPN 10 Pontianak in academic year 2011/2012
RESEARCH SIGNIFICANCE It is expected that this research will be beneficial in many ways, as follow:
The findings of the research can be used as the reference for other researcher and reader and also hopefully it will provide additional information to the existing studies about improving students’ writing ability.
Practically The finding will help the teacher of SMPN 10 in effort to improving the students’ writing ability. The finding will motivate the students in effort to improve their writing ability.
RESEARCH SCOPE In order to avoid a misunderstanding or misinterpretation of this research, the
researcher carries out the scope of research. In this research, there are two points, which will be explained, namely research variable and terminology.
Scope of Research The Scope of this research is the improvement of students’ writing ability
through graphic organizerto the Seventh (VII) Grade Students of SMP Negeri 10 Pontianak in Academic Year 2011/2012
Terminology To avoid misunderstanding and misinterpretation, it is necessary to define
some terminologies that have been used in this research. The terminologies are as follow: In order to avoid misinterpretation regarding some terms used in this research, the writer provides a simple explanation as follows:
Graphic organizeris an instructional tool used to illustrate a student or class's prior knowledge about a topic or section of text and one used by students to brainstorm ideas.
Classroom action research is a classroom-based research which applied to find the best solution to the problem faced by teacher in the classroom, in order to improve students achievements.
Seventh grade students of SMPN 10 Pontianakthe students whose registered as the seventh grades at SMPN 10 Pontianak as the subject of research Improving writing is to increase the observable realization of students’ ability in writing. It includes organization, dictions, grammar used and convention.
Descriptive paragraph is a paragraph which describes a particular person, place or thing
FRAME OF THEORY
What is Writing
There is a lot of definition of writing, we can’t say any of those definition is correct than the other, but we can use each other definition to help us understand what writing is. Below a definition of writing; (Sampson, 1985) stated “The proper definition of ‘writing’ is that it is a system for representing utterance of a spoken language by means of permanent, visible marks.” While another writer define ‘writing’ with his own definition; (Powell, 2009) stated “Writing is a system of marking with a conventional reference that communicates information”. Powell said that writing is a system of marking because writing is made up from marking of letter. The writer totally agree with writing definition from Sampson, but The writer is also need the writing definition from Powell as a When talking about writing, it is helpful to make a distinction between writing as an activity and writing as a symbol and convention, because according to (Browne, 1999) state “Separating the activity from the system help us to consider about what is writing for and how does writing work.” Mastering writing involves
learning many things about the systems and how to manipulate it. It is very important to know about writing in order to make the system work. Writing has a number of uses and has an important functional role in lives. The main function of written language is it provides idea which is permanent and has a meaning for others. As stated by (Browne, 1999), “As a method of communication, writing can be use to establish and maintain contact with others, transmit information, express thoughts, feelings and reaction, entertain and persuade.” As a personal or private activity it can be a powerful tool for learning and remembering. It can be used to explore and refines idea, organize thoughts and record information. In school, writing has another role. Children are asked to use writing to display what they know, and writing is usually used as the medium to measure students learning achievement. Since writing is a powerful tool for living and learning, young learners need to be shown what writing can do and how to do it.
