art

B O O K O F
Girl with Cat,
1989, Fernando Botero (to find out more see page 41)
art
B O O K O F
ART STYLE: Find out about the different styles
of art and follow the timeline of changing
styles through art history.
How to use this book
In this book, find out about different art
styles, the works and lives of famous artists
and sculptors, the way some artworks
were created, and the amazing range of art
around the world. There are four different
types of page in this book:
GALLERY: Marvel at the different ways artists
around the world and throughout art history
have portrayed the same subject.
HOW DID THEY DO THAT? Find out how an
artist or sculptor did their work and see how
the technique developed through history.
ARTIST or SCULPTOR PROFILE: Find out about
the life, style, and work of a famous artist or
sculptor and take an up-close look at a work.
LONDON, NEW YORK,
MELBOURNE, MUNICH, and DELHI
First published in the United States in 2009 by
DK Publishing
375 Hudson Street, New York, New York 10014
Copyright © 2009 Dorling Kindersley Limited,
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is available from the Library of Congress.
ISBN 978-0-7566-5511-2
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Senior designers Sonia Whillock-Moore
and Pamela Shiels
Senior editor Deborah Lock
Additional editing by Anneka Wahlhaus
Sue Malyan, Lorrie Mack, Elizabeth
Haldane, Wendy Horobin, Penny Smith
Additional design by Mary Sandberg,
Gemma Fletcher, Rachael Grady,
Clemence De Molliens, Sadie Thomas
Art director Rachael Foster
Publishing manager Bridget Giles
Production editor Sean Daly
Production controller Claire Pearson
Jacket designer Jess Bentall
Jacket editor Mariza O’Keeffe
Picture researchers Jo Walton
and Julia Harris-Voss
Art consultants Rebecca Lyons,
Art Historian and Lecturer for Christie’s
Education and National Gallery, London
and Emily Schreiner, Manager of Family
and Children’s Programs at the
Philadelphia Museum of Art, USA
Jacket images: Front: The Bridgeman Art Library:
Monasteri o de El Escori al , Spai n / Gi raudon tr (Durer);
Musee Conde, Chanti l ly, France / Gi raudon tl (Book of
hour s); Pri vate Col l ecti on/Chri sti e’s Images c (Degas);
Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, The Nether l ands /
Gi raudon br (Van Gogh); Corbis: Bur stei n Col l ecti on bl
(Hokusai ); Marco Si moni / Rober t Hardi ng Wor l d Imager y
(Gaudi ); ©The Andy Warhol Foundati on for the Vi sual
Ar ts t (Warhol ); Lasar Segall, 1891 Vilna - 1957 São
Paulo, Collection of the Lasar Segall Museum, São
Paulo, National Institute of the Historical Artistic
Patrimony, Brazilian Ministry of Culture: c (Segal l )
In he o ner s a t mp of om ca i ra hy ha a t rs hi i how
J pan e ar s s i ned h i wo k H k sa us d mo e han 20
d f e en nam s d r ng h s ar er ep nd ng n h s s y e t t e ime
T e ima e is rawn nd
p a ed ac down on o a
b o k of wood
he a eas wh re he m ge
w l be wh te re c i e ed
way
Making a
woodblock print
D d you know hat he ar i st
w odbl ck p nts a e n ar y
2 00 ea s ld? Th y d te ba k
to anc ent Ch na in 220 CE
Am zin ly t e p oce s of m king
a wood lock p int s the ame
tod y s t was t en!
Katsushika
Hokusai
n the 1800s Katsushika
Hokusai revo u ioni ed Japanese
art He used a woodb ock pr n ing echn que
but nstead of show ng samurai ge shas and
nobil ty—he subjects chosen by other Japanese
ar is s—Hokusai drew landscapes and
ordina y l fe n the count yside He st ived for
rea ism per pec ive and movement which can
be seen n his famous p int The Great Wave
off Kanagawa Copies of his p int have been
sold all over he wor d nf uenc ng thousands of
ar is s and des gne s
A ra i on l p i t
o g i has c 1 80
Mount Fuji
The Gr at W ve w s one
of a s r es of pr n s a led
he Thi ty S x V ews of
Mount Fu i ( 829 1833)
A th ugh Mount uji s
n he back round of his
p c ure it s framed by
he la ge w ves and n
he fo egr und a sma l
pe ked wave cop es
ts hape
Th se fi he men t ki g f esh sh
rom t e r v l a e to he fish ma k ts
of do (n w T ky ) re c ug t up in
s me ower ul o ean wa es he
a ge t wave w h s gr s ing l ws is
hr a en ng o ng lf he hr e bo ts
How do you h nk t e sh rm n
ee ? A e th y a ra d O are h y
co fident h y l m ke t as hey
h ve do e o many im s be o e?
Hok s i wor ed ob e s ve y on
c e t ng woo b ock p i ts He c ea ed
mo e th n 30 000 w rks b t ev n at
he end of is fe he e t he ou d
do b t er He s g ed one of is a t
wo ks as The A t C a y O d Man
he a eas o be p in ed
a p r cu ar o or a e l ft
a s d
The a sed mage s c ve ed n
p in ng i k and hen p es ed
on o pap r
D f e ent lo ks re made or
e ch co or nd us d ag in o
make o s of op es
The G eat Wave o f Kana awa 1 29 3
10 x 15 n 25 9 x 7 2 m) C lor w odcut
M un Fu i o ca o i t e h g e t
eak n ap n and cc r i g to
m t s wa t e s u ce o t e ec et
f mmor a t and a h me o go s
A t st s
bio raphy
Ka su hi a
Hok sai
1760 Bo n in do
(n w To y ) a an
1775 Be ame n
ap r n i e wo db o k
en r v r
1778 J i ed he
s ud o f Ka uka a
Sh n hõ
1797 Ad p ed
t e name ok sai
Tom a and p o uc d
b ush a n in s a d
i u t a ed b o s
1814 Cr a ed a
c l e t on f ke hes
kn wn as he e es
Hok s i Ma ga
1824 18 0:
Pr du ed m ny
f mou wor s
i c ud ng an s ap s
1849 Di d and
bu i d in o yo s
S i yõ i em le
A t st s
infu nces
Ch ne e art
or 1 00 y a s
Ch n se a nt n s h d
f a u ed ong i t nce
l nd c pe v ws
Dut h l nd ca e
eng a in s
n ue ced y t e
us of e sp c ve
s ad ng and e l s c
s ado s 55 54
ARTIST PROFILE E l A t H k i
Here’s how to
make a Roman fresco
A te pre ar ng t e w ll w th a ayer f ro gh
p as er he Roman f es o r i ts wo ld c ea e
he pa nt ng b t by b t as he igm nt ne ded
o be ppl ed on o wet p as er
P rt ait f Te ent us Neo and h s w e
1 t c nt ry Fr s o r m Pomp ii ta y
E rl rt H t m k r
In he ry l ma e of
I a y s me Rom n
f e c es ave u v v d
The n s at omp ii
we e p e e v d when
t e v l ano e uv us
e up ed nd bu ed
t e c t in 79 E
Fresco timeline
1 41 t t k M h l l f t l t h
f L t d t f h l f h
S t Ch p l h V t R t l
6 8 1 94 h h f l
t I h h R b
P p l
8 6 Th f l f th
N t l M t kh l S d
p d b C l L
9 3 Th M p t D
R d f f h D t t
d t d t l)
HOW DIDTHEY DO THAT?
he r s o t ch i ue w s u ed by nc nt p o le l o er he
w r d he e hn q e has v r t me b com po u ar a a n
7 h t B E Th b l l p f th
l th G t P l K h
l d f C t
1 t t h f f
b k d h f h l d
P p t l p d b
l h
4 h t h l f h A Ch p l P d t l
d f b G tt d B d d h t t h fi
h h b t h f h f p l k th d l
Fresco is one of
he methods used for
pa n ing a p ctu e on o
a wa l or cei ing
Pigments the mater al
that makes he color
are pa nted onto a
sur ace covered n plas er
Frescoes h ve been found
on he wa ls of ancient Egyp ian
ombs and used to create amazing
ef ects on the ce l ngs of ca hed als
Roman style
The Romans u ed a echn que ca l d buon
resco ( rue f es o) to dec ra e he wal s of
he r bui d ngs ow ered p gm nts uch as
n tu al br wn and r d e r hs we e m xed
w th w ter nd p in ed onto he ur ace of
wet p as er made f om l me nd and As
he sur ace d ied and ha dened the p gm nt
b ended in to co or the p as er The ar i t had
o wo k ery qu ck y b fo e he pl s er dr ed
How to make
frescoes
The w e h l s a s y us
(a w i ng oo ) a d
an o en d p y h ( n
an i nt w i ng ab e )
and o ks a i sh is
ab ut o fin h o f
s m wr t ng
The wn r of he
ho se T r n iu Neo
was a ak r who
wan ed im e f nd
h s wi e h wn as
su c s f l a d c e er
He ho d a s r l to
sh w he c n r ad
1
C u h d p gme t m de r m o ks nd
r ed la t we e mi ed w h l me wa er
o f rm he p s e
3
he p s e w s pa n ed n r g t aw y
i ce he l s er as t l w t t e
p gm nt ou d b nd w th he l s er
4
Once h p c ur was omp e d w x was
put v r he ur a e o pr t c t e p c u e
and ma e t s i e
2
A sma l a ch f fin wet l s e ca ed
t e i t na o was ut n to he all
19 18
T e s r ng ed c or we e mad f om s e na
a h rd ed r ck o nd n h I a i n h l s d s
A wr in ta et d p y h)
C h d k
f p t
l
Rom n f e co
f om i s de a
v l a n Pom e i
A K OUR ELF
I you we e n
a ai t ng what
b ec s wou d
ou ho d? What
mght hey ay
bout ou or
our h bb es?
Animals have fea u ed in a t ince he f rst
markings on cave wa ls housands of years
ago The var ed sty es of art have shown
d fferent aspects of an mals f om
adored pe s o powerful beasts to
incarnat ons of sp r tual gods
Animals in art
Puppy
1 92 J f Koo s S a n es s e l
s il e te i e ab ic o e ng
p a ts h s 3 f ( 2 4 m) i h
c p re f a W st i h a d Wh e
T r e p p no s a ds o s de
he G g en e m M e m n B b o
S a n T e s e l tr t e i co e ed
n a r t f i ng flo e s h an
n e n l t r g s s em
Bu fa o mask Bam eke i e W od
n C me o n a ks re o n at ba c r mo i s
B f os re o s d r d po e f l nd b a e nd h se
m s s th l i g a mo d s a ed e e and r e t e h
nd o t ls s m o i ed h po r f he h ef
Blue Fox 1 11
Fr nz M rc O l on an as
T e E p e s o i t a n er
F a z Ma c a n ed i an m ls
in s m o c c l rs
o c n e h i s i t al
n t re He s d bl e or
a c n t e o or o
a d h pp n ss nd ed or
mo h ho d o Ma c
l e a t e mo t ee l
s i t a p im r co r
Deve opment
II 939 M C E c er
Wo dc t p i t d f om t r e b o ks
M n f E c e s o ks s d ep a ed ed
p t rn c l d t s e a ons n h s p c re
e s t i k ng bo t n n t g ad a l
r d ng he e t es to n e g ns
A Monkey 1 00s l re ht
D r r Wa e co o and o c e on p per
T e R na s n e p i t r nd e g a er
A b e ht D er s a c n t d b n m ls
nd s ne o t e fi s a t t to ho
a im s as s j c s n t e r o n
Horse and rain
1 54 A e C l i e l zed
o l on a db a d I sp ed b
a Wo d Wa I p em Col e
a ed o s o t a a ho gh
a it t n ma e m o e e s
c o c s c n be m de W l he
r in op o t e h r e ea e
he r c s o a o d a c l s o ?
T ger n a Tropi al Storm
(Surpr sed) 891 H nr Ro s ea O l
on c n as he e f a gh F e ch r st o s ea
pa t d ld n ma s n j g e an s a es a ed
on h s s t to h Bo a i a Ga d ns n a is
Luminous Char 2 08
K noj k As e ak S on c and t n il
B rn n a i l o i 19 7 t e C na an r st
A he k co b n d he na i e a i on l n it
c t re h We e n a t t es n h r rk
The Wld Cat le of
h l ingham 1 67 Ed n L nd e r O l on
an s L nd e r s e im n a p i t n s o a im s e e
er op l r mong e s c et o V c o an B t n
Horses 19 0 X e ho g
Ch n se nk nd c l r on ap r
T e Ch e e a t t X B i o g
s kno n or i ho e p i t n s
H s nk o k c pt ed he p i ed
mo em n of he o s s
M d rn rt An m l n t GALLERY
85 84
S G S F f i l 12
The art of Chinese people da es back more than
10 000 years flour shing a ongs de the coun ry s
turbulent his ory of war and revolut on The
go den ages of a t were encouraged by cer ain
empe o s and art academies (schools) we e
estab ished by l tera i amateur pa n ers
who specia ized n studying art
Chinese art
T e op r w f a ur s he
E g t mmo ta s
mpo ant gu e in
he C i e e b l ef
y t m a l d T o im
T
he story begins
he r t and
a gua y
he ne t
o c l in ame
f om C ina
hi i why we
s m im s c l a l
p t e y ch na
Preh stor c P e es
o c l r d p t er m re
h n 6 0 0 a s o d a e
b en o nd h f c s nd
n ma s p n ed n
C f p i t gs ho rs
h n ng a d c l b a ons
Wes ern Han
Dynas y
06 CE 9 CE
n C na s k p per as
n e ed b o e pa er
ad f om ags a n ng
n s k o en to
h e s nd l t es as
er p p l r
h s po ce a n
va e c mes r m he
Q ng d na ty nd is
a ound 00 ea s o d
ts h mes o r l g on
a d ev r d y l e a e
c mmon n Ch n se
p t e y as w s t e
c l r l e on wh e
h s po c l in e ame
e y po u ar ro nd
t e wo ld
Tang Dynas y
6 8 907
T e em e o s o t e T ng
d n st ro l am l )
e h a i a l s p o t d
a s s F g re a n ng of
n b e and o r l d es
b c me a m j r h me
Ming D n sty 13 8 1 44
The t a i ncl ng W n Zh n mi g e e r i ed
to e e c l e t t p e r a i r ph and a n ng
s i s k o n s he Th e Pe e t o s ”
Song Dynas y 60 1 27
T e mpe al
A t c dem as o m d f om he m r er f e e al
ca em s s t p n a l r im s T e r a t n l d d
a d c pe t at o k d a mo t 3 D
Yuan Dynas y
279 368
o g e t p n e s
H a g Go g ng W
hen N Z n nd W ng
M ng de e o ed he
m nd a d ca e t ro gh
i h he e r s ed
h i p r on l e i gs
Q ng Dynasty
16 4 1 11
S me a i t kno n a t e “ ght
E c n r c ” r ke a a om t e
t a t o s o t e co t p n e s a d
de e ped e ha d br h rk
a d flo er nd i d p i t g
Sh nghai S hool
20 h en u y
D i g he 90 s We e n a t
as n od c d o Ch na nd
Ch n se t s s mo d f om
cop ng h st e o t e o d
ma t r to a od rn t e
Mod rn art
i ce he 9 0s r s s
s h as i a s
e p r m n ed h ne
p n i g ec n q es nd
p n ed e s b e ts
n l d ng m d rn fe
h l d K ” t h
d 2 d t B E
f h L h C lt
B f h
T b f D H
F R 180
O H d d B t fl
l d I t (d t )
7 h t b h H h
W d d V ll f
M t Y 3 2 b N Z
Th P h l S d 1 00 b W h
P t t Th t
E d t l) t
th t b Y L b
O d T L l D t 1 80 b G X
Ch k d
Ch C bb
2 h t
b Q B h
Y ll M t (d t )
2 h t b L H
E l t C in t ART STYLE
6 7
10 Early art
134 Get up close to the real thing!
136 Glossary
138 Index of artists and sculptors
140 Acknowledgments
Contents
12 Rocky beginnings
14 Egyptian scribes
16 Faces in art
18 How to make frescoes
20 Dreamtime art
22 How to make mosaics
24 Gods and heroes in art
26 Chinese art
28 How to create colors
30 Renaissance (1400s-1500s)
32 Landscapes in art
34 Leonardo da Vinci
36 Jan van Eyck
38 How to use oil paint
40 Children in art
42 Baroque (1600s)
44 Jan Vermeer
46 Still life in art
48 Rococo (1700s)
50 Francisco de Goya
52 How to use watercolor
54 Katsushika Hokusai
56 Modern art
58 Impressionism
60 Claude Monet
62 How to paint with pastels
64 Vincent van Gogh
66 Nighttime in art
68 After Impressionism
70 Henri Matisse
72 Pablo Picasso
74 Naïve art
76 Paul Klee
78 Surrealism
80 Joan Miró
82 Grant Wood
84 Animals in art
86 Postwar abstract art
88 Jackson Pollock
90 Sir Sidney Nolan
92 War in art
94 Andy Warhol
96 Street art
98 Work in art
100 Friedensreich Hundertwasser
102 Modern art
104 Sculpture
106 Carved in stone
108 The Terra-cotta
Army sculptors
110 How to carve wood
112 African sculpture
114 How to sculpt marble
116 Michelangelo Buonarroti
118 Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi
120 Gustav Vigeland
122 Abstract sculpture
124 Henry Moore
126 Alberto Giacometti
128 How to create Land art
130 Sculpture NOW
132 Damien Hirst
What is art?
8
This is a tricky question to answer,
because art can be so many things:
It’s not just
It’s not just
acceptable…
It’s not just
pretty…
but can also show anger,
pain, wonder, SADNESS, and
many other emotions.
but can also be
rebellious,
controversial,
dramatic, and
spiritual.
but can also be horrifying,
scandalous, and challenging.
... but can also be collage,
mosaics, prints, PHOTOGRAPHY,
sculpture, video, painting, and
many other media.
It’s not just
h ppy…


It’s not just
in galleries
It’s not j st
an image…
It’s not just
It’s not
just for art
lovers…
... but can also be in churches,
public buildings, in parks and on
the streets, in magazines—in fact,
there’s art all around you.
but can also be a meaningful
idea and a historical source,
informing us about the lifestyle of
people in the past and present.
... but can also be abstract,
symbolic, imaginary, distorted,
or a fleeting impression of a
moment in time.
but also for all people of
all ages to react to.
“Painting is poetry that is seen rather than felt...”
(Leonardo da Vinci, Renaissance artist, see page 34)
R E A L I S T I C
9

Early art
Pre-history–1850
10

From the first images on cave walls to dramatic
masterpieces hanging in exhibitions, the story
of art takes us around the world and traces the
developments in artistic skills, materials, and style.
11
Early art

12
Rocky beginnings
In the beginning, there was cave art—the markings of
prehistoric man. Although thousands and thousands
of years old, the drawings are beautifully preserved, often
found deep inside a mountain or underground, safe from
being worn away by the weather. Imagine in the dim
glow of a flickering fire, cavemen using burned
sticks or dirt mixed with a little water to
create their beautiful paintings.
We were
painted 15,000
years ago.
European cave art
The impressive
cave art found at
the Lascaux caves in
France is also known as
the “prehistoric Sistine
Chapel” (see page 19). The caves
were discovered in 1940 by four
teenagers, who were said to be
chasing their dog, Robot.
No one knows
what the paintings
were for. Maybe
as decoration
or graffiti, or
for ceremonies
or passing on
information? What
do you think?
I’m a bull from
the Lascaux caves
in France. I’m
17 ft (5 m) long!
ART STYLE
T
h
e

w
a
l
l

s

t
e
x
t
u
r
e
s
h
apes the a
n
i
m
a
l
s
.

13
Drawing of a
prehistoric African
hunter and his dog
American rock art
This art is found at
Newspaper Rock in
Utah. It was created by
American Indians before
150 CE. Rather than painting
the rock and the marks
gradually washing away
over time, the people
scratched the oily surface to
reveal the lighter sandstone
underneath for a lasting
image. These images are
called petroglyphs.
The vast sand
dunes of the
Sahara Desert as
they are today.
This could be
a spirit figure,
or possibly a
witch doctor.
Feet and
tracks show
a journey.
Deer
provided an
important
source of food
(venison).
Black markings were
made using charcoal.
This is wood that has
been buried under sand
and then burned.
The only animals
that live in the Sahara
Desert today are
camels, snakes, and
small mammals.
African cave art
The walls of the desert caves in Libya,
Africa, are covered with pictures of giraffes
and other grazing animals. These paintings
suggest that in 12,000 BCE, when they
were created, the now-barren
Sahara Desert was a lush,
tree-filled landscape.
Early art—Rocky beginnings

ARTIST PROFILE
14
Egyptian scribes
For the ancient Egyptians, art had a specific
purpose rather than just decoration. In general,
most art was designed to ease the journey through
the afterlife or to worship the gods. Egyptian
scribes had a very strict set of rules to follow
when painting. Erwin Panofsky, a German
art historian, discovered that Egyptian
scribes used a mathematical system
of grids to make sure all figures were
drawn in proportion.
Nebamun’s tomb painting
Nebamun was an official in ancient Egypt. Around
his tomb was a large wall painting. This scene
showed Nebamun with his family hunting birds
in the marshes of the River Nile. This type of
scene, showing the deceased doing something they
enjoyed, was very common in tombs. Nebamun
wanted this wall painting in his tomb so that he
could have lots of birds and fish to hunt in the
afterlife, a place for the dead to live.
The eyes and shoulders
of Egyptian figures were
shown facing the front, but
all other parts of the body
were shown side on.
To make paper, the green skin of the
papyrus stalks was removed and the
stalks cut into long strips. The strips were
flattened out and then some were laid
horizontally on a cotton sheet.
Book of the Dead
The ancient Egyptians were often
buried with their own Book of the
Dead to ensure they passed safely
through the Underworld, to be reborn
into a new life. The book would contain
a range of texts, including spells, and
small illustrations known as vignettes.
The vignettes were very important as they
showed what would happen in the afterlife.
Papyrus paper
Can you see the cat
balancing on two reeds
trying to catch birds?
Cats were family pets in
ancient Egyptian
times but also used
as hunting partners.
Other strips were placed vertically on top.
This gave the crisscross pattern found
in papyrus paper. Then the strips were
pressed. The natural juice of the papyrus
plant acted as a glue to seal all the strips
together, creating a single sheet of paper.
Ancient Egyptians were the first to make
paper, using papyrus, a plant once found
along the banks of the River Nile. Papyrus
was also used to make ropes and baskets.
Early art—Egyptian scribes
15
Fowling in the Marshes, c. 1350 BCE—Wall painting
If a scribe thought an illustration
needed more explanation then
hieroglyphs would be used,
such as these. Hieroglyph
literally means “sacred carving.”
Each symbol represents a
different letter or sound.
The artists of this wall
painting have managed
to show the scaly and
shiny skin of the fish.
The owl represents
the letter M
The horned viper
represents the letter F
The Egyptian
vultures represent
the letter A
The quail chick
represents the
letter W or U
The eye is said to
mean the word ‘I’

Since very early times, artists have made images
of the human face. They have painted
themselves or someone dear to them, some have
used the face to convey feelings, while others
have experimented with styles, such
as Arcimboldo’s seasonal heads.
Faces in art
u Portrait of Clara Serena Rubens
(detail), c. 1616, Sir Peter Paul Rubens,
Oil on canvas Rubens was famous for his portrait
paintings. This portrait shows his daughter at age five
years and is thought to be one of the most moving
child portraits in European art.
u Young Girl with Long Hair (detail),
1884, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Oil on canvas Renoir was a
big influence within the Impressionist movement. This portrait
shows how he used bright colors and loose brushstrokes to capture
the light on the girl’s face.
u Portrait of the Boy
Eutyches, 100–150, from Faiyum,
Egypt, Encaustic on wood When Egypt
was ruled by the ancient Greeks and then
the Romans, faces of dead people were
painted onto the wood of the mummy cases.
Many of these have been well preserved.
Untitled, 2002, .
Louise Bourgeois, Tapestry and aluminum
This strange head is covered in a tapestry.
It is more like an expression of inner feelings
than an attempt to show an actual person.
GALLERY
16

Early art—Faces in art
u Summer, 1573, Giuseppe Arcimboldo,
Oil on canvas Arcimboldo became famous for
his clever portraits of human heads, using fruit,
flowers, and vegetables for every season.
u Niña Llorando, 20th century,
Oswaldo Guayasamín, Oil on canvas The
Ecuadorian artist, Guayasamín, painted over
100 pictures showing the subject of pain and
suffering of the local people living in the Andes.
u Portrait of an Infant,
20th century, Tsuguji Foujita, Oil on canvas
Foujita, from Japan, is well-known for mixing
Eastern and Western painting styles to create
his own style. He was influenced by artistic
movements in Paris and eventually changed
nationality to French in 1955.
u Self portrait with black background,
1915, Helene Schjerfbeck, Oil on canvas Throughout her life,
the Finnish painter Helene Schjerfbeck painted her own face. This
one shows her at 53 years old, but later she painted herself as a
frail old woman, nearing death.
, Hip mask c. 1600, Benin, Nigeria,
Ivory This mask would have been worn by
an African king at a special ceremony held to
remember his mother. The face is carved from ivory
and looks like the image of a real woman.
17

Portrait of Terentius Neo and his wife,
1st century—Fresco from Pompeii, Italy
In the dry climate of
Italy, some Roman
frescoes have survived.
The ones at Pompeii
were preserved when
the volcano Vesuvius
erupted and buried
the city in 79 CE.
Fresco timeline
HOW DID THEY DO THAT?
The fresco technique was used by ancient people all over the
world. The technique has, over time, become popular again.
17th century BCE This bull-leaping fresco was on the
walls of the ancient Great Palace at Knossos on the
island of Crete.
1st century This fresco of a
baker and his wife who lived in
Pompeii, Italy, was preserved by
volcanic ash
14th century The walls of the Arena Chapel in Padua, Italy, are
covered in frescoes by Giotto di Bondone and his assistants. The figures,
which are about half the size of a person, look three-dimensional.
Fresco is one of
the methods used for
painting a picture onto
a wall or ceiling.
Pigments, the
materials that make the
color, are painted onto a
surface covered in plaster.
Frescoes have been found
on the walls of ancient Egyptian
tombs and used to create amazing
effects on the ceilings of cathedrals.
Roman style
The Romans used a technique called buon
fresco (true fresco) to decorate the walls of
their buildings. Powdered pigments such as
natural brown and red earths were mixed
with water and painted onto the surface of
wet plaster, made from lime and sand. As
the surface dried and hardened, the pigment
blended in to color the plaster. The artist had
to work very quickly before the plaster dried.
How to make
frescoes
The wife holds a stylus
(a writing tool) and
an open diptych (an
ancient writing tablet)
and looks as if she is
about to finish off
some writing.
The owner of the
house, Terentius Neo,
was a baker who
wanted himself and
his wife shown as
successful and clever.
He holds a scroll to
show he can read.
18
A writing tablet (diptych)
Crushed rock
for paint
colors
ASK YOURSELF
... If you were in
a painting, what
objects would
you hold? What
might they say
about you or
your hobbies?

Here’s how to
make a Roman fresco
After preparing the wall with a layer of rough
plaster, the Roman fresco artists would create
the painting bit by bit as the pigment needed
to be applied onto wet plaster.
Early art—How to make frescoes
1541 It took Michelangelo four years to complete the
famous fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in
the Vatican in Rome, Italy.
1688–1694 The huge fresco ceiling
in St. Ignazio Church, Rome, by
Pozzo is an impressive illusion.
1896 This is one of six large frescoes at the
National Museum in Stockholm, Sweden,
painted by Carl Larsson.
1933 The Mexican painter Diego
Rivera used fresco for his Detroit
Industry series (detail).
1
Crushed pigments made from rocks and
dried plants were mixed with lime water
to form the paste.
3
The paste was painted on right away.
Since the plaster was still wet, the
pigment would bond with the plaster.
4
Once the picture was completed, wax was
put over the surface to protect the picture
and make it shine.
2
A small patch of fine wet plaster called
the intonaco was put on to the wall.
19
The strong red colors were made from sienna,
a hard red rock found in the Italian hillsides.
Roman fresco
from inside a
villa in Pompeii

X-ray paintings
At Ubirr, northern Australia,
there are rock paintings that
show skeletons, lungs, and
other internal organs. Many
of these pictures are of
animals eaten by Aboriginal
people—turtles, kangaroos,
and fish—and are part of a
hunting and fishing magic.
Dreamtime art
For thousands of years, Aboriginal people have been
creating art, including body and bark painting, clay and wood sculptures,
and rock art. Some surviving rock engravings are about 40,000 years old.
20
Dreamtime
According to traditional Australian
aboriginal belief, the world was
created during a magical period
known as the “dreamtime.” To
aboriginals, the dreamtime is not in
the past but is a parallel stream of
time running through past, present,
and future. In the dreamtime,
ancestral beings rose from beneath
the Earth and wandered across the
landscape, creating the mountains,
valleys, and rivers we see today.
This rock painting, in Northern Territory,
Australia, shows a creation-ancestor: a
humanlike spirit with large eyes and no
mouth. Many rock paintings are repaired
and repainted during religious rituals.
To paint an X-ray picture,
an artist often began by
drawing a white silhouette,
then filled in the details with
ocher paints and charcoal.
Aborigines make paints from
natural plants and minerals
such as this red and yellow
ocher. They grind it to powder,
mix it with liquid, then paint
using bark or sticks.
ART STYLE
21
Technique
Ancient Aboriginal painters used
earth colors—reds, browns
and yellows, black and white—made
from natural plants and minerals. A
variety of ways were used to apply the
paint. Some pictures were painted using
fingers, the palm of the hand, sticks, or feathers.
Grasses, chewed twigs, narrow strips of
stringy bark, or palm leaves were also used to
make brushes. For stencil designs, the paint
was blown out of the mouth around an object.
The principal motifs of
contemporary dreamtime art
are circles, semicircles, spirals,
dots, and lines. Ancestors are
portrayed in simple lines and
geometric designs.
An Aborigine bark
painting of a hunter
and a kangaroo.
A goanna
painted to
honor its
ancestral
spirit.
Contemporary art
Today, artists continue to explore their culture,
land, and dreamtime. Many use modern materials,
including watercolors and acrylic. However, they
combine these with traditional earth colors. They
also use traditional dot painting techniques, and
curved and wavy lines.
Charles Inkamala works
on a painting in Alice
Springs, Australia.
Modern artist, Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri
(1932–2002), used dots and circles to
create large, complex works of art.
Snake Dreaming was
painted in 1989 by artist
Keith Kaapa Tjangala.
Early art—Dreamtime art
Mosaic is the art of creating images with small pieces
of colored glass, stone, pottery, or other hard material.
These small tiles or fragments are called tesserae.
From the first pebble designs, to the glittering effects
of the Byzantine art, to the textured modern abstracts,
mosaics have covered the insides and outsides of
buildings with stunning effect.
1
Try making a mosaic yourself.
Draw your design onto a
wooden base. The Byzantines had
to work quickly, but give yourself
more time by applying the tile
adhesive piece by piece.
How to
make
a mosaic
Byzantine mosaicists
would have placed the
tesserae directly into
a bed of lime cement,
working a
section at a
time because
the cement
would dry
quickly.
2
Use special tile cutters to shape
each piece of tessera so they fit
together well and follow the curves of
your design. Tilt each one a little so
it will catch the light.
3
Byzantine mosaics were never
grouted (filling the spaces between
the tiles with fine cement), but a fine
layer applied to your design will seal it
and make it stronger.
Byzantine style
Glass tesserae in many different colors,
including gold and silver, were used
on the walls and ceilings during the
Byzantine period (330–1453). This art
was mainly based on religious Christian
themes and, by tilting the tesserae, light
would reflect from the haloes and faces of
the holy people.
How to
make mosaics
An assortment of
gold and silver
glass tesserae
Tesserae made
of natural stone
and marble.
7th century Islamic mosaics have
repeating patterns of rich blues and greens
as on The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem.
HOW DID THEY
DO THAT?
Mosaic timeline
The ancient Greeks in the 4th century BCE began the craze of
making mosiacs, using different-colored pebbles to create
patterns and scenes. Here are some of the designs since then.
1st century Marble and
limestone tesserae were used
in Roman floor mosaics.
6th century The large floor mosaic in
the Great Palace of Constantinople (now
Istanbul) used 80 million tesserae.
12th century The nave of the Norman cathedral
of Monreale in Sicily is covered from end to end
with Byzantine-style mosaics of glass tesserae.
22

The Hagia Sophia in Istanbul, Turkey, is an
excellent example of Byzantine art and
architecture, but only a few of the mosaics
have survived, such as this one of Saint John
the Baptist with Christ.
Beneath the huge dome of the Hagia Sophia
were mosaics of prophets, saints, and other
religious figures. This face of Christ was made
up of specially manufactured tesserae called
smalti, which were cut into cubes from large,
thick sheets of colored glass. No grouting was
used between the pieces, so as to allow light
to reflect the colors within the glass.
For silver or gold
leaf smalti, thin
sheets of silver
or gold were put
between two slabs
of glass to make a
mirrorlike piece.
This was then cut
into smaller pieces
and placed at a slight
angle to the wall.
These pieces then
sparkled, as they
reflected the light
in different ways.
Hagia Sophia, Istanbul (detail from the face of Christ),
6th century—Glass tesserae
1900–1914 Antoni Gaudi’s
vibrant, multicolored mosaics
cover Park Guell in Barcelona.
1957 The Mexican muralist Diego Rivera designed the huge glass
mosaic on the outside wall of the Teatro de los Insurgentes in Mexico
City. The image shows a visual history of theater and dance in Mexico.
2008 This mosaic by Emma Biggs
was stuck to a kitchen wall with
cement-based adhesive.
1977 The mosaics of Jeanne
Reynal have different-sized
tesserae, making a rough texture.
Adding some sparkle
Early art—How to make mosaics
23

24
Artists and sculptors have been
inspired by ancient legends and
religious stories. These pieces
show the brave deeds of mythical
heroes and the great works and lives
of religious figures.
Gods and heroes in art
The Hero Overpowering a
Lion, c. 725 BCE, Assyrian, Stone
This carving is thought to be the mythical hero
Gilgamesh demonstrating his superhuman
powers by controlling a ferocious lion.
St. George
and the
Dragon,
c. 1470, Paolo Uccello,
Tempera on panel This
painting shows the legend
of St. George defeating the
dragon and rescuing
the princess.
In The Dream World,
1995, Norval Morrisseau, Acrylic
on canvas According to an American Indian
tribe called the Ojibwe, the color blue
protects the human spirit from danger.
GALLERY
Hercules
and Nessus, 1599,
Giambologna, Marble
Giambologna was a highly
skilled sculptor famous
for carving dramatic
scenes. Here,
Hercules, the ancient
Greek hero, is
about to beat his
opponent the
centaur,
Nessus.
SEEING THINGS
For more on stone
carvings see page 106

25
u Orpheus playing
to the animals, Roman
artist, Mosaic Ancient Greek
legend says that Orpheus, a
mythical poet, was so talented
a musician that he was able
to tame wild animals.
, First
Avatar of
Vishnu as
‘‘The Fish’’
19th century, Indian,
Painted and gilded
wood Vishnu, the Hindu
protector god, is shown
rescuing the world from
a flood and so saving
all the people.
u Taglung Thangpa Chenpo
c. 1300s, Tibet, Ground mineral pigment on cotton
Tibetan monks would carry painted or embroidered banners like this
one during ceremonial processions. Buddhas, teachers (lamas), and
other gods surround Chenpo, the founder of the Taglung monastery.
, The Baptism of
Christ, 1450s, Piero
della Francesca, Tempera
on panel The dove, seen
above Christ, represents the
Holy Spirit. Paintings
such as this were
painted to decorate
altars, churches,
and chapels.
Early art—Gods and heroes in art
SEEING THINGS
For more on
Renaissance
art see page 30

The art of Chinese people dates back more than
10,000 years, flourishing alongside the country’s
turbulent history of war and revolution. The
golden ages of art were encouraged by certain
emperors, and art academies (schools) were
established by “literati,” amateur painters
who specialized in studying art.
Chinese art
The top row features the
Eight Immortals—
important figures in
the Chinese belief
system called Taosim.




T
h
e

s
t
o
ry b
e
g
i
n
s
.
.
.
The first, and
arguably
the finest,
porcelain came
from China.
This is why we
sometimes call all
pottery “china.”
Prehistoric Pieces
of colored pottery more
than 6,000 years old have
been found with faces and
animals painted on.
Cliff paintings show wars,
hunting, and celebrations.
Western Han
Dynasty
206 BCE–9 CE
In China, silk paper was
invented before paper
made from rags. Painting
on silk woven into
sheets and clothes was
very popular.
This porcelain
vase comes from the
Qing dynasty and is
around 300 years old.
Its themes of religion
and everyday life are
common in Chinese
pottery, as was the
color: blue on white.
This porcelain became
very popular around
the world.
Three-legged “Kuei” pitcher,
c. 3rd–2nd century BCE,
from the Longshang Culture
Banner from the
Tomb of Dai Hou
Fu-Ren, c. 180 BCE
ART STYLE
26
Tang Dynasty
618–907
The emperors of the Tang
dynasty (royal family)
enthusiatically supported
artists. Figure paintings of
nobles and court ladies
became a major theme.
Ming Dynasty 1368–1644
The literati, including Wen Zhengming, were trained
to be excellent at poetry, calligraphy, and painting—
skills known as the “Three Perfections.”
Song Dynasty 960–1127
The Imperial Art Academy was formed from the
merger of several academies set up in earlier times.
Their art included landscapes that looked almost 3-D.
Yuan Dynasty
1279–1368
Four great painters—
Huang Gongwang, Wu
Zhen, Ni Zan, and Wang
Meng—developed the
“mind landscape” through
which they expressed
their personal feelings.
Qing Dynasty
1644–1911
Some artists known as the “Eight
Eccentrics” broke away from the
traditions of the court painters and
developed freehand brushwork
and flower-and-bird painting.
Shanghai School
20th century
During the 1900s, Western art
was introduced to China, and
Chinese artists moved from
copying the style of the old
masters to a modern style.
Modern art
Since the 1950s, artists
such as Liu Haisu
experimented with new
painting techniques and
painted new subjects,
including modern life.
One Hundred Butterflies,
Flowers, and Insects (detail),
17th century, by Chen Hongshou
Woods and Valleys of
Mount Yu, 1372, by Ni Zan
The Peach Blossom Spring, c. mid-1500s, by Wen Zhengming
Portraits of Thirteen
Emperors (detail), late
7th century, by Yan Liben
Old Trees, Level Distance, c. 1080, by Guo Xi
Chicken and
Chinese Cabbages,
20th century,
by Qi Baishi
Yellow Mountain (detail),
20th century, by Liu Haisu
Early art—Chinese art
27
28
Today you can buy tubes or jars
of paint in just about every color
you can imagine. But over six
hundred years ago artists had
to mix up their own colors.
They would buy the paint in the
form of a colored powder, or
pigment, and then mix it with a
liquid binder. These are some of
the pigments that may have been
used to create the illuminated
manuscript shown here:
Orange
The mineral cinnabar was
crushed to make the
orange-red color. This
contained mercury, which
is now known to be slowly
poisonous.
Blue
The deep rich blue color
called ultramarine was more
expensive than gold because
the rock lapis lazuli was
imported from Afghanistan.
It was reserved for painting
the regal gowns and the
amount to be used was
specified by the patron of
the work in the contract.
Tempera paint
Artists’ workshops in the Middle Ages
were busy places. The apprentices
would prepare the materials and
colors, while the main artists painted.
This is how tempera paint—mainly
used on wooden panels—was made:
1
The dry
pigments were
ground and mixed
with water to form
a paste. This was
skilled work, since
grinding some
pigments too
much could spoil
the color.
2
Egg yolk was
separated from
the white, pierced
and collected in a
container. A little
water was added
before the egg yolk
was mixed with
the pigment paste.
Très Riches Heures du Duc de
Berry (detail from April),
15th century, by the
Limbourg brothers—
Vellum
How to create
colors
HOW DID THEY DO THAT?
29
Gold
Gold was the most expensive color
after ultramarine. It was beaten into
very thin sheets to make gold leaf.
Gold leaf was
applied to the
picture and
then made shiny
by“burnishing”
it with a stone.
White
The brilliant opaque white of the white
garments was painted in lead white.
It was a very common pigment
manufactured from metal. The lead
content made it poisonous
if a person was in contact
with it for long. It has
now been replaced by
zinc or titanium.
Dried pieces of
Madder root
Green
When copper is exposed to air over time
a brilliant green coating forms called
verdigris. This coating was used by artists
in their paintings. To make verdigris, artists
left a real copper coin in a
dish of vinegar.
The copper was
melted, cooled, and
then separated into
shavings to be ground
into powder for pigment.
Purple
Crushed sunflower seeds
made the lilac shade of
the color purple.
By burning animal
bones in a sealed
container, a
pigment of deep
blue-black to
brown-black
color was
produced.
This was called
bone black.
Black
Pink
The purple-red color came
from a plant dye made from the
root of a plant called madder.
The madder roots were dried
in the sun and then ground
into a powder.
Sunflower head
with seeds
Early art—How to create colors

The story of Western art covers the art of
Europe (and later the Americas). In the
15th century, the classical skills and ideas
of the ancient Greeks and Romans were
rediscovered and inspired a new art style
called the Renaissance, meaning “rebirth.”
Renaissance (1400s–1500s)
ART STYLE
Around 500 BCE–300 BCE, the art of the ancient
Greeks flourished. Artists produced marble sculptures (see
page 114), black- and red-figure vase painting, and painting
on wooden panels (few of which survive today).
T
h
e

s
t
o
ry be
g
in
s
.
.
.
The Parthenon frieze by Phidias
In the 1st century, the influence
of Roman art and culture spread across
Europe and northern Africa. Statues,
frescoes, and panels were detailed
and lifelike.
470–1453 The now-established
Christian religion became a main
subject of art across Europe. In the
east, Byzantine art continued the
traditions of the classical art styles.
MEDIEVAL art
In western Europe, wealthy aristocrats
known as patrons were prepared to pay for art that
showed off their wealth. Painters set up workshops
and hired assistants to help them with illuminated
manuscripts and wooden panels.
In the early 1400s, there was renewed
interest in all things classical. The Italian artists
Donatello, Alberti, Brunelleschi, and Masaccio
created the Renaissance style. Donatello’s
sculptures show the lifelike and detailed poses
and expressions of the Roman sculptures.
After studying
Roman architecture,
Filippo Brunelleschi
designed and built
the impressive
dome of Florence
Cathedral, Italy (right), between
1419 and 1436.
Around 1413, the architect
Filippo Brunelleschi
developed the rules of
perspective. This was
adopted by artists such
as Masaccio in their work
to create the illusion that
their paintings had depth.
The Tribute Money, c. 1425, by Masaccio, shows linear
perspective, where the eye is drawn to a single vanishing point
because many lines appear to meet there. The most important part
of the painting, the figure of Jesus, has been positioned here.
Around 1410, the artists
in the Netherlands began to
use linseed oil (made from flax
seeds) and walnut oil mixed with
pigments, making oil paint.
Classics REBORN
CLASSICAL golden age
Rules of PERSPECTIVE
30
Saint George,
c. 1415–17,
by Donatello
A fresco from
Pompeii, Italy,
1st century A mosaic from
the Hagia
Sophia, Istanbul,
6th century
Trés Riches Heures, 15th century, by the Limbourg brothers
G
e
r
m
a
n
N
o
r
t
h
e
r
n

E
u
r
o
p
e
a
n
I
t
a
l
i
a
n
Artists around Europe
developed their Renaissance styles...
Early art—Renaissance
Sandro Botticelli
Portrait of Guiliano de’ Medici,
1478–80
One of Botticelli’s patrons was the
Medici family, who were wealthy
merchants and rulers in Florence.
Raphael
The School of Athens (detail of the Greek
philosophers Plato and Aristotle), c. 1509-10
In addition to Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo,
Raphael was one of the most famous artists of the High
Renaissance, a period where artists were considered to
have achieved artistic perfection.
Titian
Assumption of the Virgin,
1518
In Venice, Titian proved he was
an impressive painter with this
huge and complex altarpiece.
Rogier van der Weyden
The Braque Triptych (detail), c. 1452
Using attention to detail, van der Weyden
gave his figures realistic expressions. Other
Netherlandish painters such as Jan van
Eyck (see page 36) did the same.
Pieter Brueghel the Elder
Fight between Carnival and Lent (detail),
1559
The Netherlandish artist Brueghel painted
lively crowded scenes, adding witty details
and using lots of color.
Jean Fouquet
The Melun Diptych (detail),
c. 1452
The French painter Fouquet
painted figures with sharp,
severe features.
Albrecht Dürer
Self portrait, 1498
Dürer combined both the detailed
style of northern Europeans with
the color, light, composition, and
perspective of the Italian style.
Matthias Grünewald
The Isenheim Altarpiece (detail),
c. 1512–15
With his fearsome demons, Grünewald
was influenced by medieval art. He
used bright, expressive colors.
Hans Holbein the Younger
The Ambassadors, 1533
Holbein was well-known for his large
magnificent portraits. Here he showed the
people surrounded by objects that displayed
their wealth and power.
31
Although landscapes were often subjects of Chinese art,
it was not until the Renaissance that Western artists such as
Brueghel (above) began to develop this subject, which has
since become very popular.
GALLERY
, Hunters in the Snow
(Winter), 1565, Pieter Brueghel the Elder,
Oil on panel This is one of a series of six paintings
called “The Seasons,” which shows a landscape
changed by different seasons.
u Winter Landscape,
c. 1470s, Toyo Sesshu, Ink on paper
Sesshu developed his own style of
Japanese ink painting by making
landscapes with bold strokes.
, Tilted Landscape, c. 2003, Michael
Buhler, MDF, plywood and acrylic In his constructions,
Buhler combines everyday activities with a paranormal
experience, such as this tilting urban scene.
u Bociany (detail), 1900, Józef
Chełmonski, Oil on canvas Bociany is the Polish
word for storks, which are very common in Poland.
u Summer Evening on the Skagen
Southern Beach with Anna Ancher
and Marie Krøyer, 1893, Peder Severin Krøyer,
Oil on canvas This piece by the Norwegian painter Krøyer
shows a peaceful and serene summer evening walk along a
beach in Denmark. His wife and a friend are in the painting.
Landscapes in art
32
u The Trees, c. 1906, André Derain, Oil on canvas
Derain helped create Fauvism, which is a French art style using
lots of bright colors. The colors in this painting are used to create
a sense of the bright sunlight on the landscape.
u Surge of Spring, 20th century, Emily Carr,
Oil on canvas Often working outdoors, Carr passionately
painted the landscape of British Columbia, Canada. Her
expressive paintings showed the power of nature.
u The Cornfield,
1826, John Constable, Oil
on canvas England’s great
landscape painter often painted
scenes of Suffolk, remembering
the area where he grew up.
, Early Spring, 1917, Tom Thomson,
Oil on wood panel Thomson was one of the
artists who started up the “Group of Seven.” This
group of artists celebrated Canada’s natural beauty
in their paintings.
u The Sun, 1912–16, Edvard Munch, Oil on
canvas This painting is part of a mural at the Oslo
University, Norway. The light of the sun in this painting
is dazzling, which grabs the attention of the viewer.
Early art—Landscapes in art
SEEING THINGS
For more on
Edvard Munch
see page 69
33

Portrait of Lisa Gherardini, wife of Francesco del Giocondo,
1503–1506, 30 x 21 in (77 x 53 cm)—Oil on poplar wood
1452: Born near Vinci
in Tuscany, Italy
1472: At age 20 joined
the fraternity of St. Luke
in Florence as a painter
1473: Painted the
Annunciation, possibly
his earliest surviving
painting
1481: Painted the
Adoration of the Magi
1483–1499: At age 31
moved to Milan and
worked at Duke Ludovico
Sforza’s court
1495–1498: Painted
the Last Supper
1499: Left Milan to
travel and returned to
Florence in 1500
1502–1503: Worked
for Cesare Borgia as a
military engineer
1503–1506: At age 50
painted the Mona Lisa
1516 or 1517: Left
Italy for France, as
invited by the king,
Francois I
1519: Died in Cloux
in France
Andrea del Verrocchio
—Studied in Verrocchio’s
studio as an apprentice,
and was inspired by
the classical past,
and a fascination with
anatomy, landscape,
and light
Artist’s
infuences
ARTIST PROFILE
Artist’s
biography
Leonardo da Vinci
34

Leonardo
da Vinci
“I have offended God and mankind because my
work did not reach the quality it should have.”
Leonardo was a great artist, as well as a scientist, an
engineer, a thinker, and a musician. His wide range of
talents made him the original Renaissance man. He
designed war instruments and his notebooks contain
technical and anatomical drawings and scientific
studies. This side of his work was undiscovered for
centuries, and Leonardo is predominately known for his
painting and drawing.
Captivating mystery
Usually known as the Mona Lisa, this portrait (which is believed, but not
known, to be of Lisa Gherardini) has enchanted generations of adults and
children. Along with her mysterious smile, one of the most intriguing
elements of the painting is the strange and haunting scene behind
her, with its bridge and winding road leading to a wild and uninhabited
landscape beyond.
Leonardo developed the technique of
sfumato, a subtle way of dealing with
light and shade through the blurring
of tones and colors (sfumato means
smoky). He blended the edges of the
Mona Lisa’s lips into her skin in a
natural and lifelike way.
Also defined with sfumato, the model’s
eyes seem to have no brows or lashes.
The lady’s gaze seems to follow the
viewer no matter where he or she stands
to look at the painting.
Inventions
Leonardo was fascinated with how
machines worked. He studied all of
the machines of his time and then
designed and developed new ones.
His ideas were ahead of his time,
such as a helicopter, a machine
gun, and even a tank.
These are Leonardo’s notes and sketches
about the size of the Earth and the Moon
and their distances from the Sun. The
words around the sketches were
written in mirror-writing.
This study of human
proportions from
Vitruvius’s De
Architectura was
sketched by Leonardo.
This is a model based
on Leonardo’s sketch
of an ornithopter, a
flying machine with
mechanical wings.
35
Early art—Leonardo

Jan van Eyck
Jan van Eyck is the most respected artist of
the early Netherlandish school. His reputation,
established within a few years of his death, has
never dimmed. Once (wrongly) credited as the
“inventor” of oil painting, he did develop a brilliant
technique for glazing that allowed him to create rich colors and
the impression of depth and texture. The work of Jan van Eyck
had a profound influence on generations of painters of many
different styles and nationalities.
Portrait of prosperity
While The Arnolfini Portrait (full title Portrait of
Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife)
was once thought to record a wedding,
experts now think it is simply the
portrait of a wealthy Italian
merchant and his wife
based in Bruges—it
may even commemorate
her death. Despite
appearances, Arnolfini’s
wife is not pregnant—
the shape of her dress
and the way she’s
holding it were very
fashionable at
the time.
Reflected in the round wall-hung mirror are two
figures entering the room (and apparently being
greeted by the husband’s raised hand).
We know almost nothing
of van Eyck’s early life.
His career as an artist is
documented only from
1432, when he would
have been 42 years old.
c. 1395: Born around
this time, possibly in
Maaseik, near
Maastricht, Netherlands
1422: Worked in The
Hague at the court of
the Count of Holland
1425: Settled in Bruges
as painter to Philip the
Good, Duke of Burgundy
1426: Death of van
Eyck’s brother Hubert, an
equally respected painter,
who had been working
on Jan’s renowned Ghent
Altarpiece
1428-1429: Traveled to
Portugal on a diplomatic
mission for the Duke of
Burgundy
1432: Completed the
Ghent Altarpiece
1433: Produced his
Portrait of a Man, thought
to be a self-portrait
1441: Died in Bruges,
Belgium
Artist’s
infuences
Illuminated
manuscripts
—Inspired by precise style
and attention to detail
Artist’s
biography
Jan van Eyck
The artist left an ornate
signature above the mirror
in a witty, modern-sounding,
style: it translates as “Jan van
Eyck was here 1434.”
Portrait of a Man, 1433,
Oil on wood
ARTIST PROFILE
Tiny painted
scenes from the
life of Christ
circle the mirror.
36

The Arnolfni Portrait, 1434, 32 x 24 in (82 x 60 cm)—Oil on oak
Early art—van Eyck
Experts once believed
that the kicked-off
clogs (used for out-
door wear) meant
this room was holy
ground.
The little dog is
thought to represent
constancy—“Fido,” the
popular pet’s name, is
Latin for “I am faithful.”
Oranges were very costly
in Europe. Together
with the fine clothes and
luxury furnishings, they
may indicate wealth.
The candle above the
husband is lit—the
one above his wife is
not. This may mean
that she’s dead.
Some people believe
all the objects in this
picture have a special
meaning. Others think
they are just things.
What do you think?
37

38
1856 Sir J. E. Millais was a member of the
pre-Raphaelite group who chose to paint
in a deliberately detailed style. Later his
style loosened
1661–62 Rembrandt built
up layers of thick oil paint to
create expressive light and
shade effects
1871 In this portrait of his mother, James
McNeill Whistler uses only shades of gray
and black, painting “art for art’s sake,”
with no narrative meaning
1901 The Danish painter Vilhelm
Hammershøi used white and tones
of gray and black to create light and
shadow effects in his interiors
Fatty oils, made from certain plants such as
linseed, poppy, and walnut, harden when exposed
to air. These are mixed with pigments to make
oil paints. In the early 15th century, Jan van
Eyck (see page 36) showed how oil paints could
create rich colors, light, and shade, and, as the
paint dried slowly, details could be perfected. Oil
painting continues to be popular with artists.
How to use
oil paint
Oil paint timeline
Since the creation of oil paints in the early 1400s, artists
have experimented with clever effects in their oil paintings.
To recreate
the colors that
Rembrandt
used, choose
yellow ocher,
red ocher,
burnt sienna,
burnt umber,
white, and
black paint.
1
Paint a textured base on a tightly
stretched primed canvas. To do
this, brush some reddish-brown paint
from side-to-side and up and down.
3
In certain areas where the paint is
very thick, loosely move the paint
around with a brush.
2
Using a large hog-bristle brush
loaded with thick oil paint, paint
on layer after layer. Areas that are to
stand out get more layers and lighter-
colored paint.
Rembrandt’s style
The Dutch artist Rembrandt van
Rijn used a technique called
impasto—thickly applied oil paint—
to create depth, richness, and texture
in his paintings.
Here’s how to paint like Rembrandt
HOW DID THEY DO THAT?

