Yew believes that it is better for a leader to be feared than love. “If nonody is afraid of me, I am meaningless,” said the man who governed Singapore from 1959 to 1990. The former Singaporean leader also believes that it is not necessary to tell everything to the people at all time. “My job is to persuade my people to the right way. And sometimes, it may be necessary not to tell them all the facts because it will scare them.” Lee says also that he has “never been concerned or obsessed with opinion polls or popularity poll.” He believes that a leader who is concerned with his popularity is a weak leader. Lee is credited with developing Singapore from a mere British trading outpost into one of the world’s richest countries. Lee is a lawyer who studied in Britain. After thirty years of power, Lee rEsigned and turned over his position to Prime Minister Go . At present, Lee is a senior minister in the Singaporean government. English Workbook (Macabenta) LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. What kind of leader is Lee Kwan Yew? What are some of the beliefs of Lee Kwan Yew? Why is it not good for a leader to tell everything to his people according to Lee Kwan Yew? Do you agree with the beliefs of Mr. Yew? Why? How many years did Lee Kwan Yew governed Singapore? NOUNS


Nouns are names of persons, places, things, ideas, or state of being. Everything that can be seen by our naked eyes is noun. Proper nouns are the specific names of nouns and start with a capital letter while common nouns refer to gneral names of nouns and start with a small letter. Noun Gender Nouns like father or mother, rooster or hen, indicate whether the person or animal is male or female. This sex distinction in nouns is called gender of which there are four categories: 1. Nouns which denote males belong to the masculine gender. Actor king stag 2. Nouns which denote females belong to the fiminine gender. Mistress wife hen a. The feminine gender may be formed from the masculine by adding –ess. God-goddess heir-heiress priest-priestess Lion-lioness emperor – empress giant-giantess b. Gender may also be expressed by the addition of certain words connoting the masculine or feminine before the noun. Boy friend male cousin lady doctor c. Gender may be expressed by a different word. Sir – madam bull- cow dog –bitch 3. Nouns that refer to objects without life are in the neuter gender. Barangay vinta sea land 4. Nouns which can be either masculine or feminine belong to the common gender. Baby child helper With regards to nouns in this category, there sometimes are for living thing – three words, one masculine, one feminine, and one for common gender. 1

Masculine Father Brother Stallion Boar SOMETHING TO DO

Feminine mother sister mare sow sibling

Commom parent horse pig

A. Substitute the opposite gender of the underlined noun: 1. There was no priest in the parish. 2. No emperor ruled the Philippines. 3. A king ruled the kingdom. 4. The sons of the rulers were considered freemen. 5. The rajah’s child was a prince. 6. If a datu had no son, his nephew might succeed him. 7. There were no stage actors in primitive society. 8. There were shepherds of small flocks. 9. Aprince gave fine stallions as gifts to the emperor. 10. The early Filipinos believed in many gods. B. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate noun. Male Fmale Offspring 1. bull cow ___________ 2. ___________ doe ___________ 3. ___________ hen ___________ 4. boar __________ piglet 5. ___________ hen ___________ 6. ___________ goose ___________ 7. stallion __________ ___________ 8. tiger __________ ___________ 9. ___________ duck ___________ 10. lion __________ ___________ THE SCRIBE IN ME List down at least ten (10) qualities of a good leader. Underline all nouns used.


A FABLE THE DONKEY IN THE LION’S SKIN Wandering through the forest one day, a donkey found a lion’s kin. “How magnificient!” he said to himself. He put it on and turned around “Ah! How grand I look!” He set off to find the other animals. They would really admire him in his new lion’s skin. Soon he found his friend, the cow. She quitely eating grass in the meadow. “Look at me! I’m a lion!” the donkey brayed at the cow. “I’m the king of the animals. Hee-haw! Hee-haw!” “How stu-u-u-pid” the cow moved. “You may think you look like him! But as soon as you open your mouth, silly, everyone can tell you’re a donkey!” LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. Is it right for the donkey to wear the lion’s skin? Why? 2. Why is it that the cow called the donkey stupid? FOCUS ON FORM : PERSONAL PRONOUNS Cas es Per son 1st 2nd 3rd Ma scul ine Fe min ine Neu ter Nominative Singular d You He She It Plural We You They Objective Singular Me You Him Her It Plural Us You Them Possessive Singular My, mine Your, yours His/her Hers It Plural Our, ours Your, yours Their/theirs

SOMETHING TO DO A. Rewrite the text below. Replace the nouns need to be replaced by pronouns.

Alice’s older sister Marrieta appears to be brighter than Alice. Marrieta is a consistent honoe student; Alice is not. Marrieta has special talents too. Marrieta writes for the school paper. Marrieta has a part-time as a receptionist in a telegraph office. In the other hand, Alice goes home after class and helps her mother with the household chores. Alice observes that her parent’s attention is always on Marrieta. Their parents talk to Marrieta about their plans for sending Marrieta to a college in Manila. Alice is beginning to feel that there is a favoritism in the family. Alice feels that she is no longer loved. This has make Alice unhappy. _________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________ 3

_________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________________ B. Put in the correct pronouns needed in each sentence.

1. We have a lot of problems. Could _______ help ________? 2. Have you read the story? How did you like ___________? 3. Marina’s uncle gave ___________ a fine present for Christmas.__________ thanked ________ very much for the gift. 4. Patricia was very proud of _____________ new dress._____________ mother made _________. 5. In this Rafael’s towel? No _______ did not bring me. That’s not ________. THE SCRIBE IN ME : Write a compostion telling about youreself. Suggested title : ‘ALL ABOUT MY LIFE”


LAUGHTER, THE BEST MEDICINE DON COJAZZI says that the best place to discover people’s temperament is in a cheap restaurant. Or, to be exact, in a cheap restaurant where a thirsty man who has ordered a glass of beer, brought to him with a big fly struggling in it. Is a customer an Englishman? He puts the glass down the table; calmly rings the bell and calmly orders; “Another glass of beer, cool, and clean, please.” Having drunk the beer, he pays and goes out, neither moved or upset. If anyone is upset, it is the waiter, not because of the fly but because of the tip he didn’t receive. Is the glass of beer served to a Frenchman? He sees the fly and goes mad. He slams down the glass, swears and shouts at the owner and the waiters, goes out slamming the door and in the street continues on ranting against the restaurant, the beer and the fly. An Italian comes in, looks at the fly, and smilingly flicks his middle finger at it to chase it off the surface of the beer. He jokes with the waiter: “Look, I asked you for a drink and you’ve brought me something to eat.” But he drinks it all just the same and leaves, forgetting to pay the bill. Now it’s the turn of the German. He sees the fly, raised the glass to the height of his nose and frown, shuts his eyes, put back his head a little, and being highly disciplined, sends down both the beer and the fly in a single gulp. Last of all the Eskimo. He is much amused to see the fly in the foam of the beer and take out his eyeglasses, so wholly taken up with the sight of the fly in the foam of the beer. He’s never seen a fly before and thinks that the one before him is a favorite local delicacy – a specialty. So he eats the fly and throws away the beer. LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. What are the different reactions shown by different men of different nationalieties to the presence of the fly in their drinks? 2. Where is the punchline in the joke above in each set of jokes? 3. If you were the the to find a fly in your drink in a restaurant what will you do? FOCUS ON FORM : ACTION VERBS

An action verb is a verb that tells what action someone or something is performing. In the following examples, the verbs tell what actions has been or are being performed by Henry and Marianne. Henry painted the chair . Marianne watered the plants. The person or thing that performs the action is called the subject of the verb. In the above exampless, Henry and Marianne are the subjects. Verbs such as painted, watered, shouted and moves represent visible action. Some action verbs however, represent mental actions. When people forget or believe, they are forming mental actions. Mental actions - Jefferson thought about the problem. Other verbs such as sleep or relax also seem to show little action, but they are still action verbs.


SOMETHING TO DO a. Underline all action verbs in the sentence. 1. Guia quickly turned the pages of the book. 2. He encoded his report in the computer. 3. The teacher discussed poetry in the class. 4. The teacher, as well as her students sing the national anthem. 5. The bank robbers fled from the scene in a get-away car. 6. Christopher shut the door of their classroom. 7. The wind whispers the sweetness of God’s love. 8. or screams out the might of God’s justice. 9. The ocean roars mightily of God’s power. 10. Look at the most beautiful sunset in the world. b. Underline the verb once if it is visible action and twice if it is mental. 1. Celine sings a melodious song. 2. Concepcion worries about the new price of oil. 3. Lara daydreams during classes. 4. Fiction writers imagined their characters. 5. I just nod my head in approval. 6. Aga sat beside Charlene . 7. I soon remembered the formula. 8. If only Owen knows the truth. 9. Do you believe in reincarnation. 10. I salute you! c. On each sentence, add an action verb on the blank. Then label each visible or mental. Example: _______ The stars _________ in the sky. Visible The stars twinkled in the sky. _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ THE SCRIBE IN ME Supposing I am a stranger of Tagum City, please give me the directions how to locate your house. Point of origin : Your school.. 1. They ________ about life on the planet Mars. 2. Someone ________ it was almost midnight. 3. The ping-pong ball ________ of the table. 4. The witches ______ their terrible brew. 5. A dog house _______ its occupant from the rain. 6. Why don’t you _______ for a minute? 7. No one ______ the dismal weather. 8. The carpenter _______ the pine boards. 9. The waitress ______ at the soggy mess. 10. How did the pilot _____ where to land?