In school, the teacher had to deal with students with varies level of writing ability, and it was quite challenging for the teacher to recognize and find the best method to stimulate all the students’ writing skill development Often found in some cases, students are lack in confidence to start their writing task, some other students have struggled to produce even a single sentence. The writer were very agree with (Peacock, 1986) state that “ no one ever fully ‘masters’ the skills involved in writing; there no identifiable agreed threshold which a beginner writer has to reach in order to recognized as a skilled practitioner.” Based on above statement, only development and improvement would betherealistic goals for the students. The problem lies now is how to make sure that the students have a significance improvement and development in their writing ability. Writing involves thinking and rethinking, revising and rewriting and much more process to make a good paragraph. Instead of just asses the students writing, it
is better for the teacher to sit and discuss with the students while they are writing. It is important for the teacher to look closer and listen to what the students said, what is their real problem, is it technical or because of the student lack of motivation to write, all these problems can be identified if the teacher get closer himself to the students. As stated by (Brown, 2000), “Teaching is guiding and facilitating learning, enabling the learner to learn and setting the conditions for learning.” The purpose is helping somebody to learn about the information. (Shoemaker, 1998)define, “Writing is the process of discovering of thoughts.” In addition, (Urquhart & Mclver, 2005) remarked, “Writing is a complex process and in most research literatures recognize the difficulty it poses to the students.” (Heaton, 1988)relates this complexity to students’ mastery of grammar and rhetorical devices, also their conceptual and judgmental elements. Due to its complexity, students struggle to jot down their ideas; because they are afraid of making mechanical or grammatical mistakes. Further, (Williams, 2003) said that the difficulty of writing is caused by numerous skills, which considered based on the audience and the purpose students need to master in composing written text. Despite to all of the difficulties appear in teaching and learning writing, it also has many advantages. Writing is important for the students’ life. As (Heaton, 1988) said, “Students’ ability to organize ideas and express them in their own word is an essential skill for real life communication.” Students need it to get grades from both assignment and examinations.” To become a good and confident writer involves learning how to write and learning about writing. Fluent writers are used with writing system and know when and how to use writing in their lives. In schools there are many different ways of teaching children about writing and how to write. Many schools mix established practices with newer ideas. In order to create a writing curriculum which is able to accommodate the individual
needs of children and the statutory requirements it is necessary to understand present practice, evaluate it and substitute more effective practices when appropriate. Children need to learn about writing as well as learning how to write. If they are encouraged to engage in each stage of the writing process they are being given the chance to understand how to write. They may also learn that writing is important and worthwhile.
The Process of Writing
(Browne, 1999)stated “The act of writing involves three important element; composition, transcription and review.” Composition means the act of making decision about content, style and organization. Transcription means the secretarial aspects of writing, including spelling, handwriting and punctuation, which are used to record what is composed. Review means the act of reflecting on what has been written, often resulting in changes to aspect of composition and transcription. All writing passes through above stages, at least one. Simple writing such as make a small note is need some thought (composition), and then writing (transcription) and read through (review). More significance writing such as doing writing assignment may go through each stages several times. Writers continue to compose and engage in reviewing their writing as they transcribe as well as reviewing and editing their work after it seems complete. Protherough in (Browne, 1999) stated “When we write, we plan, gather materials, search our memories, imagine our audience, make decision about form, tone or structure, seek for the right word or image, check back over what is written, ponder about outcomes revise and correct” As composition, transcription and review are the writing processesthat all writers use, it is important that children are introduced toeach of these aspects, taught the strategies needed to undertakeeach stage and given time to undertake each part of the process.
Descriptive writing One of the purposes in writing is to inform about a description of something
or someone. The paragraph that is composed based on this purpose is known as descriptive paragraph. This research concerned to the discussion of descriptive paragraph writing. (M'Carthy, 1998)stated“descriptive writing is domain of writing that develops images through the use of precise sensory words and phrases, and through devices such as metaphor and the sounds of words.”Descriptive writing depends on details and colorful language to bring subject to life. By describing one person, place, or thing with vivid detail, a writer can create a descriptive scene in the reader’s mind. The writing becomes a memory because the writer describe it specifically using available information. These details communicate to the reader’s five senses, so that sight, sound, smell, touch and taste becomes the part of the reader’s experiences. (Atlee, 1998)stated “the purpose of descriptive writing is to recreate the writer’s thought and visual images in the mind of the reader. The writer becomes an illustrator who “draws” pictures with word.” Descriptive writers work with fluency, elaboration, precision of language, and control of detail. Descriptive writing is used in essays, reports, fiction, nonfiction, and poetry. The point of descriptive writing (Jacob, 2011)mentioned five important points about descriptive writing:
Descriptive writing can be used to describe a person, place or thing, an important event in your life or a place that is important to you. It can be used to link visual imagery and written language. You’ll find it in fiction and non-fiction. Don’t forget fiction has settings and characters that need to be described.
