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Version 01 Sections 13 7540005495

Families in Society
Family Studies 1012

Course Overview. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Welcome to Family in Society! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

Section 1: Families in a Changing World. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11

Lesson A: Denition of Family. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Lesson B: Functions of a Family. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Lesson C: Family Structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Lesson D: Family Customs and Traditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Lesson E: Current Trends in Canadian Families . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Section 1 Assignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

Section 2: Living in a Family . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

Lesson A: Roles and Responsibilities of Family Members . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Lesson B: Factors That Inuence Family Dynamics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Lesson C: Personal and Family Values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 Section 2 Assignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153

Section 3: Facing Family Challenges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .189

Lesson A: Family Stress . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Lesson B: Show Me the Money! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Lesson C: Care Giving . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 Section 3 Assignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

Course Project . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .267

Course Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
Scoring Guides . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300 Answer Key . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 305 Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321


Lesson A

Denition of Family
In this lesson, you will:
compare your denition of family with those of social scientists. learn about the evolution of the family. identify the impact social changes and historical events have had on the Canadian family.

For this lesson, you will need:

Families in Society Source File Families in Society Website

Writer and humourist Erma Bombeck described her family this way:
We were a strange little band of characters trudging through life sharing diseases and toothpaste, coveting one anothers desserts, hiding shampoo, borrowing money, locking each other out of our rooms, inicting pain and kissing to heal it in the same instant, loving, laughing, defending, and trying to gure out the common thread that bound us all together.

Does Bombecks family sound familiar to you? Maybe you had different experiences in your family. In this lesson, you will learn some different denitions of family and how views of the family have changed throughout history. You will also discover how events in society have impacted how we dene a family.



What Do Families Do?

Families are the foundation of societymuch like the bricks that form a brick wall. If the bricks are cracked and crumbly, no matter how well the wall is constructed, maintained, or mortared, the wall will eventually fall down. If the bricks (families) are well built and sturdy, then the wall (society) will stand strong and endure. If the family is so important, what is its role or purpose in our society? According to social scientist Shirley Zimmerman of the University of Minnesota, basic and universal functions of the family include:

Roles Responsibilities Actions Duties

Zimmerman identies six functions of the family.

Function 1: Addition of New Family Members Through Procreation or Adoption

Having babies expands families and strengthens and renews society. Having children continues the family line; children born into families will carry on the family name, culture, and traditions. Also, a strong society with a vibrant economy depends on a stable population.

Consider This...
When a countrys birthrate goes down, what is the effect on society? According to Statistics Canada, Canadas fertility rate in 2005 was 1.54 children per woman. But this is well below the level needed to replace the population, which is 2.1 children per woman. This means there are more deaths than babies born in Canadanot enough to replace the population. A vibrant economy relies on a stable workforce. As well, if not enough workers are paying taxes, this affects the governments ability to provide programs such as healthcare, education, and social services to its citizens. What is Canada doing to boost its population? For one, Canada is increasing immigration. Since 2003, more than one million immigrants have arrived in Canada from over 200 countries. Over half of the new immigrants are of prime working age25 to 64which will give Canadas labour force a much needed infusion of workers.




Activity 1

Finding the Function

Understanding the functions of the family in a practical way can be challenging. Looking at concrete examples can be a good way to understand a concept. Instructions: Identify the family function that is best associated with each task. 1. Teaching a three year old not to take a candy bar from a supermarket without rst purchasing it: a. physical care and maintenance of family members b. social control of children c. nurturance and love 2. Teaching children about the special celebrations of their culture: a. addition of new family members b. physical care and maintenance of family members c. socialization of children 3. Taking an older father to a medical appointment: a. physical care and maintenance of family members b. socialization of children c. production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services 4. Deciding to have a second child: a. addition of new family members b. physical care and maintenance of family members c. socialization of children 5. Budgeting and shopping for the next weeks meals: a. social control of children b. production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services c. nurturance and love 6. Hugging a child after she has had a tough day at school: a. social control of children b. production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services c. nurturance and love Go to the Answer Key at the end of the course to check your answers.