STRUCTURE OF A VIRUS A virus us a poisonous substance that can transmit specific diseases. It is made of nucleic acid and protein. It is not a cell. Nucleic acid, either as DNA or RNA, is the center, or core of a virus. A coat protein surrounds this core. Viruses are so small that they can be seen only with the help of an electron microscope. Photographs of viruses, enlarge to more than 100,000 times have been made with the aid of an electron microscope. These pictures show that viruses can be rod like, spherical, or hexagonal in shape. A hexagonal virus has a tail or stalk. Viruses may be spread from an infected organism to a healthy organism. Viruses reproduce only when in or on living material. Therefore, to study viruses, it is necessary to grow them in living tissue. Viruses have been seen in the laboratory on chick embryos and other kinds of living tissues. Discovery of the polio virus was made in experiments with viruses in monkey kidney tissues. How does a virus infect its host? When a virus enters a cell, it takes over the cell. The virus becomes the “master”, and the cell becomes the “slave”. The normal activities of the cell – the cell begins producing only more viruses. Eventually, the cell bursts and releases the new viruses. Eventually, the cell bursts and releases the new viruses. Once released, the new viruses can infect other cells. Viruses have been described as genes in search of a cell. They search for a cell that allows them to reproduce. Genes in a normal cell are DNA molecules that control the cell’s life activities. Virus DNA acts like a gene when inside a healthy cell. Virus DNA takes control of the cell away from the cell’s own genes. It acts like a gene by controlling the cell’s chemical reactions. Skill Builders for Efficient Reading Phoenix Learning Package, pp. 128-129 LET’S TALK ABOUT IT Put a check mark before each correct statement: a. A virus is made of nucleic acid and protein. b. Some viruses can be seen with the unaided eye. c. A virus is not a cell. d. Viruses may be spread from one infected organism to another. Check all the accurate descriptions of a virus. a. small. b. Rod-like, spherical, or hexagonal c. Always has a tail or a stalk. d. Can change its shape FOCUS ON FORM: VERB PHRASE A verb phrase is a main verb plus one or more helping verbs.. Helping verbs are verbs that can be added to another verb to make a single verb phrase. Helping verbs are often called auxiliary verbs or auxiliaries because they add meaning to other verbs. As many as three helping verbs may precede the main verb in a verb phrase. Single verb : I wrote a song today. Verb Phrases : I will write a song today. I should have written a song today. This song might have been written by me. Notice in the following examples that a verb phrase is interrupted by other words. 7

Mr. Marfil can surely help you with your math problem. Shouldn’t you go with us? THE FORMS OF BE (HELPING VERBS) Am Are Is Was Were am being are being is being was being were being can be could be may be might be must be Shall be Should be Will be Would be have been has been had been could have been may have been might have been must have been should have been will have been Would have been

HELPING VERBS OTHER THAN BE Do Does Did have has had shall should will Would can could may might Must

SOMETHING TO DO Directions: Find the verb phrase in each sentence: 1. Dr. Lilly, a scientist from California has been experimenting with dolphins for more that 20 years. 2. He has hade some curious claims about them. 3. Dolphins may have developed larger brains than humans. 4. Their language may contain at least 50,000 words. 5 Their brains can handle four conversations at one time. 6. They can also judge between right and wrong. 7. They can even communicate among themselves. 8. They can use series of clicks, buzz and whistles. 9. Some of these sounds are discharged 700 times a second. 10 .An average person’s liver can weigh three and a half pounds. 11 .Chewing gum was first produced in 1848. 12. A mother bird may feed its fledglings over l,200 times a day. 13. Yawning is commonly caused by lack of air in the lungs. 14. The Coliseum in Rome was originally known as the Flavian Amphitheater. 15. Ulysses S. Grant was actually christened Hiram Ulysses Grant THE SCRIBE IN ME Explain how viruses reproduce.


A Moorish wedding begins with a procession. First come the musicians playing shrill pipes and bearig small drums like tambourines. Then come the bearded elders of the bride family, some of them limping and supported by canes. These are followed by a woman dressed in red and white striped cloth bearing aloft green and yellow candles. Next come more musicians followed by a group of eight men carrying a paper box on long poles. The box is heavy because it contains the bride, who is carried to the home of her fiance where the marriage will take place. The bride and groom have never seen each other. When the bride arrives at the house, there is nobody there except a female Negro servant who lifts her out of the box because her fet must not touch the ground. The groom himself is not at home; she waits until he arrives. She may have to wait for a long time. When he comes in, the two eat together alone while the members of the family wait outside, shrieking and pounding out loud music. This is the bride’s one and only meal with her husband; ever afterwards whe will eat only with the women. For the rest of her life, she is her husband’s slave; she almost never goes out of the house; she will not be alowed to go out more than once or twice all her lifetime. She will not go to see members of her family even if they live in the same town. Once a year, with her husband’s consent, her mother might visit her. To the Moslem Moors, there is no courtship before marriage. All is arranged by the fathers. Usually, the father of the groom looks arouund to size up available young ladies from thirteen to fifteen years old. Then, after having made a choice, he goes to the girl’s father and arrange all matters pertaining to the wedding. The arrangement is mainly financial. The groom’s father pays the girl’s father whatever sum is agreed upon. The engagement may last for months. During this period, the girl is deliberately fattened because to the Moroccans, plumpness is fashionable. The Moorish ideal of beauty in women is plumpness, a very small nose, a tiny mouth and eyes as big as possible. A Moslem can have only a maximum of four legal wives and he must treat them equally and their children equally. However, he can have as many slave concubines as he can afford. LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. Give as many interesting details as you can about a Moorish wedding. 2. Why do you suppose Moorish girls marry so young? 3. If you were forced to marry a man or a woman whom you have never met before what will you do? FOCUS ON FORM : TRANSITIVE AND INTRANSITIVE VERBS An action verb is transitive if it directs action toward someone or something named in the same sentence. An action verb is intransitive if t does not direct action toward someone or something named in the same sentence. The word that receives the action of a transitive verbis called the object of the verb. In the following examples, picture is the object of took, and something is the object of baked. The camera took clear pictures. . Irene baked something for the party. Intransitive verbs do not have objects. The action is not directed toward any noun or pronoun in the sentence. Intransitive The wind blew gently over the fields and lands. Kent smiled happily. Transitive:


To find out whether a verb in a sentence is transitive or intransitive, ask Whom? Or What after the verb. If there is an answer, the verb is transitive. If there is no answer, the verb is intransitive. Transitive Intransitive SOMETHING TO DO Directions: Identify whether the verb is transitive or intransitive: 1. Eagles keep the same nest throughout their lives. 2. A human eye winks in one fortieth of a second 3. The Empire State building has 6,400 windows. 4. Michael Jordan broke three Olympic records. 5. The papers scattered all over the lawn. 6. The trees blew gently in the breeze. 7. The bird cage swung from a golden chain. 8. Suddenly, lightning struck the massive acacia tree... 9. Jenny quickly turn the pages. 10. My brother always drives carefully. 11. She usually visits her nephews on Saturdays. 12. For a few extra pesos a week, she sells used clothing. 13. Kissy combed her hair before the dance. 14. Minerals are chemical elements or compounds of different chemicals. 15. The making of a writer takes years of painstaking work. 16. I wrote about imagined experiences of body and mind. 17. I even carefully plotted the compelling beginning, the anti-climax or the hearthbreaking climax. 18. I discovered that the actual process of writing was easy. 19. I wrote about my friends and myself. 20. I placed my characters in contemporary events. THE SCRIBE IN ME Write a first-person narrative of a famous person. Robert polished the shoes. (Polished what? Shoes) Lorraine waited for the bus. (Waited what? No answer)


Have you ever stopped to wonder what causes natural phenomena such as thunderstorm, a long dry spell, and a bright full moon? A person with a questioning mind has the potential of a scientist. However, even if you may not be drawn to a career in science, your natural curiosity can help you discover a lot of things. The science laboratory, your garden, the vast open fields and the library can serve as your observatories. Here is a lesson which provides you the opportunity to think and work scientificaly. As you go through it, try to learn to observe cause and effect relationships through your reading, listening, writing an discussion activities. This skill will help you distinguish facts from superstition. Learning Experience A : Remedios was asked to prepare some fish balls for the high school fair. Here’s how she did it. She scraped the meat of fleshy fish like torcillo or dalagang bukid. She mixed 1 tbsp. salt, 2 tbsp. flour, ½ tbsp backing powder, and ¾ cup water for evry kilo of fish meat. She mixed the ingredients througly. She formed the miture into balls. She allowed the fish balls to come to the surface. (This was a sign that the fish balls were done and ready for frying or storing.) LET’S TALK ABOUT IT Can you rewrite the procedure without mentioning the doer. Let’s try it! GRAMMAR IN FOCUS : ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE The passive form of the verb has definite uses: 1. . When the action is more important than the doer; 2. When the doer of the action is not known; 3. and when the doer of the actiuon is known but shouldnot be mentioned. There are two things to remember about the form of the verb in the passive construction. a) When the sentence is changed from active to passive (and vice versa) the verb does not change in tense. b) The verb form in the passive construction is composed of the auxiliary verb be in the appropriate tense + the past participle of the principal verb. Active Mike introduced the new manager. Passirve Eric Hoffer writes with conviction Use the passive voice to emphasize the receiver of the action rather than the performer of the action. Rceiver emphasized : Prformer unknown : Prformer Unimportant: SOMETHING TO DO: Identify each verb as active or passive. ___________ 1. His bizarre behavior was ridiculed by his peers. ___________ 2. This new film is praised by the critics for its honesty. ___________ 3. Chow King is opening a new branch in Tagum City. ___________ 4. Reporters swarmed around the scene of the crime. ___________ 5. By tonight the letter will have been read by the board. ___________ 6. The letter was typed by Greg on his new word processor. ___________ 7. The activities about the school opening will be posted at the gate. 11 Emmanuel was shocked by the remark. A bicycle was abandoned near the hospital. Te car will be sold

___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________

8. Diane will have returned from her vacation by now. 9. A Brazilian architect designed this building. 10. The winner was given a certificate by the mayor. 11. Billy is being called up for duty. 12. You must study your lessons very well before the test. 13. The judge gave the suspect a harsh sentence. 14. This wildlife sanctuary protects the butterflies. 15. Those trees in front of the finance office was plated by Emmy

b. CHANGE the following sentences to passive voice. Model : he store will deliver the canned goods immediately. he canned goods will be delivered by the store immediately. . 1. His mother disallowed him as a punishment. 2. Someone has taken my book. 3. We heard the cries of children in the distance 4. The shot frightened the child. 5. The voters will forget the sins of the candidates after a few weeks. 6. People almost everywhere can speak English. 7. We will discuss the problem when we meet again. 8. He has deposited his money in the nearest bank. 9. They have not sen him for over a year. 10. The publisher has published the offender lightly. 1. ________________________________________________________________ 2. __________________________________________________________________ 3. __________________________________________________________________ 4. __________________________________________________________________ 5. __________________________________________________________________ 6. __________________________________________________________________ 7. __________________________________________________________________ 8. __________________________________________________________________ 9. __________________________________________________________________ 10. __________________________________________________________________ THE SCRIBE IN ME Write these sentences highlighting the event and not the doer. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. thermometer, Galileo galilei, inventor reflecting telescope, Isaac Newton, invented in 1668 1709 – somebody invented the piano gas light, invented in1792 Alessandro Volta, inventor of the electric battery, 1880 sewing machine, invented 1830 radar, first used 1925 1947, the polaroid camera, invented