Descriptive writing is more than just a string of images slapped on a piece of paper. Even descriptive writing must have a structure in order for it to
make sense. When creating a structure for descriptive writing, find a focal point and move out from that point in a systematic manner.
If you’re describing a picture, a place or even a person, you can start from the edge or the top of the picture and work your way down or you can start with the focal point or the defining point of the picture. Find ways to link points together. Create a structure that allows the reader to tie images together. Your reader must be able to follow your description like a road map.
When you’re writing, use all of your senses. Writers have a tendency to stick with visual imagery in descriptive writing, but if possible include all the senses—how something feels, smells, tastes and sounds. A variety of sensory images make your description pop. It also helps to develop a tone.
Use figures of speech to create vivid descriptions. Metaphors, similes and personification are three good ways to create descriptions. Use strong imagery as well. Introduce a figure of speech high up in your description and find different ways to build on the description. For instance, if you’re writing about the moon and you say, “The moon is a light bulb in the sky,” you can then apply all the sensory images to say how that light feels as well as how it looks. (Kane, 2000)stated “Descriptive writing is about sensory experience of how
something looks, sound, taste. Mostly it is about visual experience, but description also deals with other kinds of perception.” Kinds of descriptive writing (Kane, 2000)stated “Descriptive writing is of two broad kinds: objective and
In objective description the writer sets aside those aspects of perception unique to himself and concentrates on describing the percept (that is, what is perceived) in itself
In subjective, (also called impressionistic) description a writer projects his or her feelings into the percept.”
b. Qualities of Good Description: (Yanni & Jen, 2003)mention three points of good description: 1. 2.
The details reveal a dominant impression to convey the writer’s main point. The details are specific, enabling readers to feel or experience what the writer describes, through appealing to the five senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch.
The details are well-organized, and related to the main point.
Descriptive writing shares the following characteristics:
Good descriptive writing includes many vivid sensory details that paint a picture and appeals to all of the reader's senses of sight, hearing, touch, smell and taste when appropriate. Descriptive writing may also paint pictures of the feelings the person, place or thing invokes in the writer.
Good descriptive writing often makes use of figurative language such as analogies, similes and metaphors to help paint the picture in the reader's mind.
Good descriptive writing uses precise language. General adjectives, nouns, and passive verbs do not have a place in good descriptive writing. Use specific adjectives and nouns and strong action verbs to give life to the picture you are painting in the reader's mind.
Good descriptive writing is organized. Some ways to organize descriptive writing include: chronological (time), spatial (location), and order of importance. When describing a person, you might begin with a physical description, followed by how that person thinks, feels and acts.
Teaching Descriptive Writing
(Atlee, 1998)states that there are two stages in teaching students how to become more descriptive in their writing. First, students must able to distinguish between “telling” and “showing.” Expository writing explains, while descriptive writing illustrates. When given examples of expository and descriptive writing, most young writers prefer the descriptive writing. This natural preference provide an excellent foundation for developing descriptive writers.
Secondly, students need strategies for using description in their own work. They need to learn how to use detail effectively to create pictures, feeling and moods. They also need to learn the power of specific language and figures of speech.
What is Graphic Organizers
(Drapeau, 1998)stated“graphic organizers are teaching tools that appeal to all types of students. They help visual learners see what you are trying to convey and provide a structure that helps children with limited attention spans stay focused.” They are also outstanding assessment tools, providing studentswith a concise blueprint of a student's understanding of concept and, in turn, of a student’s ways of thinking. For example you might ask students to use a venn diagram to compare and contrast two characters in a story. The graphic organizer will show you what the students know and remember about the characters, and clue you in on their grasp of a story’s meaning. (Dustman & Parker, 2007)states that one way to improve students’ learning and performance across the grade levels, in a wide range of content areas, and with diverse students is by utilizing graphic organizers in the classroom. Graphic organizers are visual representations that help us gather and sort information, They help students see patterns and relationships between the given information. With only a few words, concepts are clarified, information and ideas are organized, and complex relationships are shown between the elements. And as an added bonus, graphic organizers help teachers figure out how students think. More often than not, these organizers are referred to as maps because they help students to ‘map out” their ideas in a visual way. In recent years, graphic organizers have taken on various names including semantic maps, webs, concept maps, story maps, and semantic organizers. Some examples of commonly used graphic organizers include spider maps. Venn diagrams, T-charts, and KWL charts.
