Lesson 1 Database- it is collection/storage of interrelated data, which allow user to retrieve,update and

manipulate very easily and as when its required. (similar in filing to cabinet). DBMS- is data storage and retrieval system which permits data to store non redundantly while While making it appear to user as if the data will integrated.

The Evolution of database Technology
Data collection, database creation, IMS (hierarchical database system by IBM) and network DBMS. 1970’s

Relational data model, relational DBMS implementation 1980’s
RDBMS, advanced data models (extended-relational, OO, deductive, etc.) . Application-oriented DBMS (spatial, scientific, engineering, etc.). 1990,s Data mining, data warehousing, multimedia databases, and Web databases.

Stream data management and mining. Data mining and its applications. Web technology (XML, data integration) and global information systems.

Advantages of Using the Database Approach • • • • • Providing backup and recovery services. Enforcing Integrity Constraints.Database Approach         Self contained nature of database systems (database contains both data and meta-data). Controlling redundancies and inconsistencies. Providing multiple interfaces to different classes of users. processing overhead. Restricting unauthorized access. Secure access to database. • DBMS generality & overhead => performance issue • Increased vulnerability to failure • Recovery is more complex . etc. Drawing Inferences and Actions using rules Disadvantage of database Approach • Expensive – hardware. Representing complex relationships among data. Data Independence: application programs and queries are independent of how data is actually stored. Support for multiple-users and concurrent access. software. Backup and Recovery from system crashes. Enforcing integrity constraints on the database. operating cost . Data sharing. personnel.

. operating system.DBMS. • Procedures .Instructions and rules that should be applied to the design and use of the database and DBMS.system requires enterprises to evaluate their databae management strategies and enable them to manage relentless data growth and regulatory compliances which are a crucial foundation for the unwired enterprise.The people that participate in the database environment.Enterprise Database. network software (if necessary) and also the application programs. Personal Database – it is your personal data . Workgroup Database. • People . Example is the Database Ware housing . example in your small business using the small network 3.The Range of Database 1. • Data . • Software . 2. Components of the Database Environment • Hardware .Can range from a PC to a network of computers.it is a workgroup basis.Used by the organization and a description of this data called the schema.

carried out by a single user or application program that accesses or changes the content of the database. This stage includes the logical and physical design of the database. balanced against costs that include the purchase of the DBMS product and any additional software/hardware. including its major user views. and using this information to identify the requirements for the new system.Database system development life cycle Database planning is the management activities that allow the stages of the database system development lifecycle to be realized as efficiently and effectively as possible. and the costs associated with changeover and training. This interface should present the required information in a user-friendly way. we have to design an appropriate user interface for the database system. System Definition involves identifying the scope and boundaries of the database system. Database design is the process of creating a design that will support the organization’s mission statement and mission objectives for the required database system. Application design n involves designing the user interface and the application programs that use and process the database. This stage involves two main activities: transaction design and user interface design. There are three main types of transactions:     retrieval transactions update transactions mixed transactions User interface design In addition to designing how the required functionality is to be achieved. A user view can represent a job role or business application area. Requirements collection and analysis is the process of collecting and analyzing information about the organization that is to be supported by the database system. or series of actions.  Transaction Design An action. DBMS selection The aim of DBMS selection is to select a system that meets the current and future requirements of the organization. .

New requirements are incorporated into the database system through the preceding stages of the lifecycle. Requirements prototyping uses a prototype to determine the requirements of a proposed database system and once the requirements are complete the prototype is discarded. In this stage. There are two prototyping strategies in common use today:   Requirements prototyping and Evolutionary prototyping. the database system now moves into a maintenance stage. Operational maintenance is the process of monitoring and maintaining the system following installation. the database may need to be tuned or reorganized. While evolutionary prototyping is used for the same purposes. Data conversion and loading involves transferring any existing data into the new database and converting any existing applications to run on the new database. If the performance falls below an acceptable level. The process of monitoring and maintaining the database system following installation.Prototyping involves building a working model of the database system. Implementation is the physical realization of the database and application designs. which allows the designers or users to visualize and evaluate the system. Maintaining and upgrading the database system (when required). which involves the following activities:  Monitoring the performance of the database system.  . Testing is the process of running the database system with the intent of finding programming errors. the important difference is that the prototype is not discarded but with further development becomes the working database system.


 The conceptual level:-The conceptual level has a conceptual schema. and constraints.  The external level or view level:. it describes the entities. data types. user operations. . relationships.The external or view level includes a number of external schemas or user views. It describes the part of the database that a particular user group is interested in and hides the rest of the database.The internal level has an internal schema which describes the physical storage structure of the database.The Three Schema Architecture  The internal level:.

etc. update. are common. modify. the so-called data manipulation. With this help a data scheme can be defined and also changed later. Such operations can be done with a data manipulation language (DML).. select. delete. a data definition language (DDL). . read. Typical DML operations (with their respective keywords in the structured query language SQL):     Add data (INSERT) Change data (UPDATE) Delete data (DELETE) Query data (SELECT) Database Interface DBMS Interfaces Types of interfaces provided by the DBMS include: Interactive SQL can be used interactively from a terminal. Typical DDL operations (with their respective keywords in the structured query language SQL):    Creation of tables and definition of attributes (CREATE TABLE . Menu-Based Interfaces for Web Clients or Browsing  Present users with list of options (menus)  Lead user through formulation of request  Query is composed of selection options from menu displayed by system. change. is needed. is needed. search. etc..) Change of tables by adding or deleting attributes (ALTER TABLE …) Deletion of whole table including content (!) (DROP TABLE …) DML Additionally a language for the descriptions of the operations with data like store. Within such languages keywords like insert.Database Language DDL For describing data and data structures a suitable description tool.

Natural Language Interfaces  Accept requests in written English.  Interface has its own schema. function keys) Interfaces for the DBA  Systems contain privileged commands only for DBA staff. Graphical User Interfaces  Displays a schema to the user in diagram form. and a dictionary of important words.  Often a small set of commands included to minimize the number of keystrokes required. .  User can fill out form to insert new data or fill out only certain entries. authorizing accounts. or other languages and attempt to understand them.  Designed and programmed for naïve users as interfaces to canned transactions.Forms-Based Interfaces  Displays a form to each user. changing the schema.  Analysts and programmers design and implement a special interface for each class of naïve users.  Include commands for creating accounts. reorganizing the storage structures etc. Interfaces for Parametric Users  Parametric users have small set of operations they perform.e. (I. GUIs use both forms and menus. setting parameters. The user can specify a query by manipulating the diagram. Uses the schema and dictionary to interpret a natural language request.

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