1. Butterflies taste with their hind legs. 2. Elephants are the only animals that can’t jump 3. An ostrich’s eye is bigger than its brain.. 4. A snail sleeps as much as three years. 5. A duck’s quack doesn’t echo. And no one knows why. 6. Animals die more quickly from lack of sleep than from lack of food. 7. Women blink nearly twice as much as men. 8. You cannot lick your own elbow. 9. Our eyes are always the same size from birth. 10. Our nose and ears never stop growing. Scary!!! 11. The electric chair was invented by a dentist. Imagine!!! 12. No word in English rhymes with ‘MONTH.’ 13. TYPEWRITER is the longest word that can be made using the letters only on one row of the keyboard. 14. The cigarette lighter was invented before the match. 15. Almost everyone who reads this email will try to lick their elbow. GRAMMAR IN FOCUS : SUBJECT/ VERB AGREEMENT One basic principle applies to this lesson: VERB MUST AGREE WITH ITS SUBJECT IN NUMBER. Rule 1 - A singular subject takes a singular verb. Example: He was very talkative at the meeting. Rule 2 - A plural subject takes a plural verb. Example: They were very talkative at the meeting. Rule 3 - When subjects are joined by AND or BOTH/AND, the verb is plural, whether the subject is singular, plural or a combination of singular and plural. Example: Jack and Jill are on the hill. Both the chairs and table in Pinky’s room are painted pink. Exception: When two subjects are joined by AND refer to only one person, or the same thing, the verb is singular. Example: The owner and manager of Monterey Farms reports at 7:00 a.m. daily. Rule 4 - When the subject consists of two or more singular nouns or pronouns connected by OR, or NOR, use a singular verb. Example: Is Jenny or James joining the game? Neither Jenny nor James is joining the game. Rule 5 - When one of the two subjects connected by OR, NOR or BUT is singular and the other is plural, the verb agrees in number with the nearer one. Example: Neither Celia nor her lawyers were there. Neither her lawyers nor Celia was there. Rule 6 - The agreement of verb with its subject is not changed by any interrupting words such as, together with, as well as, in addition to, including the, along with, etc. Example: The captain, together with seven of his men, was captured by the terrorists. Rule 7 - When the word EVERY or EACH comes before a compound subject whose parts are joined by AND, a singular verb is called for since each subject is considered separately. Example: Each student and a teacher is required a flowerpot. Rule 8 - A verb must agree in number with an indefinite pronoun used as a subject. Singular: anybody either neither somebody anyone everyone nobody no one each everybody someone Plural : both few many several Examples: Everyone in the room is a member of the debating club. Many were late during the transport strike. Rule 9 - When a sentence is introduced by the expletive There or the adverb Here, the verb agrees with the following subject. Example: Here is your money. 13

There are no other methods suggested. Rule 10 - The subject and the verb of inverted sentence must agree in number Example: At the end of that winding road are two bamboo bridges. Rule 11 - A collective noun subject requires a singular verb that is thought of as a unit, it requires a plural verb when it is thought of as individuals. Example: The committee is planning to hire a band. The committee are unable to agree on the kind of band to hire. Rule 12 - When the sentence is introduced by the phrase The number, it requires a singular verb. Example: The number of dropouts has decreased. Rule l3 - When the sentence is introduced by the phrase A number, it requires a plural verb. Example: A number of candidates are coming to school. Rule 14 - Unit of measurement or weight usually requires a singular verb. Example: Twenty pesos is more than enough for a day’s allowance. Rule 15 - Certain subject/nouns ending in S, plural in form but singular in meaning, needs singular verbs such as: Mathematics, physics, gymnastics, economics, politics, geriatrics, statistics, politics, etc. Example: To some, politics is a way of life. Rule 16 - Use plural verb with such noun as shears, scissors, pants, trouser, pliers, etc. Example: His pants are too short for him. SOMETHING TO DO Direction: Underline the correct form of the verb in parenthesis: 1. Only 4 minutes (is, are) left of our timThe first step to attain change in our society (is, are) evaluating and assessing ourselves. 2. There (is, are) no second chances for those who are always late. 3. The house made of bricks (was, were) sold a month ago. 4. The craters of the moon (is, are) visible through a low-powered microscope. 5. Shape, as well as size, (helps, help) determine the value of a pearl. 6 .Many of the students (prefers, prefer) shorter homeroom periods. 7. Neither the president nor his aides (was, were) prepared for such a warm welcome. 8. A kilo of sugar and a bottle of vinegar (is, are) on the table. 9. The enrolment is most public schools (increases, increase) every year 10.The members of the committee (is , are) investigating the matter. 11. Measles ( is, are) considered as one of the childhood diseases. 12. A flock of pigeon (appears, appear) after every storm. 13. Normally, a whale’s heart (beats, beat) only 9 times per minute 14. Neither of his sisters (likes, like) his girlfriend. 15. Thirty six meters (is, are) one yard. 16. In some parts of the world people (lives, live) in boats in rivers. 17. A number of minorities (lives, live) in China’s fishing village. 18. The lifestyle of the farm families (differs, differ) from that of their ancestors. 19. The head of the family, including all the members of the family (works, work) in the field. 20. A sewing machine with all its accessories and frills (was, were) transferred to the H.E. building. THE SCRIBE IN ME Write the activities you and the members of your family perform on Monday mornings. HOW’S YOUR SPEECH?


Read these words with primary stress on the first syllable Secondary dictate Literature Adversary Category government architecture talented Territory Centimeter Capitalist Communism LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. Do some words shift their primary stress when a prefix or a suffix is added? 2. Can you give examples of these words? FOCUS ON FORM : SUFFIXES AND PREFIXES carton infamous paganism locate menu deficit colleague personal laboratory comfortable nationalism secretary merchandize ceremony impious mediocre eligible reasoning lamentable oligarchy noticeable hospitable honorable serviceable

We can affix to form a Noun, Verb, Adjective or Adverb. refixes and suffixes produced a new word and another meaning. A. Noun Suffixes NESS - kindness, belongness ING - accounting, managing MENT - retirement, accomplishment TY / ITY - maternity, propriety ER / OR - director, teacher, falterer EE - employee, payee IST - pianist, psychiatrist ANCE / ENCE - attendance, dependence ION/TION/SION - demotion, interruption, explosion ANT/ENT - attendant, pediatrician ATION / ITION - recommendation, demolition B. Verb Suffixes – ading IZE or EN to an adjective IZE - organize, popularize EN - enlighten, shorten C. Adjective Suffixes – formed from nouns FUL - forceful, grateful OUS - hazzardous, odorous AL - experimental, dental LY - lovely, purely IVE - inquisitive, inductive ABLE / IBLE - destructible, dependable Y - hairy, funny, slippery IC - terrific, therapeutic LY - consistency, fairly

D. Common Prefixes ANTI (against) - antidote, antipode 15

MIS (wrong) - misinterpret, misunderstanding RE (again) - repaint, revamp MINI (small) - miniforest, minilibrary POST (after) - postgraduate, postscript PRE (before) - prenatal, predominant SEMI (half) - semicircle, semiconscious SUPER (big) - supernatural, supersonic INTER (between) - intercession, intercostal OVER (too much) - overcant, overflow E. Negative Prefixes IN - injustice, insane IR - irregular, irration NON - nontoxic, non entity DIS - disregard, dismantle IM - immigrant, impostor IL - illusion, illiterate SOMETHING TO DO Give the basewords and the affixes of the following words. Some affixes don’t give more meaning and mark the words as nouns, verbs, adjectives or adverbs. Follow the frist one as an example. AFFIX Verb Adjective

Word 1.debtor 2. management 3. sporty 4. helpful 5. electrician 6. frighten 7. musical 8.

Baseword Debt

Noun Or


THE SCRIBE IN ME List at least twenty (20) words with primary stress on the first syllable. Choose words either with a prefix or a suffix.



Love is gentle – love is quiet Like any distant star; Love is beauty, love is music Soothing as night winds are. Love is patient and unselfish Divine, true, neutral – fair – Love is ageless and immortal Lost love is just somewhere … And the heart that love abandons Nurses a tender scar Softly stabbing, and yet sweetly Soothing as night winds are. Salvador B. Espinas LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. What words does the author use to describe love? 2. To what things is love compared? 3. Cite instances to show that : a. Love is patient b. Love is unselfish c. Love is ageless d. Love is gentle e. Love is soothing FOCUS ON FORM : ADJECTVES An adjective modifies, describes or linit noun or pronoun. Kinds of Adjectives A. Limiting – sets limit • I own (many, several, few, handful, enugh) during paraphernalia. B. Descriptive – describes qualities of nouns or pronouns • understanding father, clumsy teener, responsible guy C. Pronominal – noun or pronoun used as modifier * Rico’s foundation, Claudine’s suitor, my friend, that problem D. Noun modifying adjective – proper and common noun used to modify another noun. * Chinese restaurant, labor sector, French fries, Friday sickness E. Compound adjective – is made up of two or more words to form into one and used before the es. * It was an honest –to-goodness mistake committed by Raul. * His tongue is like a twin-bladed sword. Position of Adjectives There are two places where we can use an adjective: before a noun (a deligent student) and after a linking verb (Joy is lovable). We can use most adjectives in both positions – before a noun or after a linking verb. But few adjectives can go in one position but not in the other.


Adjectives before a noun – main, only, indoor, former, chief, elder, eldest, inner, outdoor, outer, principal, upper Adjectives after a linking verb – asleep, alike, please, ill, afraid, alone, ashamed, awake, alive,content (happy) fine, (in good health, glad, unwell, well SOMETHING TO DO a. Complete the table by writing the adjective that can be used to describe the given nouns. Choose the words from the list below. Child Playful Weather Hot meat fresh examination easy

Sunny Frozen Chilly Playful Semestral

thoughtful mischievous stormy difficult final

fair easy chopped tender talented

clever hot fresh minced long

Direction; Underline the adjective s) in the sentence and identify its kind. 1. Eduardo sailed the small boat on the calm lake. 2. The Visayan people talk in fascinating manner. 3. I attended my friend’s wedding. 4. She puts enough sugar in her coffee. 5. The rare Kalaw is a big-dense-forest bird. 6. The third President was a good man. 7. Filipino hospitality is known around the world. 8. We’ve eatern our lunch in a Japanese restaurant. 9. Ten barrios sent lively marchers. 10. Did you notice his bright eyes and his tanned face? THE SCRIBE IN ME Write an article which describes your favorite teacher in the elementary. Underline all the adjectives that you will use.