Perhaps the most widely used graphic organizer is the calendar. Calendars help us sort, sift, record, and share information.
Graphic Organizer as a tool in Improving Students’ Descriptive Writing Ability
(Drapeau, 1998)stated “As educators, we are encourage to integrate content and not teach subjects in isolation. A graphic organizer enable us to show and explain relationships between content and sub content and how they in turn relate to other content areas.” (Drapeau, 2009)stated“Among the variety of instructional strategies that became popular at this time, one that held great promise was the graphic organizer. They were easy to use and everyone liked them. They seemed to be a great aid for the many visual learners in the classroom, as well as a useful way to help all students organize and review information.” Graphic organizers were, and still are, engaging and useful tools, They enable students to be successful with information they would otherwise have struggle to learn. They’ve also raised awareness among teachers that students have a variety of needs that can be met through a variety of graphic tools. It became apparent that one graphic organizer will not work in all situations, just as one type of instruction will not suit all students. (Bellanca, 2007)states that graphic organizers are tool with many uses. They work in many situations. In the classroom;
Used by teachers to organize classroom discussions. (e.g., As students talk, teachers collect the information in an organized pattern such as the Web or Sunburst.)
Used by students to complete a task within a single lesson. (e.g., Students use a comparison Venn to understand the relationships between two characters in a story.)
Used by students as a learning tool. (e.g., Students learn to use the organizer with homework and in multiple classroom tasks throughout the school year.)
Used by students as a cooperative learning tool that promotes “positive interdependence.” (e.g.. In each group. students create a PMJ to assess a completed math assignment. They make a single chart that captures each student’s ideas and feelings.)
Used by students to develop their thinking, problem solving, and metacognition. (e.g., Students work in cooperative groups with the Fishbone organizer and a variety of cause-effect problems. They reflect on ways to improve their causal thinking via this graphic organizer.)
(Drapeau, Differentiating with graphic organizers: tools to foster critical and creative thinking, 2009)states that Graphic organizers provide teachers with tools to help students on the road to higher achievement. Graphic organizers that target critical and creative thinking verbs are vehicles to help develop students’ cognitive abilities and provide formats for students to process their thinking about Content. Graphic organizer formats also allow teachers to diagnose where students’ thinking has gone awry. Teachers can pin point areas in which students’ thinking is weak, illogical, or unclear. The structure and language of the organizer allows teachers to be able to coach students and move them beyond where thinking has fallen apart. Graphic organizers provide new language that facilitates classroom communication, as well as deepen understanding of the content thatteachers work to transmit. (Drapeau, Differentiating with graphic organizers: tools to foster critical and creative thinking, 2009)states that for certain students, the use of graphic organizers is particularly beneficial:
For students who easily fall victim to faulty reasoning, they are an aid the thinking process. For students who have difficulty expressing their thoughts, they provide a format for expression.
For students who have difficulty processing information, they provide a structure within which to state content and support for ideas. For students who are visual learners, they provide a visual aid. For students who ramble, they help focus the response. For students who are English Language Learners, they can enable the expression of depth of thought through the use of limited written responses. (Drapeau, 2009)states that for many years now, teachers have been using
● ● ●
graphic tools as pre-writing activities and seeing great results. For example, webbing has been used as a pre-writing activity with expository, persuasive, and narrative writing. A more conventional graphic organizer is an outline, which also helps students organize their thinking. A great computer program called Inspiration uses both webbing and outlining. This computer program takes brainstormed ideas and reformats them in outline form. Whether students have difficulty generating ideas, using elaborative language, or organizing their thoughts on paper, critical and creative thinking graphic organizers can help them develop fluency and provide organizational structures that will enable them to become more effective writers. (Dustman & Parker, 2007)stated “the brain stores information similar to how a graphic organizer shows information. It screens large amounts of information and looks for patterns that are linked together. The brain is able to take meaning much easier from a visual format like a graphic organizer than from written words on a page.” Graphic organizers not only help students manage information, but they offer information in a way that students can understand at a glance. When connections are made on paper, the information engages other parts of the brain. When these connections happen, the brain transfers the information from short-term memory to long-term memory. For those teachers who look for ways to improve their students’ writing abilities, graphic organizers will do this well.When students fill out graphic organizers, they learn to summarize information and take notes more efficiently. When used in place of an outlining tool, graphic organizers make students think about how to write the new information in a different way.