On the turban,
Rembrandt
made broad,
thick strokes
of white paint.
39
1937–45 Roberto Matta, a Chilean artist, used
oil paints to create his “automatic” surrealist
landscapes (see page 79), allowing his
unconscious mind to take over
1928 One of the leading modern
Brazilian artists, Tarsila do Amaral used
bright oil colors and tropical images in
her paintings such as Abaporu
1968 The Greek artist Yannis Tsarouchis aimed to combine
naturalistic color with realistic shading and accurate
perspective, such as in The Four Seasons.
Rembrandt was in his 50s when
he painted this picture of himself
wearing a turban on his head.
Special effects
In addition to impasto,
Rembrandt used an effect
called chiaroscuro. Areas
of strong light, such as
faces, are contrasted with
areas of heavy shadow,
such as clothes. This gave
the paintings depth and
made certain details stand
out to the viewer.
Self portrait (detail), c. 1665,
45 x 37 in (114 x 94 cm)—Oil on canvas
Early art—How to use oil paint

GALLERY
These paintings show children doing what they like
best; playing their favorite games, cuddling their
toys, dressing up for a celebration, having lots
of fun with friends, and stroking animals!
Children in art
Mother with Twins, 1982, Henry
Spencer Moore, Bronze Moore often created large
pieces of abstract sculpture showing a mother with
her child, although this is the only one with twins.
Las Meninas (detail),
1656, Diego Velázquez, Oil on
canvas This painting shows the
daughter of the Spanish king and
queen with her maids of honor (las
meninas). She was only four or five
years old at the time.
Luca, Minerva, and Europa
Anguissola Playing Chess, 1555, Sofonisba
Anguissola, Oil on canvas Many of Anguissola’s paintings were of
her family. In this piece, her sisters are playing chess. The detailed
embroidery of their clothes shows their family was rich.
SEEING THINGS
For more on
Renaissance
art see page 30
Portrait of a
mother with her
eight children, 1565,
Jakob Seisenegger, Oil on panel
seisenegger, from Austria, was
a court painter to Emperor
Ferdinand I. He became well
known for painting full-length
portraits.
Children’s Games
(detail), 1560, Pieter Brueghel
the Elder, Oil on wood This is only part
of a much larger painting, which shows
lots of children playing. Some children
appear to be playing nicely, while others
look like they are being spiteful.

Girl with Cat, 1989, Fernando Botero,
Oil on canvas The most noticeable thing about Botero’s
paintings are the exaggerated size proportions, which
are intended to be light-hearted and comical.
Boy with Lizards, 1924, Lasar Segall,
Oil on canvas When Segall moved to Brazil from
Germany, he was amazed at the new sights he saw.
The boy in this painting is playing with a couple of
lizards in the wild.
A Day of Celebration, 1895, Carl
Larsson, Watercolor on paper Larsson is famous for his
watercolor paintings of children playing. He had eight
children—they were his favorite subjects for his paintings.
Child with Birds, 1950, Karel Appel,
Oil on canvas Appel was hugely influenced by
children’s drawings. His works are Expressionist pieces,
using bright colors and painted as if by a child.
Ballet Dancer, 1921, Edgar Degas, Dressed
(bronze) Modern-life subjects were the main focus of Degas’
art. To make this sculpture look even more lifelike, he used
real fabrics for the tutu, bodice, and slippers as well as real
hair tied with ribbon. He used wax for the original statue,
which was cast in bronze after his death.
Early art—Children in art

Mid-1500s
In northern Europe, countries
broke away from the Catholic
Church, setting up Protestant
churches and banning religious
paintings. In a Counter
Reformation, the Catholic
Church encouraged religious
art in southern Europe to
promote their Church.
Early 1500s
The artists of the Renaissance
had been inspired by the
Classical golden age in ancient
Greece and Rome.
Baroque was the name given to the style
of art and architecture in the 17th century.
Grandeur, drama, and emotion were
features of the style. Subjects included not
just religious art, but also portraits, landscape,
myths, scenes of everyday life, and still life.
Baroque (1600s)
After 1520, a new art style called
Mannerism developed. It distorted the
High Renaissance style with intense
emotion. Mannerist artists included
Jacopo Carucci, known as Pontormo.
In the 1600s, young nobles were
expected to tour around Europe
for their Classical education.
Rome in Italy became the hub of
all artistic and touristic activity.
Early 1600s
Caravaggio and Annibale Carracci
were two of the earliest Baroque
painters, working in Rome.
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Around 1550, an early type of camera was
developed known as the camera obscura.
This device was sometimes used by artists
such as Jan Vermeer (see page 44) to help
plan their paintings.
1643-1715
In the reign of Louis XIV of France who was
known as “The Sun King,” France was the
leading power in Europe. He and his French
nobles lived together in a lavish Palace at
Versailles, living in luxury and grandeur.
Allegory of Music, c. 1595
Pope Pius IV,
1586–1600,
by Bartolomeo
Passarotti
School of Athens (detail),
1510–11, by Raphael
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Camera
obscura
Madonna and Child with Angels and
Saints, c. 1517–18, by Jacopo Carucci
(Pontormo)
Picture
viewed up-
side down
for the artist
to trace.
MANNERISM
CARAVAGGIO (c. 1571–1610)
A View of the Piazza del
Popolo in Rome, c. 1700s,
by Gaspar van Wittel
ART STYLE

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Sir Anthony van Dyck
Lady Anne Cecil, c. 1630s
Born in the Netherlands, van Dyck
traveled around Europe painting
portraits of wealthy nobles. He
made them look elegant and proud.
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Pieter de Hooch
Nursemaid with baby in an interior
and a young girl preparing the cradle,
17th century
Typical of Dutch artists of this century,
Hooch chose indoor and outdoor scenes
from daily life to paint.
Diego Velázquez
The Lunch, 1620
In all his work, Velázquez made his figures
and objects realistic and lifelike. He became
the official painter for the king of Spain,
Philip IV, and was hired to paint
many portraits.
Claude Gellée Lorrain
Seaport with the Embarkation of
the Queen of Sheba, 1648
The French landscape artist Claude
painted Italian landscapes in soft, rosy
colors. He charged high prices for his
paintings as souvenirs for the travelers
on the Grand Tour.
Sir Peter Paul Rubens
Achilles Defeating Hector, 1630–32
Rubens worked for various monarchs in
northern Europe. He produced many paintings
in every type of subject known at that time.
Nicolas Poussin
An Italianate wooded landscape,
17th century
Poussin was inspired by the art of the
ancient Greeks and Romans. His finest
paintings are his landscapes, where
the trees and hillsides are idealized
and ordered.
Giovanni Francesco Barbieri
The Betrayal of Christ (detail), c. 1621
Barbieri was more commonly known by his
nickname Guercino (“Squinter”), because
he always squinted. He used strong colors,
interesting lighting effects, and off-center
compositions to create dramatic paintings.
Bartolomé Murillo
Immaculate Conception of the
Venerable Ones, c. 1678
The Spanish artist Murillo mainly
produced religious paintings, using
soft colors and giving his figures
sweet expressions.
Baroque artists painted one
or more of these subjects...
Early art—Baroque
43
Pietro da Cortona
David killing Goliath,
17th century
An architect as well as a painter,
Cortona worked in Italy. His art
showed dramatic movements
typical of the Baroque style.

ARTIST PROFILE
Jan Vermeer
“He created a world more perfect than any
he had witnessed.” Art historian Walter Liedtke
Now among the most loved of all artists, Jan
Vermeer was little known outside of his
hometown of Delft during his lifetime, and he
didn’t achieve universal recognition until the
late 1800s. As far as we know, Vermeer may not even have been a
full-time artist. Certainly, he would have worked hard to support his
wife and 11 surviving children, and only about 35 pictures by
him are known to survive.
Pieter de Hooch
—Contemporary artist
who also painted scenes
of everyday life and
light-filled interiors
Artist’s
biography
Jan Vermeer
Picture story
The Art of Painting is a symbolic work
(allegory) about painting in the old
Netherlands. The model is Clio, the muse of
history, and the artist (in 15th-century dress)
might be Vermeer himself. Like all his work,
this picture is remarkable for its quality of
light. He used tiny dots of paint to suggest
the fall of light or the texture of an object.
One critic described the surface of his pictures
as “like crushed pearls melted together.”
Artist’s
infuences
Clio’s trumpet represents
the fame an artist can
achieve. In the book she
holds, she makes a record
of heroic deeds—Vermeer
may be saying that skill as
an artist is just as heroic
as triumph in battle.
44
Interior life
Vermeer’s rooms are just as important and interesting as his people. The
elaborate brass chandelier shimmers with his famous dots of light, the
floor tiles direct our gaze at the main action, and the hanging carpet adds
a theatrical flourish. (Can you spot a life-sized mask in the picture?)
To highlight the
importance of
the painter’s art
form, Clio’s victory
wreath “crowns”
his hand.
Emanuel de Witte
—Inspired by calm, light
effects in the paintings of
church interiors
The Kitchen Maid, c. 1658
Vermeer is famous for “genre”
paintings, which feature cozy
domesticity and natural light.
1632: Born in Delft,
Netherlands
1653: At age 21
became a member of the
Delft painters’ guild
1662: Elected to be
the headman of the
painters’ guild
1665-1666: Painted
Girl with a Pearl Earring
1672: French invasion
of Netherlands caused
economic slump that
affected the art market
1675: At age 43,
died in debt and
unacknowledged
1866: Reputation
restored by French art
critic Théophile Thoré

The Art of Painting, c. 1666, 48 x 39 in (120 x 100 cm)—Oil on canvas
45
Early art—Vermeer

46
SEEING THINGS
For more on
Vincent van Gogh
see page 64
Still-life paintings show objects such as fruit,
furniture, and flowers. In the 17th century,
artists aimed to make the objects look
realistic but since then they have
used still life to explore styles.
Still life in art
Vanitas, 17th century, Simon Renard de
Saint-André, Oil on canvas A vanitas is a type of still-life
painting that was popular in the Netherlands during the 17th
century. Vanitas paintings often include symbols of the shortness
of life; for example, in this piece a skull is used to show death.
Still Life with Bowls of Fruit
and Wine-Jar, 1st century BCE, Roman,
Fresco This is part of a larger fresco of fruit and a
wine jar found in the house of Julia Felix in the
ancient Roman town of Pompeii.
Still life with Basket,
1888-90, Paul Cézanne, Oil on canvas This
is a still-life painting of a basket overflowing
with bright fruits. Cézanne completed hundreds
of still lifes during his painting career.
Sunflowers,
1888, Vincent van Gogh,
Oil on canvas Yellow is an
important color within this
painting, since it signified
happiness for van Gogh. He
painted several versions of the
Sunflowers, some of which
were hung up in the Yellow
House, which he rented in
Arles, France.
GALLERY

Early art—Still life in art
47
SEEING THINGS
For more on
Cubism
see page 69
, Still Life with
Porcelain Lamp, 1918,
Gabriele Münter, Oil on canvas
Münter, a German Expressionist
painter, was interested in art
from a young age. She became
cofounder and the only female
member of the art group known
as “The Blue Rider.”
u Chianti Bottle and Fish, c. 1960s,
Fikret Muallâ, Gouache on paper Gouache—paint mixed
with a type of gum—was Muallâ’s favorite way of painting. It
allowed him to work quickly on his still-life paintings.
Old Models, .
1892, William Michael Harnett,
Oil on canvas In this painting,
Harnett wanted to make the
objects as realistic as possible.
He has cleverly painted them
to look three-dimensional.
u The Round Table, 1929, Georges Braque, Oil, sand
and charcoal on canvas Braque made lots of still-life paintings set on
a round table. In this piece, the table is covered in his favorite things.
The objects have been fragmented, a style called Cubism. Braque also
used sand in this painting to create a weird texture.

One of the main styles of the 18th century
across Europe was called Rococo. This was an
ornamental style with elegance and fun. The
name probably came from the French word rocaille,
meaning a decorative form of rock-art where shells
and pebbles were used to cover fountains.
Rococo (1700s)
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ART STYLE
The Rococo style was a reaction against
the grand and overly dramatic Baroque
style of the 17th century, which featured
detailed landscapes, plenty of symbols,
and references to myths.
Jean-Antoine WATTEAU (1684-1721)
The Thirty Years’ War (1618-48) had devastated Germany, but by the
18th century princes were rebuilding new palaces, and new churches
were also being built in southern Europe.
The French Academy
exhibited in the Louvre
Palace and from 1737,
the exhibitions became
known as the Salon. Also,
the art owned by the royal
family was put on display
and in 1793 the Louvre
opened as the first national
public gallery.
At the beginning of the
1700s, the French artist
Watteau developed the
Rococo style in painting. He
painted dreamy, pastoral
(countryside) settings,
featuring beautifully dressed
people enjoying themselves.
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A Fête Champêtre in a
Water Garden, 18th century
The Louvre
Palace
Building PROJECTS
48
The Grand Tour around Europe became very popular
among wealthy travelers and art lovers during the 1700s.
People on the Grand Tour bought paintings as souvenirs.
Academies of Art were set
up in European capitals to
train artists and exhibit their
work during the 1600s. These
academies set rules for what
was considered “art.” Later,
some of these exhibitions
became public galleries.
During 1715-1774, French
noblemen enjoyed an
extravagant lifestyle and moved
out of Versailles Palace to build
elegant townhouses decorated
in the Rococo style.
Anti-BAROQUE
Piazza of St. Peter’s in Rome,
Italy, designed by the Baroque
architect Gianlorenzo Bernini
Ludwigsburg Palace,
near Stuttgart,
Germany
Public GALLERIES
Giambattista Tiepolo
The Education of the Virgin, 1732
An incredibly quick painter, Tiepolo
was known for his frescoes that
could create amazing illusions.
William Hogarth
Marriage A-la-Mode: IV,
The Toilette, c. 1743
Hogarth painted sequences of
witty paintings, telling stories
with moral themes. There
were six scenes for Marriage
A-la-Mode.
Johann Baptist Zimmermann
The Last Judgment (detail),
1746–54
One of Zimmermann’s greatest
works was to decorate the ceiling
of Wies Church in Germany.
Thomas Gainsborough
Mr. and Mrs. Andrews, c. 1750
Many wealthy British people posed
for their portraits by Gainsborough.
He sometimes set these portraits in
a landscape setting.
Across Europe, artists
painted in the Rococo style…
Early art—Rococo
François Boucher
The Chinese Marriage or An Audience with
the Emperor of China, c. 1742
Boucher was very popular among the noblemen
and royalty of the French court as his paintings
reflected their desires in his
imaginary settings.
Jean-Honoré
Fragonard
The Swing, 1767
Fragonard captured
the Rococo spirit in his
colorful, joyful, and
playful paintings, featuring
aristocrats having fun.
Canaletto
Return of the Bucintoro on Ascension Day,
18th century
Canaletto became famous as a view-painter
capturing the grand scenes of festivities on the
canals in Venice, Italy. He sold his work to the
wealthy travelers on the Grand Tour.
Franz Anton
Maulbertsch
Presentation in the Temple,
18th century
An Austrian artist, Maulbertsch was
commissioned to decorate churches
and buildings across Europe.
49
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Francisco
de Goya
“United with reason, imagination is the mother
of all art and the source of its beauty.”
Goya was a very versatile painter, best known in his
lifetime for portraits, (see his self-portrait,
c. 1797-1800 above). He could show a wide range
of emotions in his work, he used paint in a very
physical way (sometimes thinning it, or possibly
applying it with a sponge and spoons), and he was a
master of softly shaded layers. An early Romantic, he
was also fascinated by people, religion, and morality.
Artist’s
biography
Francisco
de Goya
Artist’s
infuences
Goya described
himself as a pupil of
Rembrandt (self-
portrait above), Diego
Velázquez, and nature.
ARTIST PROFILE
50
As the central figure
throws his arms up in
surrender, you can see
terror in his eyes.
Romantic spirit
Displaying some of the first traces of Romanticism in
his work, Goya often painted the world of dreams,
and even featured mysterious, dreamlike creatures.
This etching was
number 43 from the
series Los Capriches,
a set of 80 etchings
published in 1799
about the social and
political situation at
that time.
1746: Born in
Fuendetodos, near
Saragossa, Spain. He
was the son of a gilder
and his art training
began with a local
painter
1763: At age 17
moved to Madrid and
then studied in Italy
around 1768 to 1771
1785: Appointed
deputy director of
painting at the Royal
Academy in Madrid
1786: Appointed the
King’s Painter and
became the main
painter to the royal
household in 1789
1808–13: Continued
as royal painter under
Joseph Bonaparte, who
was occupying Spain
1814: After the
restoration of the
Spanish king, painted
The Second of May,
1808 and The Third
of May, 1808
1824: Settled in
Bordeaux, France, and
died there in 1828
The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters,
1796–98, Print from etching

Third of May, 1808, 1814, 104 x 135 in
(265 x 345 cm)—Oil on canvas
A huge lantern provides
light for the brutal
nighttime slaughter.
51
Goya wanted to show how
gruesome and bloody these
executions were.
Dying for freedom
During the early 19th century, Napolean’s army occupied
Spain, Goya’s country, but on May 2, 1808, the citizens of
Madrid rose up in rebellion. The next day, French soldiers
shot hundreds of the rebels and many innocent bystanders.
Goya was only able to record the horror after the Spanish
king was restored to his throne several years later.
Early art—Goya

52
How to use
watercolor
Watercolor paint is made from a
colored pigment mixed with water. It
is applied in thin washes of delicate
color that are gradually built up. The
main quality of watercolors is their
transparency and illusion of light.
15th century Albrecht Dürer was one
of the first artists to paint landscapes
in watercolor. This painting is of
Innsbruck Castle, Austria.
19th century Turner visited Venice three times.
He would make hundreds of sketches and rough
watercolors while he was there and paint full-sized
pictures when he got back.
19th century Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s picture
Arthur’s Tomb imitates the style of early Italian
artists. The figures are drawn awkwardly and the
perspective is wrong, like a medieval illustration.
Watercolor timeline
Watercolor probably began with early cave paintings where
pigments were mixed with water. They became more popular in
the Renaissance and are now widely used by amateur artists.
J. M. W. Turner’s style
Joseph Turner was one of the masters of Romantic
watercolor painting. He became known as the
“painter of light” because of his fascination for
the effects of weather on the sea and sky.
Here’s how to
paint like Turner
Turner used the “wet-in-wet”
technique to cover large areas of the paper with
background colors that blend gently into each other.
1
Soak the paper thoroughly with
water. 2
The color is applied in loose
strokes and allowed to spread.
3
Once on the page, the pigment
can be diluted with more water,
or other colors added. The colors run
into each other smoothly.
4
Dried breadcrumbs can be
used to lift out small spots of
color. A clean sponge or rag can be
used for larger areas.
Dawn after the Wreck, c. 1841, Watercolor, graphite, red chalk on paper

53
Early art—How to use watercolor
Turner painted his watercolors in stages.
He would cover the paper with large areas
of thin color to form the background.
He would then apply washes of color to
define buildings and shapes. Finally, he
would use fine brushstrokes of thicker
paint to add details.
20th century In his picture Bedouins,
John Singer Sargent draws attention to
the finely detailed faces by painting the
clothes in loose brushstrokes.
20th century Mildred Butler’s
watercolors often depicted the
gardens and landscapes around
her home in Ireland.
20th century The Chinese artist
Qi Baishi used large brushes to
capture the spirit of his subject
in swift, vigorous strokes.
THINK ABOUT...
the types of effects you can get
with watercolors. Try mixing
colors using the wet-in-wet
method and see what happens.
20th century Raoul Dufy’s Horses and Jockeys
under the Trees is typical of the way he would
lay down color washes and then add simple
outlines to suggest fine detail afterward.
A Canal Near the Arsenale, Venice, 19th century—Watercolor on paper
There are a number of techniques used
in watercolor. In addition to wet-in-wet,
washes can be left to dry and further
colors laid on top to create a depth of
color. Areas of the paper are also left
white or scratched out afterward rather
than using white paint.

In the corner is a stamp of some calligraphy characters. This is how
Japanese artists signed their work. Hokusai used more than 20
different names during his career, depending on his style at the time.
The image is drawn and
placed facedown onto a
block of wood.
The areas where the image
will be white are chiseled
away.
Making a
woodblock print
Did you know that the earliest
woodblock prints are nearly
2,000 years old? They date back
to ancient China in 220 CE.
Amazingly the process of making
a woodblock print is the same
today as it was then!
The areas to be printed
a particular color are left
raised.
The Great Wave off Kanagawa, 1829–33
10 x 15 in (25.9 x 37.2 cm)—Color woodcut
54
ARTIST PROFILE

Katsushika
Hokusai
In the 1800s, Katsushika
Hokusai revolutionized Japanese
art. He used a woodblock printing technique,
but instead of showing samurai, geishas, and
nobility—the subjects chosen by other Japanese
artists—Hokusai drew landscapes and
ordinary life in the countryside. He strived for
realism, perspective, and movement, which can
be seen in his famous print The Great Wave
off Kanagawa. Copies of this print have been
sold all over the world, influencing thousands of
artists and designers.
A traditional print
of geishas, c. 1780
Mount Fuji
The Great Wave was one
of a series of prints called
the Thirty-Six Views of
Mount Fuji (1829–1833).
Although Mount Fuji is
in the background of this
picture, it is framed by
the large waves and in
the foreground a small
peaked wave copies
its shape.
These fishermen, taking fresh fish
from their village to the fish markets
of Edo (now Tokyo), are caught up in
some powerful ocean waves. The
largest wave with its grasping claws is
threatening to engulf the three boats.
How do you think the fishermen
feel? Are they afraid? Or are they
confident they’ll make it as they
have done so many times before?
Hokusai worked obsessively on
creating woodblock prints. He created
more than 30,000 works, but even at
the end of his life he felt he could
do better. He signed one of his last
works as “The Art-Crazy Old-Man.”
The raised image is covered in
printing ink and then pressed
onto paper.
Different blocks are made for
each color and used again to
make lots of copies.
Mount Fuji volcano is the highest
peak in Japan and according to
myths was the source of the secret
of immortality and a home to gods.
Artist’s
biography
Katsushika
Hokusai
1760: Born in Edo
(now Tokyo), Japan
1775: Became an
apprentice woodblock
engraver
1778: At age 18,
joined the studio of
Katsukawa Shunshõ
1797: Adopted
the name Hokusai
Tomisa and produced
brush paintings and
illustrated books
1814: Created a
collection of sketches
known as the series
Hokusai Manga
1824-1830:
Produced many
famous works,
including landscapes
1849: Died and
buried in Tokyo’s
Seikyõji Temple at
age 89
Artist’s
infuences
Chinese art
—For 1,500 years,
Chinese paintings had
featured long-distance
landscape views
Dutch landscape
engravings
—Influenced by the
use of perspective,
shading, and realistic
shadows
55
Early art—Hokusai

Modern art
1850 onward

Art was to change forever in 1860s France, when
a group of artists invented “Impressionism.” Their
new approach was to capture the “impression”
of what is seen at any particular moment. How the
picture was painted became just as important as
the subject matter. Unable to exhibit their work
at the art academies, these artists organized
their own exhibitions.
Impressionism
ART STYLE
By 1850, photography, invented just over a
decade earlier, had developed and become a craze.
Later, motion photography captured how animals
and humans moved. These developments made artists
rethink the composition and accuracy of a painting.
Galloping
Horse, 1887,
by Eadweard
Muybridge
In the 1850s, Gustave
Courbet, and other painters,
began painting realistic
scenes of rural and working
life, including all its harsh
details. This was not approved
of by the art academies,
which preferred paintings
about historical, religious,
and mythological subjects.
Courbet became an outspoken
advocate of “realism” (he
coined the phrase). His modern
approach to painting was frank
in style and unsentimental
in expression. The Realism
movement in art quickly gained
momentum in Europe.
Poachers in the snow,
1867, by Gustave Courbet
In the early 1860s,
Edouard Manet used a new way
of painting, purposely making his
brushstrokes visible on the painting.
This approach makes him one of
the founders of modern art.
Jeanne, 1881, by
Edouard Manet
In the late 1800s, Japanese
woodblock prints (see page 54)
were seen in Europe. Their boldness,
simplicity, and unmodeled figures
influenced the Impressionists. Artists
were especially affected by the lack of
perspective and shadow, as well as the
flat areas of strong color.
By the late
1860s,
a group of French
Impressionists
regularly met in
cafés in Paris to
discuss their ideas
and techniques.
Often the cafés
themselves became
subject-matter.
Mother Anthony’s Tavern, 1886,
by Pierre-Auguste Renoir
By the 1840s, ready-mixed
paint could be bought in resealable
aluminum tubes. This meant
painters could complete a painting
outside more easily, allowing them
to capture the light and weather
effects on a scene.
Painting REAL LIFE
VISIBLE Brushstrokes
58
H
ow
did it happen?

The Impressionist style
originated in France, but
spread to other countries…
F
r
e
n
c
h

I
m
p
r
e
s
s
i
o
n
i
s
m
O
u
t
s
i
d
e

F
r
a
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c
e
Claude Monet
Impression: Sunrise, 1873
The name “Impressionism” was
given to the new style of painting
by an art critic at the group’s first
exhibition after seeing the name of
this painting by Monet.
Camille Pissarro
The Farm at Osny, 1883
Older than most members of the
Impressionist group, Pissarro
was influential in teaching and
guiding the other artists on
painting outdoors.
Alfred Sisley
Snow at Louveciennes, 1875
Most of Sisley’s work is of
landscapes, painted with a light
touch and with the pure colors
applied unmixed onto the canvas,
typical of the Impressionist style.
Edgar Degas
The Dancing Class, c.1873-76
After meeting the Impressionists, Degas
chose scenes from real life to paint, such
as ballet dancers practicing, busy café
interiors, and people at work.
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Ball at the Moulin de la Galette, 1876
This scene of people enjoying themselves in
the open air, with sunlight filtering through
the trees, is typical of Renoir’s work as a true
Impressionist. Later, he experimented with his
style, painting over 6,000 works in his lifetime.
Berthe Morisot
The Cherry Picker, 1891
Morisot was the first woman
to join the Impressionists.
Her brightly colored
paintings often showed
women and family life.
Philip Wilson Steer
Beach at Etaples, 1887
The British artist Steer used the
Impressionist style to capture the
effects of light on his beach scenes
and seascapes.
Childe Hassam
Isle of Shoals, 1906
An American Impressionist, Hassam
spent his summers on the coast in
New Hampshire and captured the
lighting effects on this landscape.
Tom Roberts
A Break Away! 1891
Roberts introduced Impressionism
to Australia, using the style to paint
landscapes, portraits, rural life, and
scenes from history.
Modern art—Impressionism
59

ARTIST PROFILE
60
Painting large
In 1916, Monet built a studio to house a number of
large canvases he had begun working on. Each of
these canvases was over 14 ft (4 m) wide. He
wanted to recreate his oriental garden as a large mural.
Claude Monet
Monet was one of the most famous of the French Impressionist
artists. All his life, he claimed that nature was his studio and his
series paintings show his interest in capturing the changing
light. He would work on a whole series
showing the same subject but at different times
of the day. He would change from one canvas
to another as the Sun moved across the sky, and
then start again with the first canvas the next day.
Artist’s
infuences
1840: Born in Paris
but grew up in Le Havre,
France
1859: At age 19 studied
art at the Académie
Suisse in Paris
1861–62: Drafted into
the army and served
in Algeria, Africa
1870–71: At age 30
lived in London with his
new wife, Camille, during
the Franco-Prussian War
1873: In Paris, he
painted Impression:
Sunrise (see page 59)
1883: Settled in Giverny,
on the Seine, 40 miles (65
km) from Paris
1903: Eyesight began to
fail but continued painting
1926: Died at age 86
and a year later a series
of Waterlilies was housed
in the Orangerie, Paris,
and opened to the public
Johan Jongkind
—Taught Monet to look
closely and clearly at the
light effects in nature
Édouard Manet
—Inspired by his bold
brushstrokes and scenes
of modern life
Artist’s
biography
Claude Monet
“My garden is my most beautiful masterpiece.”

How is this painting similar to Green
Harmony? How is it different? This one
was painted in the summer.

Monet’s brushstrokes became broad and sweeping
with strong bright colors in his later life due to his
failing eyesight.
The Japanese Bridge, 1918, Oil on canvas The Waterlily Pond: Pink Harmony, 1900, Oil on canvas

An oriental water garden
In 1893, Monet bought a plot of land across the road
from his garden in Giverny. Here, he dug out a pond,
planted trees and flowers, and built a Japanese bridge
to create an oriental water garden. Over the next 25
years, he sketched and painted over 250 images of his
waterlilies, of which a series of 10 canvases featured
the bridge and pond in different lighting conditions.
One of
Monet’s sketches of
the pond with waterlilies
in purple pencil.
61
The Waterlily Pond: Green Harmony, 1899, 34¾ x 36½ in (88.3 x 93.1 cm)—Oil on canvas
Modern art—Monet

62
How to paint with pastels
A pastel is a stick of color made from powdered pigment mixed
with a binder such as resin or gum. Pastel is applied directly to
paper and there’s no drying needed.
1499 Leonardo da Vinci experimented with
yellow pastels on the dress for this preparatory
chalk sketch (detail shown) for the portrait of
Isabelle d’Este a wealthy Italian lady
1748 In this portrait of the French king
Louis XV, Maurice-Quentin de La Tour
created wonderful textures for the different
materials the king’s wearing
1771 In the 1770s, Jean-Simeon Chardin
started using pastels for portraits. He
hadn’t done either before, but discovered
he was excellent at them
Pastels
timeline
Prehistoric cave paintings could
be considered the first art created
using dry pigments. Sticks of
pastels have been used since
the Renaissance.
Mary Cassatt’s style
Mary Cassatt was an American painter who spent
some of her time in France. Here, she met the
Impressionists and during the 1880s she painted
in this style to capture the fleeting moments and
the effects of light. In her pastel paintings, she
would apply the pastels with loose vigorous strokes,
leaving soft, fuzzy edges to suggest immediacy and
movement. She would layer color on top of color,
which would make them appear as one color.
How to color layer There are many effects that can be
created with pastels, such as blending, cross-hatching, and scrumbling.
Mary Cassatt’s technique was to use color layering.
ASK YOURSELF
If you were
painting a picture
of a friend, what
would they be
wearing and
what would they
be holding?
1
A pale sketch is drawn in
charcoal (or pencil) onto the
paper, keeping the lines light.
HOW DID THEY DO THAT?
2
Using loose, quick strokes,
the first layers of pastels
are applied.
3
The paper is sprayed with
a casein fixative. This is a
milky solution that stops the
pastels from smudging.
4
Another pastel is applied
using the same loose, quick
strokes over the top. This effect
is called color layering.
Women Admiring a Child, c. 1897—Pastel on paper

63
Modern art—How to paint with pastels
Pastels can be held in
different ways. Dragging
the edge of a pastel creates
large blocks of color.
Late-1800s Edgar Degas used pastels
to capture the movement and light
effects typical of the Impressionist style.
c. 1880 The American Impressionist
artist Mary Cassatt used quick strokes
and layering of different colored pastels
to create her paintings
Elsie Cassatt
holding a big dog,
c. 1880, 25 x 20½ in
(63.5 x 52.1 cm)—
Pastel on paper
1902 Stanislaw Wyspianski had an
allergy to oil paint, so he used pastels
to create his paintings of the Polish
landscape and portraits
2007 Daniel Greene, an award-winning
artist, uses pastels for his portraits and
still-life paintings, such as this one of a
Green Checkerboard Balloons and Darts
Cassatt’s favorite subjects
to paint were women
and children. Women
were shown reading,
sewing, writing letters,
having tea, and joining in
family activities. Cassatt’s
paintings show what
the lives of women and
children were like at the
end of the 19th century.

Vincent van Gogh
At age 27, Vincent van Gogh taught himself to draw with only
a little teaching, and continued to develop his skills throughout his
life. He painted self portraits to practice his technique. He bought
a mirror and painted himself—more than 30 times.
Imagine if you could walk into this painting...
One of van Gogh’s favorite paintings was this one of his bedroom in the
Yellow House at Arles, in the south of France. He painted with dramatic
colors. In reality, his room had very little furniture. He added two chairs
to represent himself and his friend Gauguin and he painted other examples of
his work hanging on the walls. This was the first of three versions he painted.
ARTIST PROFILE
Artist’s
infuences
1853: Born in Zundert,
Netherlands
1869: Worked at the
international picture
dealers Goupil and Co.
but was forced to resign
after seven years
1878: Worked as a
lay preacher among
miners in Belgium
1886: Moved to
Paris to live with his
brother and met the
Impressionist painters
1888: Settled in Arles
in the south of France,
hoping to start a
community of artists—
but he never did
1889: Decides to enter
an asylum in nearby
St. Rémy, where he
painted The Starry Night
(see page 66)
1890: At age 37,
committed suicide
Paul Gauguin
—Influenced by the same
subjects when lived and
painted together in Arles
Jean-François Millet
—Influenced by Millet’s
respectful depiction of
laborers in the fields
Artist’s
biography
Vincent van Gogh
January 1889
He began to show
signs of mental
illness and after a
violent quarrel with
a close friend,
Gauguin, cut off
part of his ear.
Fall 1889
In an asylum,
suffering from
mental distress,
he painted
with curving,
swirling lines.
Fall 1886
Van Gogh used
dark colors in his
early paintings,
until he met the
Impressionists
in Paris.
Summer 1887
Van Gogh now
experimented with
light, vibrant colors
and practiced
using short
brushstrokes.
TRY A PORTRAIT
OF YOUR OWN
Practice makes perfect—Self portraits
“I am risking my life for my work, and
half my reason has gone.”
Winter 1888
Now confident
with his own
colorful style, he
moved to Arles,
hoping to create a
school of art with
his artist friends.
Van Gogh applied
the thick oil paint with
fat paintbrushes or by
squeezing straight out
of the tube.
An artist named Seward
Johnson re-created
Van Gogh’s painting
for an American
museum. You can
sit on everything.
Position a mirror in
front of you and draw
your portrait and then
add bold colors.
By Jason, age 10
64

Self-portrait in felt hat, 1887, 17¼ x 14¾ in (44 x 37.5 cm)—Oil on canvas
Modern art—Van Gogh
65

GALLERY
Nighttime creates different
moods in art. In some of these
paintings there are themes of
loneliness and fear, while others
show much happier scenes,
including dancing and celebration.
Nighttime in art
Starry Night, 1889, Vincent van Gogh, Oil on canvas
Van Gogh painted this piece while in a mental hospital. He rarely sold
any of his paintings during his lifetime. Since his death, however, Starry
Night has become one of the best-known paintings in modern culture.
The Dance, 1988,
Paula Rego, Acrylic on
paper This painting is
inspired by Rego’s childhood
in Portugal. It is also said to
represent the different stages
of life, showing the generations
from youth to old age.
66
SEEING THINGS
For more on Vincent
van Gogh
see page 64

Carnation, Lily, Lily, Rose,
1885–86, John Singer Sargent, Oil on canvas
Sargent was staying with friends when he decided
to paint a scene of their children lighting Japanese
lanterns at dusk on a summer evening.
The Mail Coach in a Thunderstorm, 1827,
James Pollard, engraved by R. G. Reeve, Color litho Pollard was known for
his scenes of horses and coaches. This is an aquatint-engraving, which uses a
metal plate covered with a special substance to create a grainy texture.
Automat, 1927, Edward Hopper,
Oil on canvas Many of Hopper’s paintings show
people alone, mostly in urban settings. In this
painting, a woman sits in a quiet café drinking
coffee by herself. It is night, and judging by her
coat and hat, it is also cold outside.
Creole Dance, before
1927, Pedro Figari, Oil on
cardboard The creole dance was
traditionally performed in Latin
America. Figari, an artist from Uruguay,
painted scenes from the local people’s
lives, including their nighttime dancing.
Ceremony under the Moon,
2004, Artist unknown, Oil on canvas This is a
modern painting showing a nighttime scene.
67
Modern art – Nighttime in art

Impressionism had a major impact on
Western art. Artists broke away from the
expectation that art should be large, formal,
highly finished paintings. Instead, artists could
express their personalities and give
a response to the world through their art.
After Impressionism there came a period of
even more innovation, as artists pushed the
boundaries even further.
After Impressionism
La Dame aux Camelias,
1896, by Alphonse Mucha
Art Nouveau
(“New art”) was a popular
decorative, though short-lived,
movement that first appeared
in the 1890s and was inspired
by floral and stylized, curvy
motifs. Alphonse Mucha, a
Czech artist, became famous
in 1895 when he produced a
poster of the popular Parisian
actress Sarah Bernhardt that
embraced this style of art.
Art Nouveau
Fau
v
is
m




Expressio
n
ism
Card Players,
c. 1890-92, by Paul Cézanne
Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grand
Jatte, c. 1884-86, by Georges Seurat
Neo-Impressionism
was a term used to describe the work
of Georges Seurat and Paul Signac in
the 1880s. They experimented with
using small dots to build up an artwork
(because of this the style is also known
as Pointillism). Seurat’s most famous
painting, Sunday Afternoon on the Island
of La Grande Jatte, was completed in 1886.
Postimpressionism
describes the development of French
art from the mid1880s through to the
early 20th century. Artists such as Paul
Cézanne wanted to develop, but also
challenge, the ideals of Impressionism.
Cézanne hoped to bring more of a sense of
order to his work, structuring it more tightly.
Symbolism emerged in the late
1800s, largely as a reaction against Realism and
Impressionism. The movement saw artists exploring
the realms of fantasy and using metaphors in
their works to suggest their own ideas of mystery.
Some, for example, used the Bible, while others
used spirits or ghosts. Paul Gauguin spent part
of his life in Tahiti, where he gained inspiration
for his painting Upa upa (Tahitian Fire Dance).
Upa upa (Tahitian Fire Dance),
c. 1891, by Paul Gauguin
Sym
bolism





N
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-Im
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Postim
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68
ART STYLE









Bridge on the Thames,
c. 1905, by André Derain
Fauvism looked to a vivid use
of color and was an art movement led
by close friends Henri Matisse and André
Derain, who were termed Les Fauves (“the
wild beasts”) in 1905 by a critic. Fauvist
brushwork was bold and the subject was
simplified. Derain depicted London in a
new colorful way using bright colour,
and short, broken brushmarks.
Futurism appeared in
Italy in the early 20th century. It
looked to the triumph of technology
and invention over nature and toward a
promising future rather than dwelling on
the past. The swirling, fractured shapes
and forms in Umberto Boccioni’s works show
his love of speed and technology.
Realism took daily
life as its subject-matter
and aimed to depict it as
realistically as possible.
It began in France in the
1850s. Later, an American
artist, Edward Hopper,
became a leading example
of this kind of art, making
arresting images of ordinary
life in America.
Elasticity, 1916,
by Umberto Boccioni





F
u
t
u
r
i
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m
Realism
Conference at Night, 1949, by Edward Hopper
Locomotive Construction, 1930,
by Joaquín Torres García
Constructivism grew after
1921 following dramatic changes in the
political structure within Russia. Art came to
be seen as a tool that could embrace social
change and inspire future development.
It inspired artists outside Russia as well,
one being Joaquín Torres García, a
Uruguayan artist.






C
o
n
str
u
c
tiv
is
m
The Syphon, 20th century,
by Emilio Pettoruti
Cubism was a revolutionary new
form of painting, seen famously in the work
of Pablo Picasso, that emerged in 1907
and lasted into the early 1920s. Subjects of
Cubist paintings are broken up and painted
as if viewed from different angles. Emilio
Pettoruti was an Argentinian painter who
experimented with Cubism and whose
exhibition of Cubist work in 1924 in
Argentina was considered very shocking.
C
ub
ism
Expressionism twists
and distorts reality in art, with the goal of
provoking an emotional response in the
viewer. It could often be an expression of
an artist’s inner turmoil and confusion.
Edvard Munch showed this to great effect
in his painting The Scream.
The Scream,
1893, by Edvard Munch
69
Modern art—After Impressionism

ARTIST PROFILE
Henri Matisse
“When I paint green, it doesn’t mean grass;
when I paint blue, it doesn’t mean sky.”
When he was recovering from an illness at the
age of 20, Matisse was given a box of paints
by his mother. This moment began his career
as an artist. Matisse was obsessed with color
and used it to create shapes, mood, and
emotion. He played and experimented with
color all his life, often creating the feelings
of joy and playfulness in his works.
1869: Born in
northeastern France
1887: Went to Paris to
study law, became ill,
and turned to studying
art in 1891
1904-1907: Became
the leader of a group of
avant-garde artists
called the Fauves (wild
beasts)
1908: Published Notes
of a Painter, describing
his theory about
painting
1921: Moved to the
south of France
1941: Became confined
to bed or a wheelchair
after two operations
1954: Died of a heart
attack at 85
Artist’s
biography
Henri Matisse
Three Bathers by
Paul Cezanne—
Bought in 1899,
influenced layout
of paintings
Islamic art—Influenced
by the use of patterns
and the decorative use
of color
Artist’s
infuences
Drawing with scissors
Cutting out paper, arranging the pieces
into a picture, and pasting them onto
a flat surface is a technique known as
collage. When Matisse was no longer
able to stand or see well, he chose to
use this technique. With the help of
assistants, he painted sheets of paper,
cut out different shapes, and then
arranged and pasted them down.
70
Try creating your own picture
in the style of Matisse.

Like Matisse, you can be
creative with colored paper.
Paint pieces of paper in
bright colors and then cut
them into shapes. Move the
shapes around until you’re
happy with their arrangement.
NOW YOU
TRY...

The Sorrows of the King, 1952, 115 x 152 in (292 x 386 cm)—
Gouache on paper on canvas
Colors and patterns stand out in Matisse’s
pictures. How many colors can you find in
this picture? How do the colors make you
feel? Matisse chose his colors to express
emotions and cleverly arranged them so
that the picture is relaxing to look at. In his
picture of a snail, he arranged the shapes in
a spiral to suggest the shell
71
Cut out clues
In addition to color, Matisse understood
body shapes and he could suggest an
object or person by showing a simplified
shape with a few flowing lines. In this
picture, can you find the sorrowful king
playing his guitar, and a dancer and a
seated figure trying to cheer him up.
Modern art—Matisse
The Snail 1953 Gouache on paper on canvas

ARTIST PROFILE
Pablo Picasso
“When you come down to it,
all you have is yourself.”
The Spanish artist Picasso was
a gifted artist even as a child
and became one of the most
important modern artists. He was
bold, original, and inventive, and used all kinds of
art materials, including collage and ceramics. The
themes he chose were often about himself and
also universal: love, violence, birth, and death.
Guernica
During the Spanish Civil War, the small town of Guernica
in Spain was attacked by 28 bombers on April 26, 1937.
Immediately afterward, Picasso painted this large picture. He
wanted to show the suffering of ordinary people and animals
and to bring the civil war in Spain to everyone’s attention.
This photograph
shows Dora in
about 1947.
1881: Born in Malaga,
southern Spain
1901: At age 20
visited Paris and painted
pictures of destitute
street figures in shades
of blue, known as his
“Blue Period”
1904: Settled in Paris.
Painted circus figures
and harlequins in orange
and pink colors, known
as his “Rose Period”
1907: At age 26,
painted Les Demoiselles
d’Avignon, which broke
with the traditions of
Western art
1909–1914: Worked
with Georges Braque to
find new ways of showing
space and volume—now
called Cubism
1946-1973: Lived
in the south of France,
continuing his painting
and experimenting with
ceramics until his death
Paul Cezanne—Inspired
by looking at the shape
and form of nature
African sculpture
—Inspired by the boldness
and expressiveness of these
non-Western works
Artist’s
biography
Pablo Picasso
Artist’s
infuences
Model and muse
The woman in the photograph
and seated in the chair is the
French photographer Dora Maar,
who was Picasso’s mistress and
muse (inspiration) for seven
years. Beautiful,
intelligent, and
politically aware,
she took step-by-
step photographs of
Picasso painting Guernica.
Look closer
Look at all the jagged
lines in the painting and
how they convey the
quality of grief. We can
actually feel someone
crying. Picasso has
combined the folds of
a handkerchief with the
fingers and made the
fingernails look like tears.
This portrait shows
Dora from two different
angles—in profile and
full face.
Study of
a weeping
woman
This painting of a
woman mourning was
used as a study for
Guernica (below).
Picasso used Dora’s
features. He wanted
to show the woman’s
suffering and to do
this he distorted her
face and used colors
in an expressive, not
a naturalistic, way.
Did you know that
Picasso and his friend
Georges Braque
developed a new art
style called Cubism? The
surface of the painting
was fragmented, altering
shapes and showing
different viewpoints at
the same time.
The pupil in Dora’s eye
looks almost like a military
plane, to symbolize the ones
that attacked Guernica.
72
Guernica 1937, Oil on canvas

Weeping Woman, 1937, 33¼ x 29 in (84.7 x 73.9 cm)—Oil on canvas
73
Modern art—Picasso

Naïve art
Naïve painting is the work of artists with little or no
formal art training. In the 20th century, these simple
almost cartoonlike paintings with their bright
colors and awkward drawing became popular and
even inspired the work of other artists. The naïve
artists were interested in the subject matter and
often chose to paint their favorite subjects.
74
ART STYLE
Henri Rousseau
Jungle with Horse Attacked by a Jaguar, 1910
The French self-taught artist Rousseau is best known for painting wild
animals in tropical jungle scenes, but these were fantasy. He had never
seen a jungle, but just studied tropical plants in the botanical garden in
Paris for reference.
Alfred Wallis Two Boats with Yellow
Sails and Lighthouse, 20th century
Wallis, a British fisherman and scrap
merchant, only began painting in his 60s.
His main subjects were ships, fishing, and
coastal villages.
Camille Bombois
The Itinerant Athlete, c.1930
The French naïve artist Bombois
is famous for painting circus
scenes. In his youth, he was a
champion local wrestler and
then joined a traveling circus
as a strongman.
Grandma Moses
Come on Old Topsy, 20th century
An American farmer’s wife, Anna Moses only
started painting in her 70s. Over the next 30
years (she died at age 101), she produced an
amazing 3,600 paintings, mostly about her
memories of farm life.

75
Beryl Cook
Granny the Lion Tamer, 1983
Cook started painting in her 40s when she
borrowed a paint-box from her son. This
British artist is famous for painting funny
pictures of “fat ladies.”
Wilson Bigaud
Bal Militaire, 20th century
Bigaud, one of the naïve artists from Haiti, featured scenes of
everyday life in his country, including lively carnivals and dances. In
this painting and many others, he bathed the scenes in golden light.
Dora Holzhandler
Ice Cream Parlor, Bude, 2008
Holzhandler loved patterns and often her pictures
featured stripes and checks on the characters’
clothes, and on furniture and wallpaper.
Ivan Rabuzin
My World, 1962
A Croatian carpenter, Rabuzin
developed an interest in
painting in his 20s and painted
whenever he had the time. His
first exhibition of paintings
when he was 35 was so
successful that he later gave
up his job and became a full-
time painter. He continued
to learn about art by visiting
galleries and reading about
various artists.
Laurence Stephen
Lowry
After the Wedding, 1939
The British artist Lowry was one
of a number of trained painters
who adopted the style of naïve art.
His urban scenes usually featured
factories and other grimy buildings
against a white sky and crowds of
stylized, spindly figures, known as
“matchstick men.”
Modern art—Naïve art

ARTIST
PROFILE
Paul Klee
“I want to be as though newborn...
almost primitive.”
Castle and Sun, 1928, 19¾ x 23¼ in (50 x 59 cm)—Oil on canvas
1879: Born near
Berne in Switzerland
1898: At 19 years
old, moved to Munich
to study at the
Academy of Fine Art
1901-02: Toured
Rome, Naples, and
Florence in Italy
1911: Joined a group
of artists in Germany
called Der Blaue Reiter
(The Blue Rider)
1912: At age 33
visited Paris, met
Delaunay and was
influenced by Cubism
1920-31: Painted
and taught at the
Bauhaus School of Art
and Design in Weimar
in Germany
1933: Returned to
Switzerland to escape
Nazi persecution
1940: Died in
Switzerland
Franz Marc—Inspired
by the use of very bold
colors for expression
Wassily Kandinsky
—Inspired by the fresh
and free way Kandinsky
used color
Artist’s
biography
Paul Klee
Artist’s
infuences
76

A hugely original and now popular artist, Paul Klee was
also amazingly productive. By the time he died, he had
produced more than 9,000 works. His style is hard to
pin down—some of his images are straightforward and
figurative, while others are completely abstract.
Painting
music
Paul Klee was a talented
musician, and he trained as a violinist.
This passion comes through in his
pictures, where he often arranges
blocks of color like notes in a
melody, set off with harmonizing
shades as in a musical composition.
Castle and Sun, although it consists
only of shapes and colors, is so
carefully constructed that it clearly
portrays rows of buildings. Klee’s
main passion was for color: “Color
and I are one,” he wrote.
Cock and pig, 1920,
Pen on paper
“A drawing is simply a
line going for a walk.”
Senecio, 1922, Oil on primed gauze on cardboard
Try to draw your own picture in
the style of Klee.