The Greeks believed that the gods chose Mount Olympus, in a region of Greece called Thessaly (Thessalia), as their home. On Olympus, te gods formed a society that ranked them in terms of authority and powers. However, the gods could roam freely, and individual gods became associated ith three main domains – the sky or heaven, the sea, the earth. The l2 chief gods, usually called the Olympians, were Zeus, Hera, Hephaestus, Athens, Apollo, Artemis, Ares, Aphrodite, Hestia, Hermes, Demeter, and Poseidon. Zeus was the head of the gods, and the spiritual father of gods and people. His wife, Hera, was the queen of heaven and the guardian of marriage. Other gods associated with heaven were Hephaestus, god of fire and metal workers; Athena, goddess of wisdom and war; and Apollo, god of light, poetry, and music. Artemis, goddess of wildlife and the moon; Ares, god of war; and Aphrodite, goddess of love, ere ther gods of heaven. They were joined by Hestia, the goddes of the hearth; and Hermes, messenger of th gods and ruler of science and invention. Poseidon was the ruler of the sea, who with his wife, Amphitrite, led a group of less important sea gods, such as the Nereids and Tritons. Demeter, the goddess of agriculture was associated with the earth. Hades, an important god but not generally considered an Olympian, ruled the underworld, where he lived with his wife, Persephone. The underworld was a dark and mournful place located at the center of the earth. It was populated by the souls of people who had died. Dionysus, god of wine and pleasure, was among the most popular gods. The Greejs devoted many festivals to this eathly god, and in some regions he became as important as Zeus. He often was accompanied by a host of fanciful gods, including satyrs, centaurs, and nymphs. Satyrs were creatures with the legs of a goat and the upper body of a monkey or human. Centaurs had the head and torso of a man and the body of a horse. The beautiful and charming nymphs wanted woods and forests. LET’S TALK ABOUT IT Summarize the text in five sentences. FOCUS ON FORM : COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES We form the comparative and superlative of short adjectives (e.g. nice) and long adjectives (e.g. beautiful) in different ways. * One or two-syllable adjectives (e.g. , short,cute) usually have the er, -est ending. Your cellphone is smaller. Cruz family needs a bigger house. This is the shortest stick that I have seen. You are the smartest girl here in our campus. * But e use more – most before words ending in ed. Everyone was pleased with the result of the test but Mr. Canuto was the most pleased. * We also use more, most with three-syllable adjectives (e.g. exciting) and with longer ones. Humorous movies are more exciting to watch than horror ones. Mr. Ramos is the most eligible bachelor in town. • However, some two-syllable adjectives may end with er, est, or moremost, as provided by the information below. 1. Words ending in a consonant +Y have er, est; Happy –happier – happiest e.g. busy, dirty, heavy, funny,lovely, wacky, pretty, silly. 2. Some words have er-est or more-most: narrow – narrower – narrowest or more narrow – most narrow e.g. gentle, common, clever, polite, quiet, simple, stupid, tired, 3. The following words have more-most e.g. useful – more useful – most useful 19

3.a. Words ending in ful or less: helpful, careful, useful, hopeless, careless 3.b. Words ending in ing or ed; willing, boring, surprised, annoyed 3.c. Many others : certain, correct, afraid, eager, exact, famous, foolish, frequent, modern, nervous, normal, recent; * Good, well, bad and far have irregular form: good/well better best bad worse worst far farther/further farthest/furthest * We use more-most and their opposites less-least to compare quantities I have more books than you. Manila Hotel has the most rooms. Chona spends less on jewelries than Rachel does. Lei committed the least mistakes among the contestants. SOMETHING TO DO a. Fill in the blanks with the correct form of the adjective in parenthesis. l. Joy is ________ (tall) than Grace. 2. Manila is ________ (small) than New York. 3. Boys are _________( fast) runners than girls. 4. The University of Sto. Tomas is _______ (old) than University of Visayas. 5. This dress is ______( pretty) than that one. 6. That mountain is the _______ (high) of all. 7. She is _______(old) than most of bust but she feels _______(young). 8. The Philippine Deep is the _________(deep) part of the Pacific Ocean. 9. Is thre a ________(large) table than this one. 10. This is the ________(funny) story I have read. B. Write sentences from the notes below. Use the superlative degree of comparison. (2 points each). Example : Carol/careful/file clerk in the office. Answer : Carol is the most careful file clerk in the office. 1. The successful/secretary/was trained here. _____________________________________________________________________________ 2. Minda/skillful/teacher/I’ve ever known. _____________________________________________________________________________ 3. He can work/fast/ of all the operators. _____________________________________________________________________________ 4. Roy/buy/small/cellphone. _____________________________________________________________________________ 5. Yesterday /was unforgettable day/in my life. _____________________________________________________________________________ THE SCRIBE IN ME Write five sentences comparing the lifestyle of Filipino students before with the students nowadays.


INFORMATION GENRE CIGARETTES MAY PROMOTE BLINDNESS Not that you needed another reason to avoid smoking, but in case cancer, heart disease and bad breath aren’t reasons enough, two new studies offer one: blindness. Writing in last week’s journal of the Americal Medical Association, a pair of Boston-based research teams strongly link cigarette smoking to “age-related mascular degeneration” (AMD). A degenerative eye conditin that is the leading cause of blindness in older Americans. In the first study, researchers follow 32,000 female nurses for 12 years, periodically checking their smoking habits and health status. Those puffing at least 25 cigarettes a day suffered two and a half times the AMD rate of those who had never smoked. Women who had quit developed the condition at twice the rate of thse who had never smoked. The second study tracked 21,000 male physicians and gound a similar pattern. As in the nurse’s study, a pack-a-day smokers developed AMD at two to three times the rate of “never smokers.”. But in this study, quitting eliminated most of the risk. No one knows how smoking promotes AMD; it my impede circulation or simply accelerates the aging of cells. Either way, the new study suggests one way to avoid it. Newsweek, October 21, 1996 LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. What is the selection all about? 2. What does the writer tell about cigarettes? 3. How does cigarette affects the health of a person? FOCUS ON FORM : KINDS OF ADVERB 1. Adverb of Time – Answers the question WHEN I have to attend the meeting tonight. 2. Adverb of Manner – answers the question HOW President Arroyo speaks bravely. 3. Adverb of Place – answers the question WHERE I’m leaving for Cebu. 4. Adverb of Frequency – answers the question HOW OFTEN I’m always lonely. 5. Adverb of degree – answers the questio HOW MUCH He is very friendly. 6. Adverb of Cause and Reason – answers the question WHY She is absent because she is sick. Other Adverbs: Interrogative adverb – how, when, where, why Negative adverb – no, not, never Connection and relation adverbs – however, why, nevertheless, furthermore Where, if, though, than, indeed, certainly *Adverbs never, always, sometimes, frequently, and usually come after the verbs is, are, was, were. They come before a single word verb, and they come betweenmmbers of a verb phrase.


A.Identify the kind of underlined adverb. (manner, time, place, frequency) _________1 The window will probably open if you press harder. _________2Mr. Cruz, the school head always arrives early. _________3. It is best to entertain the visitor here. _________4. Will you ever go to Rome to see the Pope? _________5. The students sing the National Anthem daily. _________6 ean Garcia is remarkably good in acting. _________7 Youre incredibly ridiculous! _________8 Do you like to move nearer to him? _________9 id the candidate for President deliver his speech well? ________ 10. Christine Hermosas’s career extends far. B.Underline the adverb and draw an arrow to the word it modifies. 1. The secretary performs his work deligently. 2. Have you always lived in Davao City? 3. Via arrives early during shooting schedules. 4. All the contestants for the speech choir were noticeably tensed. 5. Mary’s stepsisters treated her cruelly . 6. Princess Diana died in Parish brutality. 7. She opened the door rather cautiously. 8. Rosarymae studies much harder than her older sister. 9. Catherine quietly entered the room. 10. Shall I return the books today? C. Select the correct word to complete the sentences below. 1. The choir’s voices sounded (shrill, shrilly). 2. The old woman looked (sad, sadly). 3. They were left (entire, entirely) to our rescue. 4. Did grandma sleep (good, well) last night? 5. I heard her speak (secret, secretly) to that man. 6. The juice tastes (bitter, bitterly). 7. He had been behaving (mystery, mysteriously) these few days. 8. The teacher explained the lesson (patient, patiently). 9. Kairo singers sing on the stage at (night, nightly). 10. Marathon participants run (fast, fastly).


THE SCRIBE IN ME Write a short application in response to this newspaper ad: WANTED Counter sales attendants Qualitifications: -Must be high school graduate -Male or Female -16 to 20 years - knows how to speak English -a resident of Tagum City -must be of good scholastic record Submit applications with Form 137 and xerox copy of birth certificate to: Mrs. Roy Patrick S. Corpuz Marketing Manager Jolly and Kissy Fast Food Asia Avenue, Tagum City


I met God in the morning When my day was at its best; And His presence came like sunrise With a glory in my breast All day long His presence lingered All day long He stayed with me; And we sailed in perfect calmness O’er a very troubled sea. Other ships were blown and battered Other ships were sore distressed; But the wind that seems to drive them Brought us both peace and rest. Then I thought of other mornings With a keen remorse of mind, When I too, had loosed the moorings With the Presence left behind. So I think I know the secret Learned from many a troubled way: You must seek Him in the morning If you want Him through the day. Health and Home November-December 1998 LET’S TALK ABOUT IT Can we spend the first moments of each new day with God in personal secret prayer? Or, should we? FOCUS ON FORM : PREPOSITION

A preposition shows the relationship between its object and another word/s in a sentence. It may be in the form of one word or in a form of a phrase that functions as a unit. 1. 2. 3. 4. It shows direction and motion - He moves towards his target. It indicates a place or position - He placed the tray on the dining table. It indicates time - Just text me between 6:00 and 7:00 a.m. It shows comparison – They won the game along with the other team. for beside behind withoutoutide along with over besides alongside inside aside from below along with of

The most common prepositions are : To on in Under top beneath Underneath against across By off beyond As far as despite in spite of • • • •

IN – ON – IN – in general means beneath the surface. On means touching the surface The papers are in the drawer while the books are on the desk. ON – AT - In address, ON is used with the name of a street; At with the house number and street names. John lives on Hilario Avenue. 24

The mayor lives at No. 123, Cervantes St., Tagum City AT –IN – referring to location, AT ordinarily indicates a spcified location; In a location within a house, building, city, et. I’ll meet you at Scooby’s this afternoon. Mother is in the kitchen preparing lunch. We’ll meet you at the information desk, in the lobby of the hotel EXAMPLES: 1. She went to the store a while ago. 2. Our professor is from Phil. Normal University. 3. You can’t sit by the window. 4. The napkin is placed beside the plate. 5. You can easily jump over our fence. 6. Please don’t lean on the wall. 7. Mr. Reyes lives across the street from his office. 8. You can walk around the block for your daily exercise. 9. Lino took a short cut through the park. 10. That noisy group is coming up the street. 11. One can find a mini-grocery a few yards down the street. 12. Mary has to choose between two admirers. 13. What is money among friends? 14. Jim can’t go inside the laboratory without a uniform. 15. The ten beauty contestants in bathing suits paraded before the judges. 16. After the manager talked to them, the strikers agreed to end the strike. 17. Baguio, the summer capital is several hundred feet above sea level. 18. In contrast, Manila is below sea level. 19. Many treasures can be found at the bottom of the sea. 20. Diligent and intelligent students always stay at the head of the class. 21. The secretary walked into the office and gave the letters to her boss. 22. Many of the residents were able to run out of the crumbling building. 23. Local tourists go touring around the country by way of Friendship Highway. SOMETHING TO DO A: Underline the correct preposition/s inside the parenthesis: 1. Do you live (at, on) Rizal Avenue (in, on) Quezon City? 2. Mrs. Santos walked (in, into) the kitchen and placed the packages (on, over) the table. 3. My aunt is sitting (in, on) the sofa (in, at) the living room. 4. Dr. Smith, a visiting professor who is (from, of) London is staying (at,in) Excelsior Hotel. 5. The door was locked, so I shoved the letter (under, around) the door. 6. Your score (in, on) the examination is well (above, over) average. 7. Don’t forget to put your return address (in, on) the envelope. 8. While waiting (for, to) my plane flight, I took a leisurely walk (around, across) the airport station. 9. Jimmy leaned (near , against) the newly-painted wall and got his shirt smeared (by, with) paint. 10. My brother piled his books (above, on top of) his study table THE SCRIBE IN ME How do you show your faith in God?