Family Rituals
Does your family get together regularly for meaningful events or gatherings that family members would like to carry on in the future? If so, those activities are family rituals. A ritual can be dened as a custom or behaviour regularly performed in a certain manner. Rituals reect family traditions and are most often connected to cultural, religious and ethnic customs. Rituals are universal to family life regardless of the familys cultural, religious, ethnic, or socioeconomic background. Rituals can be as elaborate as celebrating births and weddings, or as simple as sharing family dinners and reading bedtime stories. All families participate in rituals although the extent of a celebration varies from family to family.

There are three main types of family rituals:

rites of passage family traditions family routines

Rites of Passage
Rites of passage mark a time when a person reaches a new and signicant change in his or her life. Rites of passage are about transition and transformation from one stage of life to another. Obtaining a drivers license is a rite of passage for many North American youth and is a step toward independence. Leaving home is a transition into adulthood and a time for taking on new responsibilities. When you get married, you leave your family of origin to start a family of your own. Some view death our as a passage or transition from this life to an afterlife. Recognizing or celebrating rites of passage often help people understand their new roles in society. Most cultures celebrate the transition into new stages of life in their own unique ways.




Traditional Chinese Wedding Rituals

Many Chinese believe that the marriage union is the continuation of the ancestral lineage, the joining of two families, and the linking of the past to the future. Traditional Chinese weddings can be elaborate celebrations that include many rituals. Here are some highlights of a traditional Chinese wedding.

Before the Wedding

When a couple decides to marry, they go to their parents to ask for their blessing. The grooms family then consults the Chinese Astrological Calendar for the best days on which to wed and the best days to send gifts to the brides family. The grooms family is responsible for planning and organizing the wedding. Before the wedding, the couple purchases a new bed for their wedding night and new red bed linens. This symbolizes a new beginning and is supposed to bring good luck to the marriage.


SECTION 1 | ASSIGNMENT Your Name Student No.

Section 1 Assignment: Part 4

The Future of Canadian Weddings

Resources: Families in Society Source File Introduction: One outcome of Canadas multicultural society is that an increasing number of people from different ethnic, racial, and cultural backgrounds are marrying. And with an increase in immigration, this number will only increase. How are these couples managing to represent both of their cultures in their wedding ceremonies? Read on to nd out the choice one Ontario couple made. Instructions: Go to the Families in Society Source File and read the article MixedRace Families More Common. Answer the following questions based on the article you have just read. (10 marks) 1. Why did Daphne and Vivek decide to have a double wedding ceremony instead of a hybrid wedding ceremony?

2. Why does Minelle Matahni believe that mixed marriages will be the wave of the future?


SECTION 1 | ASSIGNMENT Your Name Student No.

3. Identify two positive social implications of mixed marriages.

4. What component of the Hindi wedding ceremony did Daphne objective to?

5. What is Daphnes approach to child rearing and cultural integration?

Evaluation Guidelines
2 marks per question Total Marks

10 /10




Lesson A

Roles and Responsibilities of Family Members

In this lesson, you will:
identify the roles you play in life. learn about the changing roles and responsibilities of family members.

When you think of the word role, you may imagine an actor performing a part in a play or in a movie. This is how you may feel sometimesacting out different roles for various situations and groups of people in your life. We also play roles in our families. This lesson will look at the various roles and responsibilities of family members and how the labour is divided among family members.



Roles in the Family

How do roles and responsibilities apply to the family? In a previous lesson you learned about the functions of the family. The roles and responsibilities fullled in families directly impact how a family functions. Typically, parents have more roles and responsibilities as heads of the family than do the children. Here are a few examples.

Parents Roles Providers Family Function:

production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services

Parents Responsibilities
Work to make enough money to purchase what the family needs in order to live. Example: Mom takes a part-time job at the post ofce before Christmas to earn some extra money. Look after childrens emotional and physical needs. Example: Dad takes kids to get immunization shots and reads to them in the doctors ofce to distract them. Provide feedback and consequences for misbehaviour. Example: Dad carries toddler out of the restaurant, telling her why she cant yell and cry when she doesnt like her dessert. Monitor family nances, pay bills, and distribute resources as needed among family members. Example: Mom and Dad use their tax refund to build a deck on the house.

Family Function: physical care and maintenance of family members nurturance and love

Family Function: social control of children

Money Managers
Family Function: production, consumption, and distribution of goods and services

In some families parents share the various roles, while in others the roles are divided. Other roles such as cook, house cleaner, and laundry cleaner are sometimes divided among all family members.