Try painting simple figures set off by lines,
squares, rectangles, circles, and triangles
in really bright colors. Use your box of
watercolor paints—when Klee was a young
painter, he always worked in
watercolors.
NOW YOU TRY...
B
y Rebecca, age 12
Taking a line for a walk
This is the way Klee thought of drawing.
He would start to doodle with a pencil,
see what shapes appeared, then play with
what he saw. Like a child, Klee relied
heavily on his imagination, finding
endless inspiration by experimenting with
colors and shapes as well as pencil lines.
Assorted shapes
Strongly influenced by Cubism, this
abstracted portrait (Senecio means
“old man”) is drawn in soft colors and
geometric shapes. A simple triangle
suggests the disapproving raised
eyebrow that reflects Klee’s sharp wit.
77
Modern art—Klee


Surreal means “more than real”: Surrealist painters
thought that powerful feelings could be expressed through
dreamlike paintings where ordinary objects were shown in
impossible situations. This questioning of reality was
in response to the horrors of
World War I.
Surrealism
ART STYLE
In the late 1800s, there
was renewed interest
in the work of some
16th century artists,
such as Hieronymus
Bosch and Guiseppe
Arcimboldo, who had
painted imaginary worlds
and experimented with
unusual ideas.
Hieronymus
Bosch
Bosch’s oil
paintings were
visions crammed
with weird
creatures and
distorted figures.
Guiseppe Arcimboldo
As a Renaissance
artist, Arcimboldo
was ahead of his time.
His detailed paintings
showed flowers, fruits,
and vegetables arranged
as fantastic heads.
From 1910 and
into the 1920s, the
Italian artist Chirico
painted dreamlike
pictures of unrelated
objects in deserted
places, including
unidentifiable figures
and strange shadows.
1914-1918
The destruction and suffering of
World War I was blamed on the
upper class’s control over society.
78
Cubist paintings showed
a subject fragmented
from many viewpoints.
Art had become a way of
expressing opinions.
Weeping Woman,
1937, by Pablo Picasso
The Garden of Earthly
Delights (detail),
c. 1500
H
o
w

d
i
d
it h
a
p
p
e
n
?
From 1906, color
photography became
available, along with
other developments in
photographic techniques.
Artists were inspired to
mimic these techniques,
such as images taken in
quick succession.
Nude Descending a
Staircase, No.2, 1912,
by Marcel Duchamp

Spring, 16th century
James ENSOR (1860–1949)
CUBISM
Photographic DEVELOPMENTS
Guiseppe ARCIMBOLDO (c. 1527–1593)
Hieronymus BOSCH (c. 1450–1516)
Giorgio de CHIRICO (1888–1978)
Old Woman with
Masks, 1889
James Ensor
In the late 19th
century, the Belgian
artist Ensor became
known for his fantasy
paintings, featuring
carnival figures and
masks, puppets, and
skeletons.
The Anguish of
Departure, 1913–4


Modern art—Surrealism
Salvador Dali
Premonition of Civil War:
Soft Construction with Boiled Beans, 1936
Spanish artist Dali made strange dreamlike
paintings by looking intensely at a set of objects
until he could see others, like a hallucination.
Rene Magritte
The Liberator, 1947
Magritte painted familiar objects,
animals, and people in scenes that
didn’t make sense. He repeated
some objects in other paintings.
Man Ray
Rayograph (gyroscope,
magnifying glass, pin), 1922
Man Ray placed everyday objects
on photographic light-sensitive
paper and exposed them to light,
making the objects’ flat shapes
and shadows appear on the paper.
This was called a rayograph.
Yves Tanguy
Through Birds Through Fire But Not
Through Glass, 1943
On his strange ocean or Moon-like land-
scapes, Tanguy used nongeometric shapes
to suggest living things, a method called
biomorphism.
Max Ernst
Massacre of the Innocents, 1921
Ernst created Surrealist collages by putting
together a random collection of images from
catalogs, textbooks, and advertisements.
This uncontrolled process was called visual
automatism.
Surrealist artists tried different ways to
reveal their unconscious thoughts...
Andre Masson
Automatic Drawing, c.1924-25
Seriously wounded in WWI, Masson
suffered from nightmares and fits of rage.
He would spontaneously draw when he
was stressed, sometimes after purposely
not eating or drinking for a long time.
1924
The French poet and critic
Andre Breton started the
idea of Surrealism based on
the psychologist Sigmund
Freud’s work on dreams and
the unconscious mind.
Surrealist writers wrote
whatever thoughts they
had as quickly as possible.
While the rest of Europe was at
war, the Dada movement began in
Switzerland—so-called after a baby’s
first sounds. The artists protested
against the foolishness of war
by sticking together fragments of
everyday objects to make supposedly
meaningless art. Marcel Duchamp
used “ready-made” mass-produced
objects to show the absurdity of life.
79
D
r
e
a
m
l
i
k
e
A
u
t
o
m
a
t
i
s
m
ANOTHER DIRECTION
DADA
The mind is like an
iceburg, it floats
with one-seventh of
its bulk above water.
Fountain, 1917,
by Marcel Duchamp
Sigmund Freud (1856–1939)

80
Flowing lines, curved
objects, and twisted
shapes were features
of Miró’s style. He used
a handful of bright
colors against a
plain background.
The Falles was a parade of
huge colorful puppets made
from papier-mâché called
fallas, which were then
burned on the final day
of the two-week festival.
The Spanish artist Joan Miró used his
memory and imagination to paint his pictures.
One of his happy memories was of the many
Falles, Spanish festivals that he had taken
part in when he was young. In 1925, while
in Paris, Miró painted The Carnival of
the Harlequin by letting his subconscious
mind make the images—a method a bit
like doodling.
Artist’s
infuences
Pablo Picasso
—Inspired by Cubist
idea of showing
many viewpoints
Francis Picabia
—Inspired by Dada
idea of scattered and
random forms
Joan Miró
ARTIST PROFILE
Artist’s
biography
Joan Miró
In 1956, Miró moved
to a house in Majorca,
where he lived until
his death in 1983. His
studio was filled with
his fantasy paintings
and sculptures. Black
stains of paint can still
be seen on the floor.
1893: Born in
Barcelona, Spain
1919: At age 26 visited
Paris for the first time
and continued to spend
winters there until the
start of the Spanish Civil
War in 1936, when
he settled there
1940: Returned to
Spain to escape the
German occupation of
France, settling mainly
on the island of Majorca
1947: Visited the
United States for the first
time to produce a mural
1958: Installed two
huge ceramic wall
decorations in the
UNESCO building, Paris
1983: Died in Majorca
A harlequin is a clownlike
figure. Can you find him in
the painting? What do you
think he is feeling?
A harlequin costume is
usually split into areas of
contrasting primary colors.

81
What can you see in Miró’s surreal
(dreamlike) painting called the Carnival
of the Harlequin? Can you recognize
animals, objects, and shapes? Why are
they scattered in a room? Maybe it’s
Miró’s mind or perhaps a workshop.
Carnival of the Harlequin, 1924-5,
26 x 36½ in (66 x 93 cm)—Oil on canvas
Modern art—Miró
Try drawing your own picture in
the style of Miró.

Think of a favorite memory,
perhaps a party or a circus.
Draw some of the images you
can remember in a curved,
twisted way and use lots of
bright colors.
NOW YOU TRY...
M
ark G
rady, age 10

Grant Wood
“ All the good ideas I’ve ever had came
to me while I was milking a cow.”
1891: Born on a
farm near Anamosa,
Iowa
1901: At age 10,
left the farm with
his mother after his
father’s death and
moved to Cedar Rapids
1913: Enrolled in
the School of the Art
Institute of Chicago
1914: At age 23
joined the army
during WWI and
painted camouflage on
tanks and cannons
1920: Made the
first of several trips
to Europe to study
Impressionist and
Postimpressionist art
1930: Painted his
most famous work,
American Gothic
1934: At age 43
appointed assistant
professor of fine art
at University of Iowa
1942: Died of liver
cancer in Iowa City
Artist’s
influences
Artist’s
biography
Grant Wood
Northern masters
—Inspired by the realism
of Netherlandish masters
such as Hans Memling
(Portrait of a Man,
c. 1485, detail above)
American Gothic, 1930, 29¼ × 24½ in (74.3 × 62.4 cm)—
Oil on beaverboard (compressed wood pulp used for construction)
ARTIST PROFILE
82

83
Stone City, Iowa, 1930, Oil on panel
During the early
1930s, American
farmlands
became a dry
dust bowl, yet
Wood portrayed
these fields as a
fertile, appealingly
rounded
landscape. People
are drawn to
Wood’s pictures
because they are
warm and friendly.
Life on the prairies
In the winter of 1932–1933, the US’s
economy was at the lowest point of the
Great Depression, which had begun
in 1929 when the stock market crashed.
Many people were unemployed and
agriculture, mining, and other industries
in America were struggling. Wood
painted hopeful pictures showing
good times. Dinner for Threshers shows
a scene from the 19th century, when
there was no machinery and agriculture
was thriving.
Modern art—Wood
Dinner for Threshers, 1934, Oil on hardboard
Grant Wood was a painter from the American
Midwest who captured the ordinary people and
scenes he grew up with. While abstract and other
kinds of modern art were fashionable in Europe,
Wood’s truthful style and simple country
subject matter offered a complete contrast.
His style became known as Regionalism.
The farmhouse in
the picture is
still standing in
Eldon, Iowa.
Pointed in the medieval
Gothic architectural style,
this arched window inspired
the painting’s name.
Some experts think Wood
deliberately used repeated
patterns of three lines or
shapes in his picture. This
window has three parts—
can you find any other threes? (Clue: look
at the pitchfork, the man’s overalls, and
the deep wrinkles below his glasses.)
American symbol
Possibly the most familiar American painting of all time, American
Gothic was inspired by a house with an unusual window (above).
Wood added “the kind of people I fancied should live in that
house.” The woman who posed for him was his sister Nan, and
the man was his dentist. Do you think this couple are husband
and wife, or father and daughter? Are they grumpy and rigid, or
dignified and serious?

Animals have featured in art since the first
markings on cave walls thousands of years
ago. The varied styles of art have shown
different aspects of animals from
adored pets to powerful beasts to
incarnations of spiritual gods.
Animals in art
Buffalo mask, Bamileke tribe, Wood
In Cameroon, masks were worn at tribal ceremonies.
Buffalos were considered powerful and brave and these
masks, with glaring almond-shaped eyes and large teeth
and nostrils, symbolized the power of the chief.
Development
II, 1939, M. C. Escher,
Woodcut printed from three blocks
Many of Escher’s works used repeated tiled
patterns called tessellations. In this picture,
he was thinking about infinity gradually
reducing the reptiles into tiny hexagons.
Horse and train,
1954, Alex Colville, Glazed
oil on hardboard Inspired by
a World War I poem, Colville
wanted to show that although
a situation may seem hopeless,
choices can be made. Will the
train stop or the horse leave
the tracks to avoid a collision?
Luminous Char, 2008,
Kenojuak Ashevak, Stonecut and stencil
Born in an igloo in 1927, the Canadian artist
Ashevak combined her native traditional Inuit
culture with Western art styles in her work.
The Wild Cattle of
Chillingham, 1867, Edwin Landseer, Oil on
canvas Landseer’s sentimental paintings of animals were
very popular among the society of Victorian Britain.
GALLERY
84
SEEING THINGS
For more on
African sculpture
see page 112

, Puppy,
1992, Jeff Koons, Stainless steel,
soil, geotextile fabric, flowering
plants This 43-ft (12.4-m) high
sculpture of a West Highland White
Terrier puppy now stands outside
the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao,
Spain. The steel structure is covered
in a variety of living flowers with an
internal watering system.
. Blue Fox, 1911,
Franz Marc, Oil on canvas
The Expressionist painter
Franz Marc painted his
animals in symbolic colors
to convey their spiritual
nature. He used blue for
masculinity, yellow for joy
and happiness, and red for
motherhood. For Marc,
blue was the most deeply
spiritual primary color.
u A Monkey, 1500s, Albrecht
Durer, Watercolor and gouache on paper
The Renaissance painter and engraver
Albrecht Durer was fascinated by animals
and was one of the first artists to show
animals as subjects on their own.
u Tiger in a Tropical Storm
(Surprised), 1891, Henri Rousseau, Oil
on canvas The self-taught French artist Rousseau
painted wild animals in jungle landscapes based
on his visits to the Botanical Gardens in Paris.
u Horses, 1950, Xu Beihong,
Chinese ink and color on paper
The Chinese artist, Xu Beihong,
was known for his horse paintings.
His inkwork captured the spirited
movement of the horses.
Modern art—Animals in art
85

In the 20th century a new style was created,
where artists made up their own shapes and colors to
express their emotions. In these abstract paintings,
people, places, or objects were unrecognizable.
This new style was used by artists in many different
movements. After World War II (1939-1945),
artists used abstract art to convey their
innermost feelings.
Postwar abstract art
ART STYLE
Movements of the late 19th century (Impressionism,
Neo-Impressionism and Postimpressionism) stressed the
importance of the creative process as well as the subject.
H
o
w

d
id it h
a
p
p
e
n
?
Movements of the early 20th
century (Symbolism, Fauvism,
and Expressionism) used
color to express strong
personal emotions.
Malevich’s suprematist art has been described as
hard-edged and minimal. To him, a square represented
spiritual perfection.
Kandinsky is considered the founder of abstract
art, having founded the movement in the 1920s.
He was inspired after seeing an upside-down
painting and liking the shapes and colors.
Surrealists during the
1930s painted in a
dreamlike state to reveal
unconscious feelings.
- 1930s -
- 20th century -
Kasimir MALEVICH (1878-1935)
Wassily KANDINSKY (1866-1944)
Mondrian’s art used geometric
shapes. To him, these shapes
freed him from his subject so he
could achieve a spiritual state.
Piet MONDRIAN (1872-1944)
1940s SOCIETY
Postwar society of the late 1940s was being
entertained by the new technology of the
radio, movies, and television. Abstract artists
wanted to also find new ways of painting.
- 19th century -
Im
pressionist—
Edgar Degas
Expressionist— Edvard M
unch
Improvisation
9, 1910,
Oil on canvas
Surrealist—Salvador Dalí
Suprematist
Construction,
1910,
Oil on board
Composition
with Red,
Blue, and
Yellow, 1930,
Oil on canvas
86

Modern art—Postwar abstract art
Willem de Kooning
Door to the River, 1960
De Kooning and Jackson Pollock (see
page 88) were called Action painters.
For them, the “act” of painting becomes
the subject of the work, revealing their
dramatic emotions.
C
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f
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d
A
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t
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G
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m
e
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i
c
Franz Kline
New York, N.Y., 1953
Kline started out as a realistic painter
but then for a while—in the late
1940s and 1950s—painted large
abstract black-and-white calligraphic
paintings of his observations.
Paul-Émile Borduas
Autumn reception, 1953
The radical Canadian abstract painter
Borduas tried to paint “automatically,”
without any thought beforehand of what
he was going to do.
Maria Helena Vieira da Silva
Echec et Mat, 1949
The paintings of the Portugese abstract
artist Vieira da Silva are full of detail and
complex shapes and forms to convey her
search for the never-ending truth.
Alfredo Volpi
Façade in Blue, White and Pink, 1950
Volpi taught himself to paint. He is
famous for painting abstracts of the
colorful, small flags from Brazilian
folklore used in the annual June festival.
Omar Rayo
Mateo’s Toy, 2009
Rayo is a Colombian graphic artist famous
for his abstract geometric paintings. He
uses squares, rectangles, and zigzags in
black, white, and sometimes red colors.
Helen Frankenthaler
Great Meadows, 1951
Frankenthaler devised a soak-stain
technique, using very diluted oil and
acrylic paint, so the painting would
have no brushstrokes or surface texture.
Mark Rothko
Untitled, 1960-61
Rothko often conveyed quiet,
thoughtful emotion through large
spaces of a single color. His huge
canvases convey a feeling of
isolation in a world with no end.
Fahrelnissa Zeid
Pochoir stencil, plate XXIX
Témoignages pour l’art abstrait, 1952
Zeid was a Turkish princess who
combined abstract art with inspirations
from Islamic and Byzantine art. She
described herself as painting in a trance,
losing herself within the painting.
ANOTHER DIRECTION
Then postwar abstract artists
went in different directions...
87

Jackson Pollock
“When I am in my painting, I have a
general notion of what I am about.”
Number 1, 1948, 5 ft 8 in x 8 ft 8 in (172.7 x 264.2 cm)
—Oil and enamel on unprimed canvas
Jackson Pollock is a famous abstract expressionist painter
because he created a whole new way of painting. In 1947, he
suddenly stopped standing at easels and using palettes and
brushes and started dripping household paint over huge canvases
on the floor. Nobody had painted like this before: the artist’s way
of working with paint and the canvas was made the subject of the
painting. These action paintings became very popular.
Drip and splash
Pollock created his “drip” paintings by
nailing a large canvas to the floor and then
moving around it while pouring, dripping,
and flinging paint. These movements were
energetic and emotional yet controlled.
The paintings have no main focus and all
parts of the picture are equally important.
Pollock’s signature became
part of his pictures. His
name would be created
by dripping paint and
he would also use his
hands to mark the canvas.
Can you find these in the
painting above?
1912: Born in Cody,
Wyoming, and grew
up in Arizona and
California
1930: At age 18,
moved to New York
City to study art with
the mural painter
Thomas Hart Benton
1936: Worked with
Mexican muralists
and was introduced
to the effects of paint
being poured at an
experimental workshop
1945: Married the
painter Lee Krasner
1947–52: During
this time, created his
most famous “drip”
paintings
1956: At the age
of 44, died in a car
accident
Artist’s
biography
Jackson Pollock
Native Indian sand
painting
—Inspired by the
way different colored
sands were trickled to
form symbolic images
Artist’s
infuences
88
ARTIST PROFILE

ARTIST PROFILE
Sir Sidney Nolan
Death of Constable Scanlon, 1946, 35½ x 47¾ in (90.4 x 121.2 cm)
Enamel on composition board
Sir Sidney Nolan was an imaginative and expressive
painter and one of the most famous Australian artists. In his
paintings, he captured the bright light of the rugged Australian bush,
using this as the setting for some of the most dramatic stories
about Australian heroes. The life of Ned Kelly, a famous 19th-century
outlaw, inspired Nolan to make several series of paintings.
Artist’s
biography
Sir Sidney Nolan
1917: Born in
Melbourne, Australia
1933: At age 16,
started working
in a commercial
art company
1934: Attended night
school at the National
Gallery of Victoria Art
School in Melbourne
1941-45: At age
25, drafted into the
Australian army, but
went absent without
leave
1945: Traveled
through Ned Kelly
country and started
painting the first Ned
Kelly series
1950-51: Traveled to
Europe and settled in
the United Kingdom
1981: Knighted for
his services to art
1992: Died in
London, UK
Central Australia
—Inspired by the
brilliant light
Henri Rousseau
—Inspired by naïve
art and children’s art
Artist’s
infuences
90

Kelly’s armor
was made
from parts of
plows, pieces
of leather,
and iron
bolts.
Nolan worked
quickly, sometimes
squeezing the paint
straight from the tube
and onto the canvas.
He had his own style,
often painting people,
trees, and animals
in a simplified way
and using colors that
best re-created the
Australian landscape.

Kelly was wounded in the legs, since
his armor did not cover them, and taken
to Melbourne to be tried for murder.
He was found guilty and hanged at Old
Melbourne Jail in 1880.
The Ned Kelly series
Ned Kelly was a bushranger who became a folk
hero for his daring and stand against the police.
In 1878, as outlaws, he and his gang killed some
police, including Constable Scanlon, at their camp
at Stringybark Creek. In 1945, Nolan began his
series of paintings about the events of Ned Kelly’s
life and returned to this subject again and again.
Nolan considered himself to be an outlaw, since he
had deserted from the army, and he often painted
on the themes of betrayal and injustice.
“The desire to paint
the landscape
involves a wish to
hear more of the
stories that
take place in the
landscape.”
91
Ned Kelly can be recognized in
Nolan’s paintings by the distinctive
black helmet and homemade armor.
Kelly and his gang wore this armor
in their gunfights with police.

Glenrowan was the village where Kelly
and his gang took their last stand. Police
surrounded the inn where they had taken
hostages and, at dawn, Kelly came out
wearing his armor and marched toward
the police firing his gun.
Modern art—Nolan
Glenrowan, 1955, Ripolin on board The Trial, 1947, Enamel on board

War is shown in different ways in art.
Some artists paint the exact details,
others portray the pain and suffering,
while others focus on the action, such as
Lichtenstein’s Whaam!. Will a painting
glamorize the heroics or make the
viewer face the brutal reality?
War in art
, Old Couple, 1932, Kathe
Kollwitz, Pencil on paper Many of
Kollwitz’s drawings show the suffering
and grief of the people living in the
very poor areas of Berlin in Germany
during and after World War I.
u Paths of Glory, 1917,
Christopher Richard Wynne
Nevinson, Oil on canvas
Nevinson worked as a Red Cross
ambulance driver at the start of World
War I and afterward painted what he
had seen at the front lines in France.
u The Triumph of War, 1966, Renato
Guttuso, Oil on canvas Guttuso was friends with Pablo
Picasso and has included the horses from Picasso’s
painting Guernica (see page 72) in this painting.
. Whaam!, 1963,
Roy Lichtenstein,
Acrylic and oil on
canvas Lichtenstein is
famous for his cartoon-
like art style. A fighter
aircraft shoots a rocket
at the enemy and the
word Whaam! adds to
the drama of the impact.
92
GALLERY
SEEING THINGS
For more on Pop
art see page 94

d Barricade in the Rue de
la Mortellerie, June 1848
(Memory of Civil War), 1849, Ernest
Meissonier, Oil on canvas Meissonier was known
for his realistic observation in his art. In this painting,
he shows the dead bodies of the workers who were
rioting in Paris in June 1848.
u Allegory of War, 1690–1700, Luca Giordano,
Oil on canvas The 17th century Italian painter Giordano was admired
for his many religious and mythical paintings. Even in this painting about
war, a mythical god (possibly Vulcan, the Roman god who made armor
and weapons in his forge) can be seen.
. World War Two Pilots
Scramble (detail), unveiled
2005, Paul Day, Bronze Created for a
monument about The Battle of Britain of World
War II, “Scramble” was the signal for action.
93
u The Kiska Patrol, 1945, E. J. Hughes,
Oil on canvas Hughes worked as an official war artist
between 1940 and 1946 for his country, Canada. This
painting shows Canadian soldiers patrolling the icy,
mountainous island of Kiska in 1943.
Modern art—War in art

ARTIST
PROFILE
Andy Warhol
Marilyn, 1967, 36 x 36 in (91.5 x 91.5 cm)—Screenprint
Andy Warhol was the most famous artist of the Pop art
movement in the US, which used images taken from the mass
media, such as advertising and television. His best work was done
in the 1960s when, among other things, he created portraits of
movie stars. These explored the glamour of fame and beauty and
the passing of time. Warhol challenged existing ideas about what is
art and blurred the lines between fine art and popular culture.
1928: Born
in Pittsburgh,
Pennsylvania, the
son of Slovakian
immigrants
1945: At age 17,
studied commercial
art at the Carnegie
Institute of Technology
1949: Moved to New
York and began a
successful career in
magazine illustration
1956: At age 28, first
group show at the
Museum of Modern Art
1962: Founded his
studio called “The
Factory” and gathered
a group of eccentric
followers
1962: Developed the
technique of silk-
screening images
directly onto canvas
1968: Shot and
badly injured by a
disgruntled member
of The Factory
1987: At age 59, died
after complications
from a routine
operation
Artist’s
infuences
Byzantine icons
—Influenced by the gold
and sacredness of the
images, which he saw
as a child in his Roman
Catholic church
Artist’s
biography
Andy Warhol
“Being good in business is the
most fascinating kind of art.”
94

B
y O
scar aged 9
Campbell’s Soup 1: Tomato, 1968, Screenprint
“Everyone will
be famous for
15 minutes.”
Movie stars in print
Marilyn Monroe
was a very famous
Hollywood movie star
from the late 1940s
to the early 1960s. She became
an icon of beauty and glamour. However,
she had emotional problems, and died of a
sleeping pill overdose on August 4, 1962.
95
Pop art
Inspired by advertising,
packaging, and images
from television and the
movies, Warhol chose
very familiar objects
and celebrities as the
subjects for his art.
He used advertising
images, such as soup
cans, soda bottles,
and boxes of cleaning
products, and repeated
them just as if they had
been mass-produced.
Warhol at work
Warhol called his studio
“The Factory” because he was
mass-producing his pictures.
However, unlike the machine-
made prints for posters and
advertisements, everything he
and his assistants worked on
was printed by hand, making
them unique.
Try and create your own picture
in the style of Warhol.

Take a digital photograph of
yourself. On a computer, alter
the photograph by changing
the settings, lighting, colors,
and filters to create a
number of eye-catching
images and print them out.
NOW YOU TRY...
Founded in 1869,
Campbell’s soup is a
brand recognizable
around the world.
After Marilyn Monroe died, Warhol
used a movie publicity photograph
of her and made more than 20
silkscreen paintings of the image.
Warhol used the bright colors used
in advertising and made each print
slightly different. The simplified
image staring out of the picture,
just like a Byzantine icon, shows
no sense of the real person but
only the fame and glamour.
Warhol used the same technique
for painting other celebrities, such
as Elvis Presley and Liza Minelli.
Modern art—Warhol
Marilyn, 1967, Screenprints

Displaying a work of art in
a public place allows an
artist to reach a very wide
audience—many more people
will see it than would see
a painting in a gallery. But
because street artists often
paint their pieces on walls
and buildings illegally,
this type of art is often
controversial. Some
people see it as valuable
art, others as simply
vandalism. What do
you think?
Street art
Making their mark
Most street artists create their pieces with
aerosol spray paint or marker pens. Some,
such as Banksy, use a stencil to help produce
the image quickly, which is important if the
artist does not want to be caught.
PATRIES VAN ELSEN painted this colorful
house in Amsterdam, Netherlands, in 1999.
The mural called The Rainbow Serpent is
found on Spuistraat Street, which has many
painted houses.
BANKSY is the most famous British street artist,
but he keeps his identity a closely guarded secret.
His witty and subversive works have appeared
overnight in cities around the world.
Mirko Reisser (DAIM) is a 3-D graffiti artist from Germany who specializes
in making his artwork appear to float above the surface of the wall. He is
internationally sought after to paint street art around the world. This piece
is called “auf der Lauer” (on the scout) and was spray-painted onto a wall
at Kampnagel halle K3, Hamburg, Germany, in April 2005.
This graffiti art was created by a young girl from
England, who calls herself “Solveig.”
96
ART STYLE
Walls of
wonder

KEITH HARING was an American artist who
became famous for his chalk drawings in
the New York subway. This mural, called
Tuttomondo, is typical of his later style, which
featured bold lines and vivid colors.
A name or
identifying symbol
sprayed on to a
wall or train is
known as a tag.
Mark Bodé works as a cartoonist for
American comic books. He has also taken
up spray can art to collaborate with
fellow artist “Cuba” on murals, such as
this one on North Beach, in San Francisco.
MACLAIM are a trio of artists who together make
superrealistic works of street art. This piece was
created for an international graffiti competition,
held annually in Gran Canaria, Spain, where a
whole town became a canvas.
ESCIF is a Spanish street artist
who often paints characters
within a scene, encouraging the
viewer to imagine the story.
Common subjects of street art include political
messages, anti-commercialism, or spoof ads.
There are different styles of graffiti lettering used, some of
which interlock letters, making them harder to read.
Modern art—Street art
97

GALLERY
From the manic modern day stress
shown below in Deadline to the sweaty
and tough rural farming in The Golden
Fleece, these paintings show people from
different eras and cultures at work.
Work in art
Deadline, late 20th century, Pamela J. Crook,
Acrylic on canvas on wood This is a very busy scene
painted with lots of strong colors. It shows the hectic bustle
of modern working life. By including the frame in the picture,
Crook gives the painting a three-dimensional effect.
Chopping
tobacco, 1893,
José Ferraz de
Almeida Júnior,
Oil on canvas
Almeida Júnior was a
Brazilian artist famous
for painting countrymen
and rural landscapes.
His style is influenced by
Realism (see page 68).
98

Modern art—Work in art
The Fog Warning, 1885, Winslow Homer, Oil on
canvas The sea was Homer’s favorite subject to paint, especially
showing how man copes with nature. Here, a fisherman has just
seen a fog coming his way. Will he get back to his ship in time?
The Golden Fleece, 1894, Tom Roberts, Oil on
canvas Although his work was not appreciated during his lifetime,
Roberts has since been famous for helping to develop Australia’s
national identity by painting farmers and sheep-shearers at work.
Akbarnama,16th century, Abu’l Fazi, Opaque
watercolor and gold on paper The title of this piece means
Book of Akbar, which was about the life and times of Emperor
Akbar. This artwork shows his people preparing for a celebration.
The Floor
Strippers, 1875,
Gustave Caillebotte,
Oil on canvas
Caillebotte was part of
the Impressionist group.
He often painted scenes
from unusual angles and
preferred his subjects not
to pose, as shown here.
Nihonbashi on a Snowy Day, 1840, Ando
Hiroshige, Woodblock print Hiroshige often depicted different seasons
in his work. This detailed scene shows people trying to get to work
across the Nihonbashi (“Japan bridge”) in Edo (now Tokyo) in the snow.
SEEING THINGS
For more about
woodblock prints
see page 54–55
99

Friedensreich
Hundertwasser
“Paradise is here, only we are destroying it. I want
to show how simple it is to have paradise on Earth!”
The 30 Day Fax Painting, 1994, 60 x 51 in (151 x 130 cm)—Mixed media
1928: Born in
Vienna, Austria;
named Friedrich
Stowasser
1936-37: At the
age of 8, attended
Montessori school to
develop artistic talent
1948: Stayed only
three months at
Academy of Fine
Arts, Vienna
1949: At age 21,
changed name and
began traveling
1960: Visited Japan
for the first time
1973: At age 45,
visited New Zealand
and bought a farm as
a second home
2000: Died on board
the Queen Elizabeth 2
cruise liner
Gustav Klimt—
Influenced by the
richly decorated
patterns and colors
Egon Schiele—
Influenced by the
twisted body shapes
100
ARTIST
PROFILE
Artist’s
infuences
Artist’s
biography
Friedensreich
Hundertwasser

The Austrian-born abstract artist
Friedensreich Hundertwasser
created his own artistic theory,
called “transautomatism.”
This theory was all about the
experience of the viewer,
recognizing that different
people see different things
when looking at a picture. Your
reaction to his pictures will be
different than the reactions of
your friends. Hundertwasser
lived a bohemian lifestyle and
loved traveling. He rarely wore
a matching jacket and pants or
socks of the same color.
International architect
Hundertwasser was not only a painter,
but also an architect and ecologist. He
designed buildings around the world,
which all have his very distinctive
vibrant, irregular style. Often the
floors are unlevel, plants grow from
the roofs and walls, and sometimes
the windows are different shapes and
sizes. Hundertwasser’s buildings have
included a power plant, a church, and
public restrooms.
Hundertwasser was
passionate about nature
and believed that an artist
should get inspired by the
irregular patterns of nature.
He saw the spiral as a
symbol of the natural cycle of
life and death and used them
all over his paintings. There are no straight
lines and even all the windows on the cars
and buildings are drawn with flowing shapes.
This picture is made up of 30 letter-sized
FAXes. Notice all the bold, contrasting
colors that Hundertwasser has used. He
also often added gold and silver leaf
for a shimmering effect.
The Ronald McDonald House, Essen, Germany, completed in 2005
The Hundertwasser house,
completed in 1985, is an apartment
building in Vienna, Austria.
The public restrooms in Kawakawa,
New Zealand, were designed by
Hundertwasser in 1999.
The swirls break up the rigid
outline of the window.
Try drawing your own
picture inspired by
Hundertwasser.

Draw spirals and swirly
shapes—remember no
straight lines—and why not
add some plants growing
from the roof or out of the
walls. Use bold colors to
make an eye-catching
masterpiece.
NOW YOU TRY...
101
Modern art—Hundertwasser
D
an
ielle Taylor age 9

The art of the 20th century often challenges our notions
of art, since art styles have taken many different directions.
Just like art of the past, the art can be experimental,
can question our ideas and our understanding of the
world, and is inspired by our lifestyle.
Modern art
S
i
n
c
e

t
he 1
9
5
0
s
.
.
.
102
Cadmium
is a popular
shade of red.
M
arilyn M
onroe,
1967,
by Andy Warhol
In the 1950s, a new plastic-based paint called
acrylic became available. It was fast-drying, allowing
artists to rework their paintings, add details, and
correct mistakes by painting over the top without
the color underneath showing through.
Culture in the 20th century changed
dramatically with the popularity of movie stars and
pop stars, the desire to own material possessions,
and the style of comic books and other media.
In the 1970s, home computers became
increasingly popular. The World Wide
Web began in 1989 and artists used this
to show their work to an international
audience and to sell to a global market.
ACRYLIC Paint
Popular Culture (1950–2000)
NEW Technologies
WWW
www.dk.com
World Wide Web (1989–)
Photocopiers, fax machines, scanners,
digital photography, and video are just
some of the technologies that recent
artists have either used in their artworks or
imitated the effects of in their art.
Around the world, there are
museums that display just modern
art, sponsored by public corporations
or private collectors. Some of the
buildings are works of art themselves.
Pop artists
Pop artists, such as
Andy Warhol (see
page 94), adapted
images of popular
culture from
advertisements and
famous movie stars.
MUSEUMS of Modern Art
ART STYLE
Four Knights, 1980,
by Gilbert and George

These are just some of the many styles
modern artists still experiment with…
103
Piero Manzoni
Artist’s Breath, 1960
The idea, or concept, of the art is more
important than what the art looks like.
Manzoni’s concept was to let a balloon
deflate to represent a passing breath.
C
o
n
c
e
p
t
u
a
l

a
r
t
Hélio Oiticica
Grande Núcleo,
NC3, NC4, NC6
Manifestação
Ambiental n.2,
1960–1963
Installation art is
the arrangement of
interesting materials to
fill a specific space—
such as Oiticica’s
colored boards
suspended in a room.
I
n
s
t
a
l
l
a
t
i
o
n
s
Ansel Adams
Jeffrey Pine, Sentinel Dome, c. 1940
Through experimenting with the taking
and developing of photographs, Adams
is known for making dramatic black and
white photographs that have sharpness
and depth.
Chuck Close
Linda, 1975–1976
Chuck Close makes paintings of
photographs, by dividing each
photograph into a grid, and then
copying the grid onto a canvas.
This type of art is known as
Superrealism or Photorealism.
P
h
o
t
o
g
r
a
p
h
y
Gilbert and George
Title unknown, 20th century
The work of performance art
combines theater and music.
In the late 1960s, Gilbert and
George featured in their work
wearing their trademark suits and
painted golden hands and faces
as “living sculptures.”
P
e
r
f
o
r
m
a
n
c
e

a
r
t
Nam June Paik
Mars, 1990
Nam June Paik made interesting arrangements
of many television screens, showing repeated
recorded images of ordinary things.
V
i
d
e
o

a
r
t
Modern art—Modern art

104
Sculpture

105
Sculpture is the art of shaping three-dimensional
figures or designs to be free-standing or as decoration
in walls. Today, all kinds of industrial and everyday
materials are used, as well as the traditional techniques
such as stone carving or bronze casting.
Sculpture

Carved
in stone
People started carving things out of
stone more than 26,000 years ago.
The first sculptures were often of
important people—rulers,
gods, mythical creatures, or
ancestors. They were often
very big, because they
were designed to impress.
T
h
e

s
t
ory b
e
g
i
n
s
.
.
.
Leshan Giant Buddha,
8th century
This statue of a seated Buddha is
truly enormous—232 ft (71 m)
high, with shoulders 91 ft (28 m)
wide and feet 26 ft (8 m) long.
It was carved out of a cliff face
in Sichuan province, China. The
Buddha’s ears are made of wood
and attached to the head.
ART STYLE

Figure from Mohenjo
Daro, c.2500 BCE
Mohenjo Daro, situated in the Indus
Valley in modern-day Pakistan. The
sculptures found there are among
some of the earliest known.
The Sphinx, c.2520–2494 BCE
This huge figure of a mythical creature
with the body of a lion and a human
head guards the Pyramids at Giza in
Egypt. Egyptian figures are generally
shown looking straight ahead.
Head of Nefertiti,
c.1340 BCE
Nefertiti was the wife of
the pharaoh Akhenaten
and was famous for her
beauty. The statue consists
of an inner limestone carving
covered in layers of plaster,
called stucco.
The Lion Gate at
Mycenae c.1250 BCE
This impressive gateway is the entrance
to the ancient city of Mycenae in
Greece. The two carved lionesses
(left), which originally had metal
heads, are probably guarding the
gateway.
Sculpture—Carved in stone
Historians call
me the priest-king
because of my
fancy clothes and
jewelry, but no
one knows who
I really was.
The Willendorf Venus,
c.24,000 BCE
Some of the earliest stone sculptures
made in Europe were small figures
of naked women. This one is named
after Willendorf, the Austrian village
where it was found.
Easter Island
statue,
1250–1500
This is a moai—one
of hundreds of huge
figures that stand on
Easter Island in the
Pacific. Moai
represent the
islanders’ dead
ancestors.
Assyrian bull figure,
713–706 BCE Standing over 13 ft (4 m)
tall, this huge mythical creature is a
lamassu—a winged bull with a human
head. It is one of a pair that once stood in
the palace of Sargon II, in what is now Iraq.
Olmec head, 1400–400 BCE
The Olmec people lived in Mexico
from about 1400 to 400 BCE. They
produced many enormous stone
sculptures of helmeted heads. The
heads are probably Olmec rulers.
SCULPTOR PROFILE
In c. 246 BCE, the first emperor of China,
Qin Shi Huang, commissioned over 700,000
workers to begin constructing an elaborate
cemetery for him. It contained an entire
army sculpted out of clay, which would
enable Qin to rule another empire
in the afterlife.
The Terra-cotta
Army sculptors
In 1974, local farmers in Xian, China, were building
a well when they dug into a pit by accident. The pit
contained thousands of life-size terra-cotta warriors.
Further excavation was carried out and in 1976 two
more pits were discovered with even more figures.
Qin Shi Huang was
obsessed with finding
the secret of immortality
(living forever).
The discovery of the
Terra-cotta Army has
excited the world.
It is now hailed as
the eighth wonder
of the ancient world!
108

Sculpture—The Terra-cotta Army sculptors
A grand production
It took more than 700,000 local craftsmen and laborers to complete the Terra-cotta Army for
the emperor. In order to carry out a task on such a large scale, each worker had a specific
part to do, just like in a factory assembly line. Amazingly, each warrior sculpture was unique.
Height, uniform, and hairstyle varied depending on a warrior’s rank within the army. Each
sculpture was also very detailed—even the soles of their boots had tread patterns!
Each warrior could be up to
6½ ft (2 m) tall and weigh around
660 lbs (300 kg). There were
different types of warrior, including
crossbowmen, charioteers,
officers, and generals.
Qin Shi Huang was
just 13 years old when
the construction of
the Terra-cotta Army
began!

Look at this photo of
clay warrior models
made by children at
the British Museum,
London.
Can you think of any
sculptures you would
like to have built
for you?
NOW YOU TRY...
When they were
discovered in 1974,
some of the terra-cotta
warriors were broken
or cracked. However,
most of them were
able to be restored.
Modern historians
have also learned that
each warrior was put
together using separate
parts, rather than from
one piece of terra-
cotta. They even found
workshop names on
each separate part.
Models from a children’s workshop at the British Museum
109

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111

ART STYLE
African sculpture
African sculptures are almost always inspired by the
human figure, but they can be made from many different
materials, including stone, animal horn, bronze,
terra-cotta, and wood. Masks, heads, and figurines are
produced in many parts of Africa, each with its own
regional style. These objects are not designed to
be hung on a wall or exhibited in a museum, but
to be used, often in religious ceremonies.
Figure of an Oba
This bronze statue depicts
an Oba, a ruler of the
Ife kingdom,
which flourished
in modern-day
Nigeria from
about 700 to
900 CE. The statue
is a bronze cast,
made from a clay
model of the figure.
Fang mask
This mask was
made by the
Fang people from
Equatorial Guinea.
Called a ngil, it
features a long face
and is painted
with white
kaolin clay.
Dogon mask
The Dogon people
of Mali carve more
than 80 types of
wooden mask. Some
masks are thought to
have magical powers,
while others represent
animals or people.
Nigeria
112
Ivory
Coast
Madagascar
Mali
Benin
Equatorial
Guinea

Sculpture—African sculpture
Ibeji twin figure
The Yoruba people
of Nigeria often have
twins. If one twin dies,
a sculptor creates a
small wooden figure
called an ibeji
(twin) to represent
the lost child. The
mother keeps the
figure and cares for it.
Romuald Hazoumé
This Benin artist creates
sculptures from junk,
such as old cans,
jugs, and video
boxes. Many
of his works
resemble
traditional
African
masks. This
one is called
Gbakounon.
Dan masks These carved wooden masks
from Ivory Coast are made and worn by male
dancers. Once a dancer puts on a mask, the
Dan believe he is transformed into the spirit
or ancestor that the mask represents.
Madagascan
grave markers
The Mahafaly people
of Madagascar mark
graves with carved
wooden posts and zebu
horns. The carvings
depict events in the
dead person’s life.
113

HOW DID THEY DO THAT?
447–432 BCE The Parthenon frieze
established the Classical Greek style
of sculpting the perfect figure.
c. 1st century BCE–c. 5th century CE
During Roman times, the city of
Aphrodisias in Turkey was famous
for its sculpture school.
15th century Renaissance artist
Donatello revived the Classical style
to create realistic statues such as
this of St. John.
17th century Gianlorenzo Bernini was
a skillful Baroque sculptor whose work
included busts of kings and patrons.
Marbl e ti mel i ne
The style of sculpting marble has developed through history,
but the skill of the sculptors has always been impressive.
Parthenon frieze (detail)
447–432 BCE, 524 ft- (160 m-)
long—Marble
114

How to sculpt
marble
Many sculptors have used a crystalized
limestone rock known as marble for
their sculptures. Marble is found in a
great variety of colors and patterns and
can be polished for a stunning effect.
Here’s how to sculpt marble
Sculpting marble is a slow process. It requires a lot of
patience, slowly chipping away with a hammer and chisel
until the block of marble takes the shape of the sculpture.
Classical
Greek style
Between 480 BCE and 300 BCE,
ancient Greek sculptors developed a
realistic and idealistic style now known as
Classical. They would sculpt their idea of
the “perfect” human figure, giving it natural
features and making it young and athletic.
Dressing the figures in flowing robes gave the
impression of movement. The Greek sculptor
Phidias was influential in developing this style.
c.1770s This expressive portrait bust of the Russian
queen Catherine II is by Marie-Anne Collot, a pupil of
the French Rococo sculptor Etienne-Maurice Falconet.
1800–05 Aleijadinho had leprosy, but
managed to carve figures using a hammer
and chisel tied to his fingerless hands.
1886–1901 Auguste Rodin broke new
ground with his unfinished and often
exaggerated style, as seen in The Storm.
1913 The simple style of Jacob Epstein’s
Mother and Child was inspired by
prehistoric and African sculpture.
The Greek sculptor Phidias designed
and supervised the construction of
the Parthenon in Athens, including
the sculptural frieze that went
around the top of the inner columns.
Sculptors would take
months, if not years, to
complete their works,
slowly chipping away
with their hammers and
various chisels.
1
Holding a heavy or point chisel
against the stone, the sculptor
swings the hammer at the chisel as
hard as possible. Then any chips
are flicked out of the way, before
repositioning the chisel for the next
blow. In this way the shape of the
sculpture is “roughed out.”
2
A flat chisel is used to create the
details and refine the sculpture.
Once finished, the ancient Greeks
would have used a stone called
an emery to smooth the chipped
surface,but today a sculptor might
use wet sandpaper. Finally, the
sculpture is polished for shine. The
Greeks used a softer stone for this.
Sculpture – How to sculpt marble
115

116
SCULPTOR PROFILE

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118
SCULPTOR PROFILE
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Let’s go on a
journey of life
The main theme of Vigeland’s
work is a human’s journey
from cradle to grave. These
sculptures (right) show an
unborn baby, children playing,
then adult life and parenthood.
Typically, Vigeland’s sculptures
show people engaged in ordinary
activities—as well as emotions
from love and happiness to
anger and grief.
1869: Born on a farm in
Mandal, Norway
1888: At age 19
determined to succeed as
a professional sculptor
and received support and
training from Norwegian
sculptor Brynjulf Bergslien
1891–1896: Visited other
European cities, including
Paris, where Auguste Rodin
greatly influenced him
1894–1896: Held his
own exhibitions in Norway
and built up a strong
reputation in the art world
1898–1902: Worked
on restoring the Nidaros
Cathedral, Trondheim
1921: At age 52 began
contract with the city of
Oslo—he would receive a
salary and his work would
belong to the city
1924: Moved into a new
studio in Kirkeveien and
spent the next 19 years
creating Frogner Park
1943: Died in Oslo
Auguste Rodin
—Inspired by the powerful
human forms and realistic
style created by Rodin,
as well as the intimate
relationship between
man and woman
(The Thinker, 1880–82,
Bronze)
Artist’s
Biography
Gustav Vigeland
Artist’s
infuences
Gustav Vigeland
Norwegian sculptor, Gustav Vigeland, made a
unique contract with the city of Oslo. He
was to be paid a salary and given a studio
to work in, and in return, all his work
belonged to the city. This was when
he began on his most ambitious
project—Vigeland Sculpture Park.
SCULPTOR
PROFILE
120
A long, straight walkway runs through the middle of the park, from
the Main Gate, over the Bridge, past the fountain to the Wheel of Life.

The Bridge
Fifty-eight sculptures
of men, women, and
children stand along the
edge of the Bridge. Here,
in pairs, groups, or alone,
they illustrate human
relationships and
emotions. Vast lanterns
stand between them.
Wheel of Life
This bronze wheel is
a garland of people
holding on to each other.
It represents life going
on forever. Vigeland was
pleased with his wheel. He
said, “I have never been as
accomplished as I am now.”
Vigeland Sculpture Park
In this park are more than 200 bronze and granite sculptures
of nude figures. They were all designed by Gustav Vigeland,
then carved and cast by his team of highly skilled assistants.
The park covers 80 acres (320,000 square meters) and is part
of the larger Frogner Park. The sculpture park was mainly
built between 1939 and 1949.
Sculpture—Vigeland
These statues
are carved
in granite.
121
Vigeland Park
is the largest
sculpture park
made by a
single artist.

Julio González
Cactus Man No.1, 1939–40
González was a Spanish abstract
sculptor, famous for his welded
metal sculptures. He learned how
to work with metal in his father’s
forge and while in a car factory in
France, he learned oxyacetylene
welding—a mix of fuel gases and
oxygen in a welding torch.
Naum Gabo
Head of a Woman, c. 1917–20
Gabo was one of the first people
to make kinetic (moving) art. He
worked with industrial materials
such as wood, metals, glass,
and plastic and his work was
important to the development
of Constructivism in art. This
sculpture, called Head of a Woman,
is made from celluloid, one of the
earliest types of plastic.
David Smith
Cubi XXVIII, 1965
The American sculptor David Smith created large, abstract
steel sculptures, inspired by the welded sculptures
of González and Picasso. His most famous works are
his Cubi sculptures, made in the 1960s, which feature
squares, rectangles, and other geometric shapes. Over
the years, Smith’s sculptures got bigger and bigger, and
they were designed to be displayed outside.
Alexander Calder
Three Tentacles, 1975
The American sculptor Alexander Calder is famous
for inventing “mobiles,” named by the artist Marcel
Duchamp. Calder’s most recognizable mobiles are
his later sculptures, which were carefully balanced
compositions of wire and sheet metal that could
move with the slightest breeze.
Barbara Hepworth
Sculpture with Strings,
1939 (cast 1961)
Hepworth’s sculptures were
abstract, but often depicted
landscapes or human figures.
She would go on vacation with
other sculptors, including Henry
Moore (see page 124), and
share ideas.
123
Sculpture—Abstract sculpture

Henry Moore
“All art should have a certain mystery and
should make demands on the spectator.”
Reclining fgure: Right Angles, 1981—Bronze
Henry Moore was born into a mining family in Yorkshire, England,
as one of eight children. At age 11, he decided that he wanted
to be a sculptor and went on to become the most famous British
sculptor of the 20th century. His work is more inspired by tribal
and ancient art than by the traditional ideas of beauty shown
in Renaissance sculptures and paintings.
Recurring reclining
figures
Many of Moore’s sculptures are of the
female form in a reclining position. The
smooth curves of these sculptures have
been linked to the rolling landscape
of Moore’s hometown in Yorkshire.
Another common theme in Moore’s
work is that of mother and child. This
became an important part of his work
after his first child, Mary, was born.
Later on in Moore’s
career, bronze
rather than stone
became his
favorite method for
creating large-scale
sculptures.
124
1898: Born in
Castleford, England
1917: At age 19 joined
the army, but was
injured in a gas attack
1919: Received veteran’s
grant and became first
student of sculpture at
Leeds College of Art
and Design
1924: Won a traveling
scholarship and visited
Northern Italy
1932-9: At age
34 became Head of
Sculpture at the Chelsea
School of Art
1948: Won the
International Sculpture
Prize
1972: Established the
Henry Moore Trust
1986: Died, at age 88
Sumerian sculpture
—Inspired by the
ancient sculpture he
studied in the British
Museum, London, UK
Jean Arp
—Inspired by
spreading a sculpture
on a flat base and
splitting the figure
Artist’s
biography
Henry Moore
Artist’s
infuences
This piece is called Large Reclining Figure and was
displayed at Kew Gardens, London. Moore used
fiberglass for this sculpture as it is a lightweight
material and can be moved more easily than bronze.
SCULPTOR PROFILE


Before his first New
York exhibition,
Giacometti worked
with Man Pointing (left)
all night. When it was
collected the next day,
the plaster was still wet.
Seeking
perfection
Giacometti was a perfectionist
who often remade his figures
again and again. Even when he
became enormously famous and
successful, he still destroyed
work he didn’t like, or put it
aside to take up again years later.
Fragile
masterpiece
One of Giacometti’s
best-known pieces,
Man Pointing (1947)
is made of bronze
and stands 5¾ x 3 ft
(1.75 m x 90 cm) tall.
Large Woman II,
one of a series
of four figures.
Most of Giacometti’s females are still,
while his males are active in some way.
This piece is called Walking Man (1960).
SCULPTOR
PROFILE
Alberto Giacometti
“I am not sculpting the human figure,
but rather ‘the shadow that is cast.’”
A Swiss sculptor and painter who worked in Paris
during the 20th century, Giacometti is best known for
his very tall, very thin, figures. Early in his career,
he was inspired by African and Oceanic art, and by
Cubism and Surrealism. Later, he began working from
nature, and for a time he was obsessed with creating
miniscule sculptures. Eventually, he moved into the
distinctive style we associate with his name.
1901: Born in
Borgonovo, Switzerland,
the son of painter
Giovanni Giacometti
1922: At age 21 moved
to Paris to be an
apprentice of Émile-
Antoine Bourdelle, a
sculptor who worked
for Auguste Rodin
1927-1935: Worked
in a Surrealist style
1941-1944: During
WWII, stayed in
Switzerland before
returning to Paris
1947: Created Man
Pointing overnight for
his first exhibition
1962: At age 61, won
the acclaimed sculpture
prize with a show of
over 100 works at the
Venice Biennale
1966: Died of heart
disease
Artist’s
biography
Alberto Giacometti
Max Ernst
—Inspired by the new
methods being used by
artists and sculptors in
the Dada and Surrealism
style (see page78)
Artist’s
infuences
126

The artist’s view
Like all Giacometti’s figures,
Walking Man (1947) (left) has
arms, legs, and a body that are
much longer, thinner, and more
fragile than a real person. Many
experts believe that these frail,
lonely, tense figures reveal the
artist’s sad view of the world.
This sculpted
head (called
a bust) is the
artist’s friend
Elie Lotar.
Giacometti
didn’t want
his busts
to look
like their
subject, but
he did want
them to express
each subject’s
personality.
Play with Giacometti-like
figures by forming skinny
people or animals out of
pipe cleaners or other
flexible wire. Try making
some that are standing
still and some that are
reaching or bending.
NOW YOU TRY:
Kelly Foot, age 7
1
This is covered with an
outer jacket (of plaster
or resin). Together with the
rubber, this is called the
“mother mold.” It is then
cut away from the clay.
2
Hot wax is poured into
this mold in layers until
it makes a duplicate shape
of the original model.
6
Once the
bronze has
cooled, the
shell is broken
off, leaving the
sculpture ready
for the artist to
finish off.
5
Bronze is poured
into the mold,
filling the space
left by the wax.
4
Inside
a high-
pressure sealed
oven, the wax
is melted out.
The rods allow
the gases and
air to escape.
3
The model is
turned and
wax rods link it
with a pouring
cup. The model is
then covered in a
ceramic shell.
Sculpture—Giacometti
How is a bronze sculpture made?
To make a bronze figure, the “lost wax” method was used to
make Giacometti’s sculptures (this is Giacometti, right). Today,
this method starts by hand-making a clay model with all the
detail and texture that will appear on the bronze. When the clay
dries, it is covered with several coats of plaster or a liquid rubber
mixture that picks up every bit of this detail.
Wax
Mother
mold
Ceramic
mold
Wax
model
Wax rod
Pouring
cup
Hot liquid
bronze
127

The mystery continues about just how prehistoric and ancient
people created their ground markings and boulder monuments.
Their purpose was linked with rituals rather than purely artistic.
c. 3000–1600 BCE The huge slabs that form
the English stone circle of Stonehenge were
hauled hundreds of miles from Wales.
Land artists use materials such
as stone, branches, and leaves to
create their works, and often place them in a
natural setting. In the late 1960s this form of
art became very popular, and an avid interest
was taken in prehistoric earthworks. Some
artworks are in remote places and others
can only be seen from an aircraft.
Goldsworthy’s style
The British Land artist Andy Goldsworthy creates
his work in many different natural settings. The
materials he has used include leaves, pebbles,
twigs, sand, and even snow and ice. Many of
his works don’t exist for very long, crumbling
down or melting away. Goldsworthy considers
this to be the final stage of the work.
How to create
Land art
c. 200 BCE–700 CE There are hundreds of large-
scale ground markings in the Nazca Desert in Peru
that are only visible from the air.
c. 2560 BCE Thousands of workers toiled for
decades to quarry and prepare the stones
used to build the pyramids in Giza, Egypt.
Sentinel at Asse Valley, French Alps, 2000
“Each work grows,
stays, decays...”
HOW DID THEY DO THAT?
Land art timeline

1970 Spiral Jetty is an earthwork by Robert
Smithson. Made from basalt rocks and earth,
the coil is 1,500 ft (460 m) long.
1995 Christo and Jeanne-Claude have become famous for
wrapping landmarks in materials. Their work has included
the German parliament building, the Reichstag, in Berlin.
1983 Goldsworthy’s Sand Wiggle makes the most
of the natural materials of the site to capture the
effects of early morning sunlight.
Sculpture – How to create Land art
Andy Goldsworthy experiments
with shapes and materials before
constructing his artworks in
open ground.
How “on earth”
does he do it?
Goldsworthy’s art follows a natural cycle
of construction and destruction:
· Ho usos natural materials from the
site location. The only tools used are
natural objects also found at the site.
· Tho matorials aro givon tho shapo ot
something else found in nature, such
as loavos placod into a spiral liko a snail
sholl, or rocks tormod into an ogg.
· A color photograph is takon to
rocord tho vork, and tho vork is thon
left to the elements.