• • •


The tails of birds and animals can also be useful appendages to their bodies. 2) Because of their tails, beavers can transmit a warning regarding impending danger. 3) With its rattle, a rattlesnake warns those around that they should watch where they are stepping. 4) Apart from protective use, tails can help animals with the more practical side of life. 5) Kangaroos and lizards would not move with such agility without their tails for balance. 6) With their long tails, wagtails, a kind of bird, disturb insects in the grass and tyhus secure their food. 7) In addition to these uses, tails also help many animals communicate during courtship. 8) A cayote holding his tail high above him is expressing interest in his mate. 9) Similarly, by means of his tail feathers, a male peacock displays his interest in front of the hen. 10) The swordtail, a fish often found in home aquariums, also uses his tail in a courtship dance. LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. How do beavers and rattlesnakes protect themselves? 2. How do cayotes, male peacocks and swordfish communited during courtship? 3. What other means do you know some animals protect themselves? GRAMMAR ON FOCUS : PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES A prepositional phrase begins with a preposition. It ends with a noun or pronoun called the object of the preposition. One preposition can have two or more objects. Common compound prepositions According to Ahead of Apart from As of Examples: 1. Margarette missed the bus by two minutes. 2. The book was placed between two wooden sticks. A sentence can give several prepositional phrases, and the phrases can come anywhere in the sentence. Examples: 1. Without a moment’s hesitation, the cat leaped through the open window. 2. In view /of the memorandum /from the office/ of the principal, afternoon classes will be suspended today. SOMETHING TO DO a. Underline all prepositional phrases in each sentence. 1. 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Everyone wecomes Christmas, the happiest holiday of the year. Miss Judith Magbanua of Silliman University is a psychology teacher. The security guards stationed at the gate of our school are courteous. Some patients recover from major operations quickly. Two forensic experts are arriving at the end of the month. The engineer adopts a new method in rice production. The leaves of the big tree in front of our house were scattered all around. Milk is not only a source of vitamins but also contains other food elements as calcium, protein and fat. 7. The race for nuclear supremacy will produce good and bad repercussions. 26 aside from because of by means of in addition to in front of in place of in spite of instead of in view of on account of

8. We often became involved in the issues and personalities of political candidate without our realizing it immediately. 9. Within the mountains of Sierra Madre, there is an unusual lake. 10. Orphaned in his teens, Manuel worked his way through high school and college C. Use the following prepositional phrases in the sentence: 1. about six o’clock 2. according to my father 3. by means of hard work 4. throughout the day 5. in spite of their sorrows 6. after school 7. despite the rain 8. during Saturdays 9. down the corridor 10. instead of . THE SCRIBE IN ME Pick out and write all prepositional phrases found in the paragraph. A MYSTERY BY AGATHA CHRISTIE 1) A nurse at a London hospital had a young girl in he ward. 2) None of the doctors could find a cure for her. 3) One day, before work, the nurse began reading another chapter of the book by Agatha Christie. 4) After several pages, she put the book into her bag and hurried to the hosspital for her duty. 5) According to the book, someone had taken a rare poison called thallium. 6) The descriptin of the victim’s symptoms exactly matched the symptoms of the young girl. 7) The nurse placed the book in front of the doctors. 8) She told them about her suspicion. 9) Within minutes the doctor prescribed a new series of treatments for the young girl. 10) Because of a mystery by Agatha Christie, a young girl’s life was saved. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30.



Once upon a time, all the colors in the world started to quarrel; each claimed that she was the best, the most important, the most useful, the most favorite. GREEN said: “Clearly I am the most important. I am the sign of life and of hope. I was chosen for grass, trees, leaves – ithout me all the animals would die. Look out over th countryside and you will see that I am the majority.” BLUE interrupted: “You only think about the earth, but consider the sky and the sea. It is wather that is the basis of life and this is drawn up by the clouds from the blue sea. The sky gives space and peace and serenity. Without my peace you would all be nothing but busybodies.” YELLOW chuckled: “You are all serious. I bring laughter, gaiety, and warmth into the world. The sun is yellow, the moon is yellow, the stars are yellow. Everytime you look at the sunflower, the whole world starts to smile. Without me there would be no fun.” ORANGE started next to blow her own trumpet. “I am the color of health and strength. I may be scarce, but I am precious, for I serve the inner needs of human life. I carry all the most important vitamins. Think of carrots and pumpkin, oranges, mangoes, and pawpaws. I don’t hang around all the time, but when I fill the sky at sunrise or sunset, my beauty is so striking that no one gives another thought to any of you.” RED could stand it no longer. He shouted out: “I am the ruler of you all: blood, life’s blood, I am the color danger and bravery. I am willing to fight for a cause. I bring fire in the blood. Without me, the earth would as empty as the moon. I am the color of passion and of love; the red rose, poinsettia and poppy.” PURPLE rose up to his full height. He was very tall and he spoke with great pomp:”I am the color of royalty and power. Kings, chiefs and bishops have always chosen, for I am sign of authority and wisdowm. People do not question me – theylisten and obey.” INDIGO spoke much more quietly and all the others, but just as determinedly: “Think of me, I am the color of silence. You hardly notice me; but without me you all become superficial. I represent thought and reflection, twilight and deep waters. You need me for balance and contrast, for prayer and inner peace.” And so the colors went on boasting, each convined that they were the best. Their quarreling became louder and louder. Suddenly there was wtartling splash of brilliant white lightning; thunder rolled and boomed. Rain started to pour down relentlessly. The colors all crouched down in fear, drawing close to one another for comfort. They spoke: “You foolish colors, fighting among yourselves, each trying to dominate the rest. Do you not know that God made you all? Each for a special purpose: unique and different. He loves you all. Join hands with another and come with me. I will stretch you across the sky in a great bow of color as a reminder that He loves you all, tht you can live together in peace, a promise that he is with you, a sign of hope for tomorrow…” And so whenever God has used a good rain to wash the world, He puts the rainbow in the sky; and when he see it, let us remember to appreciate one another.
Based on an Indian legend, written by Anne Hope



1. What message is the author trying to impart in the story? 2. How will you apply the moral of the story to what are happening in real life? 3. Do you agree with the idea of the author regarding the solution to bickering and unhealthy competition? FOCUS ON FORM: CONJUNCTIONS The word conjunction comes from the Latin word meaning”to join”. Conjunctions are words which join words, phrases, or clauses. Two General Classes of Conjunctions 1. Coordinating – connect words, phrases, and clauses of equal rank. 2. Subordinating – used to introduce subordinate clauses. 3. a. The AND type AND is used to add something to what has already been said. It should be used only when the second idea is along the same line of thought as the first idea. Examples: 1. She is attractive and good-tempered. 2. (The words attractive and good tempered are positive qualities) 3. He went away and never came back. b. The BUT Type BUT is used to add something contrary to or different from wha has already been said. When we use but, the second part of the sentence expresses an idea which is a contrast to the first. Example: 1. He is stupid but industrious. 2. (Stupid is a negative quality while industrious is a positive quality.) 3. C. The OR type OR implies a choice. It connects ideas of equal value – giving one a chance to choose either idea. Example: 1. You can come today or tomorrow. 2. I can go or stay as I please. D. The SO Type So is used when the second part is a consequence of the first part. The so typediffers from the and type, which implies the same line of thought. It also differs from the but type which implies a contrast. So implies that the second part follows as a result of the first part. Example: 1. He shouted so I had to listen to him. a. The principal subordinate conjunctions are what, that, because, how, although, if, unless, where. whether. 1. The question what is answered by a that clause. That he is a liar is false. (What is false?) They claimed that he is a liar. (What did they claim?) 2. Purpose is expressed in the following examples. They read that they may learn. They read so that they may learn. 3. Cause and effect is expressed in the following. 29

He failed because he did not study. He was so lazy that he failed. 4. Manner is expressed by how. This is how I want you to do it. 5. Concession is expressed by although. Although I made a few mistakes, I got a very good mark. 6. Condition is expressed by if and unless. If you go with me, I’ll treat you to a snack. I’ll not speak to you unless you go with me 7. Place is expressed by where. I don’t know whether I lost it. 8 Uncertainty is introduced by whether (not if). don’t know whether I cn go with you. 9 An adjectival subodinate clause may be introduced by who, which, that. The prize which he won is a book. The flowers that he sent are orchids. SOMETHING TO DO Coordinate Conjunctions : Write either of the coordinating conjunctions AND, SO, BUT and OR needed in each of the following sentences. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. He studied hard fr the test ______ he got a good grade. His pen was broken ________ he could write with it. He studied hard for the test _______ he got low grade. I was hungry ________ I didn’t want to eat. It was raining _______ we went out. You will hand in your theme on time _____ I’l give you a deduction.

Subordinate Conjunctions : Underline the subordianting conjunctions needed in each sentence. 1. He turned his face aay (so as, so that) we would not recognize him. 2. We went out (because, although) the rain stopped. 3. She did not know (where, so) she lost her watch. 4. She was not sure (whether, unless) she could go. 5. Let’s hurry (so as, so that) we won’t be late. 6. I don’t know (whether, because) I cn go with you. 7. (Though, Because) she is often neglected by her parents, she still repsects them. 8. They graduated high school (because, unless) they worked for it. 9. (Before, After) passing the rest, he was congratulated. 10. I’ll not come (unless, if) you invited. THE SCRIBE IN ME Write your views or comments regarding the new grading system. Does it have advantages? Disadvantages?