FRAME OF CONCEPT To be an effective teacher of writing, the teachers need to aware of the
different level of the children’ writing ability. Even though the teaching method currently used is works, the teacher must frequently try to find a new and better method to make sure that the students develop their writing ability gradually. At least there are two kinds of writing that junior high school students learn in their curriculum. First is descriptive writing and second narrative writing. According to (Kane, 2000) stated “Descriptive writing is about sensory experience of how something looks, sound, taste. Mostly it is about visual experience, but description also deals with other kinds of perception.” Descriptive writing is used in essays, report, fiction, nonfiction and poetry. An author who is write in descriptive way discover inside a topic and shows the readers what is going on, rather than simply telling them. Although this is a technique that often used in creative writing, it is important to learn how to write more descriptively when approaching any type of writing. As (M'Carthy, 1998) stated “descriptive writing is domain of writing that develops images through the use of precise sensory words and phrases, and through devices such as metaphor and the sounds of words.” Descriptive writing depends on details and colorful language to bring subject to life. By describing one person, place, or thing with vivid detail, a writer can create a descriptive scene in the reader’s mind. The writing becomes a memory because the writer describes it specifically using available information. These details communicate to the reader’s five senses, so that sight, sound, smell, touch and taste become the part of the reader’s experiences. The point of descriptive writing is to incorporate as much details as possible from a single object. Whether the object is person, place, or thing. By employing graphic organizers, this task can be much easier. Graphic organizer is a useful tool to organize and review information, it enable students to be successful with information. Graphic organizer help the students to see the patterns and
relationships between the given information. With only few words, concepts are clarified, information and ideas are organized, and complex relationships are shown between the elements and graphic organizer also help teacher to figure out how the students think. Graphic organizer is also known as map, because it helps students to “map out” their idea in visual way.(Dustman & Parker, 2007)stated “in recent years, graphic organizers have taken on various names including semantic maps, webs, concept maps, story maps, and semantic organizers.” (Dustman & Parker, 2007)stated that “Graphic organizers have a way of connecting several pieces of isolated information. They take new information and file it into an existing framework. Old information is retrieved in the process, and the new information is attached. This is positive news for the classroom teacher who has her students using graphic organizers. By using these organizers, she is helping her students make connection and assimilate new information into what they already know. In effect, she is providing her students with a mental filing cabinet where their knowledge can be easily stored and retrieved.” In term writing, graphic organizers are work in the same way as stated above, it helps students to organize ideas, so it means will be easier to put a new idea or information into the existing one. Graphic organizers are important and effective pedagogical tools for organizing content and ideas and facilitating learners’ comprehension of newly acquired information. The use of graphic organizers help students to understand and conceptualize their idea, because graphic organizers present material through visual media. In this research, the researcher will use graphic organizers to help the students in descriptive writing activity. By employing graphic organizers students will visualize their idea, and the write their paragraph based on the graphic organizers. During the application, the researcher will apply these procedures:
The researcher, who will play the role of the teacher during the implementation, will give materials about descriptive writing and graphic organizer
The teacher will give the students an example of descriptive paragraph and ask them to fill in the framework of graphic organizer under it. The teacher will explain more deep about graphic organizers and model the application of it. The next procedure is the researcher will ask the students to make their own graphic organizers and then compose a paragraph based on the graphic organizer they have made.