130
Sculpture NOW
ART STYLE
Sculptors today use new and even unusual materials
such as steel, textiles, chrome, and recycled objects.
There are many huge sculptures on display outside for
the public to see and some are sited in strange places,
such as on rooftops or beaches.
Jeff Koons
Balloon Dog (Yellow), 1994–2000
Like many sculptors, Koons
doesn t make his sculptures, but he
does come up with the ideas for
them. He is known for depicting
familiar, everyday objects often in
humorous ways. This oversized,
smooth, and shiny balloon
dog, made from reflective
stainless steel, is part of
his Celebration series
about familiar things
in childhood.


131
Sculpture—Sculpture NOW
Anthony Gormley
Angel of the North, 1994–1998
Many of Gormley’s works are based on molds taken
from his body. He also chooses effective locations for his
works. The Angel of the North in Gateshead, UK, is said
to be one of the most-viewed pieces of art in the world.
Sebastian
La Puerta de
Chihuahua, 1992
La Puerta de Chihuahua means “The Door to Chihuahua,”
Sebastian’s home state in Mexico. Sebastian uses steel, aluminum,
and cardboard to make his sculptures, creating striking geometric
shapes that symbolize the balance between object and space.
The sculpture is
150 ft (46 m) tall
and stands at the
south entrance to
Chihuahua city.
Donald Judd’s sculptures are examples
of the idea of Minimal art.
Donald Judd
Untitled, c. 1970s
Judd believed that art should
not represent anything. It
should stand on its own and
simply exist. Many of his
works used simple, often
repeated cubes or boxes to
explore space and the use
of space. He thinks of his
sculptures as “objects” made
using industrial processes.
Magdalena
Abakanowicz
Hurma (Crowd), 1994–95
From Poland, Abakanowicz is
famous for making human bodies,
or parts of them, from many
different materials. At different
periods, she has used rope,
sackcloth, and metals. This group
of 250 child and adult life-size
headless figures represents
the helplessness of the
human condition.
Anish Kapoor
Cloud Gate, 1999-2005
Kapoor makes enormous
metal sculptures with
simple, curved shapes.
Some are brightly
colored, while others
have mirror surfaces,
which make the
reflected surroundings
part of the work, such
as this sculpture in
Chicago. In this
sculpture, the viewers
also become part of the
art, since their reflection
can be seen. Cloud Gate is 33 ft (10 m) high and it is so-called
because 80 percent of the reflection is the sky.

132
For the Love of God, 2007, Life-size human skull—Platinum, diamonds, and human teeth
Is this the most
expensive piece
of contemporary
art? Price tag:
$75 million.
The work cost
$21 million to
produce and
was put on
sale in 2007
with an asking
price of $75
million. This would
be the highest price
ever paid for a work by a
living artist. But Hirst has
never revealed if the work
has been sold.
The pear-shaped pink
diamond in the forehead
weighs 52.40 carats
and worth $6
million.
For his mold,
Hirst used a
human skull
thought to have
belonged to a
35-year-old person,
who lived between
1720 and 1810.
SCULPTOR
PROFILE
1965: Born in Bristol,
England, UK
1986: At age 21, studied fine
art at Goldsmiths, University of
London, for three years
1988: Organized Freeze
exhibition of students’ art in a
disused building in London’s
docklands area
1991: At age 26, created
The Physical Impossibility
of Death in the Mind of
Someone Living—a shark in
formaldehyde that made him
famous (or infamous), and
has his first solo exhibition in
London
1991-2003: Work funded by
millionaire art collector Charles
Saatchi
1995: At age 30, won the
Turner Prize for Mother and
Child, Divided (1993)—a cow
and calf sliced in half
1998: Published autobiography
2007: Created For the Love of
God
2008: Held a two-day auction
of his work, called Beautiful
Inside my Head, selling directly
to the public. The sale raised
$167 million
Sculptor’s inspiration
Hirst was inspired by the
nightmarish work of the Irish
artist Francis Bacon. Bacon
shows twisted figures with
grotesque, smudged features.
Sculptor’s biography
Damien Hirst
Self Portrait, 1969
by Francis Bacon


133
Obsession with death
Death is a central theme in Hirst’s works.
For the Love of God is a platinum cast of a
real skull encrusted with 8,601 diamonds.
It is a kind of memento mori—an object
intended to remind us of death. This
combines two ideas that Hirst is known
for: death and the value of his work. He
first became famous for a series of works
in which dead animals (including a tiger
shark, a sheep, and a cow) are preserved—
sometimes having been dissected—in glass
cases filled with a solution containing a
toxic, colorless gas called formaldehyde.
Spots
Aside from his three-dimensional work,
Hirst has also created lots of paintings
of spots, such as this piece. The spot
paintings are made by a random process,
and not directly by Hirst himself. They can
be instantly identified as his work though.
Damien Hirst
“For the love of God, what are you going
to do next?” (Damien Hirst’s mother—This question, directed
at Hirst, is said to have inspired the title of the work opposite)
Hirst is a sculptor, installation artist, painter, and printmaker. He is both
famous and controversial: his works sell for enormous prices, and they
provoke debates about what is considered art. Is this art? You decide!
The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of
Someone Living, 1991, Glass, steel, silicon, formaldehyde
solution, and shark
Sparkling skulls
Hirst said that the idea for his
work For the Love of God came
from seeing an Aztec skull at the
British Museum, London. The
Aztecs—the ruling empire in
central Mexico in the 15th and
16th centuries—made wooden
masks covered in turquoise
to represent their gods.
Sculpture—Hirst
Gelsemine, 2006,
Household gloss on canvas

Get up close to
the real thing!
Cold Dark Matter: An Exploded View, 1991,
by Cornelia Parker—Pieces of an exploded shed and its contents
Many of the paintings and sculptures found in this
book are exhibited in art museums and galleries.
So why not plan a visit to see them for yourself?
Many countries have national or city museums
or museums of modern art and these are always
worth a visit. But keep your eyes open for local
art galleries exhibiting works by local artists, or
interesting sculpture in a nearby park, or a café
selling works of art.
No one knows who the next big name in art will
be. It could be the person who tries out a new style
and leads art in a new direction. Maybe one day
it could be you!


Glossary
Abstract an
art style of the
20th century
where subjects are
unrecognizable and
shapes and colors
represent artists’
emotions.
Academy a school in which
art is taught, or a group of artists
who are experts in a particular
style of painting.
Acrylic paint a plastic-based, fast-
drying paint invented in the 1950s.
Action painting a style of abstract art where
the “act” of painting becomes the subject.
Apprentice a young person being taught the
art of drawing, painting, and preparing materials
by a master painter.
Architect a person who designs buildings and
prepares exact drawings for a builder to follow.
Art Nouveau an art style beginning in the
1890s inspired by floral and stylized curvy motifs.
Automatism the technique of producing
Surrealist art in a random and uncontrolled way
accessing the unconscious mind.
Avant-garde a style of art that is starting a
new trend or direction and is innovative or
experimental.
Baroque a style of art and architecture in
Europe in the 17th century that was grand
and dramatic.
Biomorphism the painting of non-
geometric shapes to suggest living things.
Binder an ingredient in paint
that makes the pigment
particles stick to each
other and the paper
or canvas.
Blaue Reiter, Der a group of Expressionist
artists, founded in 1911 in Germany by Vassily
Kandinsky and Franz Marc. The name means
“Blue Rider,” because they liked blue and horses.
Book of Hours an illustrated medieval religious
book of prayers.
Bronze a metal alloy of copper and tin used
for making statues. It also refers to a coppery-
brown color.
Byzantine art the art of the eastern part of the
Roman Empire between 330 and 1453. It was
based on religious Christian themes and includes
mosaics and icons.
Calligraphy the art of lettering in a decorative
or ornamental style using a brush or pen.
Charcoal burnt wood used for drawing.
Chiaroscuro the creation of a strong contrast
of light and shade in painting to suggest depth
and drama.
Classical art the art of the ancient Greeks and
Romans. The style showed lifelike and detailed
poses and expressions. It is still used to describe
things that have a perfect form.
Collage a picture or design that uses different
materials stuck to a flat surface to give it
an interesting texture or three-dimensional
appearance.
Composition the placing or arranging of
elements in an artwork to give a pleasing or
particular effect.
Conceptual art an art style where the idea or
concept of the art is more important than what
the art looks like.
Constructivism a style of abstract modern art
developed in Russia after the Revolution in 1917
to reflect the country’s new industrial society.
Cubism an art style beginning in
the early 1900s that painted
subjects in a fragmented
manner, as if viewed from
different angles. It was
started by Pablo Picasso
and Georges Braque.
Dada an early 20th century art movement that
ridiculed traditional art forms and contemporary
culture by producing objects in unconventional
forms using unconventional methods, often
designed to shock.
Diptych a picture made of two panels hinged
together, typically as a religious altarpiece.
Engraving a method of cutting a design into
a material, usually metal or wood using a sharp
tool. The surface is then inked and pressed
onto paper.
Etching a process where a needle is used to
scratch a design into wax applied over a metal
plate. The plate is then dipped in acid, which
creates grooves in the scratched areas. The wax
is then removed and ink is run over the plate to
collect in the grooves. The rest of the plate is
then wiped clean before paper is pressed onto it.
Exhibition a public showing of a piece or
collection of artwork.
Expressionism an art style beginning at the
end of the 1800s that twisted and distorted the
subject of the paintings to express an artist’s
inner emotions.
Fauvism an art style at the beginning of the
20th century with bold brushstrokes and vivid
colors. The Fauves, meaning “wild beasts,” were
a group of artists painting in this style.
Fresco the art of painting onto wet plaster
on walls.
Futurism an art style of the early 20th century
celebrating technology and new inventions.
Glaze a thin, transparent coating brushed over
a painting to protect it or add coloring to part
of the picture.
Gold leaf very thin sheets of pure gold.
Gothic a western European style of
architecture, painting, and sculpture that
flourished between the 12th and 15th centuries.
Gouache a heavy, opaque watercolor paint.
Graffti a drawing or inscription on a wall
made with spray paint.
136

Hieroglyphics an ancient Egyptian form of
writing that used symbols and pictures.
Illuminated manuscript a book or paper that
has been decorated with richly colored drawings
and occasionally silver or gold.
Impasto paint that has been put on thickly.
Impressionism term invented in 1874 to
describe a style of painting originating in
France in the 1860s. Impressionist painters often
painted outdoors, where they were interested
in the effects of light and color, and used rapid
brushstrokes to gain an “impression” of the
subjects of their paintings.
Installation art an arrangement of interesting
materials to fill a specific space.
Land art an art style where artists use natural
materials and often site their work in a
natural setting.
Landscape a painting of scenery, such as
mountains, rivers, trees, and fields.
Mannerism an art style that developed
between 1520 and 1600.
Mosaic the art of creating images with small
pieces of colored glass, stone, pottery, or other
hard material.
Mural a large painting made on a wall.
Naïve art the work of artists with little or no
formal art training.
Neo-Impressionism an art style beginning
in the 1880s also known as Pointillism that
experimented with using small dots to build
up a painting.
Oil paint slow-drying paint made by mixing
pigments with an oil.
Pastels a stick of color made from powdered
pigment mixed with a binder, such as a resin
or gum.
Performance art an art style where artists
combine their art with theater and music.
Perspective the representation of three-
dimensional space on a two-dimensional surface.
Petroglyph an image drawn on a rock, as in
prehistoric or Aboriginal art.
Photographic art an art style where artists
experiment with the taking and developing
of photographs.
Pigment a powdered color that is mixed with
a binder, such as gum, oil, or acrylic to make
paints, pastels, or chalks.
Pop art an art style beginning in the mid-1900s
that was inspired by and mimicked popular
culture.
Portraits the painting of people either as head
and shoulders or full-length. Self portraits are
paintings by the artists of themselves.
Postimpressionism the term used to describe
an art style that followed Impressionism,
responding to the style, taking it further, and
sometimes challenging its ideals.
Realism an art style beginning in the 1850s
showing life in a realistic way, often depicting
everyday subjects.
Regionalism an American art style that shows
simple idyllic country life.
Renaissance the style of art and architecture
in Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. The
name means “rebirth” and describes the renewed
interest in Classical art.
Rococo an elegant and light-hearted style of art
and architecture popular in Europe during the
18th century.
Romanticism a 19th century movement where
some artists painted in a bold, dramatic, or
emotional style.
Sfumato meaning smoky, a technique where
sharp outlines are blurred and effects of light
and shadow are created.
Silkscreen a stenciling process where sections
of an illustration are blocked out of a screen of
silk or mesh so that when ink is applied, areas
are left blank. Further colors are then applied on
top to build up a picture.
Still life a painting of objects such as fruit,
furniture, and flowers.
Stucco a fine white plaster used for modeling
and molding.
Superrealism an art style where paintings
are made to look like photographs (also called
Photorealism).
Surrealism an art style beginning around
the 1920s that expressed thoughts of the
unconscious mind through startling and
confusing dreamlike paintings. Surreal means
“more than real.”
Symbolism an art style beginning in the late
1800s that explored fantasy worlds and mystery.
Tempera a type of paint in which pigment is
mixed with egg yolk. It was used before the
invention of oil paint.
Terra-cotta a type of reddish-brown clay.
Tesserae small tiles used to make mosaics.
Texture the surface quality or “feel” of an
artwork.
Transautomatism an art style developed by
Friedensreich Hundertwasser that considers the
viewer’s experiences toward the art.
Vanitas still-life paintings popular in the
Netherlands during the 17th century, which
often include symbols of death.
Video art a form of visual art that uses moving
images. Unlike movies or television, it is not
necessarily intended as entertainment.
Vignette an illustration without a proper
border that fades into the background at
its edges.
Wash a thin, transparent layer of pigment,
used to cover large areas of background in
watercolor painting.
Watercolors
water-based paints with a
transparent color quality.
Paintings created with these
paints are also
called watercolors.
Western art the art of
the European countries,
and those countries that
share cultural traditions with
Europe—such as the nations
of North America.
Woodblock prints a print made by
carving designs into a block of wood. Ink
is applied to the raised surfaces of the wood
and transferred to paper.
137

Index
Abakanowicz, Magdalena 131
Adams, Ansel 103
Alberti, Leon Battista 30
Aleijadinho 115
Anguissola, Sofonisba 40
Appel, Karel 41
Arcimboldo, Giuseppe 17, 78
Arp, Jean 124
Ashevak, Kenojuak 84
Bacon, Francis 132
Baishi, Qi 27, 53
Balkenhol, Stephen 111
Banksy 96
Barbieri, Giovanni Francesco 43
Bartholdi, Frédéric-Auguste 118–119
Benton, Thomas Hart 88
Bernini, Gianlorenzo 114
Bigaud, Wilson 75
Biggs, Emma 23
Boccioni, Umberto 69
Bodé, Mark 97
Bombois, Camille 74
Borduas, Paul-Émile 87
Bosch, Hieronymus 78
Botero, Fernando 41
Botticelli, Sandro 31
Boucher, François 49
Bourdelle, Émile Antoine 126
Bourgeois, Louise 16
Brâncusi, Constantin 122
Braque, Georges 47, 73
Brueghel (the Elder), Pieter 31, 32, 40
Brunelleschi, Filippo 30
Buhler, Michel 32
Butler, Mildred 53
Caillebotte, Gustave 99
Calder, Alexander 123
Canaletto 49
Carr, Emily 33
Carracci, Annibale 42
Caruci, Jacopo 42
Cassatt, Mary 62–63
Cézanne, Paul 46, 68, 70
Chardin, Jean-Simeon 62
Chełmonski, Józef 32
Close, Chuck 103
Collot, Marie-Anne 115
Colville, Alex 84
Constable, John 33
Cook, Beryl 75
Courbet, Gustave 58
Crook, Pamela J. 98
Cuba 97
da Cortona, Pietro 43
da Silva, Maria Helena Vieira 87
Dali, Salvador 79
Day, Paul 93
de Almeida, José Ferraz Júnior 98
de Chirico, Giorgio 78
de Goya, Francisco 50–51
de Hooch, Pieter 43, 44
de Kooning, Willem 87
de La Tour, Maurice-Quentin 62
de Saint-André, Simon Renard 46
de Witte, Emanuel 44
Degas, Edgar 41, 59, 63, 86
del Verrocchio, Andrea 34
Delaunay, Robert 76
della Francesa, Piero 25
Derain, André 33, 69
di Bondone, Giotto 18
do Amaral, Tarsila 39
Donatello 30, 114
Duchamp, Marcel 78, 79
Dufy, Raoul 53
Dürer, Albrecht 31, 52, 85
Eiffel, Gustave 118, 119
Ensor, James 78
Epstein, Jacob 115
Ernst, Max 79, 126
Escher, M. C. 84
Escif 97
Falcone, Etienne-Maurice 115
Fazi, Abu’l 99
Figari, Pedro 67
Foujita, Tsuguji 17
Fouquet, Jean 31
Fragonard, Jean-Honoré 49
Frankenthaler, Helen 87
Gabo, Naum 123
Gainsborough, Thomas 49
García, Joaquín Torres 69
Gaudi, Antoni 23
Gauguin, Paul 64, 68
Giabologna 24
Giacometti, Alberto 126–127
Giacometti, Giovanni 126
Gibbons, Grinling 111
Gilbert and George 102, 103
Giordano, Luca 93
Goldsworthy, Andy 128–129
Gongwang, Huang 27
González, Julio 123
Gormley, Anthony 131
Greene, Daniel 63
Grünewald, Matthias 31
Guayasamín, Oswaldo 17
Guttuso, Renato 92
Haisu, Liu 27
Hammershøi, Vilhelm 38
Haring, Keith 97
Hartnett, William Michael 47
Hassam, Childe 59
Hazoumé, Romuald 113
Hepworth, Barbara 122, 123
Hiroshige, Ando 99
Hirst, Damien 132–133
Hogarth, William 49
Hokusai, Katsushika 54–55
Holbein (the Younger), Hans 31
Holzhandler, Dora, 75
Homer, Winslow 99
Hongshou, Chen 27
Hopper, Edward 67, 69
Hughes, E. J. 93
Hundertwasser, Friedensreich 100–101
Judd, Donald 131
Kandinsky, Wassily 86
Kapoor, Anish 131
138

Klee, Paul 76–77
Klimt, Gustav 100
Kline, Franz 87
Kollwitz, Kathe 92
Koons, Jeff 85, 130
Krasner, Lee 88
Krøyer, Peder Severin 32
Landseer, Edwin 84
Larsson, Carl 19, 41
Leonardo da Vinci 31, 34–35. 62
Liben, Yan 27
Lichtenstein, Ray 92
Limbourg brothers 28, 30
Lorrain, Claude Gellée 43
Lowry, Laurence Stephen 75
Maar, Dora 72
Maclaim 97
Magritte, Rene 79
Malevich, Kasimir 86
Manet, Edouard 58
Manzoni, Piero 103
Marc, Franz 76, 85
Masaccio 30
Masson, Andre 79
Matisse, Henri 69, 70–71
Matta, Roberto 39
Maulbertsch, Franz Anton 49
Meissonier Ernest 93
Memling, Hans 82
Meng, Wang 27
Michelangelo 19, 30, 116–117
Millais, Sir J. E. 38
Millet, Jean-François 64
Miró, Joan 80-81
Mondrian, Piet 86
Monet, Claude 59, 60-61
Moore, Henry Spencer 40, 124–125
Morisot, Berthe 59
Morrisseau, Norval 24
Moses, Anna 74
Muallâ, Fikret 47
Mucha, Alphonse 68
Munch, Edvard 33, 69, 86
Münter, Gabriele 47
Murillo, Bartolomé 43
Muybridge, Eadweard 58
Nevelson, Louise 111
Nevinson, Christopher Richard Wynne 92
Nolan, Sir Sidney 90–91
Oiticica, Hélio 103
Paik, Nam June 103
Passarotti, Bartolomeo 42
Pettoruti, Emilio 69
Phidias 30, 115
Picabia, Francis 80
Picasso, Pablo 69, 72-73, 78, 80, 122, 123
Pissarro, Camille 59
Pollard, James 67
Pollock, Jackson 88-89
Poussin, Nicolas 43, 48
Pozzo, Andrea 19
Rabuzin, Ivan 75
Raphael 31, 42
Ray, Man 79
Rayo, Omar 87
Reeve, R. G. 67
Rego, Paula 66
Reisser, Mirko 96
Rembrandt van Rijn 38–39, 50
Renoir, Pierre-Auguste 16, 59
Reynal, Jeanne 23
Riemenschneider, Tilman 111
Rivera, Diego 19, 23
Roberts, Tom 59, 99
Rodin, Auguste 115, 120, 122, 126
Rossetti, Dante Gabriel 52
Rothko, Mark 87
Rousseau, Henri 74, 85, 90
Rubens, Sir Peter Paul 16, 43
Sargent, John Singer 53, 67
Schiele, Egon 100
Schjerfbeck, Helene 17
Sebastian 131
Segall, Lasar 41
Seisenegger, Jakob 40
Sesshu, Toyo 32
Signac, Paul 68
Sisley, Alfred 59
Smith, David 123
Solveig 96
Steer, Philip Wilson 59
Tanguy, Yves 79
Thomson, Tom 33
Thorvaldsen, Bertel 119
Tiepolo, Giambattista 49
Titian 31
Tjangala, Keith Kaapa 21
Tjapaltjarri, Clifford Possum 21
Tsarouchis, Yannis 39
Turner, Joseph 52–53
Uccello, Paolo 24
van der Weyden, Rogier 31
van Dyck, Sir Anthony 43
van Elsen, Patries 96
van Eyck, Jan 31, 36, 37, 38
van Gogh, Vincent 46, 58, 64–65, 66
van Wittel, Gaspar 42
Velázquez, Diego 40, 43, 50
Vermeer, Jan 42, 44, 45
Verocchio 116
Vigeland, Gustav 120–121
Vitruvius 35
Volpi, Alfredo 87
Wallis, Alfred 74
Warhol, Andy 94–95, 102
Watteau, Jean-Antoine 48
Whistler, James McNeill 38
Wood, Grant 82–83
Wyspianski, Stanislaw 63
Xi, Guo 27
Xu, Biehong 85
Zan, Ni 27
Zeid, Fahrelnissa 87
Zhen, Wu 27
Zhengming, Wen 27
Zimmermann, Johann Baptist 49
139

Acknowledgments
Dorling Kindersley would like to thank the photographers
Will Heap and Jacqui Hurst, the models Catherine
Greenwood (38, 52), Gertraud Goodwin (115), Martin Cheek
(22), Peter Murphy (28), and Madeleine Allison (19), and the
designers Karen Hood, Poppy Joslin, and Sadie Thomas.
The publisher would like to thank the following for
their kind permission to reproduce their photographs:
(Key: a-above; b-below/bottom; c-center; f-far; l-left;
r-right; t-top)
Front Endpapers: Alamy Images: Robert Harding Picture
Library Ltd l (Cave painting); Mary Evans Picture Library tr
(Book of the dead); The Art Archive: Tate Gallery London/
Eileen Tweedy. © The Estate of Roy Lichtenstein/DACS 29
ca (Lichtenstein); The Bridgeman Art Library: Antioch,
Turkey (Mosaic); British Museum c (Turner); Brooklyn
Museum of Art, New York, USA/Gift of the Asian Art
Council b (Thangpa ); Christie’s Images c (Chinese painting);
Graphische Sammlung Albertina, Vienna, Austria r (Durer);
National Gallery, London, UK bl (Gainsborough), tr (Lorrain);
The Detroit Institute of Arts, USA/Gift of Dr. Ernest Stillman
(Cassatt); Wieskirche, Wies, Germany t (Zimmermann);
Corbis: Bettmann bl (Van Gogh); Richard Broadwell/
Beateworks cr (Rock painting); Araldo de Luca b (Roman
painting); Free Agents Limited r (Maori carving); The Gallery
Collection cl (Sisley), l (Van der Weyden), t (Archimboldo);
Hugh Sitton/zefa tl (African masks); Gideon Mendel c
(Grave marker); Rudy Sulgan tl (Pagoda); Sandro Vannini
br (Masaccio); Getty Images: Ignacio Auzike l (Auzike);
Bridgeman Art Library tl (Boccioni); Photographer’s Choice
tl (Terracotta army); Brian McMorrow: bl (mosaic); © Tate,
London 2009: r (Sargent); Copyright the artist ca (Rego).
4 The Bridgeman Art Library: © Fernando Botero,
courtesy Marlborough Gallery, New York. 6 The Bridgeman
Art Library: Private Collection) Lefevre Fine Art Ltd., London
(c). 7 The Art Archive: Tate Gallery London / Eileen
Tweedy. © The Estate of Roy Lichtenstein/DACS 2009 (c).
Corbis: Art on File/Stainless steel, 33 ft x 66 ft x 42 ft,
Millennium Park, Chicago/Courtesy of the City of Chicago
and Gladstone Gallery (b). Getty Images: Bridgeman Art
Library (t). 8 iStockphoto.com: (cr) (br). 10-11 Getty
Images: Bridgeman Art Library. 12 Alamy Images: Robert
Harding Picture Library Ltd (c); Chris Howes/Wild Places
Photography (tl); Martin Jenkinson (b). 13 Clair Carnegie/
Libyan Soup: (cl). Joe Carnegie/Libyan Soup: (tl) (tr).
Corbis: Richard Broadwell/Beateworks (b). 14 Alamy
Images: Mary Evans Picture Library (b); Photofrenetic (ca)
(cl). Science Photo Library: Michael Donne (tl) (c). 15
Corbis: The Gallery Collection. 16 Louise Bourgeois
Studio: © DACS, London/VAGA, New York 2009. Tapestry
and aluminium 14’ x 12 x 12”. P 35.5 x 30.4 x 30.4 cm. Private
collection, courtesy Xavier Hufkens Gallery, Brussels Photo:
Christopher Burke (cb). The Bridgeman Art Library:
Collection of the Prince of Liechtenstein, Schloss Vaduz (tr).
Corbis: Francis G. Mayer (cl); The Gallery Collection (br). 17
The Trustees of the British Museum: (cb). Corbis:
Christie’s Images. © DACS 2009 (tr); The Gallery Collection
(tl). Finnish National Gallery: © DACS 2009 (bl).
Fundacion Guayasamin Centro Cultural: (br). 18 Corbis:
Alinari Archives (br); Araldo de Luca (bc) (r). Getty Images:
Bridgeman Art Library (bl). madderstudio.com: (cla). 19 The
Bridgeman Art Library: Detroit Industry, north wall, 1933,
detail. The Detroit Institute of Arts, USA. © 2009, Banco de
Mexico Diego Rivera & Frida Kahlo Museums Trust, Mexico
D.F. / DACS (br); Vatican Museums and Galleries, Vatican City,
Italy (bl); Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, Sweden (bc/Larsson).
Corbis: Araldo de Luca (bc/Pozzo); Mimmo Jodice (tr).
madderstudio.com: (cra) (cb) (crb) (tc). 20 Alamy Images:
imagebroker (cr); Ken Welsh (t). Corbis: Pam Gardner; Frank
Lane Picture Agency (l); Penny Tweedie (br). 21 The
Bridgeman Art Library: Aboriginal Arts Agency Ltd (r) (br);
Kaapa Tjampitjinpa, Goanna Dreaming (detail) Aboriginal
Arts Agency Ltd (bc). Corbis: Hannah Mason (c); Penny
Tweedie. Aboriginal Arts Agency Ltd (bl); John Van Hasselt/
Sygma (tc); Werner Forman (tl). 22 Alamy Images: The
London Art Archive (tr). Corbis: Ludovic Maisant (fbl). Getty
Images: De Agostini (fbr); Medioimages / Photodisc (br).
Brian McMorrow: (bl). 23 Courtesy Anita Shapolsky
Gallery, NY: Estate of Jeanne Reynal (br). Emma Biggs:
photo: Tom Dunn (fbr). Corbis: Marco Simoni/Robert
Harding World Imagery (fbl). Julian Fong: (tr). Getty
Images: Gavin Hellier/Robert Harding World Imagery (tl);
Keystone. © 2009, Banco de Mexico Diego Rivera & Frida
Kahlo Museums Trust, Mexico D.F./DACS (bl). Bianca
Nogrady, www.biancanogrady.com: (c). Danielle Warner:
(cr). 24 Alamy Images: Phil Robinson/PjrFoto/ (br). The
Bridgeman Art Library: Louvre, Paris, France/Lauros/
Giraudon (l). Corbis: The Gallery Collection (tr). Courtesy
Kinsman Robinson Galleries, Toronto: © 2008 Gabe
Collection (tr); Christie’s Images/© DACS 2009 (tl); Francis G.
Mayer. © ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009 (bl). Oya -
Bülent Eczacıbaı Collection: Chianti Bottle and Fish, Fikret
Muallâ, 1903 - 1967, gouache on paper, without frame: 33 x
50 cm (br). 48 The Bridgeman Art Library: Louvre, Paris,
France (cr). Corbis: Christie’s Images (br); Klaus Hackenberg/
zefa (tl). Getty Images: Manuel Cohen (bl); Digital Vision
(cra); Dorling Kindersley (tr); Stone (tc). 49 The Bridgeman
Art Library: Aldo Crespi Collection, Milan, Italy (ca); Musee
Lambinet, Versailles, France / Lauros / Giraudon (tr); National
Gallery, London, UK (bl) (br); Stiftsmuseum, Klosterneuburg,
Austria (clb); Wieskirche, Wies, Germany (cb). Corbis: Alinari
Archives (cr); The Gallery Collection (tl). 50 The Bridgeman
Art Library: Prado, Madrid (br); Dagli Orti (bl). Corbis:
Burstein Collection (bc); The Gallery Collection (tl). 50-51
The Bridgeman Art Library: Prado, Madrid (c). 51 The
Bridgeman Art Library: Prado, Madrid (br). 52 Alamy
Images: Peter Barritt (cl). The Bridgeman Art Library:
British Museum (bc); Graphische Sammlung Albertina,
Vienna, Austria (bl). The Trustees of the British Museum:
(br). 53 The Bridgeman Art Library: British Museum (t);
Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York, USA/Purchased by
special subscription (fbl); Galerie Daniel Malingue, Paris/©
ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009 (fbr); Private Collection
/ © Chris Beetles, London, U.K. (bl). Corbis: Artkey (br). 54
Corbis: Burstein Collection (t). Derrel Blain, http://www.
flickr.com/people/dailyartmasomenos/ (b) 55 Corbis:
Burstein Collection (clb); Christie’s Images (tc); Historical
Picture Archive (fbr). Photolibrary: (br). 56-57 The Art
Archive: Tate Gallery London/ Eileen Tweedy. © The Estate
of Roy Lichtenstein/DACS 2009. 58 The Bridgeman Art
Library: Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, Sweden (cr). Corbis:
Alinari Archives (cl); Francis G. Mayer (bc); Hulton-Deutsch
Collection (c). iStockphoto.com: (t). 59 The Bridgeman
Art Library: Art Gallery of South Australia, Adelaide,
Australia (bc); Florence Griswold Museum, Old Lyme,
Connecticut, USA/ Gift of the Hartford Steam Boiler
Inspection & Insurance Co. (br); Agnew’s, London, UK/©
Tate, London 2009 (bl); Musee Marmottan, Paris, France /
Giraudon (tl). Corbis: The Gallery Collection (tc) (c) (cl) (cr)
(tr). 60 Alamy Images: The London Art Archive (br). The
Bridgeman Art Library: Musee d’Orsay, Paris, France/
Lauros/Giraudon (bc). Corbis: Edimédia (bl); The Gallery
Collection (clb). DK Images: ©Musee Marmottan photo:
Susanna Price (ca) (tr). TopFoto.co.uk: Roger-Viollet (c). 61
The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee Marmottan, Paris,
France/Giraudon (t). Corbis: The Gallery Collection (b);
Louvre, Paris, France (bc); Louvre, Paris, France/Giraudon
(br). 62 The Bridgeman Art Library: Louvre, Paris, France/
Lauros/Giraudon (bl); The Detroit Institute of Arts, USA/Gift
of Dr. Ernest Stillman (clb). s.moore (tl) (b). 63 The
Bridgeman Art Library: Private Collection/Peter Willi (fbl).
Corbis: Christie’s Images (t) (bl). East News Poland: Laski
Diffusion (br). Daniel E. Greene, N.A.: (fbr). 64 The
Bridgeman Art Library: Private Collection/Christie’s Images
(c); Van Gogh Museum, Amsterdam, The Netherlands/
Giraudon (clb) (bl). Corbis: Joe Epstein/Star Ledger (br); The
Gallery Collection (fbl). Getty Images: Bridgeman Art
Library (fcl) (cl) (cr). http://www.myartnsoulstudio.com/:
(fbr). 65 akg-images. Getty Images: Hulton Archive (fcr).
66 The Bridgeman Art Library: Museum of Modern Art,
New York, USA (b). © Tate, London 2009: Copyright the
artist (t). 67 The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee d’Orsay,
Paris, France / Lauros / Giraudon (cl). Corbis: Francis G.
Mayer (tl). Getty Images: Ignacio Auzike (bl); Bridgeman Art
Library (br). © Tate, London 2009: (tr). 68 Corbis: The
Gallery Collection (bl) (bc) (br); Historical Picture Archive/By
kind permission of the Mucha Foundation/The Bridgeman Art
Library (t). 69 The Bridgeman Art Library: Galerie Daniel
Malingue, Paris/© DACS 2009 (br). Corbis: Burstein
Collection (bl); Francis G. Mayer (tr); The Gallery
Collection/© ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009 (tl).
Getty Images: Bridgeman Art Library (tc). Photo Scala,
Florence: (bc). 70 Alamy Images: The London Art Archive
(cl). The Bridgeman Art Library: Rustem Pasa Camii
(mosque) Tekirdag, Istanbul, Turkey / © World Religions
Photo Library (bl). Corbis: Bettmann (c). 70-71 © Succession
H. Matisse/DACS 2009. Photo: © The Bridgeman Art
Library/Musée National d’Art Moderne, Centre Pompidou,
Paris, France (t). 71 © Succession H. Matisse/DACS 2009.
Photo: © Tate, London 2009 (br). 72 The Bridgeman Art
Library: Portrait of Dora Maar, Musee Picasso, Paris,
France/© Succession Picasso/DACS 2009 (cr); Private
Collection/ Roger-Viollet, Paris (t). Corbis: Brooklyn Museum
(bl); Francis G. Mayer/© Succession Picasso/DACS 2009 (br);
The Gallery Collection (cl); The Gallery Collection/©
Succession Picasso/DACS 2009 (bc). Lebrecht Music and
Arts: RA (c). 73 Corbis: Francis G. Mayer/© Succession
Picasso/DACS 2009. 74 The Bridgeman Art Library: Kettle’s
Yard, University of Cambridge, UK (cr); Musee National d’Art
Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris, France/© ADAGP, Paris
Vadas (c). 25 The Bridgeman Art Library: Antioch, Turkey
(tr); Brooklyn Museum of Art, New York, USA/Gift of the
Asian Art Council (tl); Musee Guimet, Paris, France/Bonora
(br); National Gallery, London, UK (bl). 26 The Bridgeman
Art Library: People’s Republic of China/Lauros / Giraudon
(cr). Corbis: Asian Art & Archaeology, Inc. (br). V&A
Images, Victoria and Albert Museum: (l) (cra). 27 akg-
images: Nanjing, Academy of Fine Arts, photo Gilles Mermet
(tc). The Bridgeman Art Library: Christie’s Images (tl) (cl).
Corbis: Artkey (tr); Burstein Collection (bl); © 2008. Image
copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource (br).
Photo Scala, Florence: © 2007. Image copyright The
Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource (cr). 28 The
Bridgeman Art Library: Musee Conde, Chantilly, France/
Giraudon (r) (ca) (cb). 29 Alamy Images: Leslie Garland
Picture Library (cra). The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee
Conde, Chantilly, France/Giraudon (tl) (bl) (ca) (cb). Corbis:
Sion Touhig/Sygma (tr). 30 The Bridgeman Art Library:
Musee Conde, Chantilly, France/Giraudon (cb). Corbis:
Araldo de Luca (ca) (ftr); Sandro Vannini (bl). DK Images:
James McConnachie (c) Rough Guides (cr); Nick Nicholls ©
The British Museum (tr). Bianca Nogrady, www.
biancanogrady.com: (cl). 31 Alamy Images: The London
Art Archive (cr). The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee
d’Unterlinden, Colmar, France (bc); National Gallery, London,
UK (br). Corbis: Francis G. Mayer (tl) (cl); The Gallery
Collection (c); Ted Spiegel (tc). DK Images: John Heseltine
(tr). Getty Images: Bridgeman Art Library (bl). 32 The
Bridgeman Art Library: Private Collection (bl). Corbis:
Burstein Collection (br); The Gallery Collection (tl). East
News Poland: Laski Diffusion (tr). Getty Images:
Bridgeman Art Library (cb). 33 The Bridgeman Art Library:
National Gallery, London, UK (tr); Private Collection (bl).
Corbis: Albright-Knox Art Gallery. © ADAGP, Paris and DACS,
London 2009 (tl). McMichael Art Collection: Gift of
Margaret Thomson Tweedale, McMichael Canadian Art
Collection, 1974.9.5 (cl). Photo Scala, Florence: © Munch
Museum/Munch - Ellingsen Group, BONO, Oslo/DACS,
London 2009 (br). 34 Corbis: Gianni Dagli Orti (c). Getty
Images: Hulton Archive (bl). 35 Corbis: Bettmann (tl) (tr);
Gianni Dagli Orti (bl) (cb). DK Images: Peter Chadwick (c).
Getty Images: Bridgeman Art Library (br). 36 Corbis: The
Barnes Foundation, Merion Station Pennsylvania (bl). Getty
Images: Bridgeman Art Library (c) (bc). Photo Scala,
Florence: The National Gallery, London (tl). 37 Photo Scala,
Florence: The National Gallery, London (l) (br) (cr) (crb) (tr).
38 The Bridgeman Art Library: The Iveagh Bequest,
Kenwood House, London, UK (fbl); Private Collection /
Christie’s Images (fbr). Corbis: The Gallery Collection (bl)
(br). 39 The Bridgeman Art Library: The Iveagh Bequest,
Kenwood House, London, UK (tr) (crb) (tl). Corbis: Geoffrey
Clements/© ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009 (bc).
Romulo Fialdini: (bl). © Yannis Tsarouchis Foundation:
Yannis Tsarouchis, The Four Seasons, 1969. Oil on canvas,
156.5 x 295 cm. Private Collection (br). 40 akg-images:
Kunsthistorisches Museum (c). The Bridgeman Art Library:
Museum Narodowe, Poznan, Poland (tr); Phillips, The
International Fine Art Auctioneers (cl); Prado, Madrid, Spain/
Giraudon (bl); Private Collection/© Henry Moore Foundation
(br). 41 The Bridgeman Art Library: © Fernando Botero,
courtesy Marlborough Gallery, New York (tl);
Nationalmuseum, Stockholm, Sweden (tr); Private Collection/
Photo 9c) Lefevre Fine Art Ltd., London (br). Photo Scala,
Florence: Mr. and Mrs. William B. Jaffe Fund.327.1955. ©
2009 Digital image, The Museum of Modern Art, New York/©
Karel Appel Foundation, Amsterdam (c). Lasar Segall, 1891
Vilna - 1957 São Paulo, Collection of the Lasar Segall
Museum, São Paulo, National Institute of the Historical
Artistic Patrimony, Brazilian Ministry of Culture: (bl). 42
The Bridgeman Art Library: Vatican Museums and
Galleries, Vatican City, Italy (tc); Museo Regionale, Messina,
Sicily, Italy (tr); Private Collection/Photo © Rafael Valls
Gallery, London, UK (br); Schlossmuseum, Schloss
Friedenstein, Gotha, Germany/Bildarchiv Foto Marburg (cl).
Corbis: Alinari Archives (ca); Geoffrey Clements (cr); Hugh
Rooney; Eye Ubiquitous (bl). 42-43 Corbis: Arcaid
(columns). 43 The Bridgeman Art Library: Burghley House
Collection, Lincolnshire, UK (c); Fitzwilliam Museum,
University of Cambridge, UK (tl); Vatican Museums and
Galleries, Vatican City, Italy (tr); Johnny van Haeften Gallery,
London, UK (cl); Musee des Beaux-Arts, Pau, France/
Giraudon (bc); Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, Hungary (cr);
National Gallery, London, UK (br); Prado, Madrid, Spain/
Giraudon/ (tc); Private Collection/Christie’s Images (bl). 44
The Bridgeman Art Library: Rijksmuseum, Amsterdam, The
Netherlands (t). Corbis: Burstein Collection (bc); Christie’s
Images (clb); Francis G. Mayer (cl) (bl) (br) (cr). 45 Corbis:
Francis G. Mayer. 46 The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee
des Beaux-Arts, Marseille, France/Giraudon (tr); Museo
Archeologico Nazionale, Naples, Italy (bl). Corbis: Bettmann
(cl); The Gallery Collection (br). 47 Corbis: Burstein