The Gurkhas are the mountain people of Nepal. Generally known as “people of the Himalayas,” they are hardworkers and brave fighters. For the Gurjhas, tradition or the way things have always been is very important. This is knon in their approach to religion. They go to the temple to participate in religious festivals ouit of respect for the old ways. They have an inbred instict to follo what they have known or learned. This is one of the big reasons the Gurkhas have maintained close family ties. In their family relationships, the male members have always had the final say. Any Gurkha ceremony, like a parade or the presentation of an award, has always been for all the family. Everyone is present. Mothers in colorful saris and their young children are all in attendance. The young boys spend most of their time on the edge of the parade ground imitating their fathers as they drill and march. It has always been like this. Communicating in English11 Pages 87-88 LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1 . In what way/s are Gurkhans similar to Filipinos? 2. Do you agree that it is right to participate in religious activities out of respect for the old ways? Why? 3. Is it right for men to always have the final say? Why? GRAMMAR IN FOCUS : THE PRESENT PERFECT TENSE The Present Perfect Tense is used to indicate an action that took place at an indefinite time or over a period of time in the past. The time of the action is not mentioned and it is not implied. If the time is mentioned or implied, the past or the past perfect is usually used. She has work a batik dress. (at some indefinite time in the past). She wore batik dress yesterday. (Yesterday indicates a definite past time.) Several students have reported on the life of Sukarno. (Before the time of speaking but definite time is not known. Have you ever gone to Baguio City? (At any time in one’s life before the moment of speaking) No, I have never gone to Baguio City. (At no time in my life) Yes, I went there last year. (Definite past time). The Present perfect tense is also used to show an action that has begun in the past and is completed at the present time or may still be going on. The present perfect presupposes something in the present. Certain adverbial time expressions are often used, such as the following: 1. Expressions beginning ith since and for a. Batik-making has flourished in Java since the seventeenth century. (Batik-making still flourishes there). b. Since ancient times, the Indonesians have offered food and flowers for the spirits of the plants, mountains, and seas. (They started doing so from ancient times and still do so to the present. c. She has spoken Bahasa Indonesia for two years now. (She still speaks the language. 2. Just denotes an action recently completed. It is used only in affirmative sentences. a. My Indonesian classmate has just received a package from Indonesia. b. The Indonesian group has just presented a wayang. c. The tourist guide has just explained to us the significance of the religious feast selamatan. 3. Already is used in affirmative statements to express a complete action. It is never used with the past tense.


a.. When will the Balinese dancers present the monkey dance? They have already presented it. b. When will we take up Indonesian literature? They have already taken it up. 4. Ever is used in affirmative questions. a. Have you ever seen a Buddhist temple? b. Have you ever tasted durian and rambutan from Davao? c. Have the Indonesians ever been trained to live in a democratic form of government? d. Have they ever been under foreign rule? 5. Yet is used in: a. Affirmative questions about something expected. Have you taken the pictures of Eden Farms yet? (The taking of pictures is expected). Not yet. We haven’t taken them yet. Has she prepared the streamers? (something expected) Not yet. She hasn’t prepared them yet. b. Negative questions to indicate surprise. Haven’t they delivered the antiques from Jakarta yet? (There is surprise because the antiques have been paid for.) Haven’t they visited the botanical gardens yet? (There is surprise since they have been at the area for several years) c. Negative statements The students have not yet discussed the other islands of Indonesia, like Bali, Lombak Flores and Sumba. The language teacher has not yet compared Tagalog and Bahasa Indonesia. Yet may be placed between the auxiliary verb has/have and the main verb as shown in the preceding examples. Yet may be at the end of the sentence. a. I haven’t witnessed any presentation of the Ramayana Ballet Festival. b. They haven’t started with the umbrella dance yet. 6. Other expressions, such as recently, lately, often, frequently, so far, up to now, up to the present, till today, and the like may be used with the present perfect tense. a. A friend has recently written a report about Sukarno’s government b. Lately, the Indonesian government has taken measures to keep up with its growing population. c. Batik has often reminded us of women working gracefully with baskets atop their heads. d. They have frequently sacrificed chickens during cremation. e. Up to now, the Indonesians have preserved their basic customs.

The present perfect tense has two forms – the ordinary and the progressive. The present perfect tense is used to denote an action: 32

1. That began at some past time and continues to the present. Example: I have been healthy all my life. 2. An action that has just been completed. Example: He had just left. The present perfect tense is sometimes called the “has-have” tense because the sign of the present perfect tense is has for the third person and have for all other persons. Examples: I have finished the work. He has done the work. SOMETHING TO DO Direction: Fill each blank with the present perfect tense of the word in parentheses: 1. We are staying with my grandmother with whom we _____________(stay) for two years. 2. I _________(wait) for her for an hour. 3. My cousin Mildred __________ (be) with us for a week. 4. Since this morning, I _________ ( not leave) the house. 5. She speaks English well because she _______ (speak) English all her life. 6. Jake is very kind; she _______ (help) me all day. 7. Dingdong ________ (live) in Zamboanga for many years. 8. Since I met Kassandra, she _______ (be) my friend. 9. Why are you so late/ I _______ (wait) for you several hours! 10. I shall go out after I ______ (eat) my lunch. 11. It is warm today; the dry season _______ (begin). 12. The Christmas holidays ______ (end). 13. This child _______ (do) her work well. 14. Her brother _______ (pass) the Licensure Examination for Teachers. 15. The members of the choir ______(sing) for a while A. Use the correct verb form in the sentence. 1. On July l2, l989, my family (move) to Tagum, Davao del Norte. Since then, we (live) in the place. 2. We (live) in this city for almost fifteen years now. All these years, we (know) peace and contentment. 3. Tradition dictated that the Hindus cremate or burn their dead in the twelfth century. Since then they (cremate) their dead. 4. For many generations, the Hindus (observe) cremation as a traditional practice. 5. The people of Aklan (originate) the Ati-Atihan many years ago. 6. They (celebrate) this festival for hundred of years. 7. Filipinos (show) cooperation through bayanihan. 8. The Alay Lakad contributions (help) thousands of out-of-school youth since the practice started several years ago. THE SCRIBE IN ME Write five sentences about Filipino traditions practiced during the Spanish times which are still observed today. State the reasons why you think they have been preserved.



December l6, 2004 Dear Diary, Do you know that before our English class had ended today, I had became aware of the importance of making wise choices? Our teacher had explained how our choices could make or unmake us. Can you beat that? Oh, my … I had resolved to weigh things more carefully in the future. My teacher had reminded me about choosing wisely – carreer, boyfriend (or is it boyfriends? Gosh!) or just what my plans are. Really . . . I had made a lot of thinking after one morning. Magnolia Communicating in English, 2nd year LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. Do you own a diary? Where do you keep it? 2. Do you let others read your diary? 3. What are the advantages and disadvantages of keeping a diary? GRAMMAR ON FOCUS : THE PAST PERFECT TENSE The Past Perfect Tense or the HAD tense is used in the following sentences: 1. The monkey had learned about the men before it escaped. 2. The man had worked very hard before he became rich. 3. The villagers had prayed hard and long before the rain fell at last. How many actions are indicated in sentences 1, 2, and 3? Did both actions happen in the past? Did they happen at the same time or was one action completed before the other? How is the past perfect tense formed? What auxiliary verb is used? Why is the past perfect tense called the had tense? The past perfect tense is formed by using had + the past participle form of the verb. It is used to express the first of two past actions. AIDS IN THE USE OF THE PAST PERFECT TENSE a. a word already may be used with the past perfect tense. Ex. The monkey hunter had already caught several monkeys before he noticed the peaceful one. b. The word just is sometimes placed between had and the past participle form of the verb. This emphasizes that the action of the verb in the past tense occurred only a little earlier tan the action indicated by the past tense. Ex. The visitors had just taken their dinner when the host presented to them the exceptional monkey. The past perfect tense denotes an action which took place before another past action or before a definite past time. It is used when the speaker wishes to bring out this particular relationship between two actions. Consider these sentences: 1. I stood up; I heard a noise. 2. I stood up; I had heard a noise. 34

3. I stood up after I heard a noise. In sentence no. 1, there are two past actions: stood up and heard. Which came first? We cannot tell. In sentence no. 2, the relationship between the two actions is perfectly clear. The noise was heard before the person stood up. The use of the past perfect tense indicates this clearly. In sentence no. 3, the two verbs are both in the past tense although the second action occurred before the first action. The past perfect tense had heard could have been used, but since the word after shows the time relationship clearly, the past tense was used. However, the past perfect tense may also be used in this situation. Study these examples: I noted all the errors he had made. The meeting had started when I entered. In sentence no. 1, he had finished making all the mistakes before I saw them. In the sentence: I saw all the mistakes he made, the two actions may be considered as taking place at the same time. In sentence no. 2 , the meeting was going on when I entered. In the sentence: The meeting started when I entered the room, the meeting started just when I came in. The implication is that the others waited for me. Remember to use the past perfect tense always in relation to the past tense. The past perfect tense is generally found in subordinate clauses: The station master said that the train had left an hour before. It is rarely used in a simple sentence unless the sentence is found in a paragraph. SOMETHING TO DO a. Complete the sentences with the correct form of the verb in parentheses. Which tense should you use to express the earlier of the two past actions? 1. Ten years ago the Roldan family (purchase) an agricutural lot. 2. They all (like) the coconut seedlings that they (plant) beore the rainy season. 3. Their neighbors (admire) the coconuts that the Roldan family (harvest) before the typhoon. 4. They (know) that the Roldan family (invest) in a worthwhile project. THE SCRIBE IN ME Write a three-paragraph narrative of a memorable childhood experience.



This is the jet age, the space age. What man has achieved in the past fifty years is probably much more than was achieved in the past five hundred years. This means that lately technological advancement has gone at a very rapid pace. This being so, we wonder what the world will be in the year 2000. What will the world be in 2000? Several scholars have come up with educated predictions. By the year 2000 the world population will have tripled, considering the rate by which population is increasing now. It is estimated that the world population will have hit the 7 billion mark in the next twenty five years. To solve the food problem, scientists have gone into research. By 2000 man shall have gone into seas farming on a larger scale. Also he shall have tapped algae or yeast as a food source. Many research laboratories like Stanford University Food Institute are now experimenting with algae farming. The tiny algae are 100 percent fruit. The cost of glowing algae is very minimal, only one cent per pound. By 2000, textile factories shall have produced disposable clothing. This will probably prove convenient since dirty clothes won’t be laundered anymore. They will simply be thrown away. Regarding housing, people by then shall have started living in skyscrapers going straight down instead of up. This still eliminate the weather problem, although of course there will be added risks. By the year 2000 we will have colonized the moon and landed on Mars. There will be unmanned probes in progress throughout the solar system. To push through such projects requires a lot of energy, but by then man shall have found a substitute for oil to avoid an energy crisis. He shall have devised ways to make use of solar energy. Today solar power is availed of by costly, especilly designed mirrors. By 2000 man shall have found ways to use solar energy as little cost. Also he shall have tried using geothermal power. What about peace? It is predicted that by 2000 we shall have found universal peace. Class and race distinction shall have disappeared by then. All continents shall have become united in the world alliance with an international police force. Man will perhaps realize that only through peace can preserve himself and this earth he lives in. Communication Arts and Skills Lopez/Serrano LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. Do you agree with the statement that “Man has achieved more these fifty years than in the last five hundred years? 2. Can we predict the future by evaluating present facts? 3. What are the predictions about the world in 2000 on the following? a. World population e. the world economic pogress b. Food f. oil crisis c. Housing g. peace d. Clothing GRAMMAR ON FOCUS : THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE Use the future perfect tense when you mean that the action will be completed before a specific time in the future. The forms of the future perfect tense are the ordinary form (shall have or will have added to the main verb) and the future perfect progressive form (shall or will have been added to the main verb) GRAMMAR ON FOCUS : THE FUTURE PERFECT TENSE


