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Failure Modes Effect Analysis

FMEA (cont.)

Use of Failure Modes Effect Analysis (FMEA). Allows us to identify areas of process that mostimpact our customers . Steps to developing FMEAs. Helps us identify how our process is most Summarize the different types of FMEAs. likely to fail . Linkage the FMEA to other Black Belt tools. Points to process failures that are most Perform an exercise to actually perform difficult to detect . FMEA.

Application Exam ples

Manufacturing: A manager is responsible for moving a manufacturing operation to a new facility. He wants to be sure the move goes as smoothly as possible and that there are no surprises. Design: A design engineer wants to think of all the possible ways a product he is designing could fail so that he can build robustness into the product.

What Is A Failure Mode?

A Failure Mode is:
The way in which the component, subassembly, product, input, or process could fail to perform its intended function
Failure modes may be the result of upstream operations or may cause downstream operations to fail

Things that could go wrong

FMEA (cont.)
Analytical Technique : (identify, define and eliminate) Customer Quality : (performance variation of a product) Engineering Quality : (product function, customer s implicit expectation)

FMEA (cont.)
Objective evaluation of design. Initial design of manufacturing. Probability in development process. Information to design improvement and development testing. Open issue format for risk reduction. Future references for field concerns, evaluating & developing advance design.

F MEA (cont.)
Failure Specific C ause Effect of Failure Likeliness D etectabilitySeverity of Risk M ode of Failure of Failure Failure Prio rity G as will not Spring broke Explosion resulting in 3 5 10 150 shut off preventing valve property damage from closing and/ or serious injury

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Likeliness of Failure: with 10 representing most likely 1-10 D etectability Failure: of 1-10 with 10 representing most difficult Severity of Failure: with 10 representing most severe 1-10 Risk Priority (Likeliness of Failure) X ( = Detectability Failure) X of
(Severity of Failure)

Failure Modes & Effects Analysis is a methodology to evaluate fa ilure modes and their effects in designs and in processes.

F E ( o t) M A c n.
Wy h M th d lo yth t fa ilita sp c s im ro e e t e o o g a c te ro e s p v m n Id n sa de in te c n e se rlyinth e tifie n lim a s o c rn a e d v lo m n o ap c s o d s n e e p e t f ro e s r e ig Im ro ein rn l a de te a c s m r p v te a n x rn l u to e s tis c n a fa tio F c s so p v n n o u e n re e tio F E m yb ac s m r re u m n M A a e u to e q ire e t F E m yb re u db a a p a le M A a e q ire y n p lic b Q a S s m ta d rd u lity y te S n a

I pe e t to o F E ml mnai n f MA
P in N . 2 o t o

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FMEA (cont.)
How Team identifies potential failure modes for design functions or process requirements
They assign severity to the effect of this failure mode They assign frequency of occurrence to the potential cause of failure and likelihood of detection

Team calculates a Risk Priority Number by multiplying severity times frequency of occurrence times likelihood of detection Team uses ranking to focus process improvement efforts

F MEA (cont.)

Blank FMEA form in Virtual Coach Exercises Chapter 3.4 - FMEA Form.xls


FMEA (cont.)
A structured approach to:
Identifying the ways in which a product or process can fail Estimating risk associated with specific causes Prioritizing the actions that should be taken to reduce risk Evaluating design validation plan (product) or current control plan (process)

When to Conduct an FMEA

Early in the investigation. process improvement

When new systems, products, and processes are being designed. When existing designs or processes are being changed. When carry -over designs are used in new applications. After system, product, or process functions are defined, but before specific hardware is 14 selected or released to manufacturing.