Activity 2

Role Match
In this activity, you are going to consider examples of family members performing a variety of functions. Instructions: Select the best role to match the example. 1. Mom makes sure that her sons backpack has food and a change of clothes before she takes him to childcare. a. caregiver b. disciplinarian c. provider d. money manager 2. Dad takes away his daughters cell phone until she gets caught up in her homework. a. caregiver b. disciplinarian c. provider d. money manager 3. Mom takes a job when dad loses his. a. caregiver b. disciplinarian c. provider d. money manager 4. Dad takes his son to the dentist. a. caregiver b. disciplinarian c. provider d. money manager




Division of Labour in the Family: Who does what?

If you were a housewife in the 1950s, you may have read a magazine article something like this one.

A Guide for the Wife, circa 1955:

Have dinner ready. Plan ahead, even the night before, to have a delicious meal ready, on time for his return. This is a way of letting him know that you have been thinking about him and are concerned about his needs. Most men are hungry when they come home and the prospect of a good meal (especially his favourite dish) is part of the warm welcome needed. Prepare yourself. Take 15 minutes to rest so youll be refreshed when he arrives. Touch up your make-up, put a ribbon in your hair and be fresh-looking. He has just been with a lot of work-weary people. Be a little gay and a little more interesting for him. His boring day may need a lift and one of your duties is to provide it. Clear away the clutter. Make one last trip through the main part of the house just before your husband arrives. Gather up schoolbooks, toys, paper, etc., and then run a dust-cloth over the tables. Over the cooler months of the year you should prepare and light a re for him to unwind by. Your husband will feel he has reached a haven of rest and order, and it will give you a lift too. After all, catering for his comfort will provide you with immense personal satisfaction. Prepare the children. Take a few minutes to wash the childrens hands and faces (if they are small), comb their hair and, if necessary, change their clothes. They are little treasures and he would like to see them playing the part. Minimize all noise. At the time of his arrival, eliminate all noise of the washer, dryer, or vacuum. Try to encourage the children to be quiet.

Be happy to see him. Greet him with a warm smile and show sincerity in your desire to please him. Listen to him. You may have a dozen important things to tell him, but the moment of his arrival is not the time. Let him talk rstremember, his topics of conversation are more important than yours. Make the evening his. Never complain if he comes home late or goes out to dinner, or other places of entertainment without you. Instead, try to understand his world of strain and pressure and his very real need to be at home and relax. Your goal: Try to make sure your home is a place of peace, order, and tranquility where your husband can renew himself in body and spirit. Dont greet him with complaints or problems. Dont complain if hes late home for dinner or even if he stays out all night. Count this as minor compared to what he might have gone through that day. Make him comfortable. Have him lean back in a comfortable chair or have him lie down in the bedroom. Have a cool or warm drink ready for him. Arrange his pillow and offer to take off his shoes. Speak in a low, soothing and pleasant voice. Dont ask him questions about his actions or question his judgment or integrity. Remember, he is the master of the house and as such will always exercise his will with fairness and truthfulness. You have no right to question him. A good wife always knows her place.




Its clear that womens roles in the family have changed dramatically since the 1950s. Womens expanding role in the workforce and the rise of dual-income families has meant that the traditional married-couple roles of the breadwinner husband and the homemaker wife are no longer the norm. Womens participation in the workforce was expected to start a revolution in gendered division of labour, meaning that men and women would be equal partners when it came to performing household duties. This change has been a slow process. A time-use survey found that women still do most of the housework and feel more time-stressed than men. Ninety percent of Canadian women do daily housework. But the survey also reported that more men are taking on household duties. In 1986, 54% of married men did some housework dailyby 2005 married mens participation rate rose to 69%. This is a signicant as it shows the gap is narrowing between men and women in terms of the amount of household duties performed. This, in part, has to do with the reality that most wives now work outside of the home for longer hours and have less time at home to do housework. But the survey also found that in 1986, 61% of single men were engaged in tasks around the home. This is most likely due to changing cultural norms; it is less common for roles to be rigidly divided according gender. Over the past three decades, while it has become acceptable for women to work outside the home, it has also become acceptable for men to work in the home cooking and cleaning. The changing division of labour within families is becoming a public policy issue. Since mens work schedules are being impacted by more home responsibilities, such as picking up children at school, staying home with a sick child, or taking parental leave, the workplace has had to change and adapt to this new reality. Some employers have instituted on-site childcare facilities and exible work schedules, and governments have legislated parental leave and compassionate care leave for both women and men.



