ARCH 0420 – ARCHAEOLOGIES OF THE GREEK PAST

The TROJAN WAR and LATE BRONZE AGE INTERCONNECTIONS

Mycenaeans in Anatolia: the Ahhiyawa Debate

Map showing sites with evidence for Mycenaean presence/influence in Western Anatolia

Mycenaeans in Anatolia: the Ahhiyawa Debate

The Hittite Empire c. 1300 BCE: Mycenaean presence in Western Anatolia brought them into contact (and probably conflict) with the Hittite Empire, one of the great powers of the Late Bronze Age.

Mycenaeans in Anatolia: the Ahhiyawa Debate

Hittite texts have been found that refer to land of Ahhiyawa. Ever since the 1920s, some scholars have tried to identify Ahhiyawa as Homeric Achaia (the Achaeans is a literary term for the Mycenaeans), it polarized the academic community as it still does today.

Mycenaeans in Anatolia: the Ahhiyawa Debate Possible Locations of Ahhiyawa by scholars who support Ahhiyawa = Mycenaeans .

Is this a Hittite depiction of a Mycenaean warrior? right = Mycenaean boar’s tusk helmet. Athens . National Archaeological Museum.Mycenaeans in Anatolia: the Ahhiyawa Debate left = depiction of warrior on ceramic bowl from Hattusha/Bogazköy (late 15th/early 14th c. BCE).

Mycenaeans in Anatolia: the Historicity of the Trojan War Is there any evidence that the Trojan War actually occurred?? .

Mycenaeans in Anatolia: the Historicity of the Trojan War Homer’s Iliad was probably written some time around 700 BCE based on an oral tradition that may have come down from the Late Bronze Age. how much is it a reflection of Homer’s own Iron Age society. . Although the epic describes events from the Late Bronze Age.

Mycenaeans in Anatolia: the Historicity of the Trojan War The “Schliemann Trench” at Hisarlik Heinrich Schliemann excavates Hisarlik/Troy 1870s – 1890s .

on a promontory near what was a shallow bay during the Bronze Age .Mycenaeans in Anatolia: the Historicity of the Trojan War Hisarlik/Troy is strategically located on the NW coast of Anatolia.

Mycenaeans in Anatolia: the Historicity of the Trojan War Early Bronze Middle-Late Bronze Late Bronze Hellenistic-Roman Troy: Schliemann and subsequent excavators. including Carl Blegen (1932-38) and Manfred Korfmann (since 1990). recovered the remains of several superimposed settlements from the Early Bronze Age through Roman periods. .

. lots of evidence for storage on ground floor (living quarters likely upstairs). Houses in citadel were large with no uniform plan. Remains of the Main Gate (VI-T) are shown in photo.Mycenaeans in Anatolia: the Historicity of the Trojan War Troy VI: plan of heavily-fortified citadel (4 m thick x 9 m high stone and mudbrick walls w. likely 2-storey. towers).

450 m out from the citadel. .Mycenaeans in Anatolia: the Historicity of the Trojan War Results of magnetic survey indicate what was likely an extensive Late Bronze Age lower city surrounded by a ditch/palisade ring of defenses (red arrow) extending c.

more crowded houses. 1220-1180 BCE. likely indicating higher population density within the citadel. Many scholars suggest that this may be the Homeric Troy. This level was destroyed by fire c. . Note the more irregular plan and smaller.Mycenaeans in Anatolia: the Historicity of the Trojan War Troy VI h was destroyed by a massive earthquake Troy VIIa was built on the remains of Troy VI h.

and his colleague from Tübingen.” • Troy played insignificant role in LBA trade • definitely not a commercial city • not convinced of existence of Lower City . evidence for contacts between Mediterranean and Black Sea) Frank Kolb takes a “minimalist view. Frank Kolb: Manfred Korfmann. led by Manfred Korfmann. survey on Troad indicates Troy was by far the largest site.Mycenaeans in Anatolia: the Historicity of the Trojan War Significant differences of opinion exist between the current excavators. Anatolia (survey and magnetic prospection. at top of settlement hierarchy) • is most likely Wilusa referred to Hittite documents • played a pivotal role in trading networks (some 20 Bronze Age seals found from Troy VI and VII.” arguing that Troy VI and VIIa were “shabby little settlements and cannot…claim to be called a city. and other groups of reputable scholars who have examined evidence argue that Late Bronze Age Troy: • had a citadel and lower city appropriate to the capital of a significant regional power in W.

Mycenaeans in Anatolia: the Historicity of the Trojan War Scene of the city of Troy from the motion picture Troy (2004) .

Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Map of the eastern Mediterranean .

. A world system is any historical social system of interdependent parts that form a bounded structure and operate according to distinct rules. or "a unit with a single division of labor and multiple cultural systems" (1974a: 390). yet retaining their own distinctive cultures. sharing a common economic system based on palace economies. A number of scholars have used the term to describe the situation in which polities of the eastern Mediterranean became increasingly integrated during the LBA. based on modern capitalist societies.Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age World system is a concept developed by sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein in the 1970s.

Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Tell el-Amarna: capital city of Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV). . Location of the Archives or “Records Office” where the Amarna Letters were found is shown.

The letters. c. Akhenaten (Amenhotep IV). written in Akkadian. attest to an important state-level “gift-exchange” among the powerful LBA rulers of the eastern Mediterranean.Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age The Amarna Letters are royal diplomatic correspondences spanning the reigns of (left to right) Amenhotep III. Tutankhamen. 1350 – 1325 BC. and Smenkhare (not shown). .

They likely provided ships.Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Syrian merchant ships are unloaded at an Egyptian port. These merchants may have been from outside the state elite structure and may have been hired or bought to act as agents between elites and/or centres. Freelance (or commercial/mercantile) “middlemen” may have conducted the bulk of economic trade. . shipping and maritime expertise.