and DACS, London 2009 (bl); Private Collection / Christie’s
Images/ Grandma Moses: Come On Old Topsy (K 734),
Copyright © 1973 (renewed 2003), Grandma Moses Properties
Co., New York (tr). Corbis: Alexander Burkatovski (cl). 75
The Bridgeman Art Library: Fitzwilliam Museum,
University of Cambridge, UK (br); Private Collection (tr);
Private Collection / © Michael Graham-Stewart (tl). Corbis:
Christie’s Images/© Beryl Cook 1983. Reproduced by
permission of the Cook Estate c/o Rogers, Coleridge & White
Ltd., 20 Powis Mews, London W11 1JN. (bl). Photo Scala,
Florence: Zagreb, Gallery of Modern Art. (cr). 76 akg-
images: (tl). The Bridgeman Art Library: Private Collection
/ Lauros / Giraudon/© DACS 2009 (r); Van der Heydt
Museum, Wuppertal, Germany (cl). Corbis: Kandinsky,
Improvisation (Little Painting with Yellow). Philadelphia
Museum of Art/© ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009 (bl).
77 The Bridgeman Art Library: Kunstmuseum, Basel,
Switzerland / Lauros / Giraudon/© DACS 2009 (tr); Private
Collection / Lauros / Giraudon/© DACS 2009 (cb); Private
Collection, UK / Bonhams, London, UK/© DACS 2009 (c).
Storyboard Toys: Rebecca Kay Kerans (br). 78 The
Bridgeman Art Library: Prado, Madrid, Spain (tc). Corbis:
Albright-Knox Art Gallery/© DACS 2009 (bc); Bettmann (bl);
Francis G. Mayer/© Succession Marcel Duchamp/ADAGP,
Paris and DACS, London 2009 (cb); Francis G. Mayer/©
Succession Picasso/DACS 2009 (br); The Gallery Collection
(tl); The Gallery Collection/© DACS 2009 (clb). Getty
Images: Image Source (tr). 79 The Bridgeman Art Library:
On Loan to the Hamburg Kunsthalle, Hamburg, Germany/©
ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009 (c); Private
Collection/© ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009 (cl).
Corbis: (tr); Burstein Collection/© Succession Marcel
Duchamp/ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009 (tl); The
Gallery Collection/© ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009
(bc); Philadelphia Museum of Art/© Salvador Dali, Gala-
Salvador Dali Foundation, DACS, London 2009 (bl); The
Picture Desk/© ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009 (br).
Photo Scala, Florence: © 2009 Digital Image, The Museum
of Modern Art, New York/© Man Ray Trust/ADAGP, Paris and
DACS, London 2009. (cr). 80 Alamy Images: Picasso, The
Red Armchair, 1931. Photo Dennis Hallinan/© Succession
Picasso/DACS 2009 (clb). The Bridgeman Art Library:
Private Collection/© ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009
(bl). Corbis: Christian Simonpietri/Sygma/© Succession Miro/
ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009 . (br). Flickr.com: Erio
(c). 81 Corbis: Albright-Knox Art Gallery/© Succession Miro/
ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009 . (t); Bob Sacha (bl);
Bettmann (t). 82 Corbis: Bettmann/ All rights reserved by the
Estate of Nan Wood Graham/Licensed by VAGA, New York,
NY (br); Francis G. Mayer (bl). 83 The Bridgeman Art
Library: Fine Arts Museums of San Francisco, CA/ © Estate
of Grant Wood /DACS, London/VAGA, NY 2009 (b); Joslyn
Museum, Omaha, Nebraska, USA/© Estate of Grant Wood /
DACS, London/VAGA, NY 2009 (cr). Corbis: Bettmann/ All
rights reserved by the Estate of Nan Wood Graham/Licensed
by VAGA, New York, NY (cl); David Howells (t). 84 Art
Gallery of Hamilton: Gift of Dominion Foundries and Steel
Limited (Dofasco, 1957. © A.C. Fine Art Inc. (c). The
Bridgeman Art Library: Private Collection (bc). DK
Images: © Judith Miller / Dorling Kindersley / Philip Keith
Private Collection (bl). © 2005 The M.C. Escher Company -
Holland.: (t). Permission Dorset Fine Arts: (br). 85 The
Bridgeman Art Library: Monasterio de El Escorial, El
Escorial, Spain / Giraudon (cr); Van der Heydt Museum,
Wuppertal, Germany (tr). Corbis: Christie’s Images (br); The
Gallery Collection (bl). Jeff Koons: (tl); 86 The Bridgeman
Art Library: Private Collection/© ADAGP, Paris and DACS,
London 2009 (cr); State Russian Museum, St. Petersburg,
Russia/ The Bridgeman Art Library (clb). Corbis: Francis G.
Mayer (tr); The Gallery Collection/© Munch Museum/Munch -
Ellingsen Group, BONO, Oslo/DACS, London 2009 (cla); The
Gallery Collection/© Salvador Dali, Gala-Salvador Dali
Foundation, DACS, London 2009 (bc); H. Armstrong Roberts
(bl). Kunsthaus, Zurich/Lauros/Giraudon/© 2009 Mondrian/
Holtzman Trust, c/o HCR International Warrenton, Virginia,
USA (br). 87 Colección Patricia Phelps de Cisneros:
VOLPI © Imaginação (bc); Albright-Knox Art Gallery/©
SODRAC, Montreal and DACS, London 2009 (cr). Corbis:
Albright-Knox Art Gallery/© ARS, NY and DACS, London
2009 (c); Christie’s Images/© 1998 Kate Rothko Prizel &
Christopher Rothko ARS, NY and DACS, London 2009 (tc); ©
The Willem de Kooning Foundation, New York/ ARS, NY and
DACS, London 2009 (cl). Idbury Prints Ltd: (tr). Mythos
Art Gallery, www.magfc.org: Diego Fernando Chamorro E
(br). Photo Scala, Florence: © 2009 Digital Image, The
Museum of Modern Art, New York (tl); Galerie Jeanne
Bucher, Paris/© ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009 (bl).
88 Corbis: Ted Spiegel (bl). Getty Images: photo: Martha
Holmes / Time Life Pictures (tl). Photo Scala, Florence:
Digital Image, The Museum of Modern Art, New York/© The
Pollock-Krasner Foundation ARS, NY and DACS, London 2009
(cr) (bc) (br). 89 Corbis: Rudolph Burckhardt/Sygma/© The
Pollock-Krasner Foundation ARS, NY and DACS, London
2009. 90 The Bridgeman Art Library: Private Collection /
Photo © Christie’s Images (bl). Getty Images: (cl). National
Gallery Of Australia, Canberra: Sidney Nolan, Australia
1917 - England 1992, The Death of Constable Scanlon, 1946.
Enamel on composition board, 90.4 x 121.2 cm. Gift of
Sunday Reed, 1977 (r). 91 The Bridgeman Art Library:
Agnew’s, London, UK (bc). Getty Images: Hulton Archive (t).
National Gallery Of Australia, Canberra: Sidney Nolan,
Australia 1917 - England 1992, The Trial, 1947. Enamel on
composition board, 90.7 x 121.2 cm. Gift of Sunday Reed,
1977 (br). Reuters: Mick Tsikas (cr). 92 The Art Archive:
Tate Gallery London / Eileen Tweedy. © The Estate of Roy
Lichtenstein/DACS 2009 (t). The Bridgeman Art Library:
Imperial War Museum, London, UK (c); Private Collection /
Alinari/© ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009 (bl). Corbis:
Burstein Collection/© DACS 2009 (br). 93 Alamy Images:
Frank Naylor/© Paul Day (br). The Bridgeman Art Library:
Canadian War Museum, Ottawa, Canada (bl); Louvre, Paris,
France/Lauros/Giraudon (tl); Musee de Picardie, Amiens,
France/Giraudon (tr). 94 The Bridgeman Art Library:
Byzantine Museum, Athens, Greece (bl). Corbis: ©The Andy
Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts (br); Andrew Unangst
(t). 95 Corbis: Bettmann (tl); Envision (tc); ©The Andy
Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts (tr) (bl) (clb) (cr). 96
Alamy Images: Bildarchiv Monheim GmbH (tr); Matt Keeble
(tl). Flickr.com: http://www.flickr.com/photos/supersolveig/
(bl). Mirko Reisser (DAIM):Courtesy: REINKINGPROJEKTE
| Photo: MRpro (br). 97 Alamy Images: PjrFoto / Phil
Robinson (br). Flickr.com: Escif (tr); © The Keith Haring
Foundation. Photo Eric Oliveira (tl). Michael Kitromilides
(flickr.com/mikegk): (crb). Landahlauts, http://www.flickr.
com/people/landahlauts/ (bl). 98 akg-images: (t). Getty
Images: © Courtesy the artist/Robert Dandelson Gallery/
Bridgeman Art Library (b). 99 The Bridgeman Art Library:
Art Gallery of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia (bl); Musee
d’Orsay, Paris, France (cl); Museum of Fine Arts, Boston,
Massachusetts, USA / Otis Norcross Fund (tr); Victoria &
Albert Museum, London, UK/The Stapleton Collection (br).
Corbis: Asian Art & Archaeology, Inc. (tl). 100 Corbis:
Bettmann (bl). Getty Images: (clb). © Hundertwasser
Archive, Vienna: (br). Lebrecht Music and Arts: Interfoto
(tl). 101 Harmut Bresser: (tr). DK Images: (br). Getty
Images: (bc). Robert Gordon’s College: Danielle Taylor
(bl). Agata Siegel: (cr). 102 The Bridgeman Art Library:
Southampton City Art Gallery, Hampshire, UK/Courtesy Jay
Jopling/White Cube (London) (bc). Corbis: Jeff Albertson
(bl); ©The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts (tl).
103 The Bridgeman Art Library: Neue Nationalgalerie,
Berlin, Germany/Wolfgang Neeb (br); Private Collection
Courtesy Jay Jopling/White Cube (London) (cr). Corbis:
Ansel Adams Publishing Rights Trust (cl); Toby Melville/
Reuters/ Private Collection Courtesy Jay Jopling/White Cube
(London) (bl). Courtesy of Project HélioOiticica: Photo:
César Oiticica Filho (tl). © Tate, London 2009: © ADAGP,
Paris and DACS, London 2009 (tr). 104-105 Corbis: Art on
File/Stainless steel, 33 ft x 66 ft x 42 ft, Millennium Park,
Chicago/Courtesy of the City of Chicago and Gladstone
Gallery. 106 Corbis: Tibor Bognar (l); China Newsphoto/
Reuters (br). Getty Images: China Span (cr). 107 The
Bridgeman Art Library: Louvre, Paris, France (bl). Corbis:
Walter Geiersperger (tl); Goldberg Diego/Sygma (br); Chris
Hellier (cl) (c); Danny Lehman (bc); Stephanie Pilick/epa (cr);
Werner Forman (tr). Getty Images: Robert Harding (tc). 108
Alamy Images: Interfoto (tr). Getty Images: National
Geographic (bl); Photodisc (r); Tom Stoddart Collection (cl).
109 Alamy Images: Chris MacKenzie (bl). Getty Images:
Photographer’s Choice (t). Dominic Mooney: (br). 110
Corbis: Bettmann (tl); Free Agents Limited (cl); Nico
Hermann/Westend61 (background); Rudy Sulgan (bl). DK
Images: Stephen Oliver (tr). 110-111 Photolibrary: Douglas
Peebles (c). 111 The Bridgeman Art Library: Lyme Park,
Cheshire, UK/National Trust Photographic Library (cla);
Museum of Fine Arts, Houston, Texas, USA / Gift of The
Brown Foundation, Inc./© ARS, NY and DACS, London 2009
(clb); On Loan to the Hamburg Kunsthalle, Hamburg,
Germany (bl). Corbis: Adam Woolfitt (tl). 112 Corbis: Hugh
Sitton/zefa (l); Kimbell Art Museum (bc). iStockphoto.com:
(cr/box outline). Photo Scala, Florence: © 2006. Musee de
Quai Branly, photo Hughes Dubois (cr). 113 Corbis:
Contemporary African Art Collection Limited (bl); Charles &
Josette Lenars (cl); Gideon Mendel (r); Smithsonian Institution
(tl) (bl/box outline). iStockphoto.com: (tl/box outline). 114
akg-images: Erich Lessing (fbl). Corbis: (fbr); (c) Jonathan
Blair (bl). 114-115 Corbis: (b/background); Giovanni Dagli
Orti. 115 Corbis: (fbl); John Harper (tl); Julia Waterlow/Eye
Ubiquitous (bl); Yves Forestier/Sygma (br). iStockphoto.
com: Milos Luzanin (cl). Photo Scala, Florence: ©2009
Digital Image, The Museum of Modern Art, New York/The
estate of Sir Jacob Epstein (fbr). 116 The Bridgeman Art
Library: (br). Getty Images: Hulton Archive (tl). 116-117
Corbis: (c) Francis G. Mayer. 117 akg-images: Rabatti-
Domingie (bl). Getty Images: Bridgeman Art Library (br);
Frano Origlia (tl). 118 Corbis: (tr); (c) Bettmann (tl). Getty
Images: Nicholas Pitt (br). 118-119 Alamy Images: AA
World Travel Library. 119 Alamy Images: Emma Wood (bl).
Corbis: (tl); Hulton-Deutsch Collection (tr). 120 Alamy
Images: Danita Delimont/© DACS 2009 (ca); Tyler Olson/©
DACS 2009 (bc). Corbis: Philadelphia Museum of Art (bl).
Flickr.com: http://www.flickr.com/photos/gerryscappaticci/
© DACS 2009 (br). 121 Alamy Images: imagebroker/©
DACS 2009 (tr). Corbis: Richard Klune/© DACS 2009 (cr).
Flickr.com: © DACS 2009 (br). 122 Alamy Images: Trinity
Mirror/Mirrorpix/Bowness, Hepworth Estate (l). The
Bridgeman Art Library: Musee Rodin, Paris, France /
Philippe Galard (cr). Corbis: Christie’s Images/© ADAGP,
Paris and DACS, London 2009 (br). iStockphoto.com: (tr).
123 The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee National d’Art
Moderne, Centre Pompidou, Paris, France/Lauros/Giraudon/©
ADAGP, Paris and DACS, London 2009 (br); Private Collection
/ Photo © AISA/© Calder Foundation, New York / DACS
London 2009 (tr). Corbis: Christie’s Images/Bowness,
Hepworth Estate (cl); epa/© Estate of David Smith/DACS,
London/VAGA, New York 2009 (tl). Photo Scala, Florence:
© 2009 Digital Image, The Museum of Modern Art, New York
(bc). 124 The Bridgeman Art Library: Dreaming Star, 1958.
Hamburger Kunsthalle, Hamburg, Germany/© DACS 2009
(bl); Private Collection. Reproduced by permission of the
Henry moore Foundation (br). Corbis: David Lees (cl); John
Swope Collection Reproduced by permission of the Henry
Moore Foundation (tl); Rune Hellestad/Reproduced by
permission of the Henry Moore Foundation (cr). 125
TopFoto.co.uk: Reproduced by permission of the Henry
Moore Foundation. Photo © 2006 John Hedgecoe. 126
Corbis: Burstein Collection/© ADAGP, Paris and DACS,
London 2009 (l); Christie’s Images/© ADAGP/FAAG, Paris and
DACS, London 2009 (r). Getty Images: AFP/© ADAGP/
FAAG, Paris and DACS, London 2009 (bc). Photo Scala,
Florence: © 2009 Digital Image, The Museum of Modern Art,
New York/© ADAGP/FAAG, Paris and DACS, London 2009
(bl). 127 Corbis: Paul Almasy/© ADAGP/FAAG, Paris and
DACS, London 2009 (cr); Condé Nast Archive/© ADAGP/
FAAG, Paris and DACS, London 2009 (c). Getty Images:
AFP/© ADAGP/FAAG, Paris and DACS, London 2009 (tl). 128
DK images: Stephen Oliver (c) Dorling Kindersley (tl).
Corbis: Adam Woolfit / Robert Harding World Imagery (bl);
Roman Soumar (br); Philippe Caron / Sygma (cl). Getty
Images: Frans Lemmens/The Image Bank (bc). 128-129
Corbis: Chris Hellier/© Andy Goldsworthy (c). 129 Corbis:
Julian Calder (tr); Chris Hellier/© Andy Goldsworthy (bc);
George Steinmetz /© Estate of Robert Smithson/DACS,
London/VAGA, New York 2009 (bl). Getty Images: Wolfgang
Kumm / AFP/© Christo (br). 130 Alamy Images: © Jeff
Koons. Photo Sandra Baker (b). Corbis: Michele Asselin (c).
131 Corbis: Art on File/Stainless steel, 33 ft x 66 ft x 42 ft,
Millennium Park, Chicago/Courtesy of the City of Chicago
and Gladstone Gallery (br); Richard Klune/Courtesy Jay
Jopling/White Cube (London) (tl); Danny Lehman (tr). East
News Poland: Artur Starewicz/© Magdalena Abakanowicz,
courtesy Marlborough Gallery, New York (cl). Getty Images:
Don Emnert/AFP/© Judd Foundation. Licensed by VAGA,
New York/DACS, London 2009 (cr). 132 The Bridgeman Art
Library: © The Estate of Francis Bacon. All rights reserved.
DACS 2009. (bl). Rex Features: photo: Prudence Cuming /
Science Ltd /© Damien Hirst. All rights reserved, DACS 2009.
(c). 133 The Bridgeman Art Library: British Museum (bl).
Corbis: Rune Hellestad (tl); Kurt Korman / Zefa (tr). Photo:
Prudence Cuming Associates Ltd Courtesy Jay Jopling /
White Cube (London): Damien Hirst Gelsemine 2006
Household gloss on canvas 17x19in. (43.2 x 48.3 cm) (1 in.
spot). © Damien Hirst. All rights reserved, DACS 2009.
Gelsemine. Household gloss on canvas 17x19in. (43.2 x 48.3
cm) (1 in.spot) (br). Photo: Prudence Cuming Associates:
Damien Hirst, The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind
of Someone Living, 1991. Glass, steel, silicon, formaldehyde
solution and shark, 2170 x 5420 x 1800 mm. © Damien Hirst.
All rights reserved, DACS 2009 (c). 135 © Tate, London
2009: Courtesy Cornelia Parker and Frith Street Gallery,
London. 138 The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee d’Orsay,
Paris, France / Lauros / Giraudon (fbl). Corbis: Burstein
Collection (fbr); Gianni Dagli Orti (bl); © The Andy Warhol
Foundation for the Visual Arts (br). © Hundertwasser
Archive, Vienna: (bc). 139 The Bridgeman Art Library:
Museum of Modern Art, New York, USA (bl); Private
Collection / Peter Willi (bc). Corbis: Burstein Collection (br);
Francis G. Mayer (fbl); Rune Hellestad Reproduced by
permission of the Henry Moore Foundation (fbr). 142-143
DK Images: © Musee Marmottan photo: Susanna Price
All other images © Dorling Kindersley
For further information see: www.dkimages.com

art
BOOK OF

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1989.Girl with Cat. Fernando Botero (to find out more see page 41) .

art BOOK OF .

Manager of Family and Children’s Programs at the Philadelphia Museum of Art. Lasar Segall. Private Collection/Christie’s Images c (Degas). Gemma Fletcher.1957 São Paulo. France / Giraudon tl (Book of hours).LONDON.dk. find out about different art styles. ISBN 978-0-7566-5511-2 Color reproduction by Media Development Printing Ltd. Brazilian Ministry of Culture: c (Segall) How to use this book In this book. Wendy Horobin. New York 10014 Copyright © 2009 Dorling Kindersley Limited. mechanical. and work of a famous artist or sculptor and take an up-close look at a work. Published in Great Britain by Dorling Kindersley Limited.. Art Historian and Lecturer for Christie’s Education and National Gallery. Marco Simoni / Rober t Harding World Imager y (Gaudi). without the prior written permission of the copyright owner. . A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress. and the amazing range of art around the world. 09 10 11 12 13 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 CD276 – 07/09 All rights reserved under International and PanAmerican Copyright Conventions. Clemence De Molliens. MELBOURNE. Amsterdam. the way some artworks were created. National Institute of the Historical Artistic Patrimony. Sadie Thomas Art director Rachael Foster Publishing manager Bridget Giles Production editor Sean Daly Production controller Claire Pearson Jacket designer Jess Bentall Jacket editor Mariza O’Keeffe Picture researchers Jo Walton and Julia Harris-Voss Art consultants Rebecca Lyons. Musee Conde. recording. UK Printed and bound by Leo. No part of this publication may be reproduced. or otherwise. Van Gogh Museum. and DELHI Senior designers Sonia Whillock-Moore and Pamela Shiels Senior editor Deborah Lock Additional editing by Anneka Wahlhaus Sue Malyan.com ART STYLE: Find out about the different styles of art and follow the timeline of changing styles through art history. New York. Corbis: Burstein Collection bl (Hokusai). style. Spain / Giraudon tr (Durer). The Netherlands / Giraudon br (Van Gogh). NEW YORK. London and Emily Schreiner. 1891 Vilna . Elizabeth Haldane. ©The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Ar ts t (Warhol). Chantilly. Penny Smith Additional design by Mary Sandberg. the works and lives of famous artists and sculptors. GALLERY M d rn rt An m l n t Animals in art Animals have fea u ed in a t ince he f rst markings on cave wa ls housands of years ago The var ed sty es of art have shown d fferent aspects of an mals f om adored pe s o powerful beasts to Deve opment incarnat ons of sp r tual gods II 939 M C E c er Wo dc t p i t d f om t r e b o ks M n f E c e s o ks s d ep a ed ed p t rn c l d t s e a ons n h s p c re e s t i k ng bo t n n t g ad a l r d ng he e t es to n e g ns Horse and rain 12 Blue Fox 1 11 Fr nz M rc O l on an as T e E p e s o i t a n er F a z Ma c a n ed i an m ls in s m o c c l rs o c n e h i s i t al n t re He s d bl e or a c n t e o or o a d h pp n ss nd ed or mo h ho d o Ma c l e a t e mo t ee l s i t a p im r co r Puppy 1 92 J f Koo s S a n es s e l s il e te i e ab ic o e ng p a ts h s 3 f ( 2 4 m) i h c p re f a W st i h a d Wh e T r e p p no s a ds o s de he G g en e m M e m n B b o S a n T e s e l tr t e i co e ed n a r t f i ng flo e s h an nen l t r g s s em S G S F f i l 1 54 A e C l i e l zed o l on a db a d I sp ed b a Wo d Wa I p em Col e a ed o s o t a a ho gh a it t n ma e m o e e s c o c s c n be m de W l he r in op o t e h r e ea e he r c s o a o d a c l s o ? The W ld Cat le of h l ingham 1 67 Ed an er A Monkey 1 00s l re ht D r r Wa e co o and o c e on p per T e R na s n e p i t r nd e g a er A b e ht D er s a c n t d b n m ls nd s ne o t e fi s a t t to ho a im s as s j c s n t e r o n n L nd e r O l on s L nd e r s e im n a p i t n s o a im s e e op l r mong e s c et o V c o an B t n Bu fa o mask Bam eke i e W od n C me o n a ks re o n at ba c r mo i s B f os re o s d r d po e f l nd b a e nd h se m s s th l i g a mo d s a ed e e and r e t e h nd o t ls s m o i ed h po r f he h ef 84 Luminous Char 2 08 K noj k As e ak S on c and t n il B rn n a i l o i 19 7 t e C na an r st A he k co b n d he na i e a i on l n it c t re h We e n a t t es n h r rk T ger n a Tropi al Storm (Surpr sed) 891 H nr Ro s ea O l on c n as he e f a gh F e ch r st o s ea pa t d ld n ma s n j g e an s a es a ed on h s s t to h Bo a i a Ga d ns n a is Horses 19 0 X e ho g Ch n se nk nd c l r on ap r T e Ch e e a t t X B i o g s kno n or i ho e p i t n s H s nk o k c pt ed he p i ed mo em n of he o s s 85 GALLERY: Marvel at the different ways artists around the world and throughout art history have portrayed the same subject. China Jacket images: Front: The Bridgeman Art Library: Monasterio de El Escorial. MUNICH. ART STYLE E l t C in t Chinese art The art of Chinese people da es back more than Mod rn art i ce he 9 0s r s s s h as i as e p r m n ed h ne p n i g ec n q es nd p n ed e s b e ts n l d ng m d rn fe Y ll 2 h M t t (d t b L H ) Ch k d Ch C bb 2 h t b Q B h 10 000 years flour shing a ongs de the coun ry s turbulent his ory of war and revolut on The go den ages of a t were encouraged by cer ain empe o s and art academies (schools) we e estab ished by l tera i amateur pa n ers who specia ized n studying art he story begins O H d dB t fl l dI t (d t ) 7h t b h H h Sh nghai S hool 20 h en u y D i g he 90 s We e n a t as n od c d o Ch na nd Ch n se t s s mo d f om cop ng h st e o t e o d ma t r to a od rn t e Q ng Dynasty T e op r w f a ur s he E g t mmo ta s mpo ant gu e in he C i e e b l ef y t m a l d T o im 16 4 1 11 S me a i t kno n a t e “ ght E c n r c ” r ke a a om t e t a t o s o t e co t p n e s a d de e ped e ha d br h rk a d flo er nd i d p i t g T Preh stor c P e es o c l r d p t er m re h n60 0 a sod a e b en o nd h f c s nd n ma s p n ed n C f p i t gs ho rs h n ng a d c l b a ons h f l d K ” t h d 2 d t B E h L h C lt Th P h l S d 1 00 b W h Yuan Dynas y 279 368 o ge tp nes H a g Go g ng W hen N Z n nd W ng M ng de e o ed he m nd a d ca e t ro gh i h he e r s ed h i p r on l e i gs W M d tY d V ll f 3 2 b N Z he r t and a gua y he ne t o c l in ame f om C ina hi i why we s m im s c l a l p t e y ch na Ming D n sty 13 8 1 44 The t a i ncl ng W n Zh n mi g e e r i ed to e e c l e t t p e r a i r ph and a n ng s i s k o n s he Th e Pe e t o s ” h s po ce a n va e c mes r m he Q ng d na ty nd is a ound 00 ea s o d ts h mes o r l g on a d ev r d y l e a e c mmon n Ch n se p t e y as w s t e c l r l e on wh e h s po c l in e ame e y po u ar ro nd t e wo ld Wes ern Han Dynas y 06 CE 9 CE n C na s k p per as n e ed b o e pa er ad f om ags a n ng n s k o en to h e s nd l t es as er p p l r Tang Dynas y 6 8 907 T e em e o s o t e T ng d n st ro l am l ) e h ai al s p o t d a s s F g re a n ng of n b e and o r l d es b c me a m j r h me O dT L lD t 1 80 b G X P t E th t t Th t d t l) t b Y Lb B f h T b fD H F R 180 Song Dynas y 60 1 27 T e mpe al A t c dem as o m d f om he m r er f e e al ca em s s t p n a l r im s T e r a t n l d d a d c pe t at o k d a mo t 3 D 7 6 Discover more at www. Rachael Grady. HOW DID THEY DO THAT? E rl rt H t m k r How to make frescoes he methods used for pa n ing a p ctu e on o a wa l or cei ing Pigments the mater al that makes he color are pa nted onto a sur ace covered n plas er Frescoes h ve been found on he wa ls of ancient Egyp ian ombs and used to create amazing ef ects on the ce l ngs of ca hed als C h d f p t l k P rt ait f Te ent us Neo and h s w e 1 t c nt ry Fr s o r m Pomp ii ta y T e s r ng ed c or we e mad f om s e na a h rd ed r ck o nd n h I a i n h l s d s Here’s how to make a Roman fresco A te pre ar ng t e w ll w th a ayer f ro gh p as er he Roman f es o r i ts wo ld c ea e he pa nt ng b t by b t as he igm nt ne ded o be ppl ed on o wet p as er Rom n f e co f om i s de a v l a n Pom e i Fresco is one of In he ry l ma e of I a y s me Rom n f e c es ave u v v d The n s at omp ii we e p e e v d when t e v l ano e uv us e up ed nd bu ed t e c t in 79 E The wn r of he ho se T r n iu Neo was a ak r who wan ed im e f nd h s wi e h wn as su c s f l a d c e er He ho d a s r l to sh w he c n r ad The w e h l s a s y us (a w i ng oo ) a d an o en d p y h ( n an i nt w i ng ab e ) and o ks a i sh is ab ut o fin h o f s m wr t ng 1 C u h d p gme t m de r m o ks nd r ed la t we e mi ed w h l me wa er o f rm he p s e 2 A sma l a ch f fin wet l s e ca ed t e i t na o was ut n to he all Roman style The Romans u ed a echn que ca l d buon resco ( rue f es o) to dec ra e he wal s of he r bui d ngs ow ered p gm nts uch as n tu al br wn and r d e r hs we e m xed w th w ter nd p in ed onto he ur ace of wet p as er made f om l me nd and As he sur ace d ied and ha dened the p gm nt b ended in to co or the p as er The ar i t had o wo k ery qu ck y b fo e he pl s er dr ed A K OUR ELF I you we e n a ai t ng what b ec s wou d ou ho d? What m ght hey ay bout ou or our h bb es? 3 A wr in ta et d p y h) Fresco timeline he r s o t ch i ue w s u ed by nc nt p o le l o er he w r d he e hn q e has v r t me b com po u ar a a n he p s e w s pa n ed n r g t aw y i ce he l s er as t l w t t e p gm nt ou d b nd w th he l s er Once h p c ur was omp e d w x was put v r he ur a e o pr t c t e p c u e and ma e t s i e 4 18 7 h t B E Th b l l l th G tP l l d fC t p f K th h 1 t t h f f b k dh f h l d P p t l p db l h 4 h d h h t f b h l f h A Ch p l P d t l b G tt d B d dh t t th f h f p l k th d h fi l 1 41 t t k M h l l f f L t d tf S t Ch p l h V t t h R l t l l t h f h P 6 8 1 94 h h t I h p f h R l l b 8 6 Th f N t lM p db C lL l f t kh l th S d 9 3 Th M R df d t p t D f h D t d t l) t 19 HOW DID THEY DO THAT? Find out how an artist or sculptor did their work and see how the technique developed through history. electronic. Collection of the Lasar Segall Museum. USA First published in the United States in 2009 by DK Publishing 375 Hudson Street. photocopying. or transmitted in any form or by any means. stored in a retrieval system. Lorrie Mack. São Paulo. There are four different types of page in this book: ARTIST PROFILE In he o ner s a t mp of om ca i ra hy ha a t rs hi i how J pan e ar s s i ned h i wo k H k sa us d mo e han 20 d f e en nam s d r ng h s ar er ep nd ng n h s s y e t t e ime E l A t H k i The G eat Wave o f Kana awa 1 29 3 10 x 15 n 25 9 x 7 2 m) C lor w odcut Katsushika Hokusai n the 1800s Katsushika A ra i on l p i t Hokusai revo u ioni ed Japanese o g i has c 1 80 art He used a woodb ock pr n ing echn que but nstead of show ng samurai ge shas and nobil ty— he subjects chosen by other Japanese ar is s—Hokusai drew landscapes and ordina y l fe n the count yside He st ived for rea ism per pec ive and movement which can be seen n his famous p int The Great Wave off Kanagawa Copies of his p int have been sold all over he wor d nf uenc ng thousands of ar is s and des gne s Th se fi he men t ki g f esh sh rom t e r v l a e to he fish ma k ts of do (n w T ky ) re c ug t up in s me ower ul o ean wa es he a ge t wave w h s gr s ing l ws is hr a en ng o ng lf he hr e bo ts How do you h nk t e sh rm n ee ? A e th y a ra d O are h y co fident h y l m ke t as hey h ve do e o many im s be o e? Hok s i wor ed ob e s ve y on c e t ng woo b ock p i ts He c ea ed mo e th n 30 000 w rks b t ev n at he end of is fe he e t he ou d do b t er He s g ed one of is a t wo ks as The A t C a y O d Man A t st s bio raphy Ka su hi a Hok sai 1760 Bo n in do (n w To y ) a an 1775 Be ame n ap r n i e wo db o k en r v r 1778 J i ed he s ud o f Ka uka a Sh n hõ 1797 Ad p ed t e name ok sai Tom a and p o uc d b ush a n in s a d i u t a ed b o s 1814 Cr a ed a c l e t on f ke hes kn wn as he e es Hok s i Ma ga 1824 18 0: Pr du ed m ny f mou wor s i c ud ng an s ap s Mount Fuji The Gr at W ve w s one of a s r es of pr n s a led he Thi ty S x V ews of Mount Fu i ( 829 1833) A th ugh Mount uji s n he back round of his p c ure it s framed by he la ge w ves and n he fo egr und a sma l pe ked wave cop es ts hape 1849 Di d and bu i d in o yo s S i yõ i em le A t st s influ nces Making a woodblock print D d you know hat he ar i st w odbl ck p nts a e n ar y 2 00 ea s ld? Th y d te ba k to anc ent Ch na in 220 CE Am zin ly t e p oce s of m king a wood lock p int s the ame tod y s t was t en! 54 Ch ne e art or 1 00 y a s Ch n se a nt n s h d f a u ed ong i t nce l nd c pe v ws T e ima e is rawn nd p a ed ac down on o a b o k of wood he a eas wh re he m ge w l be wh te re c i e ed way he a eas o be p in ed a p r cu ar o or a e l ft as d The a sed mage s c ve ed n p in ng i k and hen p es ed on o pap r D f e ent lo ks re made or e ch co or nd us d ag in o make o s of op es M un Fu i o ca o i t e h g e t eak n ap n and cc r i g to m t s wa t e s u ce o t e ec et f mmor a t and a h me o go s Dut h l nd ca e eng a in s n ue ced y t e us of e sp c ve s ad ng and e l s c s ado s 55 ARTIST or SCULPTOR PROFILE: Find out about the life.

Contents 10 Early art 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 Rocky beginnings Egyptian scribes Faces in art How to make frescoes Dreamtime art How to make mosaics Gods and heroes in art Chinese art How to create colors Renaissance (1400s-1500s) Landscapes in art 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 52 54 Leonardo da Vinci Jan van Eyck How to use oil paint Children in art Baroque (1600s) Jan Vermeer Still life in art Rococo (1700s) Francisco de Goya How to use watercolor Katsushika Hokusai 56 Modern art 58 60 62 64 66 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 Impressionism Claude Monet How to paint with pastels Vincent van Gogh Nighttime in art After Impressionism Henri Matisse Pablo Picasso Naïve art Paul Klee Surrealism Joan Miró 82 Grant Wood 84 Animals in art 86 Postwar abstract art 88 Jackson Pollock 90 Sir Sidney Nolan 92 War in art 94 Andy Warhol 96 Street art 98 Work in art 100 Friedensreich Hundertwasser 102 Modern art 104 Sculpture 106 Carved in stone 120 108 The Terra-cotta 122 Army sculptors 124 110 How to carve wood 126 112 African sculpture 128 114 How to sculpt marble 130 116 Michelangelo Buonarroti 132 118 Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi Gustav Vigeland Abstract sculpture Henry Moore Alberto Giacometti How to create Land art Sculpture NOW Damien Hirst Get up close to the real thing! Glossary Index of artists and sculptors Acknowledgments 134 136 138 140 .

scandalous. mosaics.What is art? It’s not just . and challenging. anger It’s not just acceptable… but can also be It’s not just pretty… but can also be horrifying. rebellious. painting. and many other media.. dramatic. This is a tricky question to answer.. prints. 8 . controversial. SADNESS. but can also be collage. PHOTOGRAPHY. because art can be so many things: It’s not just h ppy… but can also show . and spiritual. pain. video. and many other emotions. wonder. sculpture.

.. in parks and on the streets. informing us about the lifestyle of people in the past and present. but can also be in churches.. in magazines—in fact.” (Leonardo da Vinci. distorted.“Painting is poetry that is seen rather than felt. see page 34) It’s not just in galleries . or a fleeting impression of a moment in time. It’s not just It’s not just for art lovers… but also for all people of all ages to react to. It’s not j st an image… but can also be a meaningful idea and a historical source. Renaissance artist. imaginary. 9 .. REALISTIC . public buildings. symbolic. but can also be abstract.. there’s art all around you..

Early art Pre-history–1850 10 .

11 . materials. and style. the story of art takes us around the world and traces the developments in artistic skills.Early art From the first images on cave walls to dramatic masterpieces hanging in exhibitions.

Robot. safe from being worn away by the weather. ture ima shapes the an We were painted 15. I’m a bull from the Lascaux caves in France.ART STYLE Rocky beginnings In the beginning. often found deep inside a mountain or underground. The caves were discovered in 1940 by four teenagers. cavemen using burned sticks or dirt mixed with a little water to create their beautiful paintings. who were said to be chasing their dog. there was cave art—the markings of prehistoric man.000 years ago. I’m 17 ft (5 m) long! European cave art The impressive cave art found at the Lascaux caves in France is also known as the “prehistoric Sistine Chapel” (see page 19). 12 . the drawings are beautifully preserved. Imagine in the dim glow of a flickering fire. Maybe as decoration or graffiti. Although thousands and thousands of years old. or for ceremonies or passing on information? What do you think? The tex ls. wa ll’s No one knows what the paintings were for.

These images are called petroglyphs. that live in the Sahara tree-filled landscape. Desert today are camels. are covered with pictures of giraffes and other grazing animals. This is wood that has been buried under sand and then burned. and small mammals. Rather than painting the rock and the marks gradually washing away over time. It was created by American Indians before 150 CE. These paintings suggest that in 12.Early art—Rocky beginnings African cave art The walls of the desert caves in Libya. Africa. American rock art This art is found at Newspaper Rock in Utah. the people scratched the oily surface to reveal the lighter sandstone underneath for a lasting image. Drawing of a prehistoric African hunter and his dog Black markings were made using charcoal. The vast sand dunes of the Sahara Desert as they are today. or possibly a witch doctor. the now-barren The only animals Sahara Desert was a lush. when they were created.000 BCE. snakes. 13 . Feet and tracks show a journey. This could be a spirit figure. Deer provided an important source of food (venison).

This gave the crisscross pattern found in papyrus paper. and small illustrations known as vignettes. a plant once found along the banks of the River Nile.ARTIST PROFILE Papyrus paper Ancient Egyptians were the first to make paper. Then the strips were pressed. The vignettes were very important as they showed what would happen in the afterlife. discovered that Egyptian scribes used a mathematical system of grids to make sure all figures were The eyes and shoulders drawn in proportion. In general. Nebamun’s tomb painting Nebamun was an official in ancient Egypt. The book would contain a range of texts. The strips were flattened out and then some were laid horizontally on a cotton sheet. a German art historian. 14 . was very common in tombs. To make paper. art had a specific purpose rather than just decoration. The natural juice of the papyrus plant acted as a glue to seal all the strips together. showing the deceased doing something they enjoyed. This type of scene. using papyrus. Egyptian scribes For the ancient Egyptians. a place for the dead to live. Around his tomb was a large wall painting. Papyrus was also used to make ropes and baskets. most art was designed to ease the journey through the afterlife or to worship the gods. Nebamun wanted this wall painting in his tomb so that he could have lots of birds and fish to hunt in the afterlife. Egyptian scribes had a very strict set of rules to follow when painting. creating a single sheet of paper. including spells. This scene showed Nebamun with his family hunting birds in the marshes of the River Nile. of Egyptian figures were shown facing the front. the green skin of the papyrus stalks was removed and the stalks cut into long strips. Other strips were placed vertically on top. to be reborn into a new life. Can you see the cat balancing on two reeds trying to catch birds? Cats were family pets in ancient Egyptian times but also used as hunting partners. Book of the Dead The ancient Egyptians were often buried with their own Book of the Dead to ensure they passed safely through the Underworld. but all other parts of the body were shown side on. Erwin Panofsky.

Early art—Egyptian scribes

The owl represents the letter M

The horned viper represents the letter F

The Egyptian vultures represent the letter A

The eye is said to mean the word ‘I’

The quail chick represents the letter W or U

If a scribe thought an illustration needed more explanation then hieroglyphs would be used, such as these. Hieroglyph literally means “sacred carving.” Each symbol represents a different letter or sound.

The artists of this wall painting have managed to show the scaly and shiny skin of the fish.

Fowling in the Marshes, c. 1350 BCE—Wall painting 15

GALLERY

Faces in art
Since very early times, artists have made images of the human face. They have painted themselves or someone dear to them, some have used the face to convey feelings, while others have experimented with styles, such as Arcimboldo’s seasonal heads.

Portrait of Clara Serena Rubens (detail), c. 1616, Sir Peter Paul Rubens,
u
Oil on canvas Rubens was famous for his portrait paintings. This portrait shows his daughter at age five years and is thought to be one of the most moving child portraits in European art.

u Portrait of the Boy Eutyches, 100–150, from Faiyum,
Egypt, Encaustic on wood When Egypt was ruled by the ancient Greeks and then the Romans, faces of dead people were painted onto the wood of the mummy cases. Many of these have been well preserved.

Untitled, 2002,

.

u

Young Girl with Long Hair (detail),

Louise Bourgeois, Tapestry and aluminum This strange head is covered in a tapestry. It is more like an expression of inner feelings than an attempt to show an actual person.

1884, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Oil on canvas Renoir was a big influence within the Impressionist movement. This portrait shows how he used bright colors and loose brushstrokes to capture the light on the girl’s face.

16

Early art—Faces in art

u

Portrait of an Infant,

u Summer, 1573, Giuseppe Arcimboldo, Oil on canvas Arcimboldo became famous for his clever portraits of human heads, using fruit, flowers, and vegetables for every season.

20th century, Tsuguji Foujita, Oil on canvas Foujita, from Japan, is well-known for mixing Eastern and Western painting styles to create his own style. He was influenced by artistic movements in Paris and eventually changed nationality to French in 1955.

u

Niña Llorando, 20th century,

Oswaldo Guayasamín, Oil on canvas The Ecuadorian artist, Guayasamín, painted over 100 pictures showing the subject of pain and suffering of the local people living in the Andes.

u

Self portrait with black background,

,

Hip mask

c. 1600, Benin, Nigeria,

1915, Helene Schjerfbeck, Oil on canvas Throughout her life, the Finnish painter Helene Schjerfbeck painted her own face. This one shows her at 53 years old, but later she painted herself as a frail old woman, nearing death.

Ivory This mask would have been worn by an African king at a special ceremony held to remember his mother. The face is carved from ivory and looks like the image of a real woman.

17

1st century This fresco of a baker and his wife who lived in Pompeii. A writing tablet (diptych) 18 17th century BCE This bull-leaping fresco was on the walls of the ancient Great Palace at Knossos on the island of Crete. Powdered pigments such as natural brown and red earths were mixed with water and painted onto the surface of wet plaster. The figures.HOW DID THEY DO THAT? How to make frescoes the methods used for painting a picture onto a wall or ceiling. become popular again. which are about half the size of a person. what objects would you hold? What might they say about you or your hobbies? Fresco timeline The fresco technique was used by ancient people all over the world.. He holds a scroll to show he can read. was preserved by volcanic ash 14th century The walls of the Arena Chapel in Padua. Italy Fresco is one of In the dry climate of Italy. over time. are covered in frescoes by Giotto di Bondone and his assistants. some Roman frescoes have survived.. the materials that make the color. was a baker who wanted himself and his wife shown as successful and clever. As the surface dried and hardened. The ones at Pompeii were preserved when the volcano Vesuvius erupted and buried the city in 79 CE. The wife holds a stylus (a writing tool) and an open diptych (an ancient writing tablet) and looks as if she is about to finish off some writing. Crushed rock for paint colors Portrait of Terentius Neo and his wife. Italy. . 1st century—Fresco from Pompeii. ASK YOURSELF . The technique has. the pigment blended in to color the plaster. made from lime and sand. Italy. The artist had to work very quickly before the plaster dried. Pigments. are painted onto a surface covered in plaster. The owner of the house. look three-dimensional. Roman style The Romans used a technique called buon fresco (true fresco) to decorate the walls of their buildings. Terentius Neo. If you were in a painting. Frescoes have been found on the walls of ancient Egyptian tombs and used to create amazing effects on the ceilings of cathedrals.

Italy. Sweden. the pigment would bond with the plaster. painted by Carl Larsson. Rome. 1933 The Mexican painter Diego Rivera used fresco for his Detroit Industry series (detail). Roman fresco from inside a villa in Pompeii 1 Crushed pigments made from rocks and dried plants were mixed with lime water to form the paste. 1688–1694 The huge fresco ceiling in St. 1896 This is one of six large frescoes at the National Museum in Stockholm. Once the picture was completed. by Pozzo is an impressive illusion.Early art—How to make frescoes The strong red colors were made from sienna. 4 1541 It took Michelangelo four years to complete the famous fresco on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican in Rome. 2 A small patch of fine wet plaster called the intonaco was put on to the wall. 19 . Here’s how to make a Roman fresco After preparing the wall with a layer of rough plaster. Ignazio Church. the Roman fresco artists would create the painting bit by bit as the pigment needed to be applied onto wet plaster. wax was put over the surface to protect the picture and make it shine. Since the plaster was still wet. 3 The paste was painted on right away. a hard red rock found in the Italian hillsides.

valleys. mix it with liquid. the world was created during a magical period known as the “dreamtime. Aborigines make paints from natural plants and minerals such as this red and yellow ocher. then filled in the details with ocher paints and charcoal. and rock art. and rivers we see today. there are rock paintings that show skeletons. X-ray paintings At Ubirr. This rock painting. They grind it to powder.000 years old. clay and wood sculptures. Dreamtime According to traditional Australian aboriginal belief. northern Australia. 20 . To paint an X-ray picture. in Northern Territory. an artist often began by drawing a white silhouette. shows a creation-ancestor: a humanlike spirit with large eyes and no mouth. present. including body and bark painting.ART STYLE Dreamtime art For thousands of years. then paint using bark or sticks. and fish—and are part of a hunting and fishing magic. Some surviving rock engravings are about 40. and other internal organs.” To aboriginals. Aboriginal people have been creating art. the dreamtime is not in the past but is a parallel stream of time running through past. lungs. Many of these pictures are of animals eaten by Aboriginal people—turtles. kangaroos. creating the mountains. Many rock paintings are repaired and repainted during religious rituals. Australia. and future. In the dreamtime. ancestral beings rose from beneath the Earth and wandered across the landscape.

artists continue to explore their culture. Ancestors are portrayed in simple lines and geometric designs. spirals. browns and yellows. A variety of ways were used to apply the paint. Many use modern materials. Some pictures were painted using fingers. Clifford Possum Tjapaltjarri (1932–2002). black and white—made from natural plants and minerals. A goanna painted to honor its ancestral spirit. However. Australia. sticks. The principal motifs of contemporary dreamtime art are circles. They also use traditional dot painting techniques. including watercolors and acrylic. and dreamtime. 21 . For stencil designs. Grasses. land. or palm leaves were also used to make brushes. Modern artist. and curved and wavy lines. Contemporary art Today. An Aborigine bark painting of a hunter and a kangaroo. or feathers. narrow strips of stringy bark. used dots and circles to create large. semicircles. the paint was blown out of the mouth around an object. Snake Dreaming was painted in 1989 by artist Keith Kaapa Tjangala.Early art—Dreamtime art Technique Ancient Aboriginal painters used earth colors—reds. the palm of the hand. and lines. chewed twigs. dots. complex works of art. they combine these with traditional earth colors. Charles Inkamala works on a painting in Alice Springs.

light would reflect from the haloes and faces of the holy people. were used on the walls and ceilings during the Byzantine period (330–1453). 7th century Islamic mosaics have repeating patterns of rich blues and greens as on The Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem. 3 Byzantine mosaics were never grouted (filling the spaces between the tiles with fine cement). From the first pebble designs. pottery. .HOW DID THEY DO THAT? An assortment of gold and silver glass tesserae Tesserae made of natural stone and marble. to the glittering effects of the Byzantine art. to work quickly. stone. How to make a mosaic Byzantine mosaicists would have placed the tesserae directly into a bed of lime cement. These small tiles or fragments are called tesserae. How to make mosaics Mosaic is the art of creating images with small pieces of colored glass. working a section at a time because Try making a mosaic yourself. Here are some of the designs since then. mosaics have covered the insides and outsides of buildings with stunning effect. by tilting the tesserae. but give yourself 1 2 more time by applying the tile adhesive piece by piece. the cement Draw your design onto a would dry wooden base. Byzantine style Glass tesserae in many different colors. or other hard material. to the textured modern abstracts. Tilt each one a little so it will catch the light. 6th century The large floor mosaic in the Great Palace of Constantinople (now Istanbul) used 80 million tesserae. Use special tile cutters to shape each piece of tessera so they fit together well and follow the curves of your design. using different-colored pebbles to create patterns and scenes. 12th century The nave of the Norman cathedral of Monreale in Sicily is covered from end to end with Byzantine-style mosaics of glass tesserae. Mosaic timeline The ancient Greeks in the 4th century BCE began the craze of making mosiacs. This art was mainly based on religious Christian themes and. including gold and silver. The Byzantines had quickly. but a fine layer applied to your design will seal it and make it stronger. 22 1st century Marble and limestone tesserae were used in Roman floor mosaics.

1900–1914 Antoni Gaudi’s vibrant. multicolored mosaics cover Park Guell in Barcelona. Istanbul (detail from the face of Christ). as they reflected the light in different ways. 1957 The Mexican muralist Diego Rivera designed the huge glass mosaic on the outside wall of the Teatro de los Insurgentes in Mexico City. thick sheets of colored glass. This was then cut into smaller pieces and placed at a slight angle to the wall. Beneath the huge dome of the Hagia Sophia were mosaics of prophets. so as to allow light to reflect the colors within the glass. 6th century—Glass tesserae The Hagia Sophia in Istanbul. Turkey. 2008 This mosaic by Emma Biggs was stuck to a kitchen wall with cement-based adhesive. which were cut into cubes from large. No grouting was used between the pieces. 23 . saints. making a rough texture. thin sheets of silver or gold were put between two slabs of glass to make a mirrorlike piece. such as this one of Saint John the Baptist with Christ. 1977 The mosaics of Jeanne Reynal have different-sized tesserae. The image shows a visual history of theater and dance in Mexico.Early art—How to make mosaics Hagia Sophia. and other religious figures. This face of Christ was made up of specially manufactured tesserae called smalti. These pieces then sparkled. is an excellent example of Byzantine art and architecture. but only a few of the mosaics have survived. Adding some sparkle For silver or gold leaf smalti.

GALLERY

Gods and heroes in art
Artists and sculptors have been inspired by ancient legends and religious stories. These pieces show the brave deeds of mythical heroes and the great works and lives of religious figures.
SEEING THINGS

For more on stone carvings see page 106

St. George and the Dragon,
c. 1470, Paolo Uccello, Tempera on panel This painting shows the legend of St. George defeating the dragon and rescuing the princess.

Hercules and Nessus, 1599,
Giambologna, Marble Giambologna was a highly skilled sculptor famous for carving dramatic scenes. Here, Hercules, the ancient Greek hero, is about to beat his opponent the centaur, Nessus.

In The Dream World,
1995, Norval Morrisseau, Acrylic on canvas According to an American Indian tribe called the Ojibwe, the color blue protects the human spirit from danger.

The Hero Overpowering a Lion, c. 725 BCE, Assyrian, Stone
This carving is thought to be the mythical hero Gilgamesh demonstrating his superhuman powers by controlling a ferocious lion.

24

Early art—Gods and heroes in art

Orpheus playing to the animals, Roman
u u

Taglung Thangpa Chenpo
SEEING THINGS

c. 1300s, Tibet, Ground mineral pigment on cotton Tibetan monks would carry painted or embroidered banners like this one during ceremonial processions. Buddhas, teachers (lamas), and other gods surround Chenpo, the founder of the Taglung monastery.

For more on Renaissance art see page 30

artist, Mosaic Ancient Greek legend says that Orpheus, a mythical poet, was so talented a musician that he was able to tame wild animals.

The Baptism of Christ, 1450s, Piero
,
della Francesca, Tempera on panel The dove, seen above Christ, represents the Holy Spirit. Paintings such as this were painted to decorate altars, churches, and chapels.

First Avatar of Vishnu as ‘‘The Fish’’
,
19th century, Indian, Painted and gilded wood Vishnu, the Hindu protector god, is shown rescuing the world from a flood and so saving all the people.

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ART STYLE

Chinese art
The art of Chinese people dates back more than 10,000 years, flourishing alongside the country’s turbulent history of war and revolution. The golden ages of art were encouraged by certain emperors, and art academies (schools) were established by “literati,” amateur painters who specialized in studying art.
s he

The top row features the Eight Immortals— important figures in the Chinese belief system called Taosim.

T

tor y begin s.

..

Prehistoric Pieces
of colored pottery more than 6,000 years old have been found with faces and animals painted on. Cliff paintings show wars, hunting, and celebrations.
Three-legged “Kuei” pitcher, c. 3rd–2nd century BCE, from the Longshang Culture

The first, and arguably the finest, porcelain came from China. This is why we sometimes call all pottery “china.”

This porcelain vase comes from the Qing dynasty and is around 300 years old. Its themes of religion and everyday life are common in Chinese pottery, as was the color: blue on white. This porcelain became very popular around the world.

Western Han Dynasty
206 BCE–9 CE In China, silk paper was invented before paper made from rags. Painting on silk woven into sheets and clothes was very popular.

Banner from the Tomb of Dai Hou Fu-Ren, c. 180 BCE

26

by Guo Xi Portraits of Thirteen Emperors (detail). Figure paintings of nobles and court ladies became a major theme. 17th century. Woods and Valleys of Mount Yu. and Chinese artists moved from copying the style of the old masters to a modern style. calligraphy. Level Distance. 1372. late 7th century. Flowers. 20th century.Early art—Chinese art Modern art Since the 1950s. Wu Zhen. and Wang Meng—developed the “mind landscape” through which they expressed their personal feelings. Ni Zan. by Ni Zan The Peach Blossom Spring. Qing Dynasty 1644–1911 Some artists known as the “Eight Eccentrics” broke away from the traditions of the court painters and developed freehand brushwork and flower-and-bird painting. mid-1500s.” Tang Dynasty 618–907 The emperors of the Tang dynasty (royal family) enthusiatically supported artists. 20th century. c. Yellow Mountain (detail). were trained to be excellent at poetry. 1080. by Chen Hongshou Shanghai School 20th century During the 1900s. and painting— skills known as the “Three Perfections. by Yan Liben Song Dynasty 960–1127 The Imperial Art Academy was formed from the merger of several academies set up in earlier times. 27 . by Liu Haisu Chicken and Chinese Cabbages. and Insects (detail). c. including modern life. Old Trees. Their art included landscapes that looked almost 3-D. including Wen Zhengming. artists such as Liu Haisu experimented with new painting techniques and painted new subjects. Yuan Dynasty 1279–1368 Four great painters— Huang Gongwang. by Wen Zhengming Ming Dynasty 1368–1644 The literati. Western art was introduced to China. by Qi Baishi One Hundred Butterflies.

Egg yolk was separated from the white. by the Limbourg brothers— Vellum Orange The mineral cinnabar was crushed to make the orange-red color. This was skilled work. These are some of the pigments that may have been used to create the illuminated manuscript shown here: Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry (detail from April). A little water was added before the egg yolk was mixed with the pigment paste. This contained mercury. Tempera paint Artists’ workshops in the Middle Ages were busy places. and then mix it with a liquid binder.HOW DID THEY DO THAT? How to create colors Today you can buy tubes or jars of paint in just about every color you can imagine. It was reserved for painting the regal gowns and the amount to be used was specified by the patron of the work in the contract. or pigment. pierced and collected in a container. Blue The deep rich blue color called ultramarine was more expensive than gold because the rock lapis lazuli was imported from Afghanistan. which is now known to be slowly poisonous. But over six hundred years ago artists had to mix up their own colors. This is how tempera paint—mainly used on wooden panels—was made: 1 2 The dry pigments were ground and mixed with water to form a paste. 28 . They would buy the paint in the form of a colored powder. The apprentices would prepare the materials and colors. since grinding some pigments too much could spoil the color. 15th century. while the main artists painted.

Early art—How to create colors

Black

Gold
Gold was the most expensive color after ultramarine. It was beaten into very thin sheets to make gold leaf.
Gold leaf was applied to the picture and then made shiny by“burnishing” it with a stone.

By burning animal bones in a sealed container, a pigment of deep blue-black to brown-black color was produced. This was called bone black.

Green
When copper is exposed to air over time a brilliant green coating forms called verdigris. This coating was used by artists in their paintings. To make verdigris, artists left a real copper coin in a dish of vinegar.

White
The brilliant opaque white of the white garments was painted in lead white. It was a very common pigment manufactured from metal. The lead content made it poisonous if a person was in contact with it for long. It has now been replaced by zinc or titanium.

The copper was melted, cooled, and then separated into shavings to be ground into powder for pigment.

Pink
The purple-red color came from a plant dye made from the root of a plant called madder. The madder roots were dried in the sun and then ground into a powder.

Sunflower head with seeds

Purple
Crushed sunflower seeds made the lilac shade of the color purple.

Dried pieces of Madder root

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ART STYLE

Renaissance (1400s–1500s)
The story of Western art covers the art of Europe (and later the Americas). In the 15th century, the classical skills and ideas of the ancient Greeks and Romans were rediscovered and inspired a new art style called the Renaissance, meaning “rebirth.”
In the 1st century, the influence
of Roman art and culture spread across Europe and northern Africa. Statues, frescoes, and panels were detailed and lifelike.
A fresco from Pompeii, Italy, 1st century

e Th

story begins...

The Parthenon frieze by Phidias CLASSICAL golden age

Around 500 BCE–300 BCE, the art of the ancient
Greeks flourished. Artists produced marble sculptures (see page 114), black- and red-figure vase painting, and painting on wooden panels (few of which survive today).

A mosaic from the Hagia ul, Sophia, Istanb 6th century

Saint George, c. 1415–17, by Donatello

MEDIEVAL art

Around 1410, the artists
in the Netherlands began to use linseed oil (made from flax seeds) and walnut oil mixed with pigments, making oil paint.

470–1453 The now-established
Christian religion became a main subject of art across Europe. In the east, Byzantine art continued the traditions of the classical art styles.

Classics REBORN

In western Europe, wealthy aristocrats known as patrons were prepared to pay for art that showed off their wealth. Painters set up workshops and hired assistants to help them with illuminated manuscripts and wooden panels.
Trés Riches Heur by the Limbourg es, 15th century, brothers

In the early 1400s, there was renewed interest in all things classical. The Italian artists Donatello, Alberti, Brunelleschi, and Masaccio created the Renaissance style. Donatello’s sculptures show the lifelike and detailed poses and expressions of the Roman sculptures.

The Tribute Money, c. 1425, by Masaccio, shows linear perspective, where the eye is drawn to a single vanishing point because many lines appear to meet there. The most important part of the painting, the figure of Jesus, has been positioned here.

Around 1413, the architect Filippo Brunelleschi developed the rules of perspective. This was adopted by artists such as Masaccio in their work to create the illusion that their paintings had depth.

After studying Roman architecture, Filippo Brunelleschi designed and built the impressive dome of Florence Cathedral, Italy (right), between 1419 and 1436.

Rules of PERSPECTIVE

30

Early art—Renaissance

Artists around Europe developed their Renaissance styles...

Italian
Sandro Botticelli
Portrait of Guiliano de’ Medici, 1478–80 One of Botticelli’s patrons was the Medici family, who were wealthy merchants and rulers in Florence.

Raphael
The School of Athens (detail of the Greek philosophers Plato and Aristotle), c. 1509-10 In addition to Leonardo da Vinci and Michelangelo, Raphael was one of the most famous artists of the High Renaissance, a period where artists were considered to have achieved artistic perfection.

Titian
Assumption of the Virgin, 1518 In Venice, Titian proved he was an impressive painter with this huge and complex altarpiece.

Northern European

Jean Fouquet
The Melun Diptych (detail), c. 1452 The French painter Fouquet painted figures with sharp, severe features.

Rogier van der Weyden
The Braque Triptych (detail), c. 1452 Using attention to detail, van der Weyden gave his figures realistic expressions. Other Netherlandish painters such as Jan van Eyck (see page 36) did the same.

Pieter Brueghel the Elder
Fight between Carnival and Lent (detail), 1559 The Netherlandish artist Brueghel painted lively crowded scenes, adding witty details and using lots of color.

German
Albrecht Dürer
Self portrait, 1498 Dürer combined both the detailed style of northern Europeans with the color, light, composition, and perspective of the Italian style.

Matthias Grünewald
The Isenheim Altarpiece (detail), c. 1512–15 With his fearsome demons, Grünewald was influenced by medieval art. He used bright, expressive colors.

Hans Holbein the Younger
The Ambassadors, 1533 Holbein was well-known for his large magnificent portraits. Here he showed the people surrounded by objects that displayed their wealth and power.

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GALLERY u Bociany (detail). Tilted Landscape. 1900. 1565. Pieter Brueghel the Elder. Ink on paper Sesshu developed his own style of Japanese ink painting by making landscapes with bold strokes. Toyo Sesshu. MDF. c. plywood and acrylic In his constructions. Summer Evening on the Skagen Southern Beach with Anna Ancher and Marie Krøyer. it was not until the Renaissance that Western artists such as Brueghel (above) began to develop this subject. Winter Landscape. u Oil on canvas This piece by the Norwegian painter Krøyer shows a peaceful and serene summer evening walk along a beach in Denmark. Peder Severin Krøyer. Buhler combines everyday activities with a paranormal experience. His wife and a friend are in the painting. c. which has since become very popular. Oil on canvas Bociany is the Polish word for storks. Hunters in the Snow (Winter). 1470s. Oil on panel This is one of a series of six paintings called “The Seasons. 32 . such as this tilting urban scene. 1893. Michael Buhler. Landscapes in art Although landscapes were often subjects of Chinese art. . Józef Chełmonski. which are very common in Poland. u .” which shows a landscape changed by different seasons. 2003.