Use the future perfect tense when you mean that the action will be completed before a specific time in the future. The forms of the future perfect tense are the ordinary form (shall have or will have added to the main verb) and the future perfect progressive form (shall or will have been added to the main verb) Watch this model: We shall go to school at seven o’clock. We shall have gone to school by seven o’clock. SOMETHING TO DO A Fill in the blanks with the future perfect tense of the given word. 1. By the end of the century, the population of the world ________( increase) alarmingly unless measures are implemented. 2. With intensive research going on, probably, by 2000 mean _____ (lick) the food problem. 3. Many Asian nations _______ (become) self-sufficient in food. 4. To save plants, agriculturists _____ (come) up with pest control measures. 5. Scientists _____ (land) manned rockets on some planets in the next decade. 6. Before the end of the century, automobile manufacturers _____ (develop) cars consuming less gasoline. 7. By then, medical researchers _____ (discover) better cures for some diseases. 8. In few years time man ____ (find) the means to harness solar energy. 9. Before we can improve plant breeds, we ____ (do) much selection of seeds. 10. By the time you reach fifty, you _____ (see) many changes. B. Change each of the following sentences to express perfect tense. 1. The program will be over at five o’clock. 2. Olsen Racela will play basketball this afternoon at the Araneta. 3. The dressmaker will finish the dress tomorrow. 4. The class will hold a program tonight. 5. They will leave for Surigao next week. 6. We’ll finish this lesson on Friday. 7. You will clean your science garden next week. 8. The evaluators will arrive this afternoon. 9. They will leave the day after tomorrow. 10. I shall finish reading this novel next week THE SCRIBE IN ME Write a short paragraph with this title, “What Will I Be Twenty Years From Now



Greek literature contains many stories about Amazons. Supposedly living near the Black Sea, the Amazons were a nation of women warriors noted for their strength. Not enjoying the presence of men, the Amazons lived apart in their cities. Ares, the god of war, was worshipped in their temples. They fought against the Greeks during the Trojan War. They were lso fearless hunters. Their bravery made them famous. Many Greek statues of Amazons with bows and arrows can be seen today in museums. These women never really existed, however, according to some scholars. They are merely the product of Greek’s imagination. LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. Do you believe that Amazons really existed before? Or were they just a product of one’s imagination? GRAMMAR ON FOCUS : SIMPLE SUBJECT AND SIMPLE PREDICATE A sentence is a group of words expressing a complete thought. Its two basic parts are the subjet and the predicate. What is the subject of the sentence? a. It may be that which is identified or spoken about. 1. Public relations is the art of dealing with people. b. It is “that which is described.” 1. “Culture shock” is a mixture of homesickness for old faces, for familiar ways o doing things, and for one’s native language. c. The subject is “that which undergoes an action.” 1. Effective interaction among people can be brought about by mutual understanding and trust. d. The subject is that “to or for” whom the action is performed. 1. Mother Teresa was the recipient f the 1994 Nobel Peace Prize. What is a predicate? A predicate is a verb and a verb often defined as a word that expresses action, being, state or process. The predicate is linked to the subject in a sentence through the normal word order subject + predicate. Examples: 1. Conscientious citizens always think of the good of the country 2. The pilot of the plane has the safety of his passengers in his mind. SOMETHING TO DO a Direction: On the blank before each number, write the simple subject of the sentence. __________ 1. Sick people cannot stand too much excitement. __________ 2. No man is completely free from wories. __________ 3. The ASEAN should keep its member nations united. __________ 4. The star witness will tell the court the truth in due time. __________ 5. His motive for the murder was never determined. __________ 6. Youth gangs are sowing trror in many cities. __________ 7. The economists called Jim a financial wizard. __________ 8. Cosmic guessing games are heady and exciting. __________ 9. Cases of man’s inhumanity to man make people react violently. __________ 10. Penalties for traffic violators have been increased to discourage the growing number of young traffic violators. B Direction : On the blank before each number, write the simple predicate of the sentence. __________ 1. The Filipino people were outraged at the terrible plight of the OCW’s. 38

__________ 2. Our patriotism should be expressed in action not only in words. __________ 3. After listening to the inspiring speeches, the auience gave th speakers a standing ovation. __________ 4. It seems plain that the defense witness missed the whole point of the judge’s questions. __________ 5. Most parents feel the effects of the generation gap. C. In each of the following sentences, determine the simple subject and the simple predicate. Write your answers on the blanks before each number. Simple Subject Simple Predicate 1. Love can clear up many misunderstanding in this world. 2. Our tried and tested friends always help us. 3. The cultural minorities must be absorbed into the mainstream of 4. Scientific knowho must be coupled with good public relations. 5. Children generally enjoy playing in the water especially during 6. The government is exerting efforts to solve the Muslim problem. 7. Administrators of schools must combine wisdom with foresight and 8. The huge crowd demonstrated in front of the Singaporean embassy. 9. Ambition can determine a person’s success in life. 10. Parents are sources of joy.

_________ ________ _________ ________ _________ ________ Philippine life. _________ ________ _________ ________ summer. _________ ________ _________ ________ tact. _________ ________ _________ ________ _________ ________ THE SCRIBE IN ME

Make a stand! Should students rate their teachers? Underline all subject ones and all predicates twice in your JUSTIFICATION.



Most of us would like to believe we are knowledgeable when it comes to our family’s nutritional needs. For instance, I doubt there is anyone who doesn’t know the four basic food groups needed for a well-balanced diet. But how much nutritional expertise do you actually have? Take this quiz and see. Just write your YES or NO answers before each number. The correct answers are given at the end of the lesson. _________1. Pizza is not a nutritious food. _________2. Some additives are intentionally used in foods to maintain or improve nutritional value. _________3. The brain regulates appetite. _________4. Wash rice before cooking. _________5. Washing the shell of an egg makes it spoil faster. _________6. Vinegar taken in a glass of water each meal will thin your blood. _________7. Eating a lot of carrots is the best way to improve your eyesight. _________8. Usually, darker-colored vegetables have magic health-giving qualities. _________9. The tomato is not a vegetable, but a fruit. _________10. Bananas are the most fattening fruit. _________11. Avocado is a fruit that contains fat. _________12. Frozen orange juice is less nutritious than fresh orange juice. _________13. You will lose weight quickly if you stick to only one meal a day. _________14. If you exercise within two hours after eating, you may burn more calories than if you exercise on an empty stomach. _________15. Milk should not be frozen. _________16. Rapid warming or heating of milk reduces its nutrional value. _________17. Vitamins and minerals provide energy. _________18. Low-calorie diet may affect your skin and hair. _________19. When a product says “sugarless” it means it is sugar-free. _________20. A nationwide poll revealed that almost any desert is preferred over any vegetable. LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. Can you still name the basic food groups? What are they? What are their functions to the body? 2. What is a well-balanced diet? 3. How do we keep our body strong and healty. FOCUS ON FORM : THE COMPLETE SUBJECT AND COMPLETE PREDICATE The complete subject consists of the substantive and its modifiers. Examples: The typhoon victims in Pangasinan Typhoon - modifier Victims - substantive Pangasinan - modifier The simple subject can be expaned by adding descriptive words, phrases or clauses. 1. Some foolish boys laughed aloud during the tragic scene. 2. Drug pushers are the lowest for of criminals. The complete predicate consists of the verb phrases and its modifiers. Example: Conscientious citizens always think of the good of the country. Think - simple predicate Modifiers - always, of the food of the country The pilot of the plane has the safety of his passengers in his mind, Has - simple predicate 40

Modifier - none SOMETHING TO DO On the blank before each number, write the two words separated by a slant life to show the division between the complete subject and the complete predicate. Example : Is / a a. . Nationalism is trait which everyone should possess. ________________ 1. Very few people act calmly in a crisis. ________________ 2. A renowed psychologist electrified the crowd with his lecture on transcendental meditation. ________________ 3. The world has yet to experience the full effects of future shock. ________________ 4. A good guidance counselor can help a confused adolescent find himself. ________________ 5. Plays depicting basic human emotions in a realistic way are liked by theater-goers. ________________ 6. Ecumenical services tend to do away with distinctions between churches and sects. ________________ 7. A hard line cannot always be drawn in dealing with the rebels. ________________ 9. Many traumatic experiences have been traced to events during childhood. ________________ 10.The nations of the Third World are receiving increasing attention today. THE SCRIBE IN ME Write 5 sentences with complete subject and complete predicate and underline them. FILIPINO POVERBS 1. Grass is of no use to a dead horse 2. Extravagance leads to poverty. 3. Talks and tumbles give us greater endurance and strength. 4. The busy have no time for vice. 5. A good laugh is sunshine in a house. 6. A rolling stone gathers no moss. 7. Sleeping shrimps are caried away by the current. 8. Quickly earned money is quickly spent. 9. Good fortune knocks only once. 10. Liars and thieves are alike. LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. Choose three Filipino proverbs from the list above and explain each proverb. FOCUS ON FORM : Pattern I: BASIC SENTENCE PATTERNS

Pattern 2:

The S-IV Pattern. S stands for subject and IV stands for intransitive verb. e.g. 1. Traditions exist. S IV 2. Green grass grows everywhere. S IV The S-TV-O Pattern. S Stands for subject; TV for transitive verb; and O for object. e.g. 1. The Chinese had oral traditions. S TV O 2. They recited majic formulas. S TV O 41

Pattern 3:

Pattern 4:

Pattern 5:

The S-LV-C Pattern. S stands for subject; LV for linking verb; and C for subjective complement or a word that adds to the meaning of a subject. The subject complement may be a noun or an adjective. As a noun, it is identical to the subject; as an adjective, it describes the subject. e.g. 1. The poems were incantations. S LV C (Noun complement) 2. The legend seems interesting. S LV C (Adjective complement) S-TV-IO-O Pattern. S stand for subject; TV for transitive verb; IO for indirect object and O object. e.g. 1. The book gave them magic formulas. S TV IO O 2. Confucios gave his people moral ideas. S TV IO O The S-TV-O-OC Pattern. S stands for subject; TV for transitive verb; O for object; and OC for objective complement. The OC may be a noun or an adjective. e.g. 1. The men called Confucius Master. S TV O OC (OC is a noun) 2. They considered him wise. S TV O OC (OC is an adjective)

SOMETHING TO DO A. Identify the S and IV in the sentences. 1. We listen to her attentively. 2. Others ride in a bus. 3. Vegetables grow well on rich soil. 4. The bell rings for dismissal. 5. Remy smiles easily at peopl. 6. Cats can see in the dark. 7. Some students walks to school everyday. 8. Grace speaks clearly and fluently. 9. The whole class laughed at the incident. 10. Edna dances gracefully. B. Identify the S, TV and O in the sentences. 2. Archaeologists study past civilization. 3. He discovers cities buried long ago. 4. These artifacts attract the attention of tourists. 5. The shelves display the medals given to him. 6. We admire the many attributes received from other countries. 7. They handle these objects with great care. 8. The Nile Valley produced a very early civilization. 9. Achaeologists found the oldest discoveries there. 10. He spends his life digging dep into the earth. 11. The Paco Museum contains some of these artifacts.