Lesson A

Family Stress
In this lesson, you will:
analyze the stress level of your family. dene family stress. identify stressors that lead to family stress. identify actions to help reduce family stress.

What challenges or stresses has your family faced? Many Canadian families struggle to deal with social, economic, and emotional issues that affect how their families function. This lesson will discuss family stress and look at the factors or events that cause or contribute to family stress.



What are some of the most stressful life events?

death of a spouse divorce marital separation spending time in jail death of a close family member personal illness or injury marriage pregnancy retirement

Journal Entry 3.1:

Family Stressors
Go to your Section 3 Assignment and complete the following prompt in the space provided in Part 5: Journal Entries: In your opinionbased on what you have read in this course, seen in the media, heard from people around you, or learned from your own life experiencewhat is the most signicant stressor facing families today?

Consider This...
Did you know stress and health are closely linked? If stress isnt dealt with, it can result in the following health issues: headaches, anxiety, sleeplessness, nervousness, muscle cramps, and depression. Stress can also lead to chronic health conditions by affecting your immune, nervous, and cardiovascular systems.




Family Stress Action Plan

Why do some families cope better than others when faced with stress? One factor is perceptionhow families make sense or meaning out of different stressors. For example, one family could view a move to a new city as an exciting, new adventure, while another family could see the move as stressful because of the physical and emotional upheaval the move is causing. Less stressed families tend to spend time together, support each other, be more exible, have good communication skills, have reasonable expectations, be willing to access resources in the community if need be, and view stress as a temporary challenge that can be dealt with. What can stressed-out families do to cope? There is no magic cure for surviving stress in your family, but there are strategies that can help. Know that your family is not alone in dealing with stressful situations. Identify your familys feelings around stressful events, but dont dwell on negative thoughts. Keep things in perspective! Learn from the event and set up a plan, so that your family is able to cope and move forward. When your family is going through a stressful time, concentrate on activities that bring the most rewards to your family such as sports, social events, or hobbies. Develop a support system for you and your family. But be aware that not all family members and friends are the best people to have around during times of stress. If family members or friends are pressuring you to conform to their beliefs or wanting repayment for their helpyoure better off without them. Make sure your support system is looking out for your familys best interest and offers a healthy and positive inuence. Your support network of people could play different roles. For example, you may have a group of friends who give support and encouragement when needed, and extended family members who help with practical things like childcare. Focus on your familys health. Ensure family members are eating healthy meals, exercising daily, and sleeping well. Know when to get professional help. Research community resources that will help your family cope with particular stressors.



Lesson B

Show Me the Money!

In this lesson, you will:
be able to dene nancial pressures facing families. compare wages over time. familiarize yourself with the concept of debt and credit.

According to the Vanier Institute of the Family, the most pressing issue for Canadian families is economic security. Financial stress can lead to marital problems, loss of sleep, anxiety, and depression. Family debt is rising much quicker than the average family income. Even dual-income families are having a hard time keeping up with their monthly bills. This lesson will discuss why Canadians are nding it hard to make ends meet and present an action plan for families to get their nancial house in order.



Canadian Household Incomes

From the early 1990s to 2003, 80% of Canadian families saw their wages shrink, or just barely stay the same, while the price of consumer goods rose. In order to make up for the decline in pay, many families worked longer hours and depleted their savings in order to make ends meet. The decline in wages meant more people were forced into the labour market because of nancial necessity. This trend affected families; 84% of married couples with children, and 70% of couples without children, have two or more earners. With Canadas expanding economy since 2003, household incomes are on the rise. Reasons include: increase in hourly earnings more earners per household lower income tax payments In spite of the economic gains of many Canadians, a growing number of households live on the nancial edge. A 2007 report from the Vanier Institute of the Family states that 3.4 million Canadians live in poverty compared to approximately 3.2 million in 1990.