Cyprus Precious metals were exchanged by weight and served to balance exchanges in the LBA. They could be transported as finished luxury goods or in ingot form.Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Silver ingots from PylaKokkinokremos. Cyprus Gold pectorals from Enkomi. .

Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Copper Oxhide Ingot from Enkomi made to a standardized weight of c. 30 kg .

The ingots have the “fingerprint” of Cypriot copper.Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Lead Isotope analysis of copper ingots from Ulu Burun shipwreck. .

Additional labour inputs added value (often called “valueadded goods”).Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age LH IIIB Minoan stirrup jars from Cape Iria shipwreck. using oils and resins to make perfume. fat. . including fruits (wine. resins. vegetable oils). grains (beer). The narrow opening suggests that they were used to ship precious liquids. spices). e. probably oil. plants and trees (drugs.g. There was a great deal of movement of organic exotic goods (and products derived from them). wax). timber. honey. oil. beverages). and animal or fish products (leather. vegetables (olive.

and was often traded for its own sake. (left) Mycenaean kraters.Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Pottery was more than simply a shipping container. (above) Cypriot White Slip vessels. .

Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Map showing the location of the Ulu Burun (Kas) shipwreck. c. . 1320 BC.

Greece and the Aegean. Africa. . It likely represents a mix of state level and commercial trade. c.Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Reconstruction of the Ulu Burun (Kas) ship. Cyprus and Sardinia and demonstrates the truly international nature of LBA exchange. the Levant. 1320 BC. The ship’s cargo contained objects from Egypt.

Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Ulu Burun (Kas) shipwreck: divers excavate the ship’s cargo. on the right a Cypriot-style stone anchor. . Copper oxhide ingots can be seen on the left (354 recovered).

.Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Ulu Burun (Kas) shipwreck: the pithos in the upper right contained a number of Cypriot ceramic vessels.

.Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Ulu Burun (Kas) shipwreck: (left) Cypriot ceramic wall bracket. (right) wooden diptych that may have been the ship’s logbook.

but embody concepts of value and purity which have power which is more than just a consequence of their relative scarcity. Bronze Age Trade in the Mediterranean. p. Items such as fine metalwork or perfumes are not just luxuries. 354) . which can be used in social strategies of recruitment and exclusion and so form an important component of social change.Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age “Material goods are an essential part of cultural structures of meaning and symbolism.” (Andrew Sherratt & Susan Sherratt 1991.

Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Egyptian papyrus fragments from Tell el-Amarna depicting possibly Mycenaean soldiers (mercenaries?) in the service of the Egyptian army. .

The fragments depict Aegeanstyle motifs (c. BC). 17th c. Egypt. . Some scholars suggest that this was created by Minoan artisans. This might indicate the presence of a powerful Minoan merchant(s) living in Egypt.Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Fresco fragment (left) and reconstruction (right) from a large palace-like structure at Tell el-Dab’a (ancient Avaris). other argue that it was merely influenced by Minoan fresco styles.

Egypt. (left) bull-leaper (right) acrobat .Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Minoan-style fresco fragments from Tell ed-Dab’a (ancient Avaris).

. Keftiu is generally regarded as being Crete.Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age (left) New Kingdom Egyptian wall paintings from some private tombs in Thebes show men from Keftiu bringing gifts to the pharaoh.

Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Ingot Bearer figure from bronze stand (Cypriot) Faience rhyton from Kition. Cyprus Ivory mirror handle from Kouklia. Cyprus After c. . Near Eastern. It shows a hybridization of Egyptian. Cypriot. 1400 BCE. the so-called “international style” emerged with a shared iconography that was universally recognized among eastern Mediterranean elites and used on items across many media. and Aegean design elements.

Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Cypriot bronze carts decorated with sphinxes. the “tree of life” and ingot bearers in the international style. .

Cyprus Egyptian New Kingdom scarab The intensified interconnections of elites after c. . Cyprus Egyptian Blue sceptre head with cartouche of pharaoh Horemheb.Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age Gold ring w. cartouche of Tuthmosis III From Ayios Iakovos. From Hala Sultan Tekke. 1400 BCE meant that the “biography” of particular exotic items became an important part of their value.

Some items were valuable for their “biographies” .Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age A Babylonian cylinder seal (made of haematite) re-used in a Cypriot gold necklace.

(right) Visibility of shore: sea-going vessels in the LBA generally tried to stay within sight of the mainland .Trade and Interconnections in the Late Bronze Age (left) Likely LBA trade routes (Cline 1994).

The causes of this are not well understood. although the raids and migrations of the Sea Peoples are thought by many to have played an important role.The End of the Late Bronze Age The LBA “World System”: In and around 1200 BCE the highly-centralized palace economies that make up this system collapse. .

g. Athens). Around 1200 BCE there is widespread destruction at many sites Mycenaean sites. Causes: foreign attack/invasion? Internal strife? Natural/ecological disasters? . Argos. but palaces are no longer used and palatial administration has completely collapsed.. while others continue to be occupied for various lengths of time (e.. Tiryns. Pylos). Several are abandoned (e.g.The End of the Late Bronze Age Citadel at Mycenae The Collapse of Mycenaean Civilization: Period of instability in 13th century BCE. Mycenae.

. It is possible that some of the Sea Peoples were refugees from the collapse of the Mycenaean palaces. They have what is generally assumed to be Aegean clothing and weapons.End of the Bronze Age – The Sea Peoples Depictions of the “Sea Peoples” from Medinet Habu. the funerary temple of Ramesses III.

Drews 1993) .Map of LBA sites destroyed in the “Catastrophe” of the late 13th/early 12th centuries BCE (R.

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