C. Identify the S, LV, and C in the sentences. 2. Her father is a judge. 42

3. This statement sounds fntastic. 4. Life remains a great mystery. 5. The sun is the center of the solar system. 6. Spac flights are not new. 7. Some austronauts are women. 8. His grandfather is old. 9. Scientific literature of space is still very scanty. 10. Perhaps they are not humanoid. 11. Extraterrestial creatures are possible. D. Change the position of the IO in the sentence. E.g. The teacher gave good marks to us. Answer: The teacher gave us good marks. 2. The generous lady gave a new dresss to he orphan. 3. The manager offeed a good salary to the applicant. 4. The wonders of science offer a challenge to man. 5. I showed my report card to my father. 6. Science tells many facinating stories to us. 7. The old woman told many interesting stories to the cildren. 8. The guide showed many scenic spots to the tourists. 9. Mny pai ten pesos to her. 10. Armando sent a bouquet of flowers to his girlfriend. 11. It offers much hope in the future of man. E. The S, TV, O, OC pattern: From from the list of words below, chose the one that will complete each sentence. paradise Philippines leader women country proud Christianity blessing hospitable colony

1. The King of Spain named Magellan the ________ of the expedition to the east. 2. Villalobos named our ___________ Filipinas. 3. Spain made our country a ____________. 4. Most Filipinos consider ___________ the gratest legacy of Spain. 5. Rizal called the ___________ the Pearl of the Orient Seas. 6. Many tourists call our country a _____________. 7. Foreigners consider Filipinos very ______________. 8. They also consider Filipino _______________ the most beautiful in Asia. 9. These praises make us _____________. 10. We consider our country a ________________ from God. THE SCRIBE IN ME Write a diary of your daily activities. Use the basic sentence patterns.



1) The hamburger came from Hamburg, Germany, and the frankfurter came from Frankfurt. 2) The idea of placing a meat on a bun, however, came from United States. 3) When the hamburger first arrived in United States it was eaten almost raw. 4) The French still prefer rare meat, but the Germans eat raw hamburger meat. 5) Hamburger first became popular among German immigrants who lived in Cincinnati. 6) Hamburger wasn’t placed between halves of a bun until early this century. 7) Officially, the first hamburger sandwich appeared in 1904 in St. Louis, Missouri, which was also the birth place of the ice-cream cone. 8) Today, the frankfurter is not popular, but the hamburger is on the rise. 9) Chopped meat now accounts for about 30 per cent of all meat sales. 10). Scientists are working on the hamburger, and it may change drastically in the future because it may be made of soybeans and cottons! LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. Thinking aloud: Is sentence No. 10 possible? Support your answer. GRAMMAR IN FOCUS : KINDS OF SENTENCES ACCORDING TO STRUCTURE/FORM 1. A simple sentence contains one independent clause. It expresses one idea or a simple uncomplicated idea. It may contain two or more verbs or two or more subjects. Example: Computer literacy is very much in demand now. A computer program commands the machine to yield necessary information. 2. A compound sentence is made up of two or more independent clauses. A compound sentence expresses two related ideas of equal importance. The clauses are joined by a conjunction. The clauses of a compound sentence may be separated from each other by means of semi-colons or commas followed by coordinating conjunctions, or sentence connectors. The two main clauses of a compound sentence can be separated into two simple sentences. The most common coordinators are: And or nor so for yet Examples: 1. That child is truly talented and he will go far in an architecture course. 2. The employment prospects abroad are very bright, but they are sometimes risky. 3. Congress has passed so many bills of benefit to laborers, yet the implementation of such laws is neglected. 12. A complex sentence is composed of one independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. Two ideas are expressed – one idea more important than the other. Connectors and subordinators are used to subordinate one clause from the other. Examples: A student who has developed good study habits will not find difficulty in getting good grades. The manager became excited when sales volume reached unprecedented proportions. A compound-complex sentence expresses two or more independent clauses and one or more dependent clauses. It expresses two equally related parts of a main idea and one or more or less important one Examples: You can go into computer programming, for more and more companies are going into the computer business, but you can only expect a very basic remuneration at first. Because the governor served his constituents very well, he easily thought that they would again vote him into the same office. 44

SOMETHING TO DO B. Direction: Read the following sentences carefully. Identify each one as: (a) simple sentence (b) compound sentence (c) complex sentence and (d) compound-complex sentence. Write the words, not the letter as your answer on the blank provided before each number. _________1. The boy scout cried with joy when he was awarded the Distinguished Service Award. _________2. Our team was losing the game; yet our players kept on fighting until the end. _________3. The astronauts who went to the moon had many interesting stories to tell when they returned to the earth. _________ 4. A round of peace talks between the government and the rebel leaders was held in Jakarta. _________5. Drug addiction is a menace hat must be stamped out. _________6. The Quezon City authorities launched a drive to stop the squatters influx into the city. _________7. Good citizens are generally law-abiding people. _________8. The soldier knew how dangerous the mission was; nevertheless, he carried out the assignment. _________ 9. My neighbor, who is a scientist, has seen the moon explorers via satellite when they came back for the touchdown. _________10. There is no consensus on the issue of family planning. _________11. When the speaker finished explaining the “Alay Kapwa”movement, the audience gave him a standing ovation. _________12. There was a heavy downpour; yet the auditorium was crowded. _________13. Marigold wants to take up nursing so she can help the sick people in her barrio. _________14. The laborers have asked for increased fringe benefits. _________15. The parish priests who do mission work in the remote areas are constantly exposed to danger but they are not afraid. THE SCRIBE IN ME Described the kind of music for teenagers in the next few years.



When Janice and Billy were old enough, Joe took them to Sunday school and introduced them to the One he always considered to be his closes friend – Jesus. My husband, Joe, and I whereas different as night and day. He was handsome; I was homely. He was deeply religious; I was an agnostic. We were odd couple, if ever there was one. But it’s a well-known fact that opposites do attract. Despite our many differences, we got along famously. That was mainly because we adjusted to each other’s likes and dislikes. The children accepted the stories they heard there as truth, not as fairy tales. There was only one thing they couldn’t see to understand, and that was why Mommy never went with them. Joe usually answered that question before I even had a chance to. A diagnosis of cancer of the lower bowel and rectum necessitated a colostomy. He managed to go back to work for several months. Then it was discovered that the cancer had invaded other organs of his body. Doctors gave him no longer than six months to live. I was bitter about it, and I let Joe know it. “I don’t understand how God could have permitted this to happen!” I said one afternoon when Joe was in severe pain. “You were always such a good Christian.!” “Being a Christian does not insure immunity from pain and suffering, Denise!” he said. “It’s how we bear the cross that matters. I’m really not afraid to die, honey. I hate leaving you and the children, but I’m confident we’ll see each other in the hereafter. I don’t know how he managed to do it, but whenever Sunday rolled around, he was always up at the crack of dawn, getting ready to go to church with the children. Janice was twenty and Billy was eighteen then. Once, Janice said to me, “Why don’t you come with us, Mother? It would please Daddy so much. It’s the least you can do for him now.” “I’m sorry, Janice, “ I said, “but I can’t be a hypocrite at this stage of the game.” Your father would know I was only doing it for his sake. It’s better this way.” LET’S TALK ABOUT IT 1. What makes Joe and Denise different as day and night? 2. What made the Joe and Denise get along well together despite their religious differences? 3. How did Joe faced his awaiting end? OCUS ON FORM : KINDS OF SENTENCES ACCORDING TO FUNCTION/PURPOSE 1. Declarative sentence A declarative sentence is a simple, compound, complex, compound-complex sentence in which a predicate asserts or declares something about the subject. Moreover, it is a statement of fact. 1. Man has developed a natural defense against bacteria. 2. Bacteria are single-celled organisms that cause contagious diseases. . 2. Imperative sentence If your intention is to make a request, then you use imperative sentence in a requestform. The markers to use are words such as: please, could, kindly, request. 1. Please submit your requirments net week. 2. You are requested to submit your requirements next week. 46

In a situation wherein there is an urgent for the second person “You” to do immediately hat is expected of him, the markers of request may disappear. 1. “Get a doctor and bring him here immediately!” 2. “Run upstairs and get the key of the car! 3. An exclamatory sentences expresses alarm, surprise, grief, anger, o some other emphatic feelings. These are usually brief – from one to three or four words and with a rising intonation pattern. The words represent the response to some unexpected startling, or untypical condition or situation. An exclamatory sentence expresses alarm, surprise, grief, anger, or some other emphatic feelings. These are usually brief – from one to three or four words and with a rising intonation pattern. The words represent to some unexpected, startling, or untypical condition of situation. (Francis, p. 376) 4. An interrogative sentence poses a question. There are two types of questions posed by interrogative sentences. 1. Questions that require a yes-or-no answer: Was he happy? Is he intelligent? Note that the normal order of the subject and verb (a form of “to be) is inverted and that the subject is positioned between the auxiliary verb and the main verb. 2. Questions that require answers other than yes or no: A clear illustration of sentences in question form that require answers other than yes or no is shown in the second paragraph of the article above. These types of questions begin with the words who, whom, which, where, when, why, what, how, etc., followed by an inverted subject and verb. SOMETHING TO DO Read carefully the underlined numbered sentences in the sample paragraphs below. Classify them according to their functions. 1) The next day, much to my surprise, Joe seemed greatly improved. I was astonished. He began taking daily walks around the neighborhood, stopping now and then to chat with friends. His appetite improved. He actually began putting on weight. I was beginning to think the miracle the children had been praying for constantly had happened, but I told myself that was impossible. 2) Joe bought every book he could find on ESP and “life after death.” To me, it was downright depressing; to Joe, it was thrilling. As I ironed away, he would read to me from these books. 3) “With this proof, how can you not believe, Denise?” he asked me one afternoon. 4) “Why is it so important to you that I believe, Joe? 5) Isn’t it enough that you believe? 6) That’s all that really matters.” “It’s important to me because I want to be sure that we’ll meet again in world. I love you, Denise. I’ve never loved another woman as much as I’ve loved you. 7) I want that love to continue beyond this earthly life.” 8) What could I say? I had no answer. All I could say was, “I love you, too. Joe. 9) I’ll always love you.” 10) He held me in his weak arms and I wept tears of bitterness that he should have to die so young.


Answers: 1. ___________________________ 6. ___________________________ 2. ___________________________ 7. ___________________________ 3. ___________________________ 8. ___________________________ 4. ___________________________ 9. ___________________________ 5.___________________________ 10. __________________________ THE SCRIBE IN ME Write five sentences for each kind of sentence according to function or purpose.


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