Early art—Landscapes in art u The Trees. For more on Edvard Munch see page 69 33 . Oil on SEEING THINGS Oil on canvas Often working outdoors. Carr passionately painted the landscape of British Columbia. Early Spring. u Surge of Spring. 1912–16. John Constable. Oil on wood panel Thomson was one of the artists who started up the “Group of Seven. Oil on canvas England’s great landscape painter often painted scenes of Suffolk. Canada. André Derain. Oil on canvas Derain helped create Fauvism. canvas This painting is part of a mural at the Oslo University. 1906. remembering the area where he grew up. 1826.” This group of artists celebrated Canada’s natural beauty in their paintings. 20th century. c. which is a French art style using lots of bright colors. 1917. u The Sun. Tom Thomson. . The colors in this painting are used to create a sense of the bright sunlight on the landscape. The light of the sun in this painting is dazzling. u The Cornfield. which grabs the attention of the viewer. Norway. Emily Carr. Edvard Munch. Her expressive paintings showed the power of nature.

as invited by the king. wife of Francesco del Giocondo. 1503–1506. Italy 1472: At age 20 joined the fraternity of St. landscape. and a fascination with anatomy. Francois I 1519: Died in Cloux in France Artist’s influences Andrea del Verrocchio —Studied in Verrocchio’s studio as an apprentice.ARTIST PROFILE Artist’s biography Leonardo da Vinci 1452: Born near Vinci in Tuscany. Luke in Florence as a painter 1473: Painted the Annunciation. possibly his earliest surviving painting 1481: Painted the Adoration of the Magi 1483–1499: At age 31 moved to Milan and worked at Duke Ludovico Sforza’s court 1495–1498: Painted the Last Supper 1499: Left Milan to travel and returned to Florence in 1500 1502–1503: Worked for Cesare Borgia as a military engineer 1503–1506: At age 50 painted the Mona Lisa 1516 or 1517: Left Italy for France. 30 x 21 in (77 x 53 cm)—Oil on poplar wood 34 . and was inspired by the classical past. and light Portrait of Lisa Gherardini.

He designed war instruments and his notebooks contain technical and anatomical drawings and scientific studies. this portrait (which is believed. a machine gun. Along with her mysterious smile.” Leonardo was a great artist. a flying machine with mechanical wings. This side of his work was undiscovered for centuries. The words around the sketches were written in mirror-writing. and even a tank. This study of human proportions from Vitruvius’s De Architectura was sketched by Leonardo. such as a helicopter. a subtle way of dealing with light and shade through the blurring of tones and colors (sfumato means smoky). His ideas were ahead of his time. and a musician. to be of Lisa Gherardini) has enchanted generations of adults and children. This is a model based on Leonardo’s sketch of an ornithopter. as well as a scientist. a thinker. Leonardo developed the technique of sfumato. Inventions Leonardo was fascinated with how machines worked. The lady’s gaze seems to follow the viewer no matter where he or she stands to look at the painting. the model’s eyes seem to have no brows or lashes. an engineer. one of the most intriguing elements of the painting is the strange and haunting scene behind her. These are Leonardo’s notes and sketches about the size of the Earth and the Moon and their distances from the Sun. and Leonardo is predominately known for his painting and drawing. 35 . He blended the edges of the Mona Lisa’s lips into her skin in a natural and lifelike way. but not known. Captivating mystery Usually known as the Mona Lisa. He studied all of the machines of his time and then designed and developed new ones. Also defined with sfumato.Early art—Leonardo Leonardo da Vinci “I have offended God and mankind because my work did not reach the quality it should have. His wide range of talents made him the original Renaissance man. with its bridge and winding road leading to a wild and uninhabited landscape beyond.

when he would have been 42 years old.ARTIST PROFILE Artist’s biography Jan van Eyck We know almost nothing of van Eyck’s early life. he did develop a brilliant technique for glazing that allowed him to create rich colors and the impression of depth and texture. His reputation. Once (wrongly) credited as the Oil on wood “inventor” of oil painting. 1395: Born around this time. The work of Jan van Eyck had a profound influence on generations of painters of many different styles and nationalities. thought to be a self-portrait 1441: Died in Bruges. experts now think it is simply the portrait of a wealthy Italian merchant and his wife based in Bruges—it may even commemorate her death. style: it translates as “Jan van Eyck was here 1434. has Portrait of a Man. near Maastricht. an equally respected painter. never dimmed. Duke of Burgundy 1426: Death of van Eyck’s brother Hubert. who had been working on Jan’s renowned Ghent Altarpiece Portrait of prosperity While The Arnolfini Portrait (full title Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife) was once thought to record a wedding. Belgium Artist’s influences The artist left an ornate signature above the mirror in a witty.” Illuminated manuscripts —Inspired by precise style and attention to detail Reflected in the round wall-hung mirror are two figures entering the room (and apparently being greeted by the husband’s raised hand). established within a few years of his death. 36 . His career as an artist is documented only from 1432. Jan van Eyck Jan van Eyck is the most respected artist of the early Netherlandish school. Tiny painted scenes from the life of Christ circle the mirror. 1428-1429: Traveled to Portugal on a diplomatic mission for the Duke of Burgundy 1432: Completed the Ghent Altarpiece 1433: Produced his Portrait of a Man. Despite appearances. Arnolfini’s wife is not pregnant— the shape of her dress and the way she’s holding it were very fashionable at the time. Netherlands 1422: Worked in The Hague at the court of the Count of Holland 1425: Settled in Bruges as painter to Philip the Good. possibly in Maaseik. 1433. c. modern-sounding.

Together with the fine clothes and luxury furnishings. What do you think? The candle above the husband is lit—the one above his wife is not. Oranges were very costly in Europe.” the popular pet’s name. This may mean that she’s dead. is Latin for “I am faithful.” The Arnolfini Portrait.Early art—van Eyck Some people believe all the objects in this picture have a special meaning. The little dog is thought to represent constancy—“Fido. 1434. Others think they are just things. 32 x 24 in (82 x 60 cm)—Oil on oak Experts once believed that the kicked-off clogs (used for outdoor wear) meant this room was holy ground. they may indicate wealth. 37 .

1 Paint a textured base on a tightly stretched primed canvas. brush some reddish-brown paint from side-to-side and up and down. artists have experimented with clever effects in their oil paintings. as the Rijn used a technique called paint dried slowly. These are mixed with pigments to make oil paints. Oil paint timeline Since the creation of oil paints in the early 1400s. Areas that are to stand out get more layers and lightercolored paint. loosely move the paint around with a brush. Millais was a member of the pre-Raphaelite group who chose to paint in a deliberately detailed style. James McNeill Whistler uses only shades of gray and black. light. harden when exposed to air. 2 Using a large hog-bristle brush loaded with thick oil paint. details could be perfected. painting “art for art’s sake. To do this. made from certain plants such as linseed. Here’s how to paint like Rembrandt To recreate the colors that Rembrandt used. and texture painting continues to be popular with artists. 38 1661–62 Rembrandt built up layers of thick oil paint to create expressive light and shade effects 1856 Sir J. and walnut. and black paint. poppy. and shade. richness. white. Jan van Rembrandt’s style Eyck (see page 36) showed how oil paints could The Dutch artist Rembrandt van create rich colors. paint on layer after layer. red ocher. and.” with no narrative meaning 1901 The Danish painter Vilhelm Hammershøi used white and tones of gray and black to create light and shadow effects in his interiors . burnt sienna.HOW DID THEY DO THAT? How to use oil paint Fatty oils. E. burnt umber. Later his style loosened 1871 In this portrait of his mother. 3 In certain areas where the paint is very thick. choose yellow ocher. in his paintings. Oil impasto—thickly applied oil paint— to create depth. In the early 15th century.

a Chilean artist. 1665. 39 . This gave the paintings depth and made certain details stand out to the viewer. Areas of strong light. such as in The Four Seasons. allowing his unconscious mind to take over 1968 The Greek artist Yannis Tsarouchis aimed to combine naturalistic color with realistic shading and accurate perspective. Special effects In addition to impasto. c. Rembrandt used an effect called chiaroscuro. such as faces. thick strokes of white paint. On the turban.Early art—How to use oil paint Self portrait (detail). such as clothes. 1928 One of the leading modern Brazilian artists. used oil paints to create his “automatic” surrealist landscapes (see page 79). Tarsila do Amaral used bright oil colors and tropical images in her paintings such as Abaporu 1937–45 Roberto Matta. Rembrandt made broad. 45 x 37 in (114 x 94 cm)—Oil on canvas Rembrandt was in his 50s when he painted this picture of himself wearing a turban on his head. are contrasted with areas of heavy shadow.

Sofonisba Anguissola. cuddling their toys. was a court painter to Emperor Ferdinand I. Jakob Seisenegger. 1656. and Europa Anguissola Playing Chess. although this is the only one with twins. Some children appear to be playing nicely. The detailed embroidery of their clothes shows their family was rich. which shows lots of children playing. from Austria. Oil on wood This is only part of a much larger painting. Diego Velázquez. Bronze Moore often created large pieces of abstract sculpture showing a mother with her child. dressing up for a celebration. SEEING THINGS For more on Renaissance art see page 30 Mother with Twins. 1560. Henry Spencer Moore. Pieter Brueghel the Elder. and stroking animals! Luca. 1565. In this piece. Minerva. Las Meninas (detail). her sisters are playing chess. He became well known for painting full-length portraits.GALLERY Children in art These paintings show children doing what they like best. She was only four or five years old at the time. seisenegger. 1982. while others look like they are being spiteful. . Oil on canvas Many of Anguissola’s paintings were of her family. playing their favorite games. Portrait of a mother with her eight children. 1555. Oil on canvas This painting shows the daughter of the Spanish king and queen with her maids of honor (las meninas). Oil on panel Children’s Games (detail). having lots of fun with friends.

Watercolor on paper Larsson is famous for his watercolor paintings of children playing. Larsson. bodice. Dressed (bronze) Modern-life subjects were the main focus of Degas’ art. he used real fabrics for the tutu. Ballet Dancer. 1895. Boy with Lizards. He had eight children—they were his favorite subjects for his paintings. Edgar Degas. and slippers as well as real hair tied with ribbon. 1921. Child with Birds. 1950. he was amazed at the new sights he saw. which are intended to be light-hearted and comical. To make this sculpture look even more lifelike. He used wax for the original statue. Oil on canvas The most noticeable thing about Botero’s paintings are the exaggerated size proportions. Oil on canvas Appel was hugely influenced by children’s drawings. . using bright colors and painted as if by a child. 1989. Karel Appel. His works are Expressionist pieces. 1924. which was cast in bronze after his death. Carl Girl with Cat. Oil on canvas When Segall moved to Brazil from Germany. Lasar Segall. The boy in this painting is playing with a couple of lizards in the wild.Early art—Children in art A Day of Celebration. Fernando Botero.

A View of the Piazza del Popolo in Rome. Mannerist artists included Jacopo Carucci. known as Pontormo. scenes of everyday life. He and his French nobles lived together in a lavish Palace at Versailles. c. but also portraits. living in luxury and grandeur. by Bartolomeo Passarotti Madonna and Child with Angels and Saints. Pope Pius IV. 1586–1600.. Caravaggio and Annibale Carracci were two of the earliest Ba roque painters. c. 1510–11. 1517–18. countries broke away from the Catholic Church. In a Counter Reformation. 159 5 Camera obscura Picture viewed upside down for the artist to trace. and still life.ART STYLE Baroque (1600s) Baroque was the name given to the style of art and architecture in the 17th century. drama. c. 1700s. Rome in Italy became the hub of all artistic and touristic activity.” France was the leading power in Europe. Around 1550. landscape. Grandeur. the Catholic Church encouraged religious art in southern Europe to promote their Church. and emotion were features of the style. an early type of camera was developed known as the camera obscura. Early 1600s Mid-1500s In northern Europe. by Gaspar van Wittel 1643-1715 In the reign of Louis XIV of France who was known as “The Sun King. CARAVAGGIO (c. It distorted the High Renaissance style with intense emotion. by Jacopo Carucci (Pontormo) Allegory of Music. . . This device was sometimes used by artists such as Jan Vermeer (see page 44) to help plan their paintings. young nobles were expected to tour around Europe for their Classical education. by Raphael Th e sto ry conti nu es . myths. Subjects included not just religious art. Mannerism developed. 1571–1 610) The GRAND Tour In the 1600s. setting up Protestant churches and banning religious paintings. MANNERISM Early 1500s The artists of the Renaissance had been inspired by the Classical golden age in ancient Greece and Rome. working in Rom e. After 1520. a new art style called School of Athens (detail).

Claude Gellée Lorrain Sir Peter Paul Rubens Achilles Defeating Hector. 17th century Poussin was inspired by the art of the ancient Greeks and Romans. and off-center compositions to create dramatic paintings. and was hired to paint many portraits.. Naturalism Pieter de Hooch Nursemaid with baby in an interior and a young girl preparing the cradle. Diego Velázquez The Lunch. He used strong colors. He made them look elegant and proud.Early art—Baroque Baroque artists painted one or more of these subjects. 1630–32 Rubens worked for various monarchs in northern Europe. He became the official painter for the king of Spain. rosy colors.. c. He produced many paintings in every type of subject known at that time. His art showed dramatic movements typical of the Baroque style. Cortona worked in Italy. 1621 Barbieri was more commonly known by his nickname Guercino (“Squinter”). c. c. because he always squinted. Philip IV. Pietro da Cortona David killing Goliath. Classicism Nicolas Poussin An Italianate wooded landscape. Religion Giovanni Francesco Barbieri The Betrayal of Christ (detail). His finest paintings are his landscapes. where the trees and hillsides are idealized and ordered. 1630s Born in the Netherlands. 17th century An architect as well as a painter. 1648 The French landscape artist Claude painted Italian landscapes in soft. 17th century Typical of Dutch artists of this century. Bartolomé Murillo Immaculate Conception of the Venerable Ones. He charged high prices for his paintings as souvenirs for the travelers on the Grand Tour. 1678 The Spanish artist Murillo mainly produced religious paintings. 1620 In all his work. Sir Anthony van Dyck Lady Anne Cecil. using soft colors and giving his figures sweet expressions. Velázquez made his figures and objects realistic and lifelike. van Dyck traveled around Europe painting portraits of wealthy nobles. Seaport with the Embarkation of the Queen of Sheba. interesting lighting effects. 43 . Hooch chose indoor and outdoor scenes from daily life to paint.

and only about 35 pictures by him are known to survive. Clio’s victory wreath “crowns” his hand. Jan Vermeer was little known outside of his The Kitchen Maid.” Clio’s trumpet represents the fame an artist can achieve. (Can you spot a life-sized mask in the picture?) 44 .ARTIST PROFILE Artist’s biography Jan Vermeer 1632: Born in Delft. The model is Clio. 1665-1666: Painted Girl with a Pearl Earring 1672: French invasion of Netherlands caused economic slump that affected the art market 1675: At age 43. and the hanging carpet adds a theatrical flourish. didn’t achieve universal recognition until the late 1800s. the floor tiles direct our gaze at the main action. this picture is remarkable for its quality of light. he would have worked hard to support his wife and 11 surviving children. died in debt and unacknowledged 1866: Reputation restored by French art critic Théophile Thoré Picture story The Art of Painting is a symbolic work (allegory) about painting in the old Netherlands. To highlight the importance of the painter’s art form. and the artist (in 15th-century dress) might be Vermeer himself. 1658 Vermeer is famous for “genre” paintings. Vermeer may not even have been a full-time artist. As far as we know.” Art historian Walter Liedtke Now among the most loved of all artists. One critic described the surface of his pictures as “like crushed pearls melted together. Certainly. Artist’s influences Pieter de Hooch —Contemporary artist who also painted scenes of everyday life and light-filled interiors Interior life Emanuel de Witte —Inspired by calm. and he domesticity and natural light. Like all his work. c. she makes a record of heroic deeds—Vermeer may be saying that skill as an artist is just as heroic as triumph in battle. In the book she holds. Netherlands 1653: At age 21 became a member of the Delft painters’ guild 1662: Elected to be the headman of the painters’ guild Jan Vermeer “He created a world more perfect than any he had witnessed. light effects in the paintings of church interiors Vermeer’s rooms are just as important and interesting as his people. the muse of history. The elaborate brass chandelier shimmers with his famous dots of light. which feature cozy hometown of Delft during his lifetime. He used tiny dots of paint to suggest the fall of light or the texture of an object.

c.Early art—Vermeer The Art of Painting. 48 x 39 in (120 x 100 cm)—Oil on canvas 45 . 1666.

artists aimed to make the objects look realistic but since then they have used still life to explore styles. In the 17th century. and flowers. Roman. He painted several versions of the Sunflowers. Oil on canvas A vanitas is a type of still-life painting that was popular in the Netherlands during the 17th century. Fresco This is part of a larger fresco of fruit and a wine jar found in the house of Julia Felix in the ancient Roman town of Pompeii. Simon Renard de Saint-André. Still life with Basket. some of which were hung up in the Yellow House. Oil on canvas Yellow is an important color within this painting. 1888-90. Sunflowers. Vanitas. Oil on canvas This is a still-life painting of a basket overflowing with bright fruits. Vincent van Gogh.GALLERY Still life in art Still-life paintings show objects such as fruit. since it signified happiness for van Gogh. France. 17th century. Paul Cézanne. 1st century BCE. in this piece a skull is used to show death. for example. SEEING THINGS For more on Vincent van Gogh see page 64 Still Life with Bowls of Fruit and Wine-Jar. which he rented in Arles. 46 . furniture. Cézanne completed hundreds of still lifes during his painting career. Vanitas paintings often include symbols of the shortness of life. 1888.

Gabriele Münter. Gouache on paper Gouache—paint mixed with a type of gum—was Muallâ’s favorite way of painting. He has cleverly painted them to look three-dimensional. 1960s. and charcoal on canvas Braque made lots of still-life paintings set on a round table. c. sand u Chianti Bottle and Fish. The objects have been fragmented. . In this piece. a style called Cubism.” SEEING THINGS For more on Cubism see page 69 u The Round Table. the table is covered in his favorite things. William Michael Harnett. . Harnett wanted to make the objects as realistic as possible. It allowed him to work quickly on his still-life paintings. a German Expressionist painter. 1892. Oil. 1929. Braque also used sand in this painting to create a weird texture. Oil on canvas Münter. 47 . 1918. Oil on canvas In this painting.Early art—Still life in art Old Models. Fikret Muallâ. She became cofounder and the only female member of the art group known as “The Blue Rider. Georges Braque. Still Life with Porcelain Lamp. was interested in art from a young age.

near Stuttgart. A Fête Champêtre in a Water Garden. The Grand Tour around Europe became very popular among wealthy travelers and art lovers during the 1700s. plenty of symbols. He painted dreamy. Peter’s in Rome.ART STYLE Rococo (1700s) One of the main styles of the 18th century across Europe was called Rococo. some of these exhibitions became public galleries. the French artist Watteau developed the Rococo style in painting. French noblemen enjoyed an extravagant lifestyle and moved out of Versailles Palace to build elegant townhouses decorated in the Rococo style. or d Lan s Pouss e mn utu romis Nicola A P y the 0–64. The name probably came from the French word rocaille. Anti-BAROQUE At the beginning of the 1700s. the exhibitions became known as the Salon. which featured detailed landscapes. but by the 18th century princes were rebuilding new palaces. meaning a decorative form of rock-art where shells and pebbles were used to cover fountains.. Ludwigsburg Palace. the art owned by the royal family was put on display and in 1793 the Louvre opened as the first national public gallery. featuring beautifully dressed people enjoying themselves. These academies set rules for what was considered “art. pastoral (countryside) settings. This was an ornamental style with elegance and fun. Germany The Thirty Years’ War (1618-48) had devastated Germany. designed by the Baroque architect Gianlorenzo Bernini D in ur g t h e 1 70 0 s. . from pes Gra The d. Piazza of St.” Later. Building PROJECTS Academies of Art were set up in European capitals to train artists and exhibit their work during the 1600s. and new churches were also being built in southern Europe. in . b 166 Public GALLERIES The French Academy exhibited in the Louvre Palace and from 1737. Also. Italy. and references to myths. 18th century The Louvre Palace Jean-Antoine WATTEAU (1684-1721) 48 . The Rococo style was a reaction against the grand and overly dramatic Baroque style of the 17th century. People on the Grand Tour bought paintings as souvenirs. During 1715-1774.

The Education of the Virgin. Tiepolo was known for his frescoes that could create amazing illusions. He sometimes set these portraits in a landscape setting. telling stories with moral themes. featuring aristocrats having fun. artists painted in the Rococo style… Jean-Honoré Fragonard French school The Swing. Italian School Canaletto Return of the Bucintoro on Ascension Day. c. 1732 An incredibly quick painter. British School William Hogarth Marriage A-la-Mode: IV. Andrews. Thomas Gainsborough Mr. c. Central European School Giambattista Tiepolo Franz Anton Maulbertsch Presentation in the Temple. 1767 Fragonard captured the Rococo spirit in his colorful. and Mrs. 1742 Boucher was very popular among the noblemen and royalty of the French court as his paintings reflected their desires in his imaginary settings. c. 18th century Canaletto became famous as a view-painter capturing the grand scenes of festivities on the canals in Venice. 1750 Many wealthy British people posed for their portraits by Gainsborough. Maulbertsch was commissioned to decorate churches and buildings across Europe. He sold his work to the wealthy travelers on the Grand Tour. 18th century An Austrian artist. There were six scenes for Marriage A-la-Mode. joyful. 1743 Hogarth painted sequences of witty paintings. The Toilette. Johann Baptist Zimmermann The Last Judgment (detail). 1746–54 One of Zimmermann’s greatest works was to decorate the ceiling of Wies Church in Germany. Italy. and playful paintings.Early art—Rococo Across Europe. François Boucher The Chinese Marriage or An Audience with the Emperor of China. 49 .

Romantic spirit Displaying some of the first traces of Romanticism in his work.” Goya was a very versatile painter. you can see terror in his eyes. a set of 80 etchings published in 1799 about the social and political situation at that time. and even featured mysterious. Diego Velázquez. and morality. religion. best known in his lifetime for portraits. This etching was number 43 from the series Los Capriches. 50 . Goya often painted the world of dreams. He was the son of a gilder and his art training began with a local painter 1763: At age 17 moved to Madrid and then studied in Italy around 1768 to 1771 1785: Appointed deputy director of painting at the Royal Academy in Madrid 1786: Appointed the King’s Painter and became the main painter to the royal household in 1789 1808–13: Continued as royal painter under Joseph Bonaparte. he was also fascinated by people. and nature. 1814: After the restoration of the Spanish king.ARTIST PROFILE Artist’s biography Francisco de Goya 1746: Born in Fuendetodos. dreamlike creatures. 1796–98. 1797-1800 above). imagination is the mother of all art and the source of its beauty. c. Spain. (see his self-portrait. and he was a master of softly shaded layers. Print from etching Goya described himself as a pupil of Rembrandt (selfportrait above). He could show a wide range of emotions in his work. painted The Second of May. 1808 1824: Settled in Bordeaux. near Saragossa. and died there in 1828 Artist’s influences As the central figure throws his arms up in surrender. or possibly applying it with a sponge and spoons). France. An early Romantic. The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters. 1808 and The Third of May. he used paint in a very physical way (sometimes thinning it. who was occupying Spain Francisco de Goya “United with reason.

Goya wanted to show how gruesome and bloody these executions were. Napolean’s army occupied Spain. but on May 2. 1814.Early art—Goya Third of May. Goya’s country. French soldiers shot hundreds of the rebels and many innocent bystanders. Goya was only able to record the horror after the Spanish king was restored to his throne several years later. Dying for freedom During the early 19th century. 51 . the citizens of Madrid rose up in rebellion. The next day. 104 x 135 in (265 x 345 cm)—Oil on canvas A huge lantern provides light for the brutal nighttime slaughter. 1808. 1808.

2 The color is applied in loose strokes and allowed to spread. Watercolor. red chalk on paper Soak the paper thoroughly with water. The colors run into each other smoothly. It is applied in thin washes of delicate color that are gradually built up. The figures are drawn awkwardly and the perspective is wrong. 1841. He would make hundreds of sketches and rough watercolors while he was there and paint full-sized pictures when he got back. J.Turner’s style Joseph Turner was one of the masters of Romantic watercolor painting. or other colors added. M. This painting is of Innsbruck Castle. 3 Dried breadcrumbs can be used to lift out small spots of color. 4 15th century Albrecht Dürer was one of the first artists to paint landscapes in watercolor.How to use watercolor Watercolor paint is made from a colored pigment mixed with water. 19th century Turner visited Venice three times. 1 Dawn after the Wreck. c. 52 . W. 19th century Dante Gabriel Rossetti’s picture Arthur’s Tomb imitates the style of early Italian artists. The main quality of watercolors is their transparency and illusion of light. the pigment can be diluted with more water. like a medieval illustration. He became known as the “painter of light” because of his fascination for the effects of weather on the sea and sky. Once on the page. Here’s how to paint like Turner Turner used the “wet-in-wet” technique to cover large areas of the paper with background colors that blend gently into each other. Austria. Watercolor timeline Watercolor probably began with early cave paintings where pigments were mixed with water. graphite. They became more popular in the Renaissance and are now widely used by amateur artists. A clean sponge or rag can be used for larger areas.

20th century Mildred Butler’s watercolors often depicted the gardens and landscapes around her home in Ireland.. the types of effects you can get with watercolors. John Singer Sargent draws attention to the finely detailed faces by painting the clothes in loose brushstrokes. THINK ABOUT.Early art—How to use watercolor There are a number of techniques used in watercolor.. washes can be left to dry and further colors laid on top to create a depth of color. 20th century Raoul Dufy’s Horses and Jockeys under the Trees is typical of the way he would lay down color washes and then add simple outlines to suggest fine detail afterward. 19th century—Watercolor on paper 20th century In his picture Bedouins. vigorous strokes. 20th century The Chinese artist Qi Baishi used large brushes to capture the spirit of his subject in swift.Venice.Try mixing colors using the wet-in-wet method and see what happens. A Canal Near the Arsenale. Turner painted his watercolors in stages. he would use fine brushstrokes of thicker paint to add details. Areas of the paper are also left white or scratched out afterward rather than using white paint. 53 . Finally. He would then apply washes of color to define buildings and shapes. He would cover the paper with large areas of thin color to form the background. In addition to wet-in-wet.

ARTIST PROFILE In the corner is a stamp of some calligraphy characters. The areas where the image will be white are chiseled away.000 years old? They date back to ancient China in 220 CE. Hokusai used more than 20 different names during his career. Amazingly the process of making a woodblock print is the same today as it was then! 54 The image is drawn and placed facedown onto a block of wood. 1829–33 10 x 15 in (25. depending on his style at the time.9 x 37. This is how Japanese artists signed their work. The areas to be printed a particular color are left raised. The Great Wave off Kanagawa.2 cm)—Color woodcut Making a woodblock print Did you know that the earliest woodblock prints are nearly 2. .

Katsushika A traditional print Hokusai revolutionized Japanese of geishas. Although Mount Fuji is in the background of this picture. Copies of this print have been sold all over the world. taking fresh fish from their village to the fish markets of Edo (now Tokyo). it is framed by the large waves and in the foreground a small peaked wave copies its shape. c. including landscapes Mount Fuji The Great Wave was one of a series of prints called the Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji (1829–1833).Early art—Hokusai Katsushika Hokusai In the 1800s. Dutch landscape engravings —Influenced by the use of perspective. which can be seen in his famous print The Great Wave off Kanagawa. but even at the end of his life he felt he could do better. He created more than 30. are caught up in some powerful ocean waves. geishas.000 works. and realistic shadows 55 . and nobility—the subjects chosen by other Japanese artists—Hokusai drew landscapes and ordinary life in the countryside. joined the studio of Katsukawa Shunshõ 1797: Adopted the name Hokusai Tomisa and produced brush paintings and illustrated books 1814: Created a collection of sketches known as the series Hokusai Manga 1824-1830: Produced many famous works. How do you think the fishermen feel? Are they afraid? Or are they confident they’ll make it as they have done so many times before? Hokusai worked obsessively on creating woodblock prints. These fishermen. He strived for realism. and movement. 1849: Died and buried in Tokyo’s Seikyõji Temple at age 89 Artist’s influences Chinese art —For 1. He used a woodblock printing technique.500 years. Japan 1775: Became an apprentice woodblock engraver 1778: At age 18. influencing thousands of artists and designers.” Artist’s biography Katsushika Hokusai 1760: Born in Edo (now Tokyo). perspective. shading. but instead of showing samurai. He signed one of his last works as “The Art-Crazy Old-Man. Mount Fuji volcano is the highest peak in Japan and according to myths was the source of the secret of immortality and a home to gods. Chinese paintings had featured long-distance landscape views The raised image is covered in printing ink and then pressed onto paper. 1780 art. Different blocks are made for each color and used again to make lots of copies. The largest wave with its grasping claws is threatening to engulf the three boats.

Modern art 1850 onward .

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simplicity. and mythological subjects. In the early 1860s. Painting REAL LIFE VISIBLE Brushstrokes Mother Anthony’s Tavern. Edouard Manet used a new way of painting. including all its harsh details. motion photography captured how animals and humans moved. Their boldness. as well as the flat areas of strong color. Poachers in ve Courbet . Japanese woodblock prints (see page 54) were seen in Europe. How the picture was painted became just as important as the subject matter.ART STYLE Impressionism Art was to change forever in 1860s France. invented just over a decade earlier. Artists were especially affected by the lack of perspective and shadow. when a group of artists invented “Impressionism. His modern approach to painting was frank in style and unsentimental in expression. purposely making his brushstrokes visible on the painting. Gustave Courbet. Often the cafés themselves became subject-matter. began painting realistic scenes of rural and working life. These developments made artists rethink the composition and accuracy of a painting. In the 1850s. ready-mixed paint could be bought in resealable aluminum tubes. photography. The Realism movement in art quickly gained momentum in Europe. 1887. 1886. Unable to exhibit their work at the art academies. these artists organized their own exhibitions. by Eadweard Muybridge the snow. Jeanne. which preferred paintings about historical. Courbet became an outspoken advocate of “realism” (he coined the phrase).” Their new approach was to capture the “impression” of what is seen at any particular moment. allowing them to capture the light and weather effects on a scene. and other painters. Galloping Horse. How did it h appen? By the 1840s. and unmodeled figures influenced the Impressionists. This approach makes him one of the founders of modern art. a group of French Impressionists regularly met in cafés in Paris to discuss their ideas and techniques. This meant painters could complete a painting outside more easily. by Edouard Manet 58 . Later. religious. 1881. This was not approved of by the art academies. By the late 1860s. had developed and become a craze. by Pierre-Auguste Renoir In the late 1800s. by Gusta 1867 By 1850.

painted with a light touch and with the pure colors applied unmixed onto the canvas. Pissarro was influential in teaching and guiding the other artists on painting outdoors. but spread to other countries… French Impressionism Claude Monet Impression: Sunrise. is typical of Renoir’s work as a true Impressionist. Camille Pissarro The Farm at Osny. Later. and people at work. 1891 Morisot was the first woman to join the Impressionists.1873-76 After meeting the Impressionists. 1875 Most of Sisley’s work is of landscapes. rural life. busy café interiors. Childe Hassam Isle of Shoals. c. he experimented with his style. and scenes from history. 59 . 1906 An American Impressionist. 1887 The British artist Steer used the Impressionist style to capture the effects of light on his beach scenes and seascapes. Tom Roberts A Break Away! 1891 Roberts introduced Impressionism to Australia. using the style to paint landscapes. typical of the Impressionist style. Edgar Degas The Dancing Class. Berthe Morisot The Cherry Picker.Modern art—Impressionism The Impressionist style originated in France. Pierre-Auguste Renoir Ball at the Moulin de la Galette. 1873 The name “Impressionism” was given to the new style of painting by an art critic at the group’s first exhibition after seeing the name of this painting by Monet. 1876 This scene of people enjoying themselves in the open air. such as ballet dancers practicing. portraits. painting over 6.000 works in his lifetime. 1883 Older than most members of the Impressionist group. with sunlight filtering through the trees. Outside France Philip Wilson Steer Beach at Etaples. Hassam spent his summers on the coast in New Hampshire and captured the lighting effects on this landscape. Her brightly colored paintings often showed women and family life. Alfred Sisley Snow at Louveciennes. Degas chose scenes from real life to paint.

Monet built a studio to house a number of large canvases he had begun working on. Oil on canvas The Japanese Bridge. he painted Impression: Sunrise (see page 59) 1883: Settled in Giverny. 40 miles (65 km) from Paris 1903: Eyesight began to fail but continued painting 1926: Died at age 86 and a year later a series of Waterlilies was housed in the Orangerie. Each of these canvases was over 14 ft (4 m) wide. and then start again with the first canvas the next day. during the Franco-Prussian War 1873: In Paris. Paris. France 1859: At age 19 studied art at the Académie Suisse in Paris 1861–62: Drafted into the army and served in Algeria. he claimed that nature was his studio and his series paintings show his interest in capturing the changing light. All his life. Monet’s brushstrokes became broad and sweeping with strong bright colors in his later life due to his failing eyesight. He would work on a whole series showing the same subject but at different times of the day.” Monet was one of the most famous of the French Impressionist artists.ARTIST PROFILE Artist’s biography Claude Monet 1840: Born in Paris but grew up in Le Havre. 1918. Oil on canvas 60 How is this painting similar to Green Harmony? How is it different? This one was painted in the summer. He would change from one canvas to another as the Sun moved across the sky. Africa Claude Monet “My garden is my most beautiful masterpiece. 1870–71: At age 30 lived in London with his new wife. Édouard Manet —Inspired by his bold brushstrokes and scenes of modern life The Waterlily Pond: Pink Harmony. He wanted to recreate his oriental garden as a large mural. Camille. on the Seine. . 1900. and opened to the public Artist’s influences Painting large Johan Jongkind —Taught Monet to look closely and clearly at the light effects in nature In 1916.

34¾ x 36½ in (88. Here. One of Monet’s sketches of the pond with waterlilies in purple pencil. he dug out a pond. and built a Japanese bridge to create an oriental water garden. Over the next 25 years. of which a series of 10 canvases featured the bridge and pond in different lighting conditions. 1899.Modern art—Monet An oriental water garden In 1893.3 x 93. he sketched and painted over 250 images of his waterlilies. planted trees and flowers. Monet bought a plot of land across the road from his garden in Giverny. The Waterlily Pond: Green Harmony.1 cm)—Oil on canvas 61 .

she met the Impressionists and during the 1880s she painted in this style to capture the fleeting moments and the effects of light. such as blending. He hadn’t done either before. leaving soft. This is a milky solution that stops the pastels from smudging. 2 The paper is sprayed with a casein fixative. what would they be wearing and what would they be holding? Women Admiring a Child. How to color layer There are many effects that can be created with pastels. she would apply the pastels with loose vigorous strokes. In her pastel paintings. keeping the lines light. the first layers of pastels are applied. 1897—Pastel on paper Pastels timeline Prehistoric cave paintings could be considered the first art created using dry pigments. fuzzy edges to suggest immediacy and movement. c. This effect is called color layering. Here. quick strokes. Jean-Simeon Chardin started using pastels for portraits. which would make them appear as one color. Using loose. 62 1499 Leonardo da Vinci experimented with yellow pastels on the dress for this preparatory chalk sketch (detail shown) for the portrait of Isabelle d’Este a wealthy Italian lady 1748 In this portrait of the French king Louis XV. cross-hatching.HOW DID THEY DO THAT? How to paint with pastels A pastel is a stick of color made from powdered pigment mixed with a binder such as resin or gum. Maurice-Quentin de La Tour created wonderful textures for the different materials the king’s wearing 1771 In the 1770s. ASK YOURSELF If you were painting a picture of a friend. 1 A pale sketch is drawn in charcoal (or pencil) onto the paper. but discovered he was excellent at them . Mary Cassatt’s style Mary Cassatt was an American painter who spent some of her time in France. 3 4 Another pastel is applied using the same loose. She would layer color on top of color. Pastel is applied directly to paper and there’s no drying needed. quick strokes over the top. Sticks of pastels have been used since the Renaissance. Mary Cassatt’s technique was to use color layering. and scrumbling.

Modern art—How to paint with pastels Cassatt’s favorite subjects to paint were women and children. 1880 The American Impressionist artist Mary Cassatt used quick strokes and layering of different colored pastels to create her paintings 1902 Stanislaw Wyspianski had an allergy to oil paint. so he used pastels to create his paintings of the Polish landscape and portraits 2007 Daniel Greene. c. Pastels can be held in different ways. writing letters. Dragging the edge of a pastel creates large blocks of color. Cassatt’s paintings show what the lives of women and children were like at the end of the 19th century. Women were shown reading. 25 x 20½ in (63.5 x 52. and joining in family activities. uses pastels for his portraits and still-life paintings. having tea. an award-winning artist. 1880. such as this one of a Green Checkerboard Balloons and Darts 63 . c. Elsie Cassatt holding a big dog. sewing.1 cm)— Pastel on paper Late-1800s Edgar Degas used pastels to capture the movement and light effects typical of the Impressionist style.

January 1889 He began to show signs of mental illness and after a violent quarrel with a close friend. This was the first of three versions he painted. swirling lines. cut off part of his ear. Paul Gauguin —Influenced by the same subjects when lived and painted together in Arles TRY A PORTRAIT OF YOUR OWN Position a mirror in front of you and draw your portrait and then add bold colors.” At age 27. hoping to create a school of art with his artist friends. He added two chairs to represent himself and his friend Gauguin and he painted other examples of his work hanging on the walls. Jean-François Millet —Influenced by Millet’s respectful depiction of laborers in the fields An artist named Seward Johnson re-created Van Gogh’s painting for an American museum.. Netherlands 1869: Worked at the international picture dealers Goupil and Co. Rémy. Practice makes perfect—Self portraits Fall 1886 Van Gogh used dark colors in his early paintings. vibrant colors and practiced using short brushstrokes. hoping to start a community of artists— but he never did 1889: Decides to enter an asylum in nearby St. In reality. Artist’s influences Winter 1888 Now confident with his own colorful style. until he met the Impressionists in Paris. You can sit on everything. He painted with dramatic colors. where he painted The Starry Night (see page 66) 1890: At age 37. his room had very little furniture. committed suicide Vincent van Gogh “I am risking my life for my work. suffering from mental distress. in the south of France. he painted with curving. Gauguin. but was forced to resign after seven years 1878: Worked as a lay preacher among miners in Belgium 1886: Moved to Paris to live with his brother and met the Impressionist painters 1888: Settled in Arles in the south of France. age 10 64 . Vincent van Gogh taught himself to draw with only a little teaching. One of van Gogh’s favorite paintings was this one of his bedroom in the Yellow House at Arles. and half my reason has gone. He bought a mirror and painted himself—more than 30 times. Summer 1887 Van Gogh now experimented with light. He painted self portraits to practice his technique. By Jason . Imagine if you could walk into this painting. Van Gogh applied the thick oil paint with fat paintbrushes or by squeezing straight out of the tube. he moved to Arles. Fall 1889 In an asylum.ARTIST PROFILE Artist’s biography Vincent van Gogh 1853: Born in Zundert.. and continued to develop his skills throughout his life.

Modern art—Van Gogh Self-portrait in felt hat. 1887. 17¼ x 14¾ in (44 x 37.5 cm)—Oil on canvas 65 .

GALLERY Nighttime in art Nighttime creates different moods in art. Since his death. Oil on canvas Van Gogh painted this piece while in a mental hospital. Paula Rego. including dancing and celebration. He rarely sold any of his paintings during his lifetime. 1889. however. Starry Night has become one of the best-known paintings in modern culture. Vincent van Gogh. showing the generations from youth to old age. Acrylic on paper This painting is inspired by Rego’s childhood in Portugal. while others show much happier scenes. It is also said to represent the different stages of life. Starry Night. 1988. In some of these paintings there are themes of loneliness and fear. The Dance. 66 SEEING THINGS For more on Vincent van Gogh see page 64 .

a woman sits in a quiet café drinking coffee by herself. mostly in urban settings. including their nighttime dancing. and judging by her coat and hat.Modern art – Nighttime in art Automat. which uses a metal plate covered with a special substance to create a grainy texture. Artist unknown. Oil on canvas Sargent was staying with friends when he decided to paint a scene of their children lighting Japanese lanterns at dusk on a summer evening. Rose. James Pollard. Color litho Pollard was known for his scenes of horses and coaches. it is also cold outside. Creole Dance. 1885–86. This is an aquatint-engraving. Pedro Figari. an artist from Uruguay. In this painting. The Mail Coach in a Thunderstorm. Carnation. Oil on canvas This is a modern painting showing a nighttime scene. Ceremony under the Moon. 1827. Figari. G. before 1927. painted scenes from the local people’s lives. Oil on cardboard The creole dance was traditionally performed in Latin America. 1927. John Singer Sargent. Oil on canvas Many of Hopper’s paintings show people alone. Lily. engraved by R. 67 . Lily. Reeve. 2004. It is night. Edward Hopper.

Artists such as Paul Cézanne wanted to develop. a Czech artist. 68 . formal. After Impressionism there came a period of even more innovation. Paul Gauguin spent part of his life in Tahiti. by Alphonse Mucha Art Nouveau (“New art”) was a popular decorative. used the Bible. c. where he gained inspiration for his painting Upa upa (Tahitian Fire Dance). 1896. Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte. Symbolism emerged in the late 1800s. c. The movement saw artists exploring the realms of fantasy and using metaphors in their works to suggest their own ideas of mystery. Art Nouveau La Dame aux Camelias. for example. Neo-Impressionism was a term used to describe the work of Georges Seurat and Paul Signac in the 1880s. 1891. Artists broke away from the expectation that art should be large. was completed in 1886. 1884-86. the ideals of Impressionism. by Paul Gauguin Postimpressionism describes the development of French art from the mid1880s through to the early 20th century. by Paul Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grand Jatte. curvy motifs. largely as a reaction against Realism and Impressionism. movement that first appeared in the 1890s and was inspired by floral and stylized. Seurat’s most famous painting. Cézanne hoped to bring more of a sense of order to his work. Alphonse Mucha. by Georges Seurat Upa upa (Tahitian Fire Dance). is Fauv m Postimp ressio nism Symbo lism Expre ssion is m Neo -I m pre ssio nis m Card Players.ART STYLE After Impressionism Impressionism had a major impact on Western art. became famous in 1895 when he produced a poster of the popular Parisian actress Sarah Bernhardt that embraced this style of art. 1890-92. but also challenge. artists could express their personalities and give a response to the world through their art. structuring it more tightly. as artists pushed the boundaries even further. They experimented with using small dots to build up an artwork (because of this the style is also known as Pointillism). Some. highly finished paintings. though short-lived. while others used spirits or ghosts. Instead. Cézanne c.

1916. by André Derain looked to a vivid use of color and was an art movement led by close friends Henri Matisse and André Derain. by Umberto Boccioni Conferen 1949. c. 20 th century. by Ed ce at Night. an American artist. It inspired artists outside Russia as well. tu Fu Fauvism appeared in Italy in the early 20th century. Emilio Pettoruti was an Argentinian painter who experimented with Cubism and whose exhibition of Cubist work in 1924 in Argentina was considered very shocking. Derain depicted London in a new colorful way using bright colour. fractured shapes and forms in Umberto Boccioni’s works show his love of speed and technology. Fauvist brushwork was bold and the subject was simplified. became a leading example of this kind of art. making arresting images of ordinary life in America. a Uruguayan artist. Later. Art came to be seen as a tool that could embrace social change and inspire future development. that emerged in 1907 and lasted into the early 1920s. ris m Realism Cubis m Con stru ctivi s m The Syphon. Subjects of Cubist paintings are broken up and painted as if viewed from different angles. Edward Hopper. who were termed Les Fauves (“the wild beasts”) in 1905 by a critic. Edvard Munch showed this to great effect in his painting The Scream. seen famously in the work of Pablo Picasso. 69 . Futurism Realism took daily life as its subject-matter and aimed to depict it as realistically as possible. ward Hoppe r Bridge on the Thames. It could often be an expression of an artist’s inner turmoil and confusion. with the goal of provoking an emotional response in the viewer. one being Joaquín Torres García. Locomotive Construction. and short. 1930. It began in France in the 1850s. by Joaquín Torres García twists and distorts reality in art. broken brushmarks.Modern art—After Impressionism Elasticity. 1893. by Edvard Munch Cubism was a revolutionary new form of painting. The swirling. by Emilio Pettoru ti The Scream. It looked to the triumph of technology and invention over nature and toward a promising future rather than dwelling on the past. Expressionism Constructivism grew after 1921 following dramatic changes in the political structure within Russia. 1905.

Matisse was given a box of paints by his mother. NOW YOU TRY. it doesn’t mean grass. he painted sheets of paper. and pasting them onto a flat surface is a technique known as collage. when I paint blue. He played and experimented with color all his life. often creating the feelings of joy and playfulness in his works. Islamic art—Influenced by the use of patterns and the decorative use of color 70 .” When he was recovering from an illness at the age of 20. 1887: Went to Paris to study law.ARTIST PROFILE Artist’s biography Henri Matisse 1869: Born in northeastern France Henri Matisse “When I paint green. you can be creative with colored paper. Paint pieces of paper in bright colors and then cut them into shapes. Move the shapes around until you’re happy with their arrangement. it doesn’t mean sky. Matisse was obsessed with color and used it to create shapes. cut out different shapes. arranging the pieces into a picture. Try creating your own picture in the style of Matisse. With the help of assistants.. and emotion. This moment began his career as an artist. he chose to use this technique. mood. became ill. and then arranged and pasted them down. influenced layout of paintings Drawing with scissors Cutting out paper. When Matisse was no longer able to stand or see well. and turned to studying art in 1891 1904-1907: Became the leader of a group of avant-garde artists called the Fauves (wild beasts) 1908: Published Notes of a Painter.. describing his theory about painting 1921: Moved to the south of France 1941: Became confined to bed or a wheelchair after two operations 1954: Died of a heart attack at 85 Artist’s influences Three Bathers by Paul Cezanne— Bought in 1899. Like Matisse.

he arranged the shapes in a spiral to suggest the shell The Snail 1953 Gouache on paper on canvas 71 . Colors and patterns stand out in Matisse’s pictures. In this picture. How many colors can you find in this picture? How do the colors make you feel? Matisse chose his colors to express emotions and cleverly arranged them so that the picture is relaxing to look at. can you find the sorrowful king playing his guitar. and a dancer and a seated figure trying to cheer him up. 115 x 152 in (292 x 386 cm)— Gouache on paper on canvas Cut out clues In addition to color.Modern art—Matisse The Sorrows of the King. Matisse understood body shapes and he could suggest an object or person by showing a simplified shape with a few flowing lines. In his picture of a snail. 1952.

which broke with the traditions of Western art Study of a weeping woman This painting of a woman mourning was used as a study for Guernica (below). known as his “Blue Period” 1904: Settled in Paris. and used all kinds of art materials. birth. Immediately afterward. and death. Look closer Look at all the jagged lines in the painting and how they convey the quality of grief. southern Spain Pablo Picasso “When you come down to it. This photograph shows Dora in about 1947. 1901: At age 20 visited Paris and painted pictures of destitute street figures in shades of blue. and politically aware.” The Spanish artist Picasso was a gifted artist even as a child and became one of the most important modern artists. she took step-bystep photographs of Picasso painting Guernica. 1937. 1909–1914: Worked with Georges Braque to find new ways of showing space and volume—now called Cubism Model and muse The woman in the photograph and seated in the chair is the French photographer Dora Maar. violence. intelligent. and inventive. 1946-1973: Lived in the south of France. including collage and ceramics.ARTIST PROFILE Artist’s biography Pablo Picasso 1881: Born in Malaga. He wanted to show the woman’s suffering and to do this he distorted her face and used colors in an expressive. painted Les Demoiselles d’Avignon. to symbolize the ones that attacked Guernica. The themes he chose were often about himself and also universal: love. He wanted to show the suffering of ordinary people and animals and to bring the civil war in Spain to everyone’s attention. way. who was Picasso’s mistress and muse (inspiration) for seven years. not a naturalistic. The pupil in Dora’s eye looks almost like a military plane. Oil on canvas Did you know that Picasso and his friend Georges Braque developed a new art style called Cubism? The surface of the painting was fragmented. Painted circus figures and harlequins in orange and pink colors. He was bold. altering shapes and showing different viewpoints at the same time. Picasso used Dora’s features. the small town of Guernica in Spain was attacked by 28 bombers on April 26. continuing his painting and experimenting with ceramics until his death Artist’s influences Guernica Paul Cezanne—Inspired by looking at the shape and form of nature During the Spanish Civil War. all you have is yourself. We can actually feel someone crying. African sculpture —Inspired by the boldness and expressiveness of these non-Western works Guernica 1937. Picasso painted this large picture. original. Beautiful. known as his “Rose Period” 1907: At age 26. Picasso has combined the folds of a handkerchief with the fingers and made the fingernails look like tears. 72 . This portrait shows Dora from two different angles—in profile and full face.

33¼ x 29 in (84.Modern art—Picasso Weeping Woman.7 x 73.9 cm)—Oil on canvas 73 . 1937.

20th century Wallis. mostly about her memories of farm life. a British fisherman and scrap merchant. c. Grandma Moses Come on Old Topsy. In the 20th century. she produced an amazing 3. Anna Moses only started painting in her 70s.600 paintings. His main subjects were ships. and coastal villages. Alfred Wallis Two Boats with Yellow Sails and Lighthouse.ART STYLE Naïve art Naïve painting is the work of artists with little or no formal art training. The naïve artists were interested in the subject matter and often chose to paint their favorite subjects. 1910 The French self-taught artist Rousseau is best known for painting wild animals in tropical jungle scenes. In his youth. Henri Rousseau Jungle with Horse Attacked by a Jaguar. fishing. 74 . Camille Bombois The Itinerant Athlete. only began painting in his 60s. he was a champion local wrestler and then joined a traveling circus as a strongman. Over the next 30 years (she died at age 101). but just studied tropical plants in the botanical garden in Paris for reference. He had never seen a jungle. these simple almost cartoonlike paintings with their bright colors and awkward drawing became popular and even inspired the work of other artists. 20th century An American farmer’s wife.1930 The French naïve artist Bombois is famous for painting circus scenes. but these were fantasy.

featured scenes of everyday life in his country. including lively carnivals and dances. 1962 A Croatian carpenter. Bude. 1983 Cook started painting in her 40s when she borrowed a paint-box from her son. His first exhibition of paintings when he was 35 was so successful that he later gave up his job and became a fulltime painter. 2008 Holzhandler loved patterns and often her pictures featured stripes and checks on the characters’ clothes. His urban scenes usually featured factories and other grimy buildings against a white sky and crowds of stylized. known as “matchstick men. Ice Cream Parlor.” Laurence Stephen Lowry After the Wedding. In this painting and many others. Ivan Rabuzin My World. one of the naïve artists from Haiti. He continued to learn about art by visiting galleries and reading about various artists. 1939 The British artist Lowry was one of a number of trained painters who adopted the style of naïve art. Rabuzin developed an interest in painting in his 20s and painted whenever he had the time. and on furniture and wallpaper. he bathed the scenes in golden light. spindly figures.Modern art—Naïve art Dora Holzhandler Wilson Bigaud Bal Militaire.” 75 . This British artist is famous for painting funny pictures of “fat ladies. 20th century Bigaud. Beryl Cook Granny the Lion Tamer.

” 1898: At 19 years old. 1928.. almost primitive. and Florence in Italy 1911: Joined a group of artists in Germany called Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) 1912: At age 33 visited Paris. Naples.. moved to Munich to study at the Academy of Fine Art 1901-02: Toured Rome. met Delaunay and was influenced by Cubism 1920-31: Painted and taught at the Bauhaus School of Art and Design in Weimar in Germany 1933: Returned to Switzerland to escape Nazi persecution 1940: Died in Switzerland Artist’s influences Franz Marc—Inspired by the use of very bold colors for expression Wassily Kandinsky —Inspired by the fresh and free way Kandinsky used color Castle and Sun. 19¾ x 23¼ in (50 x 59 cm)—Oil on canvas 76 .ARTIST PROFILE Artist’s biography Paul Klee 1879: Born near Berne in Switzerland Paul Klee “I want to be as though newborn.