Consider This...
A report from Statistics Canada found that women still earn 70% of what men do at full-time, full-year jobs. If part-time, part-year work is included, women make only 64% of the average earnings of all male workers.

So, if household incomes are on the rise, whats causing nancial stress among Canadian families?




Activity 1

Playing the Percentages

You may have noticed that percentages are used a lot in this lesson. Its important to understand how they can be used to identify nancial trends. Consider the following sentence about the minimum wage and the cost of living: The average increase in minimum wage earnings in most provinces was 2% from 2000 to 2003. At the same time, consumer prices increased by 7%. This means that a worker on a minimum wage is actually falling behind by about 5%. What if the government decided to just give everyone a 5% wage increase every year? What would the overall effect be for the low wage earners? Instructions: Review the information in the table and answer the questions.
Yearly income start Income 1 $90 000 Income 2 $40 000 Difference ($50 000) Year 1 increase= 5% Total $4 500 $2 000 ($2 500) $94 500 $42 000 ($52 500) Year 2 increase= 5% Total $4 275 $2 100 ($2 175) $98 775 $44 100 ($54 675) Year 3 increase= 5% Total $4938.75 $2 205 ($2733.75)

1. Complete the totals for the Year 3 increase, and place the answers in the chart. 2. After 3 years increase, what is the difference between the two incomes?

By how much has the increase changed?

3. If wages in these two cases were to continue to increase by the same percentage, how would they compare?




Coping with Financial Stress

Anxiety over money can affect the health of family members in several ways. People living with nancial stress often numb their anxiety with unhealthy coping strategies such as smoking, drinking, or taking drugs. tend to cut corners in areas such as health to pay for necessities like food. often experience trouble sleeping, which can cause unclear thinking and moodiness. may experience unhealthy emotions such as anxiety, hopelessness, shame, guilt, or fear. In order to prevent nancial stress and insecurity, families need a nancial action plan.

Family Financial Action Plan

Set Financial Goals
What purchases does your family want to make within the year, within ve years, within 10 to 15 years?

Know Your Familys Financial Situation

What is your monthly income? What are your monthly expenses and debt payments?

Design a family budget including all expenses such as rent or mortgage payments, groceries, utilities (electricity, gas), transit, or clothing. Distinguish needs from wants; avoid impulse buying. Follow your budget closely. Dont allow expenses to exceed income. Comparison-shop; look for the best value at the lowest cost. You might want to shop for recycled household items and second-hand clothing.



COURSE PROJECT Your Name Student No.

Families in Need
Instructions: Following are descriptions of families confronting challenges or situations where they need support from helping professionals. You will be asked to consider where the families concerned might look for help. Read each scenario and complete the short-answer questions that follow. Use the list of helping professionals provided to help answer the questions. Your answers may also include professions that arent listed. (30 marks) 1. Huen and Kien have just moved to British Columbia from Vietnam. They have four children, ranging in age from six months to ve years. The couple plan to open an arts and craft shop. Huen will work full time in the shop, and Kien will work every morning while the eldest child is in kindergarten, provided they can nd childcare for the other three. The family doesnt know anyone else in the area, and only Huen can speak some limited English. Think about what sort of help or support you think this family needs. a. What is the main challenge this family is facing? (1 mark)

b. What are two other challenges is this family dealing with? (2 marks) 1.


c. Suggest two helping occupations/professions that might assist this family. (2 marks) 1. 2.


COURSE PROJECT Your Name Student No.

2. Cianne and Mitchell live in the same small B.C. town they both grew up in. He works in a local pulp mill, and she is in university upgrading her education to be a teacher. When Cianne decided to go back to school, her parents offered to help care for the two children, picking them up from school, xing dinner, and doing anything to support the family. Now that she is in her last year of school, Cianne has just discovered that the breast cancer her mom battled a few years ago has come out of remission and cancer is now present in her moms lungs as well. Although the doctor has given her mom a poor prognosis, she has chosen to undergo chemotherapy in hope of another remission. Should her condition continue to deteriorate, the family has been told to consider palliative care. a. List at least two major issues that are affecting this family currently, or might in the future, as a direct result of their current situation. (2 marks) 1.


b. How might stress be affecting the individual family members? Choose two different members and summarize how each of them might be reacting to this stressful situation. (4 marks) 1.