T h e FM E A F o rm
History of FM EA
E xa m p les

A C lo s e r L o o k

First u se d in th e in th e A ero sp ace s 1960 in d u stry d u rin g th e A p o llo m issio n s. In 1974, th e N avy d evelo-1629 M IL p ed -STD regard in g th e u se o f FM EA . In th e late s, th e au to m o tive in d u stry 1970 w as d riven b y liab ility co sts to u se FM EA . Late r, th e au to m o tive in d u stry saw th e ad van tages o f u sin g th is to o l to red u ce risks I d e n t i f y f a i l u r e m o d eI ds e n t i f y c a u s e P roi of rtiht i e e s z related to p o o r q u ality. a n d t h e ir e ffe c ts f a ilu r e m o d e s
a n d c o n tr o ls
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D e te rm in e a n d a s s e s s a c tio n s 1 6

T p so F E s ye f MA
T eoF E y sf M p A
Po o. iN n3 t

D n: esig Analyzes product desig before n release to production, with a focus on product function. Analyzes sy stem a subsy s nd stem in s earlyconcept a desig stag nd n es. Process: Used to analy m ze anufacturing and a ssem processes. bly
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FM EA: A Team Tool

FM EA Procedure

A team approach is necessary. 1. For each process input (start w ith high value inputs), Team should be led by the Black Belt, a determine the w ays in w hich the input can go w rong responsible manufacturing engineer or technical mode). (failure person, or other similar individual familiar w ith 2.For each failure mode, determine effects: FM EA. The follow ing should be considered for team a severity level for each effect. Select members:
Design Engineers Operators Process Engineers Reliability M aterials Suppliers Suppliers Customers

3.Identify potential causes of each failure mode: Select an occurrence level for each cause. 4.List current controls for each cause: Select a detection level for each cause.

F M E A In p u ts a n d O u t p u t s

In p u ts

O u tp u ts L is t o f a c tio n s to p re v e n t c a u s e s o r d e te c t fa ilu re m odes H is to ry o f a c tio n s ta k e n

FMEA Procedure (Cont.)

5. Calculate the Risk Priority Number (RPN).

6.Develop recommended actions, assign responsible persons, and take actions: Give priority to high RPNs MUST look at severities rated a 10 7.Assign the predicted severity, occurrence, and detection levels and compare RPNs.

B ra in s to rm in g C & E M a trix P ro c e s s M a p F P ro c e s s H is to ry M E A P ro c e d u re s K n o w le d g e E x p e rie n c e

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F a ilu r e M o d e s a n d E f f e c t s
T h e r e la t io n s h ip b e t w e e n f a ilu r e i s n o t a lw a y s 1 t o 1 .

S e v e r it y , O c c u r r e n c e , m o d e s a nad ne df e Dt e t e c t io n f c s
O f t e nt cdaon a n y t h i n g a b o u t t h is

S e v e r it y Im p o r t a n c e o f t h e e f f e c t o n c u s t o m e r r e q u ir e m e n t s O ccu rre n ce F r e q u e n c y w it h w h ic h a g iv e n c a u s e o c c u r s a n d c r e a t e s f a ilu r e m o d e s D e t e c t io n T h e a b ilit y o f t h e c u r r e n t c o n t r o l s c h e m e t o d e t e c t o r p r e v e n t a g iv e n c a u s e

F a ilu re M o d e 1 ffe c t 1 E F a ilu re M o d e 2 ffe c t 2 E F a ilu re M o d e 1 E ffe c t 1 F a ilu re M o d e 2 E ffe c t 1 F a ilu re M o d e 1 E ffe c t 2

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Rating Scales
There are a w ide variety ofanchorsboth scoring , Rating Scales quantitative or qualitative Tw o types of scales are 1 -5 or -1 10 Severity The -5 scale makes it easier for the teams to decide =Not Severe, 10 =Very Severe 1 1 on scores Occurrence 1 =Not Likely, 10 =Very Likely The -10 scale allow s for better precision in 1 estimates and a w ide variation in scores (most Detection 1 =Likely to Detect, 10 =Not Likely to Detect common)



R is k P r io r it y N u m b e r (R P N )
R P N is t h e p r o d u c t o f t h e s e v e r it y , o c c u r r e n c e , a n d d e t e c t io n s c o r e s .

X X D = S e ve rityO c c u rre n c ee te c tio n R P N

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