Assorted shapes Strongly influenced by Cubism. Oil on primed gauze on cardboard Cock and pig.Modern art—Klee A hugely original and now popular artist. 1920. By Re becca . and he trained as a violinist. Castle and Sun. age 12 77 . circles. and triangles in really bright colors. This passion comes through in his pictures. Klee relied heavily on his imagination. His style is hard to pin down—some of his images are straightforward and figurative. although it consists only of shapes and colors. Use your box of watercolor paints—when Klee was a young painter. while others are completely abstract. he had produced more than 9. Pen on paper Taking a line for a walk This is the way Klee thought of drawing. finding endless inspiration by experimenting with colors and shapes as well as pencil lines. Senecio. set off with harmonizing shades as in a musical composition. By the time he died. is so carefully constructed that it clearly portrays rows of buildings. Like a child. Klee’s main passion was for color: “Color and I are one. Try to draw your own picture in the style of Klee. where he often arranges blocks of color like notes in a melody. He would start to doodle with a pencil. “ drawing is simply a A line going for a walk. squares. rectangles. A simple triangle suggests the disapproving raised eyebrow that reflects Klee’s sharp wit.. Paul Klee was also amazingly productive. then play with what he saw. see what shapes appeared.000 works. Try painting simple figures set off by lines. he always worked in watercolors.” Painting music Paul Klee was a talented musician. this abstracted portrait (Senecio means “old man”) is drawn in soft colors and geometric shapes.” he wrote. 1922.. NOW YOU TRY.

along with other developments in photographic techniques. 16th century Guiseppe ARCIMBOLDO (c. His detailed paintings showed flowers. Old Woman with Masks. featuring carnival figures and masks. Arcimboldo was ahead of his time. the Belgian artist Ensor became known for his fantasy paintings. and skeletons. including unidentifiable figures and strange shadows. Art had become a way of expressing opinions. Giorgio de CHIRICO (1888–1978) CUBISM 78 . Artists were inspired to mimic these techniques. 1500 H d ow id it happ en ? In the late 1800s. by Pablo Picasso Cubist paintings showed a subject fragmented from many viewpoints. the Italian artist Chirico painted dreamlike pictures of unrelated objects in deserted places. such as images taken in quick succession. 1450–1516) Spring. and vegetables arranged as fantastic heads. by Marcel Duchamp James Ensor In the late 19th century. This questioning of reality was in response to the horrors of World War I. Hieronymus BOSCH (c. fruits. Weeping Woman. there was renewed interest in the work of some 16th century artists. 1912. 1937. who had painted imaginary worlds and experimented with unusual ideas.ART STYLE Surrealism Surreal means “more than real”: Surrealist painters thought that powerful feelings could be expressed through dreamlike paintings where ordinary objects were shown in impossible situations. c. The Anguish of Departure. Hieronymus Guiseppe Arcimboldo As a Renaissance artist. such as Hieronymus Bosch and Guiseppe Arcimboldo. 1913–4 From 1910 and into the 1920s. 1527–1593) Nude Descending a Staircase. The Garden of Earthly Delights (detail).2. No. color photography became available. 1889 From 1906. Bosch Bosch’s oil paintings were visions crammed with weird creatures and distorted figures. Photographic DEVELOPMENTS James ENSOR (1860–1949) 1914-1918 The destruction and suffering of World War I was blamed on the upper class’s control over society. puppets.

the Dada movement began in Switzerland—so-called after a baby’s first sounds. making the objects’ flat shapes and shadows appear on the paper. Dreamlike Salvador Dali Premonition of Civil War: Soft Construction with Boiled Beans. The artists protested against the foolishness of war by sticking together fragments of everyday objects to make supposedly meaningless art. and people in scenes that didn’t make sense. textbooks. 1921 Ernst created Surrealist collages by putting together a random collection of images from catalogs. Sigmund Freud (1856–1939) The mind is like an iceburg. 1936 Spanish artist Dali made strange dreamlike paintings by looking intensely at a set of objects until he could see others. 1922 Man Ray placed everyday objects on photographic light-sensitive paper and exposed them to light. This was called a rayograph. 79 . Surrealist writers wrote whatever thoughts they had as quickly as possible.1924-25 Seriously wounded in WWI. 1947 Magritte painted familiar objects. Yves Tanguy Through Birds Through Fire But Not Through Glass. Andre Masson Automatic Drawing. Rene Magritte The Liberator.. Marcel Duchamp used “ready-made” mass-produced objects to show the absurdity of life. Tanguy used nongeometric shapes to suggest living things. Masson suffered from nightmares and fits of rage.Modern art—Surrealism 1924 While the rest of Europe was at war. This uncontrolled process was called visual automatism. c. DADA Fountain. pin). it floats with one-seventh of its bulk above water.. Surrealist artists tried different ways to reveal their unconscious thoughts. animals. and advertisements. ANOTHER DIRECTION Automatism Man Ray Max Ernst Massacre of the Innocents. by Marcel Duchamp The French poet and critic Andre Breton started the idea of Surrealism based on the psychologist Sigmund Freud’s work on dreams and the unconscious mind. sometimes after purposely not eating or drinking for a long time. Rayograph (gyroscope. like a hallucination. He would spontaneously draw when he was stressed. 1917. He repeated some objects in other paintings. a method called biomorphism. magnifying glass. 1943 On his strange ocean or Moon-like landscapes.

curved objects. Can you find him in the painting? What do you think he is feeling? A harlequin costume is usually split into areas of contrasting primary colors. Spanish festivals that he had taken part in when he was young. He used a handful of bright colors against a plain background. 80 . while in Paris. Pablo Picasso —Inspired by Cubist idea of showing many viewpoints Francis Picabia —Inspired by Dada idea of scattered and random forms Flowing lines. and twisted shapes were features of Miró’s style.ARTIST PROFILE Artist’s biography Joan Miró 1893: Born in Barcelona. when he settled there 1940: Returned to Spain to escape the German occupation of France. One of his happy memories was of the many Falles. where he lived until his death in 1983. Paris 1983: Died in Majorca Joan Miró The Spanish artist Joan Miró used his memory and imagination to paint his pictures. Miró painted The Carnival of the Harlequin by letting his subconscious mind make the images—a method a bit like doodling. The Falles was a parade of huge colorful puppets made from papier-mâché called fallas. A harlequin is a clownlike figure. settling mainly on the island of Majorca 1947: Visited the United States for the first time to produce a mural 1958: Installed two huge ceramic wall decorations in the UNESCO building. Artist’s influences In 1956. In 1925. which were then burned on the final day of the two-week festival. Miró moved to a house in Majorca. Black stains of paint can still be seen on the floor. Spain 1919: At age 26 visited Paris for the first time and continued to spend winters there until the start of the Spanish Civil War in 1936. His studio was filled with his fantasy paintings and sculptures.

Think of a favorite memory. Draw some of the images you can remember in a curved. 26 x 36½ in (66 x 93 cm)—Oil on canvas NOW YOU TRY. age 10 81 . Mark Grad y. objects. 1924-5..Modern art—Miró Carnival of the Harlequin. Try drawing your own picture in the style of Miró. perhaps a party or a circus. and shapes? Why are they scattered in a room? Maybe it’s Miró’s mind or perhaps a workshop. What can you see in Miró’s surreal (dreamlike) painting called the Carnival of the Harlequin? Can you recognize animals. twisted way and use lots of bright colors..

detail above) American Gothic.3 × 62.” Artist’s influences Northern masters —Inspired by the realism of Netherlandish masters such as Hans Memling (Portrait of a Man. left the farm with his mother after his father’s death and moved to Cedar Rapids 1913: Enrolled in the School of the Art Institute of Chicago 1914: At age 23 joined the army during WWI and painted camouflage on tanks and cannons 1920: Made the first of several trips to Europe to study Impressionist and Postimpressionist art 1930: Painted his most famous work.4 cm)— Oil on beaverboard (compressed wood pulp used for construction) 82 .ARTIST PROFILE Artist’s biography Grant Wood 1891: Born on a farm near Anamosa. Iowa 1901: At age 10. 1485. American Gothic 1934: At age 43 appointed assistant professor of fine art at University of Iowa 1942: Died of liver cancer in Iowa City Grant Wood “ All the good ideas I’ve ever had came to me while I was milking a cow. c. 29¼ × 24½ in (74. 1930.

) The farmhouse in the picture is still standing in Eldon. or father and daughter? Are they grumpy and rigid. which had begun in 1929 when the stock market crashed. and the deep wrinkles below his glasses. 1930. Wood’s truthful style and simple country subject matter offered a complete contrast. People are drawn to Wood’s pictures because they are warm and friendly. American Gothic was inspired by a house with an unusual window (above). Oil on panel Dinner for Threshers. Some experts think Wood deliberately used repeated patterns of three lines or shapes in his picture. mining. This window has three parts— can you find any other threes? (Clue: look at the pitchfork.” The woman who posed for him was his sister Nan. or dignified and serious? Life on the prairies In the winter of 1932–1933. Many people were unemployed and agriculture. Wood added “the kind of people I fancied should live in that house. During the early 1930s. Iowa. appealingly rounded landscape.Modern art—Wood Grant Wood was a painter from the American Midwest who captured the ordinary people and scenes he grew up with. Iowa. Wood painted hopeful pictures showing good times. Pointed in the medieval Gothic architectural style. Stone City. and the man was his dentist. Oil on hardboard 83 . American farmlands became a dry dust bowl. American symbol Possibly the most familiar American painting of all time. the US’s economy was at the lowest point of the Great Depression. While abstract and other kinds of modern art were fashionable in Europe. the man’s overalls. yet Wood portrayed these fields as a fertile. and other industries in America were struggling. Dinner for Threshers shows a scene from the 19th century. 1934. Do you think this couple are husband and wife. this arched window inspired the painting’s name. when there was no machinery and agriculture was thriving. His style became known as Regionalism.

Buffalo mask. Will the train stop or the horse leave the tracks to avoid a collision? SEEING THINGS For more on African sculpture see page 112 The Wild Cattle of Chillingham. 84 . II. Oil on canvas Landseer’s sentimental paintings of animals were very popular among the society of Victorian Britain. The varied styles of art have shown different aspects of animals from adored pets to powerful beasts to Development incarnations of spiritual gods. 2008. Kenojuak Ashevak. 1954. Bamileke tribe. Horse and train. Stonecut and stencil Born in an igloo in 1927. masks were worn at tribal ceremonies. C. Wood In Cameroon. Edwin Landseer. with glaring almond-shaped eyes and large teeth and nostrils. 1939. Buffalos were considered powerful and brave and these masks.GALLERY Animals in art Animals have featured in art since the first markings on cave walls thousands of years ago. Alex Colville. In this picture. M. the Canadian artist Ashevak combined her native traditional Inuit culture with Western art styles in her work. Colville wanted to show that although a situation may seem hopeless. he was thinking about infinity gradually reducing the reptiles into tiny hexagons. Escher. 1867. Luminous Char. symbolized the power of the chief. Glazed oil on hardboard Inspired by a World War I poem. Woodcut printed from three blocks Many of Escher’s works used repeated tiled patterns called tessellations. choices can be made.

Blue Fox. 1891. Albrecht Durer. soil. Oil on canvas The Expressionist painter Franz Marc painted his animals in symbolic colors to convey their spiritual nature. Xu Beihong. 1911. 1500s. geotextile fabric. Puppy. 85 . Henri Rousseau. He used blue for masculinity. The steel structure is covered in a variety of living flowers with an internal watering system. Tiger in a Tropical Storm (Surprised). Franz Marc. Spain. His inkwork captured the spirited movement of the horses. blue was the most deeply spiritual primary color.Modern art—Animals in art . . u u Horses. 1950. Watercolor and gouache on paper The Renaissance painter and engraver Albrecht Durer was fascinated by animals and was one of the first artists to show animals as subjects on their own. u A Monkey. For Marc. Chinese ink and color on paper The Chinese artist. Stainless steel. was known for his horse paintings. flowering plants This 43-ft (12. Jeff Koons.4-m) high sculpture of a West Highland White Terrier puppy now stands outside the Guggenheim Museum in Bilbao. 1992. and red for motherhood. Oil on canvas The self-taught French artist Rousseau painted wild animals in jungle landscapes based on his visits to the Botanical Gardens in Paris. Xu Beihong. yellow for joy and happiness.

Blue. After World War II (1939-1945). and television. these shapes freed him from his subject so he could achieve a spiritual state. Kasimir MALEVICH (1878-1935) Composition with Red. Movements of the early 20th century (Symbolism. having founded the movement in the 1920s. Oil on canvas Surrealists during the 1930s painted in a dreamlike state to reveal unconscious feelings. or objects were unrecognizable. He was inspired after seeing an upside-down painting and liking the shapes and colors. 1910. Piet MONDRIAN (1872-1944) . and Yellow. To him. Fauvism. Impress ionist— Edgar Degas . Oil on canvas Suprematist Construction. 1930. where artists made up their own shapes and colors to express their emotions. In these abstract paintings. places.19th century - Movements of the late 19th century (Impressionism. 86 . movies. artists used abstract art to convey their innermost feelings. Express Edvar ionist— d Mun ch .ART STYLE d ow H id it happ en ? Postwar abstract art In the 20th century a new style was created. Oil on board Kandinsky is considered the founder of abstract art. Neo-Impressionism and Postimpressionism) stressed the importance of the creative process as well as the subject. Wassily KANDINSKY (1866-1944) Malevich’s suprematist art has been described as hard-edged and minimal. 1940s SOCIETY Surrealist—Salvador Dalí Mondrian’s art used geometric shapes. people. To him. 1910. Abstract artists wanted to also find new ways of painting.1930s - Postwar society of the late 1940s was being entertained by the new technology of the radio. and Expressionism) used color to express strong personal emotions.20th century - Improvisation 9. This new style was used by artists in many different movements. a square represented spiritual perfection.

Action Willem de Kooning Door to the River. 2009 Rayo is a Colombian graphic artist famous for his abstract geometric paintings. losing herself within the painting. Mark Rothko Untitled. 1952 Zeid was a Turkish princess who combined abstract art with inspirations from Islamic and Byzantine art. 1949 The paintings of the Portugese abstract artist Vieira da Silva are full of detail and complex shapes and forms to convey her search for the never-ending truth. the “act” of painting becomes the subject of the work.Modern art—Postwar abstract art Then postwar abstract artists went in different directions. White and Pink. She described herself as painting in a trance. 1953 The radical Canadian abstract painter Borduas tried to paint “automatically. Alfredo Volpi Façade in Blue. He uses squares. 1953 Kline started out as a realistic painter but then for a while—in the late 1940s and 1950s—painted large abstract black-and-white calligraphic paintings of his observations. plate XXIX Témoignages pour l’art abstrait. For them.” without any thought beforehand of what he was going to do. so the painting would have no brushstrokes or surface texture. 1951 Frankenthaler devised a soak-stain technique. Autumn reception. and zigzags in black. Paul-Émile Borduas Franz Kline New York. He is famous for painting abstracts of the colorful. revealing their dramatic emotions. small flags from Brazilian folklore used in the annual June festival. 1950 Volpi taught himself to paint.. His huge canvases convey a feeling of isolation in a world with no end. N.Y. 87 . ANOTHER DIRECTION Color field Helen Frankenthaler Great Meadows. and sometimes red colors.. using very diluted oil and acrylic paint. rectangles. 1960-61 Rothko often conveyed quiet.. Fahrelnissa Zeid Pochoir stencil. thoughtful emotion through large spaces of a single color. 1960 De Kooning and Jackson Pollock (see page 88) were called Action painters. Geometric Maria Helena Vieira da Silva Echec et Mat. Omar Rayo Mateo’s Toy. white.

and grew up in Arizona and California 1930: At age 18. These action paintings became very popular. created his most famous “drip” paintings 1956: At the age of 44. dripping. died in a car accident Artist’s influences Number 1. I have a general notion of what I am about.ARTIST PROFILE Artist’s biography Jackson Pollock 1912: Born in Cody. 1945: Married the painter Lee Krasner 1947–52: During this time. Pollock’s signature became part of his pictures. Nobody had painted like this before: the artist’s way of working with paint and the canvas was made the subject of the painting.” Jackson Pollock is a famous abstract expressionist painter because he created a whole new way of painting.2 cm) —Oil and enamel on unprimed canvas Drip and splash Native Indian sand painting —Inspired by the way different colored sands were trickled to form symbolic images Pollock created his “drip” paintings by nailing a large canvas to the floor and then moving around it while pouring. These movements were energetic and emotional yet controlled. Can you find these in the painting above? 88 . His name would be created by dripping paint and he would also use his hands to mark the canvas. 5 ft 8 in x 8 ft 8 in (172. he suddenly stopped standing at easels and using palettes and brushes and started dripping household paint over huge canvases on the floor. The paintings have no main focus and all parts of the picture are equally important. and flinging paint. 1948. Wyoming.7 x 264. moved to New York City to study art with the mural painter Thomas Hart Benton 1936: Worked with Mexican muralists and was introduced to the effects of paint being poured at an experimental workshop Jackson Pollock “When I am in my painting. In 1947.

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UK Artist’s influences Central Australia —Inspired by the brilliant light Henri Rousseau —Inspired by naïve art and children’s art Death of Constable Scanlon. 1945: Traveled through Ned Kelly country and started painting the first Ned Kelly series 1950-51: Traveled to Europe and settled in the United Kingdom 1981: Knighted for his services to art 1992: Died in London. he captured the bright light of the rugged Australian bush. Australia 1933: At age 16. but went absent without leave Sir Sidney Nolan Sir Sidney Nolan was an imaginative and expressive painter and one of the most famous Australian artists. using this as the setting for some of the most dramatic stories about Australian heroes.2 cm) Enamel on composition board 90 .ARTIST PROFILE Artist’s biography Sir Sidney Nolan 1917: Born in Melbourne. a famous 19th-century outlaw.4 x 121. started working in a commercial art company 1934: Attended night school at the National Gallery of Victoria Art School in Melbourne 1941-45: At age 25. The life of Ned Kelly. In his paintings. inspired Nolan to make several series of paintings. 1946. drafted into the Australian army. 35½ x 47¾ in (90.

Kelly and his gang wore this armor in their gunfights with police. He had his own style. Nolan began his series of paintings about the events of Ned Kelly’s life and returned to this subject again and again. and iron bolts. 91 . He was found guilty and hanged at Old Melbourne Jail in 1880. Ned Kelly can be recognized in Nolan’s paintings by the distinctive black helmet and homemade armor. Nolan considered himself to be an outlaw. Glenrowan. and he often painted on the themes of betrayal and injustice. including Constable Scanlon. and taken to Melbourne to be tried for murder. Kelly’s armor was made from parts of plows. In 1945. Kelly was wounded in the legs. In 1878.Modern art—Nolan “The desire to paint the landscape involves a wish to hear more of the stories that take place in the landscape. he and his gang killed some police. at dawn. as outlaws. pieces of leather.” Nolan worked quickly. and animals in a simplified way and using colors that best re-created the Australian landscape. since his armor did not cover them. Kelly came out wearing his armor and marched toward the police firing his gun. Enamel on board Glenrowan was the village where Kelly and his gang took their last stand. often painting people. Police surrounded the inn where they had taken hostages and. trees. sometimes squeezing the paint straight from the tube and onto the canvas. Ripolin on board The Trial. 1947. at their camp at Stringybark Creek. 1955. The Ned Kelly series Ned Kelly was a bushranger who became a folk hero for his daring and stand against the police. since he had deserted from the army.

92 . Old Couple. . Renato Guttuso. others portray the pain and suffering. Oil on canvas Guttuso was friends with Pablo Picasso and has included the horses from Picasso’s painting Guernica (see page 72) in this painting. 1917. 1963. 1932. Pencil on paper Many of Kollwitz’s drawings show the suffering and grief of the people living in the very poor areas of Berlin in Germany during and after World War I. 1966. Whaam!. while others focus on the action. Oil on canvas Nevinson worked as a Red Cross ambulance driver at the start of World War I and afterward painted what he had seen at the front lines in France. War in art War is shown in different ways in art. u The Triumph of War. Roy Lichtenstein.GALLERY SEEING THINGS For more on Pop art see page 94 . A fighter aircraft shoots a rocket at the enemy and the word Whaam! adds to the drama of the impact. Kathe Kollwitz. Christopher Richard Wynne Nevinson. Some artists paint the exact details. such as Lichtenstein’s Whaam!. Acrylic and oil on canvas Lichtenstein is famous for his cartoonlike art style. Will a painting glamorize the heroics or make the viewer face the brutal reality? u Paths of Glory.

Even in this painting about war. he shows the dead bodies of the workers who were rioting in Paris in June 1848. the Roman god who made armor and weapons in his forge) can be seen. This painting shows Canadian soldiers patrolling the icy. u The Kiska Patrol. Luca Giordano. Oil on canvas Meissonier was known for his realistic observation in his art. “Scramble” was the signal for action. Hughes.Modern art—War in art Barricade in the Rue de la Mortellerie. . 1945. mountainous island of Kiska in 1943. E. 1690–1700. unveiled 2005. J. u Allegory of War. Oil on canvas The 17th century Italian painter Giordano was admired for his many religious and mythical paintings. June 1848 (Memory of Civil War). 93 . Canada. a mythical god (possibly Vulcan. Ernest d Meissonier. World War Two Pilots Scramble (detail). 1849. In this painting. Paul Day. Bronze Created for a monument about The Battle of Britain of World War II. Oil on canvas Hughes worked as an official war artist between 1940 and 1946 for his country.

5 x 91. the son of Slovakian immigrants 1945: At age 17.” Andy Warhol was the most famous artist of the Pop art movement in the US. Warhol challenged existing ideas about what is art and blurred the lines between fine art and popular culture.5 cm)—Screenprint 94 . 1967. His best work was done in the 1960s when. first group show at the Museum of Modern Art 1962: Founded his studio called “The Factory” and gathered a group of eccentric followers 1962: Developed the technique of silkscreening images directly onto canvas 1968: Shot and badly injured by a disgruntled member of The Factory 1987: At age 59. among other things. Pennsylvania. such as advertising and television. These explored the glamour of fame and beauty and the passing of time.ARTIST PROFILE Artist’s biography Andy Warhol 1928: Born in Pittsburgh. studied commercial art at the Carnegie Institute of Technology Andy Warhol “Being good in business is the most fascinating kind of art. he created portraits of movie stars. died after complications from a routine operation Artist’s influences Byzantine icons —Influenced by the gold and sacredness of the images. which used images taken from the mass media. which he saw as a child in his Roman Catholic church Marilyn. 1949: Moved to New York and began a successful career in magazine illustration 1956: At age 28. 36 x 36 in (91.

Warhol used a movie publicity photograph of her and made more than 20 silkscreen paintings of the image. Founded in 1869. such as Elvis Presley and Liza Minelli. 1968. just like a Byzantine icon. However. He used advertising images. and repeated them just as if they had been mass-produced. she had emotional problems.. Campbell’s soup is a brand recognizable around the world. However. lighting. Warhol chose very familiar objects and celebrities as the subjects for his art. Screenprints NOW YOU TRY. alter the photograph by changing the settings. Try and create your own picture in the style of Warhol. Warhol used the bright colors used in advertising and made each print slightly different. Warhol used the same technique for painting other celebrities. soda bottles.. Marilyn. 1962. and died of a sleeping pill overdose on August 4. everything he and his assistants worked on was printed by hand. and boxes of cleaning products. Screenprint Warhol at work Warhol called his studio “The Factory” because he was mass-producing his pictures. On a computer. Pop art Inspired by advertising. unlike the machinemade prints for posters and advertisements. The simplified image staring out of the picture.Modern art—Warhol Movie stars in print “Everyone will be famous for 15 minutes. packaging. and images from television and the movies. By O scar a ged 9 95 . shows no sense of the real person but only the fame and glamour. 1967. such as soup cans. She became an icon of beauty and glamour. After Marilyn Monroe died. making them unique. and filters to create a number of eye-catching images and print them out. colors.” Marilyn Monroe was a very famous Hollywood movie star from the late 1940s to the early 1960s. Campbell’s Soup 1: Tomato. Take a digital photograph of yourself.

But because street artists often paint their pieces on walls and buildings illegally. 96 Mirko Reisser (DAIM) is a 3-D graffiti artist from Germany who specializes in making his artwork appear to float above the surface of the wall. use a stencil to help produce the image quickly. . which has many painted houses. This graffiti art was created by a young girl from England. His witty and subversive works have appeared overnight in cities around the world. What do you think? Walls of wonder BANKSY is the most famous British street artist.ART STYLE Street art Displaying a work of art in a public place allows an artist to reach a very wide audience—many more people will see it than would see a painting in a gallery. which is important if the artist does not want to be caught. Netherlands. Hamburg.” Making their mark Most street artists create their pieces with aerosol spray paint or marker pens. Some people see it as valuable art. but he keeps his identity a closely guarded secret. Germany. The mural called The Rainbow Serpent is found on Spuistraat Street. in 1999. Some. This piece is called “auf der Lauer” (on the scout) and was spray-painted onto a wall at Kampnagel halle K3. others as simply vandalism. PATRIES VAN ELSEN painted this colorful house in Amsterdam. who calls herself “Solveig. in April 2005. such as Banksy. this type of art is often controversial. He is internationally sought after to paint street art around the world.

Mark Bodé works as a cartoonist for American comic books. encouraging the viewer to imagine the story. called Tuttomondo. anti-commercialism. MACLAIM are a trio of artists who together make superrealistic works of street art. Spain. or spoof ads. He has also taken up spray can art to collaborate with fellow artist “Cuba” on murals. held annually in Gran Canaria. There are different styles of graffiti lettering used. some of which interlock letters. This mural. which featured bold lines and vivid colors. ESCIF is a Spanish street artist who often paints characters within a scene. 97 . This piece was created for an international graffiti competition. KEITH HARING was an American artist who became famous for his chalk drawings in the New York subway. making them harder to read. where a whole town became a canvas. such as this one on North Beach. is typical of his later style.Modern art—Street art A name or identifying symbol sprayed on to a wall or train is known as a tag. in San Francisco. Common subjects of street art include political messages.

Crook gives the painting a three-dimensional effect.GALLERY Work in art From the manic modern day stress shown below in Deadline to the sweaty and tough rural farming in The Golden Fleece. 1893. Crook. Deadline. José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior. By including the frame in the picture. His style is influenced by Realism (see page 68). late 20th century. Pamela J. Acrylic on canvas on wood This is a very busy scene painted with lots of strong colors. Chopping tobacco. 98 . Oil on canvas Almeida Júnior was a Brazilian artist famous for painting countrymen and rural landscapes. these paintings show people from different eras and cultures at work. It shows the hectic bustle of modern working life.

Ando Hiroshige. Winslow Homer. Will he get back to his ship in time? The Floor Strippers. as shown here.Modern art—Work in art Nihonbashi on a Snowy Day. which was about the life and times of Emperor Akbar. He often painted scenes from unusual angles and preferred his subjects not to pose. Here. The Golden Fleece. This detailed scene shows people trying to get to work across the Nihonbashi (“Japan bridge”) in Edo (now Tokyo) in the snow. 1894. 99 . Oil on canvas Caillebotte was part of the Impressionist group. 1875. especially showing how man copes with nature. Opaque watercolor and gold on paper The title of this piece means Book of Akbar. Akbarnama. Abu’l Fazi. Oil on canvas The sea was Homer’s favorite subject to paint. This artwork shows his people preparing for a celebration. a fisherman has just seen a fog coming his way. Roberts has since been famous for helping to develop Australia’s national identity by painting farmers and sheep-shearers at work. 1885. Gustave Caillebotte.16th century. 1840. Tom Roberts. Woodblock print Hiroshige often depicted different seasons in his work. SEEING THINGS For more about woodblock prints see page 54–55 The Fog Warning. Oil on canvas Although his work was not appreciated during his lifetime.

1994. I want to show how simple it is to have paradise on Earth!” 1948: Stayed only three months at Academy of Fine Arts. 60 x 51 in (151 x 130 cm)—Mixed media 100 . visited New Zealand and bought a farm as a second home 2000: Died on board the Queen Elizabeth 2 cruise liner Artist’s influences Gustav Klimt— Influenced by the richly decorated patterns and colors Egon Schiele— Influenced by the twisted body shapes The 30 Day Fax Painting.ARTIST PROFILE Artist’s biography Friedensreich Hundertwasser 1928: Born in Vienna. attended Montessori school to develop artistic talent Friedensreich Hundertwasser “Paradise is here. Austria. changed name and began traveling 1960: Visited Japan for the first time 1973: At age 45. named Friedrich Stowasser 1936-37: At the age of 8. Vienna 1949: At age 21. only we are destroying it.

is an apartment building in Vienna. were designed by Hundertwasser in 1999. Use bold colors to make an eye-catching masterpiece. 101 . but also an architect and ecologist. Your reaction to his pictures will be different than the reactions of your friends. plants grow from the roofs and walls. This picture is made up of 30 letter-sized FAXes. He also often added gold and silver leaf for a shimmering effect.. called “transautomatism.. Danie lle Ta ylor a ge 9 The public restrooms in Kawakawa. which all have his very distinctive vibrant. irregular style. Hundertwasser was passionate about nature and believed that an artist should get inspired by the irregular patterns of nature. Try drawing your own picture inspired by Hundertwasser. He designed buildings around the world. Germany. recognizing that different people see different things when looking at a picture. NOW YOU TRY. The Ronald McDonald House. Hundertwasser’s buildings have included a power plant. He rarely wore a matching jacket and pants or socks of the same color. a church. completed in 1985. The swirls break up the rigid outline of the window.Modern art—Hundertwasser The Austrian-born abstract artist Friedensreich Hundertwasser created his own artistic theory. There are no straight lines and even all the windows on the cars and buildings are drawn with flowing shapes. and sometimes the windows are different shapes and sizes. Draw spirals and swirly shapes—remember no straight lines—and why not add some plants growing from the roof or out of the walls. Often the floors are unlevel.” This theory was all about the experience of the viewer. He saw the spiral as a symbol of the natural cycle of life and death and used them all over his paintings. Notice all the bold. and public restrooms. Austria. completed in 2005 International architect Hundertwasser was not only a painter. The Hundertwasser house. contrasting colors that Hundertwasser has used. New Zealand. Hundertwasser lived a bohemian lifestyle and loved traveling. Essen.

1980.com World Wide Web (1989–) Culture in the 20th century changed dramatically with the popularity of movie stars and pop stars. add details. MUSEUMS of Modern Art Four Knights. Some of the buildings are works of art themselves. adapted images of popular culture from advertisements and famous movie stars. Around the world. and correct mistakes by painting over the top without the color underneath showing through. scanners. The World Wide Web began in 1989 and artists used this to show their work to an international audience and to sell to a global market. Si . since art styles have taken many different directions. roe. a new plastic-based paint called acrylic became available. Pop artists Pop artists. and the style of comic books and other media. can question our ideas and our understanding of the world. the desire to own material possessions. by Gilbert and George Photocopiers. In the 1970s. ACRYLIC Paint In the 1950s. and video are just some of the technologies that recent artists have either used in their artworks or imitated the effects of in their art. It was fast-drying. such as Andy Warhol (see page 94). there are museums that display just modern art. allowing artists to rework their paintings.. Cadmium is a popular shade of red.dk. the art can be experimental. n Mon Marily ol 1967. and is inspired by our lifestyle. y Warh by And Popular Culture (1950–2000) WWW www. home computers became increasingly popular.ART STYLE Modern art The art of the 20th century often challenges our notions of art. sponsored by public corporations or private collectors. fax machines. digital photography. Just like art of the past. the 195 ce 0s n . NEW Technologies 102 .

Ansel Adams Jeffrey Pine. c. or concept. and then copying the grid onto a canvas.Modern art—Modern art These are just some of the many styles modern artists still experiment with… Hélio Oiticica Grande Núcleo. 103 . 1940 Through experimenting with the taking and developing of photographs. NC3. Photography Chuck Close Linda. Performance art Gilbert and George Title unknown. 1960–1963 Installation art is the arrangement of interesting materials to fill a specific space— such as Oiticica’s colored boards suspended in a room. NC4. Manzoni’s concept was to let a balloon deflate to represent a passing breath. 20th century The work of performance art combines theater and music. by dividing each photograph into a grid.2. of the art is more important than what the art looks like. In the late 1960s. Installations Conceptual art Piero Manzoni Artist’s Breath.” Video art Nam June Paik Mars. NC6 Manifestação Ambiental n. showing repeated recorded images of ordinary things. Sentinel Dome. Gilbert and George featured in their work wearing their trademark suits and painted golden hands and faces as “living sculptures. This type of art is known as Superrealism or Photorealism. 1975–1976 Chuck Close makes paintings of photographs. Adams is known for making dramatic black and white photographs that have sharpness and depth. 1990 Nam June Paik made interesting arrangements of many television screens. 1960 The idea.

Sculpture 104 .

as well as the traditional techniques such as stone carving or bronze casting. Today.Sculpture Sculpture is the art of shaping three-dimensional figures or designs to be free-standing or as decoration in walls. 105 . all kinds of industrial and everyday materials are used.

mythical creatures. People started carving things out of stone more than 26. or ancestors.000 years ago. They were often very big. The first sculptures were often of important people—rulers. gods. 8th century This statue of a seated Buddha is truly enormous—232 ft (71 m) high.. . with shoulders 91 ft (28 m) wide and feet 26 ft (8 m) long. . because they were designed to impress.ART STYLE Carved in stone e sto Th r y begi ns. China. The Buddha’s ears are made of wood and attached to the head. Leshan Giant Buddha. It was carved out of a cliff face in Sichuan province.

This one is named after Willendorf. in what is now Iraq. Moai represent the islanders’ dead ancestors.24. the Austrian village where it was found. c. Greece. Egyptian figures are generally shown looking straight ahead. 1400–400 BCE The Olmec people lived in Mexico from about 1400 to 400 BCE.1340 BCE Nefertiti was the wife of the pharaoh Akhenaten and was famous for her beauty. this huge mythical creature is a lamassu—a winged bull with a human head. The Willendorf Venus. The two carved lionesses (left). 1250–1500 This is a moai—one of hundreds of huge figures that stand on Easter Island in the Pacific.000 BCE Some of the earliest stone sculptures made in Europe were small figures of naked women.2500 BCE Mohenjo Daro. The statue consists of an inner limestone carving covered in layers of plaster. which originally had metal heads. It is one of a pair that once stood in the palace of Sargon II. The Sphinx. c. but no one knows who I really was.Sculpture—Carved in stone Historians call me the priest-king because of my fancy clothes and jewelry. situated in the Indus Valley in modern-day Pakistan. Olmec head. The Lion Gate at Mycenae c. Head of Nefertiti. Assyrian bull figure. Figure from Mohenjo Daro. The sculptures found there are among some of the earliest known.1250 BCE This impressive gateway is the entrance to the ancient city of Mycenae in Easter Island statue. 713–706 BCE Standing over 13 ft (4 m) tall. . The heads are probably Olmec rulers. are probably guarding the gateway. c. c. called stucco. They produced many enormous stone sculptures of helmeted heads.2520–2494 BCE This huge figure of a mythical creature with the body of a lion and a human head guards the Pyramids at Giza in Egypt.

SCULPTOR PROFILE The Terra-cotta Army sculptors In c. China. The pit contained thousands of life-size terra-cotta warriors. the first emperor of China. The discovery of the Terra-cotta Army has excited the world. local farmers in Xian. 246 BCE. Qin Shi Huang was obsessed with finding the secret of immortality (living forever). were building a well when they dug into a pit by accident. commissioned over 700. 108 . It contained an entire army sculpted out of clay. It is now hailed as the eighth wonder of the ancient world! In 1974. Further excavation was carried out and in 1976 two more pits were discovered with even more figures. Qin Shi Huang.000 workers to begin constructing an elaborate cemetery for him. which would enable Qin to rule another empire in the afterlife.

charioteers. rather than from one piece of terracotta. They even found workshop names on each separate part. each worker had a specific part to do. Each sculpture was also very detailed—even the soles of their boots had tread patterns! When they were discovered in 1974. some of the terra-cotta warriors were broken or cracked.000 local craftsmen and laborers to complete the Terra-cotta Army for the emperor. NOW YOU TRY. each warrior sculpture was unique. including crossbowmen. Can you think of any sculptures you would like to have built for you? Models from a children’s work shop at the Br iti sh Museum 109 . Amazingly. uniform.Sculpture—The Terra-cotta Army sculptors A grand production It took more than 700. Each warrior could be up to 6½ ft (2 m) tall and weigh around 660 lbs (300 kg). There were different types of warrior. Qin Shi Huang was just 13 years old when the construction of the Terra-cotta Army began! Look at this photo of clay warrior models made by children at the British Museum. and hairstyle varied depending on a warrior’s rank within the army. officers. and generals. London. most of them were able to be restored. However. just like in a factory assembly line. Height. In order to carry out a task on such a large scale. Modern historians have also learned that each warrior was put together using separate parts...

1327 BCE This golden wooden statue of Tutankhamun riding on the back of a black leopard was found in the boy pharaoh’s tomb. showing the family crest (which is often a forest or mountain animal).110 Wood carving timeline Carving wood to make decorative features or sculpting into figures has been a tradition since ancient times. They represent the ancestral myths specific to particular families. but mostly are a decorative feature. totem poles are made from red cedar trees. Skilled wood carvers around the world have used wood for everything from mask-making to house-building. an ancestoral figure. Traditionally made by tribal groups of Native Americans along the northwest coast. c. . representing his passage into the afterlife. 1407 The five-story pagoda at the Itsukushima Jinja shrine in Japan has a typical style of large overhangs on the roofs. and a mythical or partly historical event. How to carve HOW DID THEY DO THAT? wood Wood can be sculpted by using a cutting tool to shape it into a figure or decorative design. Totem poles can vary in height from 10–100 ft (3 to 30 m) and their designs are complex. Totem pole style Date unknown The wooden Tiki face carvings of the Maori people of New Zealand might represent ancestors of a tribe. which can grow up to 200 ft (61 m) tall and are less likely to decay than other wood. c.

and animals. such as carvings of fruits. which are left to create shadows. Once completed. then draw the design onto the wood.1501–05 Tilman Riemenschneider was a German sculptor who worked mainly with wood. and the knife is pulled toward the carver. making the figure seem alive. Many of his works still exist in churches in Germany. A curved knife is used to cut out the details. such as Mirror Image 1. garlands. the totem pole is painted and raised into position. The surfaces are rough with chisel marks. For large totem poles. such as this one of The Last Supper (detail shown). The tool is held with the blade coming out of the bottom of the fist. This will smooth and polish the wood. an elbow adze is used to cut out large chunks roughly. 3 111 . making intricate carvings of figures. Small shavings are taken away bit by bit to work up the desired shape. 1 17th century Grinling Gibbons became wellknown in his day for his decorative woodwork. 2 Sculpture—How to carve wood 1969 Louise Nevelson became famous for her sculpted and painted wooden walls of many boxes filled with abstract shapes and familiar objects. 20th century Stephan Balkenhol chisels his individual figures from a single block of wood. Here’s how to carve a totem pole Prepare the wood for carving by removing the bark. The unsharpened back of the knife blade is dragged over the wood. He paints his sculptures but leaves the skin unpainted.

Dogon mask The Dogon people of Mali carve more than 80 types of wooden mask. including stone. Fang mask This mask was made by the Fang people from Equatorial Guinea. Figure of an Oba This bronze statue depicts an Oba. it features a long face and is painted with white kaolin clay. but to be used. animal horn. 112 . Some masks are thought to have magical powers. Called a ngil. and figurines are produced in many parts of Africa. but they can be made from many different materials. while others represent animals or people. These objects are not designed to be hung on a wall or exhibited in a museum. The statue is a bronze cast. bronze. and wood. heads. made from a clay model of the figure. each with its own regional style. often in religious ceremonies. terra-cotta.ART STYLE Mali African sculpture African sculptures are almost always inspired by the Madagascar Ivory Coast Benin Nigeria Equatorial Guinea human figure. which flourished in modern-day Nigeria from about 700 to 900 CE. a ruler of the Ife kingdom. Masks.

The carvings depict events in the dead person’s life. Many of his works resemble traditional African masks. The mother keeps the figure and cares for it. Madagascan grave markers The Mahafaly people of Madagascar mark graves with carved wooden posts and zebu horns. This one is called Gbakounon. Romuald Hazoumé This Benin artist creates sculptures from junk. If one twin dies. 113 . such as old cans. and video boxes. a sculptor creates a small wooden figure called an ibeji (twin) to represent the lost child. Once a dancer puts on a mask. the Dan believe he is transformed into the spirit or ancestor that the mask represents. jugs.Sculpture—African sculpture Ibeji twin figure The Yoruba people of Nigeria often have twins. Dan masks These carved wooden masks from Ivory Coast are made and worn by male dancers.

but the skill of the sculptors has always been impressive. 524 ft. John. 17th century Gianlorenzo Bernini was a skillful Baroque sculptor whose work included busts of kings and patrons. . 5th century CE During Roman times. 15th century Renaissance artist Donatello revived the Classical style to create realistic statues such as this of St. the city of Aphrodisias in Turkey was famous for its sculpture school. 447–432 BCE The Parthenon frieze established the Classical Greek style of sculpting the perfect figure.HOW DID THEY DO THAT? Parthenon frieze (detail) 447–432 BCE. 1st century BCE–c.(160 m-) long—Marble M ar bl e ti me l i ne The style of sculpting marble has developed through history. 114 c.

the sculpture is polished for shine. Dressing the figures in flowing robes gave the impression of movement. but managed to carve figures using a hammer and chisel tied to his fingerless hands. Sculptors would take months. Holding a heavy or point chisel against the stone. In this way the shape of the sculpture is “roughed out. Marble is found in a great variety of colors and patterns and can be polished for a stunning effect. Finally. before repositioning the chisel for the next blow. Here’s how to sculpt marble Sculpting marble is a slow process. 115 . Once finished. Then any chips are flicked out of the way. the ancient Greeks would have used a stone called an emery to smooth the chipped surface. as seen in The Storm. a pupil of the French Rococo sculptor Etienne-Maurice Falconet. c. Many sculptors have used a crystalized limestone rock known as marble for their sculptures. 1886–1901 Auguste Rodin broke new ground with his unfinished and often exaggerated style.Sculpture – How to sculpt marble How to sculpt marble The Greek sculptor Phidias designed and supervised the construction of the Parthenon in Athens. The Greeks used a softer stone for this.1770s This expressive portrait bust of the Russian queen Catherine II is by Marie-Anne Collot. 1800–05 Aleijadinho had leprosy.but today a sculptor might use wet sandpaper. including the sculptural frieze that went around the top of the inner columns.” 2 A flat chisel is used to create the details and refine the sculpture. They would sculpt their idea of the “perfect” human figure. It requires a lot of patience. giving it natural features and making it young and athletic. slowly chipping away with a hammer and chisel until the block of marble takes the shape of the sculpture. The Greek sculptor Phidias was influential in developing this style. 1 Classical Greek style Between 480 BCE and 300 BCE. slowly chipping away with their hammers and various chisels. the sculptor swings the hammer at the chisel as hard as possible. 1913 The simple style of Jacob Epstein’s Mother and Child was inspired by prehistoric and African sculpture. to complete their works. ancient Greek sculptors developed a realistic and idealistic style now known as Classical. if not years.

. David was seen as a brave and loyal fighter for freedom. 1564: Died at age 88 Artist’s influences Verrocchio’s David— Inspired by the sculpting of idealized figures of male heroes This is an early sketch of David holding his slingshot. only David—then a young shepherd boy—was brave enough to fight the giant.” SCULPTOR PROFILE 1475: Born in Tuscany. 1540. The finished sculpture was unveiled in Florence three years later David is shown holding a sling in his hand. started sculpting the biblical King David as a shepherd boy. 1501: At age 26. He worked tirelessly on scaffolding for over four years painting the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome. by Daniele da Volterra 1508–1512: Painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in Rome David Michelangelo finished sculpting the biblical figure of David in 1504. so it was up to the sculptor to simply set free the figure within. he thought of himself as a sculptor. which he would use to throw the rock that killed the giant Goliath. Michelangelo. Michelangelo believed that every piece of stone had a sculpture already in it.116 Artist’s biography Michelangelo Buonarroti Michelangelo Buonarroti “However rich I may have been. Italy. which Michelangelo drew for inspiration. The statue soon became a symbol of strength for the newly formed Republic of Florence. but a year later joined a sculptor’s academy 1490–1492: Worked in Florence and came into contact with the powerful Medici family 1496–1501: Worked in Rome as a sculptor Michelangelo had a career in art that spanned more than 70 years! During this time he was considered the best artist in Europe. c. Italy 1488: At age 13 he became an artist’s apprentice. Although Michelangelo is famous for this fantastic fresco. which was the way the citizens of Florence viewed themselves. I have always lived like a poor man. In the biblical story of David and Goliath.

Some sources say he dissected corpses so that he could learn how the muscular system worked. rather than as a hero after the battle. Michelangelo appeared to chisel away at the nose. However. Michelangelo had in fact taken a handful of marble dust from his pocket and had only pretended to chisel! At over 17 ft (5 m) tall. His David was as detailed and realistic as possible. tells an amusing story about a nobleman who thought David’s nose was too large. David is about three times the height of an adult person. the statue was cleaned with distilled water to remove the 500 years of dirt. looking deep in thought. 117 . In 2003. Michelangelo’s biographer. Michelangelo wanted to show David before the fight. Giorgio Vasari. Sculpture—Michelangelo In a break with tradition.The original David was moved into the Academy Gallery in Florence in 1873. with bits of dust and marble falling to the floor. The nobleman exclaimed that the nose was now perfect. On hearing this. David’s perfect nose Detail Michelangelo was very eager to show the human form in a lifelike way.

The statue stands on Liberty Island. France 1856: At age 22 traveled to Egypt and was inspired by the monumental works he saw there 1874–1886: Construction of Statue of Liberty 1879: Earned US patent for Statue of Liberty 1880: At age 46 completed Lion of Belfort. also known as Liberty Enlightening the World. Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi 1834–1904 Bartholdi was very patriotic and the Lion of Belfort was a memorial to the town of Belfort’s brave defense during the Franco-German war (1870–71). who went on to create the Eiffel Tower in Paris. 1904: Died in Paris Artist’s influences The statue. he quickly realized that sculpture was his main passion. representing the seven seas and seven continents. New York. with an exterior shell of copper and an iron interior structure. Egyptian sculpture— Inspired by the large. It has become a symbol of freedom worldwide. As one of the biggest statues ever created. which he focused on for the rest of his life. On Liberty’s crown there are seven rays. was sculpted using wooden molds. each year over 2 million visitors come to take a look. He became well-known for two monumental sculptures: the Lion of Belfort. and simple qualities of Egyptian monuments . and the even larger Statue of Liberty. sturdy. This statue was a gift from the French to the United States to celebrate their friendship during the Revolutionary War (1775–1783). based in eastern France The Frenchman Bartholdi first studied painting and architecture in Paris. However. carved in sandstone. the statue was constructed by Gustave Eiffel.118 Sculptor’s biography Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi “From her beacon-hand Glows world-wide welcome” (from The New Colossus by Emma Lazarus) SCULPTOR PROFILE 1834: Born in Alsace. made of copper sheets. Statue of Liberty Designed by Bartholdi. France.

4 m): length of nose 450. The sonnet is called The New Colossus and was written in 1883. a grand memorial to Swiss soldiers who died during the French Revolution Liberty holds a tablet with the date of the Declaration of Independence engraved on it—July 4.Bertel Thorvaldsen —Influenced by the realistic features of the Lion Monument (1821). Funding for constructing the statue was running low but luckily showing Liberty’s head at the fair stirred up lots of enthusiasm. On the base of the statue. 1776. It took over 214 large wooden crates to transport all the pieces! height from base to torch 16 ft 5 in (5 m): length of hand 4 ft 6 in (1. is a sonnet by the poet Emma Lazarus.000 pounds (204 metric tons): total weight The Statue of Liberty’s head and shoulders were displayed at the Paris World’s Fair in June 1878. The French government decided to allow a lottery to take place in order to raise more money so Bartholdi and Eiffel could complete the statue. Facts and figures 151 ft (46 m): A monumental delivery After Gustave Eiffel constructed the statue. where it was reassembled and finally dedicated to the United States in 1886. it was dismantled for shipping across the Atlantic Ocean to New York. inscribed in bronze. Sculpture—Bartholdi .

all his work belonged to the city. 120 . Let’s go on a journey of life Auguste Rodin —Inspired by the powerful human forms and realistic style created by Rodin. past the fountain to the Wheel of Life. 1894–1896: Held his own exhibitions in Norway and built up a strong reputation in the art world 1898–1902: Worked on restoring the Nidaros Cathedral. made a unique contract with the city of Oslo. Typically. Vigeland’s sculptures show people engaged in ordinary activities—as well as emotions from love and happiness to anger and grief. 1880–82. Norway 1888: At age 19 determined to succeed as a professional sculptor and received support and training from Norwegian sculptor Brynjulf Bergslien 1891–1896: Visited other European cities.SCULPTOR PROFILE Artist’s Biography Gustav Vigeland 1869: Born on a farm in Mandal. where Auguste Rodin greatly influenced him Gustav Vigeland Norwegian sculptor. including Paris. over the Bridge. from the Main Gate. Gustav Vigeland. as well as the intimate relationship between man and woman (The Thinker. Trondheim 1921: At age 52 began contract with the city of Oslo—he would receive a salary and his work would belong to the city 1924: Moved into a new studio in Kirkeveien and spent the next 19 years creating Frogner Park 1943: Died in Oslo Artist’s influences A long. Bronze) The main theme of Vigeland’s work is a human’s journey from cradle to grave. children playing. These sculptures (right) show an unborn baby. straight walkway runs through the middle of the park. This was when he began on his most ambitious project—Vigeland Sculpture Park. then adult life and parenthood. and in return. He was to be paid a salary and given a studio to work in.

or alone. 121 . Vast lanterns stand between them.000 square meters) and is part of the larger Frogner Park. in pairs. It represents life going on forever. The park covers 80 acres (320.Sculpture—Vigeland Vigeland Sculpture Park In this park are more than 200 bronze and granite sculptures of nude figures. These statues are carved in granite. The Bridge Fifty-eight sculptures of men. He said. Wheel of Life This bronze wheel is a garland of people holding on to each other. and children stand along the edge of the Bridge.” Vigeland Park is the largest sculpture park made by a single artist. They were all designed by Gustav Vigeland. they illustrate human relationships and emotions. groups. The sculpture park was mainly built between 1939 and 1949. Here. then carved and cast by his team of highly skilled assistants. “I have never been as accomplished as I am now. women. Vigeland was pleased with his wheel.