The students will check their writing and then submit it to the teacher to be graded. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY The methodology of this research will be done through the following
Subjects of Research The research will be held at SMP Negeri 10 Pontianak, which located at
Jl.WR.Supratman No.2. SMP Negeri 10 Pontianak consists of 6 classes for the seventh grade, 6 classes for eight grade and 6 classes for ninth grade (total 18 classes). The subject of the research is class VIIC (which consists of 43 students, 23 females and 20 males students). According to the English teacher, this class dealt with several problems during descriptive paragraph writing practice.
Form of Research The form of the research is classroom action research, the aim of the research
is to solve students’ problem in descriptive paragraph writing and the techniquethat writer use is improving writing ability by using graphic organizer. In improving and developing teaching, research in the classroom is needed to know what actually happens in the class, what the students think, and the response of the teacher or how she reacts in the class.
Plan and Procedure of Research
Plan of research
At SMPN 10 Pontianak
Time The research is planned to be implemented on April to May in the academic year 2012/2013
The subject of research The subject of the research is Students’ in class C of seventh grade of SMPN 10 Pontianak
Procedure of research
The research consists of three cycles, where the researcher applies the “graphic organizer” technique. Each cycle consist of a meeting, which last eighty minutes. The cycles are: Planning This is the first step to determine the activities done on this research. The
teacher collaborates the researcher about when the implementation of the research, what materials to teach and how its implementation by designing lesson plan, observation checklist, field note and everything that will required for the research
At this stage, the researcher applies the graphic organizer technique to improve students’ ability in composing paragraph writing. Which will be done in one session in each cycle. The students practice to compose paragraph writing using graphic organizer before the teacher finally grade their works.
Observing At this stage, the observer observes the implementation of students’ activity
during the acting stage by fill in the observation checklist and field notes. During this research, the researcher collaborates with the teacher of the subject who played role of the observer.
The researcher and the observer discuss the result of the observation and written test; to know what have been achieved and the obstacles were faced and their solutions.
Technique of Data Collection: The researcher will apply observation and measurement technique. The observation will done by using observation checklist table and field note. In observing, the researcher will act as collaborator. The measurement will be based on students’ individual score in each cycle by using written assessment where students will be asked to write descriptive paragraph. Tools of data collection:
Written assesment Students are asked to write descriptive paragraph in each cycle which will be graded and the result of each cycle will be compared in order to know the students’ achievements after the use of graphic organizer during their writing process
Observation checklist Observation checklist is used to observe the students and teacher act in conducting graphic organizer technique in the classroom activity in the form of checklist table.
Field Note Field note is a note, which is made to record the important events that appear throughout the teaching learning process when the treatment is applied, including students interactions and activity during composing descriptive paragraph and graphic organizer and situations in the classroom during those times to support the data from the observation checklist.
Theparagraph written will be analyzed by using the table of specification. The researcher purpose is considered achieved if the mean score of students’ writing achievements accomplish 75 points (which is the lowest grade according to the Minimum Achievement Standard). The items in the paragraph which will be scored are follows: Items of Specification Table THE ITEMS TO BE EVALUATED
The description fulfils its purpose by presenting clear and complete picture
The details are presented in a recognizable and appropriate order
A specific impression and picture is created
for the reader. ● Sensory details reflect all five senses.
The details are sufficient and appropriate. Transition words are used effectively. The writing is free of misspellings, and words are capitalized correctly.
Grammar, Usage, and Mechanics
Standard English usage is employed.
Adapted from (Glencoe) In this research, the researcher would focus on the computation of mean score as it is the best indicator of the combined performance of an entire group participant. It is the sum of all the scores in a distribution divided by the number of cases. The mean score will be computed by using the formula below: M= Where: M= Mean ∑N= Sum of students’ score N= Number of students Then the students’ mean score in each style is classified based on the criteria of mean score below:
Table 3.2 The criteria of mean score TOTAL SCORE 80 – 100 66 – 79 50 – 65 0 – 49 CATEGORY A B C D CLASSIFICATION Good to excellent Average to good Poor to average Poor
(adapted from Heaton, 1988, P.176)
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Appendix I FIELD NOTE DAY & DATE CYCLE TEACHER COLLABORATOR
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