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metals. including Henry Moore (see page 124). Smith’s sculptures got bigger and bigger. Calder’s most recognizable mobiles are his later sculptures. This sculpture. and plastic and his work was important to the development of Constructivism in art. 1975 The American sculptor Alexander Calder is famous for inventing “mobiles. 1917–20 Gabo was one of the first people to make kinetic (moving) art. inspired by the welded sculptures of González and Picasso. and share ideas. abstract steel sculptures. but often depicted landscapes or human figures. which were carefully balanced compositions of wire and sheet metal that could move with the slightest breeze. which feature squares. c. Over the years. famous for his welded metal sculptures. glass.Sculpture—Abstract sculpture Alexander Calder Three Tentacles. He learned how to work with metal in his father’s forge and while in a car factory in France. David Smith Cubi XXVIII. and other geometric shapes. His most famous works are his Cubi sculptures. 1939–40 González was a Spanish abstract sculptor. and they were designed to be displayed outside. 1939 (cast 1961) Hepworth’s sculptures were abstract. Naum Gabo Head of a Woman. Barbara Hepworth Sculpture with Strings. called Head of a Woman. He worked with industrial materials such as wood. he learned oxyacetylene welding—a mix of fuel gases and oxygen in a welding torch. 1965 The American sculptor David Smith created large. one of the earliest types of plastic. is made from celluloid. Julio González Cactus Man No. 123 . made in the 1960s.” named by the artist Marcel Duchamp. She would go on vacation with other sculptors.1. rectangles.

was born.SCULPTOR PROFILE Artist’s biography Henry Moore 1898: Born in Castleford. This became an important part of his work after his first child. 1981—Bronze 124 . UK Later on in Moore’s career. Jean Arp —Inspired by spreading a sculpture on a flat base and splitting the figure Reclining figure: Right Angles. at age 88 Recurring reclining figures Many of Moore’s sculptures are of the female form in a reclining position. 1917: At age 19 joined the army. England. The smooth curves of these sculptures have been linked to the rolling landscape of Moore’s hometown in Yorkshire. Artist’s influences Sumerian sculpture —Inspired by the ancient sculpture he studied in the British Museum.” Henry Moore was born into a mining family in Yorkshire. London. His work is more inspired by tribal and ancient art than by the traditional ideas of beauty shown in Renaissance sculptures and paintings. but was injured in a gas attack 1919: Received veteran’s grant and became first student of sculpture at Leeds College of Art and Design 1924: Won a traveling scholarship and visited Northern Italy 1932-9: At age 34 became Head of Sculpture at the Chelsea School of Art 1948: Won the International Sculpture Prize 1972: Established the Henry Moore Trust 1986: Died. Mary. as one of eight children. England Henry Moore “ art should have a certain mystery and All should make demands on the spectator. Moore used fiberglass for this sculpture as it is a lightweight material and can be moved more easily than bronze. bronze rather than stone became his favorite method for creating large-scale sculptures. he decided that he wanted to be a sculptor and went on to become the most famous British sculptor of the 20th century. London. This piece is called Large Reclining Figure and was displayed at Kew Gardens. At age 11. Another common theme in Moore’s work is that of mother and child.

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figures. he still destroyed work he didn’t like. When it was collected the next day. This piece is called Walking Man (1960). while his males are active in some way. Early in his career.’” Large Woman II. Max Ernst —Inspired by the new methods being used by artists and sculptors in the Dada and Surrealism style (see page78) Most of Giacometti’s females are still. he moved into the distinctive style we associate with his name. Eventually. stayed in Switzerland before returning to Paris 1947: Created Man Pointing overnight for his first exhibition 1962: At age 61. one of a series of four figures. Seeking perfection Before his first New York exhibition. 126 . Fragile masterpiece One of Giacometti’s best-known pieces. the plaster was still wet. or put it aside to take up again years later. Later. but rather ‘the shadow that is cast. 1966: Died of heart disease Artist’s influences Giacometti was a perfectionist who often remade his figures again and again. he was inspired by African and Oceanic art. Giacometti is best known for his very tall. and by Cubism and Surrealism.SCULPTOR PROFILE Artist’s biography Alberto Giacometti 1901: Born in Borgonovo. the son of painter Giovanni Giacometti 1922: At age 21 moved to Paris to be an apprentice of ÉmileAntoine Bourdelle. Man Pointing (1947) is made of bronze and stands 5¾ x 3 ft (1. Switzerland. and for a time he was obsessed with creating miniscule sculptures. he began working from nature. Giacometti worked with Man Pointing (left) all night.75 m x 90 cm) tall. a sculptor who worked for Auguste Rodin Alberto Giacometti “I am not sculpting the human figure. Even when he became enormously famous and successful. won the acclaimed sculpture prize with a show of over 100 works at the Venice Biennale A Swiss sculptor and painter who worked in Paris during the 20th century. very thin. 1927-1935: Worked in a Surrealist style 1941-1944: During WWII.

Ceramic mold Wax model 5 Wax rod Hot liquid bronze Pouring cup Bronze is poured into the mold. The model is then covered in a ceramic shell. leaving the sculpture ready for the artist to finish off. but he did want them to express each subject’s personality. the “lost wax” method was used to make Giacometti’s sculptures (this is Giacometti. age 7 This sculpted head (called a bust) is the artist’s friend Elie Lotar.Sculpture—Giacometti The artist’s view Like all Giacometti’s figures. Kelly Fo ot. Wax 3 Mother mold The model is turned and wax rods link it with a pouring cup. legs. right). NOW YOU TRY: Play with Giacometti-like figures by forming skinny people or animals out of pipe cleaners or other flexible wire. Try making some that are standing still and some that are reaching or bending. Many experts believe that these frail. Together with the rubber. 2 Hot wax is poured into this mold in layers until it makes a duplicate shape of the original model. 6 Once the bronze has cooled. this is called the “mother mold. When the clay dries. Giacometti didn’t want his busts to look like their subject. filling the space left by the wax. Walking Man (1947) (left) has arms. How is a bronze sculpture made? To make a bronze figure. Today. the shell is broken off. lonely. tense figures reveal the artist’s sad view of the world. and more fragile than a real person. 1 This is covered with an outer jacket (of plaster or resin).” It is then cut away from the clay. The rods allow the gases and air to escape. 127 . 4 Inside a highpressure sealed oven. the wax is melted out. it is covered with several coats of plaster or a liquid rubber mixture that picks up every bit of this detail. this method starts by hand-making a clay model with all the detail and texture that will appear on the bronze. thinner. and a body that are much longer.

and often place them in a natural setting. and leaves to create their works. Some artworks are in remote places and others can only be seen from an aircraft. pebbles.HOW DID THEY DO THAT? How to create Land art Land artists use materials such as stone. and even snow and ice. stays. French Alps. twigs. 200 BCE–700 CE There are hundreds of largescale ground markings in the Nazca Desert in Peru that are only visible from the air. decays. branches. 2560 BCE Thousands of workers toiled for decades to quarry and prepare the stones used to build the pyramids in Giza. sand. c. Goldsworthy considers this to be the final stage of the work. Sentinel at Asse Valley. 3000–1600 BCE The huge slabs that form the English stone circle of Stonehenge were hauled hundreds of miles from Wales. Their purpose was linked with rituals rather than purely artistic. Goldsworthy’s style The British Land artist Andy Goldsworthy creates his work in many different natural settings.. In the late 1960s this form of art became very popular. 2000 c. “Each work grows.. Many of his works don’t exist for very long. and an avid interest was taken in prehistoric earthworks. The materials he has used include leaves. c. crumbling down or melting away. Egypt. .” Land art timeline The mystery continues about just how prehistoric and ancient people created their ground markings and boulder monuments.

How “on earth” does he do it? Goldsworthy’s art follows a natural cycle of construction and destruction: natural materials from the site location. Made from basalt rocks and earth. such color photograph left to the elements. 1983 Goldsworthy’s Sand Wiggle makes the most of the natural materials of the site to capture the effects of early morning sunlight. .500 ft (460 m) long. the coil is 1. 1970 Spiral Jetty is an earthwork by Robert Smithson. Their work has included the German parliament building.Sculpture – How to create Land art Andy Goldsworthy experiments with shapes and materials before constructing his artworks in open ground. something else found in nature. 1995 Christo and Jeanne-Claude have become famous for wrapping landmarks in materials. in Berlin. The only tools used are natural objects also found at the site. the Reichstag.

1994–2000 Like many sculptors. but he does come up with the ideas for them. such as on rooftops or beaches. textiles. and shiny balloon dog. everyday objects often in humorous ways.ART STYLE Sculpture NOW Sculptors today use new and even unusual materials such as steel. There are many huge sculptures on display outside for the public to see and some are sited in strange places. chrome. This oversized. made from reflective stainless steel. He is known for depicting familiar. is part of his Celebration series about familiar things in childhood. and recycled objects. 130 . smooth. Koons doesn t make his sculptures. Jeff Koons Balloon Dog (Yellow).

He thinks of his sculptures as “objects” made using industrial processes. Sebastian Anthony Gormley Angel of the North. she has used rope. 1999-2005 Kapoor makes enormous metal sculptures with simple. In this sculpture. aluminum. He also chooses effective locations for his works. Sebastian uses steel. Cloud Gate is 33 ft (10 m) high and it is so-called Magdalena Abakanowicz Hurma (Crowd). 1992 La Puerta de Chihuahua means “The Door to Chihuahua.Sculpture—Sculpture NOW The sculpture is 150 ft (46 m) tall and stands at the south entrance to Chihuahua city. This group of 250 child and adult life-size headless figures represents the helplessness of the human condition. often repeated cubes or boxes to explore space and the use of space. the viewers also become part of the art. is said to be one of the most-viewed pieces of art in the world. It should stand on its own and simply exist. The Angel of the North in Gateshead. Some are brightly colored. Donald Judd Untitled. Many of his works used simple. and metals. 1994–1998 Many of Gormley’s works are based on molds taken from his body. or parts of them. which make the reflected surroundings part of the work. from many different materials. Anish Kapoor Cloud Gate. La Puerta de Chihuahua. since their reflection can be seen. because 80 percent of the reflection is the sky. 1994–95 From Poland. such as this sculpture in Chicago. At different periods. UK. sackcloth. 1970s Judd believed that art should not represent anything. while others have mirror surfaces. Abakanowicz is famous for making human bodies. and cardboard to make his sculptures. Donald Judd’s sculptures are examples of the idea of Minimal art.” Sebastian’s home state in Mexico. c. 131 . creating striking geometric shapes that symbolize the balance between object and space. curved shapes.

studied fine art at Goldsmiths. Life-size human skull—Platinum. This would be the highest price ever paid for a work by a living artist.40 carats and worth $6 million. Bacon shows twisted figures with grotesque. University of London. called Beautiful Inside my Head. The pear-shaped pink diamond in the forehead weighs 52. Hirst used a human skull thought to have belonged to a 35-year-old person. for three years Is this the most expensive piece of contemporary art? Price tag: $75 million. 1988: Organized Freeze exhibition of students’ art in a disused building in London’s docklands area 1991: At age 26. who lived between 1720 and 1810. won the Turner Prize for Mother and Child. 2007. Self Portrait. For his mold. UK 1986: At age 21. created The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living—a shark in formaldehyde that made him famous (or infamous). The sale raised $167 million Sculptor’s inspiration Hirst was inspired by the nightmarish work of the Irish artist Francis Bacon. But Hirst has never revealed if the work has been sold. Divided (1993)—a cow and calf sliced in half 1998: Published autobiography 2007: Created For the Love of God 2008: Held a two-day auction of his work. England. The work cost $21 million to produce and was put on sale in 2007 with an asking price of $75 million. and has his first solo exhibition in London 1991-2003: Work funded by millionaire art collector Charles Saatchi 1995: At age 30. diamonds. smudged features.SCULPTOR PROFILE Sculptor’s biography Damien Hirst 1965: Born in Bristol. 1969 by Francis Bacon For the Love of God. and human teeth 132 . selling directly to the public.

2006.Sculpture—Hirst Damien Hirst “For the love of God. colorless gas called formaldehyde. formaldehyde solution. what are you going to do next?” (Damien Hirst’s mother—This question. They can be instantly identified as his work though. He first became famous for a series of works in which dead animals (including a tiger shark. steel. such as this piece. and a cow) are preserved— sometimes having been dissected—in glass cases filled with a solution containing a toxic. Household gloss on canvas Aside from his three-dimensional work. and printmaker. a sheep. This combines two ideas that Hirst is known for: death and the value of his work. 133 . installation artist. He is both famous and controversial: his works sell for enormous prices. and they provoke debates about what is considered art. silicon. Sparkling skulls Hirst said that the idea for his work For the Love of God came from seeing an Aztec skull at the British Museum. It is a kind of memento mori—an object intended to remind us of death. The Aztecs—the ruling empire in central Mexico in the 15th and 16th centuries—made wooden masks covered in turquoise to represent their gods. Glass. painter. Is this art? You decide! The Physical Impossibility of Death in the Mind of Someone Living. 1991. directed at Hirst. Spots Gelsemine.601 diamonds. For the Love of God is a platinum cast of a real skull encrusted with 8. and shark Obsession with death Death is a central theme in Hirst’s works. and not directly by Hirst himself. Hirst has also created lots of paintings of spots. London. The spot paintings are made by a random process. is said to have inspired the title of the work opposite) Hirst is a sculptor.

Maybe one day it could be you! Cold Dark Matter: An Exploded View. No one knows who the next big name in art will be. But keep your eyes open for local art galleries exhibiting works by local artists. or interesting sculpture in a nearby park.Get up close to the real thing! Many of the paintings and sculptures found in this book are exhibited in art museums and galleries. 1991. So why not plan a visit to see them for yourself? Many countries have national or city museums or museums of modern art and these are always worth a visit. or a café selling works of art. by Cornelia Parker—Pieces of an exploded shed and its contents . It could be the person who tries out a new style and leads art in a new direction.

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Cubism an art style beginning in the early 1900s that painted subjects in a fragmented manner. Binder an ingredient in paint that makes the pigment particles stick to each other and the paper or canvas. founded in 1911 in Germany by Vassily Kandinsky and Franz Marc. Charcoal burnt wood used for drawing. Etching a process where a needle is used to scratch a design into wax applied over a metal plate. The name means “Blue Rider. The style showed lifelike and detailed poses and expressions. Avant-garde a style of art that is starting a new trend or direction and is innovative or experimental. The rest of the plate is then wiped clean before paper is pressed onto it. transparent coating brushed over a painting to protect it or add coloring to part of the picture. usually metal or wood using a sharp tool. Blaue Reiter. Byzantine art the art of the eastern part of the Roman Empire between 330 and 1453. The Fauves. Expressionism an art style beginning at the end of the 1800s that twisted and distorted the subject of the paintings to express an artist’s inner emotions. Biomorphism the painting of nongeometric shapes to suggest living things. or a group of artists who are experts in a particular style of painting. and sculpture that flourished between the 12th and 15th centuries. Diptych a picture made of two panels hinged together. Gold leaf very thin sheets of pure gold. fastdrying paint invented in the 1950s. 136 . The wax is then removed and ink is run over the plate to collect in the grooves. Action painting a style of abstract art where the “act” of painting becomes the subject. opaque watercolor paint. It was based on religious Christian themes and includes mosaics and icons. Constructivism a style of abstract modern art developed in Russia after the Revolution in 1917 to reflect the country’s new industrial society. It is still used to describe things that have a perfect form. typically as a religious altarpiece. It also refers to a copperybrown color. Bronze a metal alloy of copper and tin used for making statues. as if viewed from different angles. It was started by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque. Futurism an art style of the early 20th century celebrating technology and new inventions. painting. Chiaroscuro the creation of a strong contrast of light and shade in painting to suggest depth and drama. Architect a person who designs buildings and prepares exact drawings for a builder to follow. which creates grooves in the scratched areas. Der a group of Expressionist artists.” were a group of artists painting in this style. Calligraphy the art of lettering in a decorative or ornamental style using a brush or pen. Gouache a heavy. The plate is then dipped in acid. Graffiti a drawing or inscription on a wall made with spray paint. Composition the placing or arranging of elements in an artwork to give a pleasing or particular effect. Art Nouveau an art style beginning in the 1890s inspired by floral and stylized curvy motifs. Fauvism an art style at the beginning of the 20th century with bold brushstrokes and vivid colors. Collage a picture or design that uses different materials stuck to a flat surface to give it an interesting texture or three-dimensional appearance. often designed to shock. Academy a school in which art is taught. Gothic a western European style of architecture. painting. Automatism the technique of producing Surrealist art in a random and uncontrolled way accessing the unconscious mind. Conceptual art an art style where the idea or concept of the art is more important than what the art looks like. Engraving a method of cutting a design into a material. meaning “wild beasts. Book of Hours an illustrated medieval religious book of prayers. Glaze a thin. The surface is then inked and pressed onto paper. Classical art the art of the ancient Greeks and Romans. Fresco the art of painting onto wet plaster on walls. Exhibition a public showing of a piece or collection of artwork. Apprentice a young person being taught the art of drawing.Glossary Abstract an art style of the 20th century where subjects are unrecognizable and shapes and colors represent artists’ emotions. Baroque a style of art and architecture in Europe in the 17th century that was grand and dramatic. Dada an early 20th century art movement that ridiculed traditional art forms and contemporary culture by producing objects in unconventional forms using unconventional methods. and preparing materials by a master painter.” because they liked blue and horses. Acrylic paint a plastic-based.

taking it further. such as a resin or gum. rivers. Pop art an art style beginning in the mid-1900s that was inspired by and mimicked popular culture. Superrealism an art style where paintings are made to look like photographs (also called Photorealism). Unlike movies or television. used to cover large areas of background in watercolor painting. transparent layer of pigment. Rococo an elegant and light-hearted style of art and architecture popular in Europe during the 18th century. as in prehistoric or Aboriginal art. where they were interested in the effects of light and color. Petroglyph an image drawn on a rock. pottery. The name means “rebirth” and describes the renewed interest in Classical art. and used rapid brushstrokes to gain an “impression” of the subjects of their paintings. Oil paint slow-drying paint made by mixing pigments with an oil. Further colors are then applied on top to build up a picture. responding to the style. oil. Illuminated manuscript a book or paper that has been decorated with richly colored drawings and occasionally silver or gold. furniture. Still life a painting of objects such as fruit. or chalks. 137 . Impressionism term invented in 1874 to describe a style of painting originating in France in the 1860s. Photographic art an art style where artists experiment with the taking and developing of photographs. Self portraits are paintings by the artists of themselves. Tesserae small tiles used to make mosaics. pastels. Installation art an arrangement of interesting materials to fill a specific space. and sometimes challenging its ideals. stone. and fields. Sfumato meaning smoky. and flowers. Realism an art style beginning in the 1850s showing life in a realistic way. areas are left blank. Perspective the representation of threedimensional space on a two-dimensional surface. Terra-cotta a type of reddish-brown clay. Watercolors water-based paints with a transparent color quality. Mural a large painting made on a wall. Paintings created with these paints are also called watercolors. it is not necessarily intended as entertainment. Landscape a painting of scenery. or emotional style. Regionalism an American art style that shows simple idyllic country life. Transautomatism an art style developed by Friedensreich Hundertwasser that considers the viewer’s experiences toward the art. Portraits the painting of people either as head and shoulders or full-length. Texture the surface quality or “feel” of an artwork. Video art a form of visual art that uses moving images. Surreal means “more than real. Impasto paint that has been put on thickly. a technique where sharp outlines are blurred and effects of light and shadow are created. Renaissance the style of art and architecture in Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. Silkscreen a stenciling process where sections of an illustration are blocked out of a screen of silk or mesh so that when ink is applied. Mosaic the art of creating images with small pieces of colored glass. Vanitas still-life paintings popular in the Netherlands during the 17th century. Western art the art of the European countries. Neo-Impressionism an art style beginning in the 1880s also known as Pointillism that experimented with using small dots to build up a painting. Performance art an art style where artists combine their art with theater and music. or other hard material. Postimpressionism the term used to describe an art style that followed Impressionism. Impressionist painters often painted outdoors. Naïve art the work of artists with little or no formal art training. such as gum. and those countries that share cultural traditions with Europe—such as the nations of North America. Mannerism an art style that developed between 1520 and 1600. Vignette an illustration without a proper border that fades into the background at its edges. such as mountains. Pigment a powdered color that is mixed with a binder. Woodblock prints a print made by carving designs into a block of wood. Wash a thin.Hieroglyphics an ancient Egyptian form of writing that used symbols and pictures. dramatic. Land art an art style where artists use natural materials and often site their work in a natural setting. Surrealism an art style beginning around the 1920s that expressed thoughts of the unconscious mind through startling and confusing dreamlike paintings. Ink is applied to the raised surfaces of the wood and transferred to paper. Tempera a type of paint in which pigment is mixed with egg yolk. trees. It was used before the invention of oil paint. Stucco a fine white plaster used for modeling and molding. Romanticism a 19th century movement where some artists painted in a bold.” Symbolism an art style beginning in the late 1800s that explored fantasy worlds and mystery. Pastels a stick of color made from powdered pigment mixed with a binder. which often include symbols of death. often depicting everyday subjects. or acrylic to make paints.

126 Escher. Hans 31 Holzhandler. J. Wilson 75 Biggs. Pieter 43. Pietro 43 da Silva. Alexander 123 Canaletto 49 Carr. Louise 16 Brâncusi. Abu’l 99 Figari. Francis 132 Baishi. Salvador 79 Day. Raoul 53 Dürer. Willem 87 de La Tour. 114 Duchamp. Winslow 99 Hongshou. Karel 41 Arcimboldo. Jean 31 Fragonard. Giuseppe 17. Ansel 103 Alberti. 69 Hughes. 103 Giordano. Kenojuak 84 Bacon. Michel 32 Butler. 70 Chardin. 44 de Kooning. André 33. Edgar 41. 59. 68 Giabologna 24 Giacometti. Grinling 111 Gilbert and George 102. Camille 74 Borduas. Filippo 30 Buhler. E. William Michael 47 Hassam. William 49 Hokusai. Renato 92 Haisu. Pamela J. Chen 27 Hopper. Tarsila 39 Donatello 30. Jean 124 Ashevak. Antoni 23 Gauguin. Friedensreich 100–101 Judd. Damien 132–133 Hogarth. M. Keith 97 Hartnett. James 78 Epstein. C. John 33 Cook. Liu 27 Hammershøi. Georges 47. Marcel 78. 79 Dufy. 86 del Verrocchio. Giorgio 78 de Goya. 98 Cuba 97 da Cortona. 68. Emanuel 44 Degas. Emily 33 Carracci. Etienne-Maurice 115 Fazi. Giovanni Francesco 43 Bartholdi. Edward 67. 78 Arp. Hieronymus 78 Botero. Pieter 31. Paul 64. 123 Hiroshige. 85 Eiffel. Jean-Simeon 62 Chełmonski. Thomas Hart 88 Bernini. Luca 93 Goldsworthy. Katsushika 54–55 Holbein (the Younger). Leon Battista 30 Aleijadinho 115 Anguissola. Vilhelm 38 Haring. Andy 128–129 Gongwang. 75 Homer. Émile Antoine 126 Bourgeois. Jacob 115 Ernst. Robert 76 della Francesa. Huang 27 González. Childe 59 Hazoumé. Paul 93 de Almeida. Anthony 131 Greene. José Ferraz Júnior 98 de Chirico. François 49 Bourdelle. Marie-Anne 115 Colville. Sofonisba 40 Appel. Dora. 32. Joaquín Torres 69 Gaudi.Index Abakanowicz. 69 di Bondone. 53 Balkenhol. Stephen 111 Banksy 96 Barbieri. Tsuguji 17 Fouquet. Albrecht 31. Andrea 34 Delaunay. 52. Julio 123 Gormley. Giovanni 126 Gibbons. Oswaldo 17 Guttuso. Umberto 69 Bodé. Sandro 31 Boucher. Alberto 126–127 Giacometti. Paul-Émile 87 Bosch. Jean-Honoré 49 Frankenthaler. Mark 97 Bombois. 40 Brunelleschi. Donald 131 Kandinsky. Gustave 99 Calder. Giotto 18 do Amaral. 84 Escif 97 Falcone. Gustave 58 Crook. Thomas 49 García. Max 79. Chuck 103 Collot. Romuald 113 Hepworth. Fernando 41 Botticelli. Ando 99 Hirst. Francisco 50–51 de Hooch. Piero 25 Derain. Maurice-Quentin 62 de Saint-André. Alex 84 Constable. 73 Brueghel (the Elder). Mildred 53 Caillebotte. Mary 62–63 Cézanne. 93 Hundertwasser. Matthias 31 Guayasamín. Wassily 86 Kapoor. Anish 131 138 . Daniel 63 Grünewald. Beryl 75 Courbet. Gustave 118. Gianlorenzo 114 Bigaud. Paul 46. 119 Ensor. Magdalena 131 Adams. Maria Helena Vieira 87 Dali. Naum 123 Gainsborough. Helen 87 Gabo. Frédéric-Auguste 118–119 Benton. Emma 23 Boccioni. Józef 32 Close. Barbara 122. Pedro 67 Foujita. Annibale 42 Caruci. 63. Qi 27. Jacopo 42 Cassatt. Constantin 122 Braque. Simon Renard 46 de Witte.

23 Roberts. Henri 69. Gustav 100 Kline. 122. 122. Jackson 88-89 Poussin. Keith Kaapa 21 Tjapaltjarri. Wen 27 Zimmermann. James 67 Pollock. Claude Gellée 43 Lowry. 70–71 Matta. Anna 74 Muallâ. Camille 59 Pollard. Kathe 92 Koons. 38 Millet. 50 Renoir. Gabriele 47 Murillo. Paolo 24 van der Weyden. Andrea 19 Rabuzin. Giambattista 49 Titian 31 Tjangala. 62 Liben. G. Kasimir 86 Manet. 59 Reynal. Wu 27 Zhengming. Sir Peter Paul 16. Lasar 41 Seisenegger. Laurence Stephen 75 Maar. Fikret 47 Mucha. Joseph 52–53 Uccello. 41 Leonardo da Vinci 31. Diego 19. Tilman 111 Rivera. 44. Biehong 85 Zan. Gustav 120–121 Vitruvius 35 Volpi. 72-73. Lee 88 Krøyer. Bertel 119 Tiepolo. John Singer 53. Francis 80 Picasso. Guo 27 Xu. 123 Pissarro. Alfred 74 Warhol. Diego 40. 43. Henry Spencer 40. Norval 24 Moses. E. Patries 96 van Eyck. Paul 76–77 Klimt. Nicolas 43. Louise 111 Nevinson. Helene 17 Sebastian 131 Segall. Joan 80-81 Mondrian. James McNeill 38 Wood. 69. 66 van Wittel. Dante Gabriel 52 Rothko. Pierre-Auguste 16. Hans 82 Meng. 36. Roberto 39 Maulbertsch. 30 Lorrain. Wang 27 Michelangelo 19. Bartolomeo 42 Pettoruti. David 123 Solveig 96 Steer. 37. Alphonse 68 Munch. Auguste 115. Henri 74. Edwin 84 Larsson. Franz 76. Fahrelnissa 87 Zhen. Bartolomé 43 Muybridge. 90 Rubens. Clifford Possum 21 Tsarouchis. Berthe 59 Morrisseau. 45 Verocchio 116 Vigeland. Paul 68 Sisley. Jeanne 23 Riemenschneider. Jan 31. Paula 66 Reisser. Jakob 40 Sesshu. Yan 27 Lichtenstein. Man 79 Rayo. 58. Andy 94–95. Piero 103 Marc. Ivan 75 Raphael 31. Vincent 46. Alfredo 87 Wallis. Mirko 96 Rembrandt van Rijn 38–39. 67 Schiele. 124–125 Morisot. 102 Watteau. Franz Anton 49 Meissonier Ernest 93 Memling. Stanislaw 63 Xi. Ray 92 Limbourg brothers 28. Jan 42. Christopher Richard Wynne 92 Nolan. Eadweard 58 Nevelson. Rene 79 Malevich. Rogier 31 van Dyck. 48 Pozzo. Claude 59. Hélio 103 Paik. 130 Krasner.Klee. Johann Baptist 49 139 . 43 Sargent. Sir J. 30. Jeff 85. Peder Severin 32 Landseer. Yannis 39 Turner. Jean-François 64 Miró. Carl 19. Edvard 33. Pablo 69. Franz 87 Kollwitz. 116–117 Millais. Toyo 32 Signac. Egon 100 Schjerfbeck. 85. 85 Masaccio 30 Masson. Ni 27 Zeid. Emilio 69 Phidias 30. 67 Rego. Dora 72 Maclaim 97 Magritte. 120. Piet 86 Monet. Tom 59. Edouard 58 Manzoni. Gaspar 42 Velázquez. 60-61 Moore. Omar 87 Reeve. 64–65. 80. Sir Sidney 90–91 Oiticica. R. Philip Wilson 59 Tanguy. Nam June 103 Passarotti. 42 Ray. 86 Münter. Andre 79 Matisse. 115 Picabia. 50 Vermeer. 99 Rodin. Mark 87 Rousseau. 78. Jean-Antoine 48 Whistler. Grant 82–83 Wyspianski. 38 van Gogh. Alfred 59 Smith. 34–35. 126 Rossetti. Sir Anthony 43 van Elsen. Tom 33 Thorvaldsen. Yves 79 Thomson.

Agnew’s. Christie’s Images (clb). Private Collection/ Photo 9c) Lefevre Fine Art Ltd. Chris Howes/Wild Places Photography (tl). http://www. 33 ft x 66 ft x 42 ft. 37 Photo Scala. Stockholm. 35 Corbis: Bettmann (tl) (tr).com/people/dailyartmasomenos/ (b) 55 Corbis: Burstein Collection (clb). London. Paris. Paris.1967. © 2008. London 2009 (tl). The Trustees of the British Museum: (br). University of Cambridge. New York. Paris.9.com: (c). Corbis: Christie’s Images (br). France/ Giraudon (bc). London. Matisse/DACS 2009. 68 Corbis: The Gallery Collection (bl) (bc) (br). Penny Tweedie. Austria (bl). 1969. 62 The Bridgeman Art Library: Louvre. Brooklyn Museum of Art. Bianca Nogrady. Paris and DACS. The Four Seasons. Photolibrary: (br). l-left. Johnny van Haeften Gallery. London 2009 (br). Rudy Sulgan tl (Pagoda). France (t). (br). 29 Alamy Images: Leslie Garland Picture Library (cra). Dagli Orti (bl). Oya Bülent Eczacıbaı Collection: Chianti Bottle and Fish. 13 Clair Carnegie/ Libyan Soup: (cl). John Van Hasselt/ Sygma (tc). London 2009 (fbr). London. Private collection. 46 The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee des Beaux-Arts. Musee Picasso. Photofrenetic (ca) (cl). Adelaide. Corbis: Araldo de Luca (ca) (ftr). London. Corbis: Artkey (tr). 33 The Bridgeman Art Library: National Gallery. France/© Succession Picasso/DACS 2009 (cr). 58 The Bridgeman Art Library: Nationalmuseum. Turkey (Mosaic). Getty Images: Gavin Hellier/Robert Harding World Imagery (tl). Getty Images: Manuel Cohen (bl). Getty Images: Hulton Archive (bl).com: (cla). f-far. Corbis: Brooklyn Museum (bl). gouache on paper. Getty Images: Bridgeman Art Library (fcl) (cl) (cr). UK bl (Gainsborough). London 2009 (bc). © 2009. Vatican Museums and Galleries. Brian McMorrow: bl (mosaic). London. Vatican City. Lasar Segall. Getty Images: Bridgeman Art Library (cb). National Gallery.Ellingsen Group. Italy (bl). 65 akg-images. Poland (tr). The Gallery Collection (br). Vatican Museums and Galleries. The Gallery Collection (tl). north wall. Photo: © The Bridgeman Art Library/Musée National d’Art Moderne. The Gallery Collection (c). 16 Louise Bourgeois Studio: © DACS. Photo Scala. Graphische Sammlung Albertina. 40 akg-images: Kunsthistorisches Museum (c).5 (cl). London (br). (bl). 32 The Bridgeman Art Library: Private Collection (bl). Paris/© ADAGP. Emma Biggs: photo: Tom Dunn (fbr). France/Giraudon (tl) (bl) (ca) (cb). Corbis: Asian Art & Archaeology. São Paulo. Peter Murphy (28). Budapest. France/Giraudon (cb). 74 The Bridgeman Art Library: Kettle’s Yard. Vatican City. Aboriginal Arts Agency Ltd (bl). © The Estate of Roy Lichtenstein/DACS 29 ca (Lichtenstein). France/ Giraudon (r) (ca) (cb). Christie’s Images (tc). Italy (bl).F. New York. Florence: The National Gallery. Museo Archeologico Nazionale. Brooklyn Museum of Art. 69 The Bridgeman Art Library: Galerie Daniel Malingue. 44 The Bridgeman Art Library: Rijksmuseum. The Art Archive: Tate Gallery London/ Eileen Tweedy. Musee National d’Art Moderne. USA/Purchased by special subscription (fbl). USA/Gift of the Asian Art Council b (Thangpa ). The Museum of Modern Art. London 2009: r (Sargent).4 cm. l (Van der Weyden). The Bridgeman Art Library: Collection of the Prince of Liechtenstein. Private Collection (br). UK (cr). Brussels Photo: Christopher Burke (cb). Oil on canvas. flickr. Matisse/DACS 2009.. 30 The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee Conde. Prado. 14 Alamy Images: Mary Evans Picture Library (b). Corbis: Christie’s Images. tr (Lorrain). Corbis: Sion Touhig/Sygma (tr). London 2009 (tl). 17 The Trustees of the British Museum: (cb). 20 Alamy Images: imagebroker (cr). UK (bl) (br). Chantilly. 49 The Bridgeman Art Library: Aldo Crespi Collection. (br). Old Lyme. Madrid. Digital Vision (cra). Finnish National Gallery: © DACS 2009 (bl). r-right. Historical Picture Archive/By kind permission of the Mucha Foundation/The Bridgeman Art Library (t). Toronto: © 2008 Gabe Vadas (c). The Gallery Collection cl (Sisley). Francis G. Florence: © Munch Museum/Munch . London. Nick Nicholls © The British Museum (tr). © Tate. London (l) (br) (cr) (crb) (tr). © ADAGP. France/Giraudon (br). Milan. France/Giraudon (t). USA/Gift of Dr. Bridgeman Art Library tl (Boccioni). Chantilly. UK (bl). 1903 . France/Lauros/ Giraudon (l). Wies. Mayer (bc). UK/© Tate. Araldo de Luca b (Roman painting). DK Images: James McConnachie (c) Rough Guides (cr). Oslo/DACS. Italy (tc). France / Giraudon (tl). 7 The Art Archive: Tate Gallery London / Eileen Tweedy. Italy (tr). Klosterneuburg. 15 Corbis: The Gallery Collection. www. Wieskirche. Photo: © Tate. Corbis: Edimédia (bl). Richard Broadwell/ Beateworks cr (Rock painting). 70-71 © Succession H. Paris. London. Corbis: Art on File/Stainless steel.com: (cra) (cb) (crb) (tc). Private Collection/Photo © Rafael Valls Gallery. London. Schloss Friedenstein. Wieskirche. Francis G. The Netherlands (t). Paris. 73 Corbis: Francis G. and Mrs. Paris/© DACS 2009 (br). UK (br). Musee Guimet. The Netherlands/ Giraudon (clb) (bl). Corbis: Joe Epstein/Star Ledger (br). Paris (t). Florence Griswold Museum. Hungary (cr). Corbis: The Gallery Collection (tc) (c) (cl) (cr) (tr). France / Lauros / Giraudon (tr). Italy (ca).com: (cr) (br). Paris and DACS. Pau. London (tl). Mayer/© Succession Picasso/DACS 2009. Graphische Sammlung Albertina. © 2009 Digital image. France/ Lauros/Giraudon (bc). Keystone. Sweden (bc/Larsson). Austria r (Durer). National Institute of the Historical Artistic Patrimony. P 35. Ken Welsh (t). Stockholm. 45 Corbis: Francis G. Greene. Mimmo Jodice (tr). Derrel Blain. Paris. Ted Spiegel (tc). London 2009: Copyright the artist (t). NY: Estate of Jeanne Reynal (br). New York/© Karel Appel Foundation. Corbis: Pam Gardner. London. France/Bonora (br). New York. Schloss Vaduz (tr). madderstudio. National Gallery. Geoffrey Clements (cr). © Tate. Mayer (cl). New York 2009. Private Collection/Christie’s Images (bl). The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee d’Unterlinden. 23 Courtesy Anita Shapolsky Gallery. Joe Carnegie/Libyan Soup: (tl) (tr). Van Gogh Museum. Spain/ Giraudon/ (tc). Fundacion Guayasamin Centro Cultural: (br). The Gallery Collection (tl). Private Collection / Christie’s Images (fbr). The Gallery Collection (clb). Poppy Joslin. Messina. Musee des Beaux-Arts. Paris. University of Cambridge. The Bridgeman Art Library: Antioch. Merion Station Pennsylvania (bl). Corbis: Alinari Archives (cr). 36 Corbis: The Barnes Foundation. 28 The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee Conde. Paris.: (fbr). Galerie Daniel Malingue. 18 Corbis: Alinari Archives (br). t-top) Front Endpapers: Alamy Images: Robert Harding Picture Library Ltd l (Cave painting). Gotha. courtesy Marlborough Gallery. London (c). Marseille. the models Catherine Greenwood (38. Burstein Collection (bl). Corbis: The Gallery Collection (b). East News Poland: Laski Diffusion (br). and Sadie Thomas. Stockholm. 67 The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee d’Orsay.327. 22 Alamy Images: The London Art Archive (tr). U. Corbis: Burstein Collection (br). Paris. 31 Alamy Images: The London Art Archive (cr). London/VAGA. France/© ADAGP. 34 Corbis: Gianni Dagli Orti (c). Free Agents Limited r (Maori carving). Nationalmuseum. USA. The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee Conde. New York (tl). Francis G. The Bridgeman Art Library: Museum Narodowe. Istanbul. Gianni Dagli Orti (bl) (cb).5 x 30. 8 iStockphoto. Madrid (br). Germany (cb). 1891 Vilna . Madrid (br). Germany/Bildarchiv Foto Marburg (cl). Francis G. East News Poland: Laski Diffusion (tr). Corbis: Richard Broadwell/Beateworks (b). 61 The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee Marmottan. Museum of Fine Arts. USA/ Gift of the Hartford Steam Boiler Inspection & Insurance Co. Corbis: Francis G. 1974. courtesy Xavier Hufkens Gallery.1955. 48 The Bridgeman Art Library: Louvre. 43 The Bridgeman Art Library: Burghley House Collection. t (Archimboldo). Frank Lane Picture Agency (l).Acknowledgments Dorling Kindersley would like to thank the photographers Will Heap and Jacqui Hurst. Corbis: Bettmann (cl). madderstudio. Mayer. Banco de Mexico Diego Rivera & Frida Kahlo Museums Trust. Chantilly. Corbis: Artkey (br). s. Mayer (tl) (cl). Mayer (tr). Photo Scala. UK (tr). Louvre. Getty Images: De Agostini (fbr). V&A Images. Florence: © 2007. Getty Images: Bridgeman Art Library (t). Araldo de Luca (bc) (r). Phillips.com: (t). 53 The Bridgeman Art Library: British Museum (t). Kenwood House. Corbis: Francis G. Lebrecht Music and Arts: RA (c). McMichael Art Collection: Gift of Margaret Thomson Tweedale. 52). Madrid. London 2009: (tr). © Yannis Tsarouchis Foundation: Yannis Tsarouchis. Brooklyn Museum of Art. BONO. Millennium Park. Photographer’s Choice tl (Terracotta army). Sandro Vannini br (Masaccio). Fikret Muallâ.A. 50 The Bridgeman Art Library: Prado. Getty Images: Bridgeman Art Library (tc). France/ Lauros/Giraudon (bl). Florence: The National Gallery. Gideon Mendel c (Grave marker). Getty Images: Bridgeman Art Library (br). 4 The Bridgeman Art Library: © Fernando Botero. The Detroit Institute of Arts. The Gallery Collection (tl). Corbis: Bettmann (c). Corbis: Bettmann bl (Van Gogh). 12 Alamy Images: Robert Harding Picture Library Ltd (c). Nationalmuseum. Centre Pompidou. courtesy Marlborough Gallery. Christie’s Images/© DACS 2009 (tl). USA/Gift of the Asian Art Council (tl). 63 The Bridgeman Art Library: Private Collection/Peter Willi (fbl). National Gallery. Gertraud Goodwin (115). Schlossmuseum./DACS (bl). b-below/bottom. Corbis: Hannah Mason (c). Sandro Vannini (bl). Bridgeman Art Library (br). UK (br). London. Ernest Stillman (Cassatt). France/Giraudon (tr). The Gallery Collection/© ADAGP. New York. 21 The Bridgeman Art Library: Aboriginal Arts Agency Ltd (r) (br). Goanna Dreaming (detail) Aboriginal Arts Agency Ltd (bc). Paris . N. © Tate. Mary Evans Picture Library tr (Book of the dead). © The Estate of Roy Lichtenstein/DACS 2009 (c).1957 São Paulo. Poznan. Medioimages / Photodisc (br). Corbis: The Gallery Collection (bl) (br). 41 The Bridgeman Art Library: © Fernando Botero. Penny Tweedie (br). Stiftsmuseum. 50-51 The Bridgeman Art Library: Prado. UK (fbl). 1933. Mexico D. Corbis: Albright-Knox Art Gallery. 51 The Bridgeman Art Library: Prado. London 2009 (bl). 156. Amsterdam. Klaus Hackenberg/ zefa (tl). Madrid (c). New York. Mayer. The International Fine Art Auctioneers (cl). www. Collection of the Lasar Segall Museum. Photo Scala. 38 The Bridgeman Art Library: The Iveagh Bequest. USA (b). 64 The Bridgeman Art Library: Private Collection/Christie’s Images (c). © 2009. http://www. 66 The Bridgeman Art Library: Museum of Modern Art. biancanogrady. Eye Ubiquitous (bl). UK (tr) (crb) (tl). Werner Forman (tl). France (bc). Museo Regionale. Daniel E. and Madeleine Allison (19). London. Mayer (tl). Private Collection/ Roger-Viollet. Paris and DACS. Versailles. detail. Courtesy Kinsman Robinson Galleries. Hugh Rooney. Photo Scala. 25 The Bridgeman Art Library: Antioch. Private Collection (bl). France / Lauros / Giraudon (cl). Paris. Italy (tr). The Gallery Collection (tl). Getty Images: Bridgeman Art Library (c) (bc). 54 Corbis: Burstein Collection (t). The Detroit Institute of Arts. 19 The Bridgeman Art Library: Detroit Industry. McMichael Canadian Art Collection. The Bridgeman Art Library: Louvre. Corbis: Alinari Archives (ca). France (cr). Turkey / © World Religions Photo Library (bl). The Bridgeman Art Library: British Museum (bc). The Gallery Collection (fbl). Image copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource (br). Spain/ Giraudon (bl). Prado. © The Estate of Roy Lichtenstein/DACS 2009. Corbis: Christie’s Images (t) (bl).com: (cl). Kenwood House. UK (tl). Mayer (cl) (bl) (br) (cr). Austria (clb).K. Sweden (tr). Germany t (Zimmermann). Naples. Paris and DACS. c-center. Getty Images: Bridgeman Art Library (bl). Romulo Fialdini: (bl). Martin Cheek (22). Bianca Nogrady. UK (br). Getty Images: Ignacio Auzike (bl). Dorling Kindersley (tr). Musee Marmottan. UK (cl). Louvre. 71 © Succession H. 59 The Bridgeman Art Library: Art Gallery of South Australia. Hugh Sitton/zefa tl (African masks). DK Images: ©Musee Marmottan photo: Susanna Price (ca) (tr). Wies.co. Paris. Brian McMorrow: (bl). Tapestry and aluminium 14’ x 12 x 12”.myartnsoulstudio. Ernest Stillman (clb). Chicago/Courtesy of the City of Chicago and Gladstone Gallery (b). / DACS (br). British Museum c (Turner). Corbis: Araldo de Luca (bc/Pozzo). Corbis: Francis G. Sweden (cr). The Bridgeman Art Library: Christie’s Images (tl) (cl). Connecticut.4 x 30. Lincolnshire. The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee d’Orsay.. Corbis: Alinari Archives (cl). The Gallery Collection (cl). The Gallery Collection/© Succession Picasso/DACS 2009 (bc). Vienna. Corbis: Burstein Collection (bl). 47 Corbis: Burstein Collection (tr).moore (tl) (b). France (bc). London 2009 (bl). Image copyright The Metropolitan Museum of Art/Art Resource (cr). Paris and DACS. Francis G. 72 The Bridgeman Art Library: Portrait of Dora Maar. without frame: 33 x 50 cm (br). 6 The Bridgeman Art Library: Private Collection) Lefevre Fine Art Ltd. Private Collection/© Henry Moore Foundation (br). Banco de Mexico Diego Rivera & Frida Kahlo Museums Trust. Photo Scala. Science Photo Library: Michael Donne (tl) (c). National Gallery. Mexico D. Private Collection / © Chris Beetles. Centre Pompidou. 39 The Bridgeman Art Library: The Iveagh Bequest. Kaapa Tjampitjinpa. 70 Alamy Images: The London Art Archive (cl). Corbis: The Gallery Collection (tr). Paris. Vatican City. National Gallery. photo Gilles Mermet (tc). 10-11 Getty Images: Bridgeman Art Library. Christie’s Images c (Chinese painting). Academy of Fine Arts. Getty Images: Hulton Archive (fcr). Corbis: Burstein Collection (bc). Australia (bc). Corbis: Ludovic Maisant (fbl). Amsterdam (c). UK (c). Inc. Martin Jenkinson (b). 52 Alamy Images: Peter Barritt (cl). and the designers Karen Hood. Colmar. William B. Jaffe Fund. Mayer/© Succession Picasso/DACS 2009 (br). 56-57 The Art Archive: Tate Gallery London/ Eileen Tweedy. Hulton-Deutsch Collection (c). The Gallery Collection (br).5 x 295 cm. Corbis: Marco Simoni/Robert Harding World Imagery (fbl). Musee Lambinet. Vienna. Stone (tc). The publisher would like to thank the following for their kind permission to reproduce their photographs: (Key: a-above. Corbis: Burstein Collection (bc). Florence: Mr. Sicily. 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Photo: Prudence Cuming Associates Ltd Courtesy Jay Jopling / White Cube (London): Damien Hirst Gelsemine 2006 Household gloss on canvas 17x19in. Mythos Art Gallery. Germany/Wolfgang Neeb (br). Paris and DACS. Corbis: Philadelphia Museum of Art (bl). East News Poland: Artur Starewicz/© Magdalena Abakanowicz. BONO. Private Collection Courtesy Jay Jopling/White Cube (London) (cr). 1977 (r). NY (cl). photo Hughes Dubois (cr). Germany/© ADAGP. Paris and DACS. Robert Gordon’s College: Danielle Taylor (bl). Chicago/Courtesy of the City of Chicago and Gladstone Gallery (br). Reproduced by permission of the Henry moore Foundation (br). Berlin. Zurich/Lauros/Giraudon/© 2009 Mondrian/ Holtzman Trust. Corbis: Christie’s Images/© Beryl Cook 1983. The Gallery Collection/© Salvador Dali. Matt Keeble (tl). Chris Hellier (cl) (c). 135 © Tate. Getty Images: National Geographic (bl). China Newsphoto/ Reuters (br). London. Spain / Giraudon (cr). 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Getty Images: Bridgeman Art Library (br). The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee Rodin. com: Milos Luzanin (cl).2 cm. Musee de Quai Branly. 90. The Gallery Collection/© Munch Museum/Munch Ellingsen Group.com: Erio (c). Photo Scala. (bl). Improvisation (Little Painting with Yellow). Paris and DACS. London 2009 (tl). New York (bc). © The Andy Warhol Foundation for the Visual Arts (br). Paris and DACS. Corbis: (tr). The Museum of Modern Art. iStockphoto. John Swope Collection Reproduced by permission of the Henry Moore Foundation (tl). 126 Corbis: Burstein Collection/© ADAGP. London 2009 (bc).7 x 121. 33 ft x 66 ft x 42 ft. (c) Bettmann (tl). France/Lauros/Giraudon/© ADAGP. UK / Bonhams. Rune Hellestad/Reproduced by permission of the Henry Moore Foundation (cr). (cr). Paris and DACS. Burstein Collection/© Succession Marcel Duchamp/ADAGP. steel. London 2009.2 cm. New York/© Man Ray Trust/ADAGP. London 2009: © ADAGP. Gift of Sunday Reed.3 cm) (1 in. 20 Powis Mews. USA/© Estate of Grant Wood / DACS. Getty Images: photo: Martha Holmes / Time Life Pictures (tl). 99 The Bridgeman Art Library: Art Gallery of New South Wales. France/Giraudon (tr). London 2009 (cla). London W11 1JN. © The Keith Haring Foundation. Getty Images: © Courtesy the artist/Robert Dandelson Gallery/ Bridgeman Art Library (b). Glass.com: http://www. Getty Images: Photographer’s Choice (t). NY and DACS. Getty Images: Wolfgang Kumm / AFP/© Christo (br). Getty Images: AFP/© ADAGP/FAAG. London 2009: Courtesy Cornelia Parker and Frith Street Gallery. London 2009 (tr). 118-119 Alamy Images: AA World Travel Library. Ottawa. DACS 2009. Photo © 2006 John Hedgecoe. Getty Images: AFP/© ADAGP/ FAAG. Reuters: Mick Tsikas (cr). Toby Melville/ Reuters/ Private Collection Courtesy Jay Jopling/White Cube (London) (bl). Wuppertal. Flickr. Corbis: (fbr). Corbis: Burstein Collection/© DACS 2009 (br). Omaha. Mayer/© Succession Marcel Duchamp/ADAGP. UK (br). Getty Images: Image Source (tr). 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Tom Stoddart Collection (cl). 142-143 DK Images: © Musee Marmottan photo: Susanna Price All other images © Dorling Kindersley For further information see: www. 87 Colección Patricia Phelps de Cisneros: VOLPI © Imaginação (bc). 122 Alamy Images: Trinity Mirror/Mirrorpix/Bowness.uk: Reproduced by permission of the Henry Moore Foundation. Hamburg. Canberra: Sidney Nolan. Photo Scala. Flickr. Photo Scala. Corbis: Richard Klune/© DACS 2009 (cr). 1957. The Museum of Modern Art. 107 The Bridgeman Art Library: Louvre. 1958. spot). The Gallery Collection/© ADAGP. 114 akg-images: Erich Lessing (fbl). Francis G. Inc. London 2009 (cb). © Hundertwasser Archive.C. NY and DACS. Danny Lehman (bc). Jeff Koons: (tl). DACS 2009. 77 The Bridgeman Art Library: Kunstmuseum. Gianni Dagli Orti (bl). London. 94 The Bridgeman Art Library: Byzantine Museum. Cheshire. USA (bl).com: © DACS 2009 (br). Paris and DACS.flickr. Getty Images: (clb). 86 The Bridgeman Art Library: Private Collection/© ADAGP. (tl). Corbis: Burstein Collection (fbr). Photo Sandra Baker (b). Albright-Knox Art Gallery/© SODRAC. Philadelphia Museum of Art/© Salvador Dali. Mayer (fbl). Madrid. 1977 (br). Florence: ©2009 Digital Image.: (t). Wuppertal. © The Estate of Roy Lichtenstein/DACS 2009 (t). Australia 1917 . 125 TopFoto. The Museum of Modern Art. iStockphoto. Armstrong Roberts (bl). 118 Corbis: (tr). © The Willem de Kooning Foundation. Paris and DACS.com/photos/gerryscappaticci/ © DACS 2009 (br). Bettmann (bl). Getty Images: (cl). Germany/© DACS 2009 (bl). (bl). CA/ © Estate of Grant Wood /DACS.2 x 48. Chicago/Courtesy of the City of Chicago and Gladstone Gallery. UK/National Trust Photographic Library (cla). Switzerland / Lauros / Giraudon/© DACS 2009 (tr). Mirko Reisser (DAIM):Courtesy: REINKINGPROJEKTE | Photo: MRpro (br). 130 Alamy Images: © Jeff Koons. Vienna: (bc). France / Lauros / Giraudon (fbl). Paris and DACS. 84 Art Gallery of Hamilton: Gift of Dominion Foundries and Steel Limited (Dofasco. Paris and DACS. DACS 2009. Oslo/DACS. Kimbell Art Museum (bc). UK/© DACS 2009 (c). France/Lauros/Giraudon (tl). Florence: Zagreb. 138 The Bridgeman Art Library: Musee d’Orsay.flickr. (43. London 2009 . Private Collection / Lauros / Giraudon/© DACS 2009 (cb). Photo Scala. Photodisc (r). London. Getty Images: Hulton Archive (tl). iStockphoto. Corbis: Jeff Albertson (bl).England 1992. France (bl). Corbis: (tl). 2170 x 5420 x 1800 mm. UK/The Stapleton Collection (br). Mayer (tr). 131 Corbis: Art on File/Stainless steel. Private Collection / © Michael Graham-Stewart (tl). www. New York/DACS. Canada (bl). USA / Gift of The Brown Foundation. Germany (bl). NY and DACS. Getty Images: Frans Lemmens/The Image Bank (bc). Photo Scala. London 2009 (c). Licensed by VAGA. NY and DACS. New York / DACS London 2009 (tr). New York/© The Pollock-Krasner Foundation ARS. Paris and DACS. Lebrecht Music and Arts: Interfoto (tl). London 2009 (cr). Musee d’Orsay. Paris and DACS. Inc. 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